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Sample records for higher birth rate

  1. Higher Rates of DZ Twinning in a Twenty-First Century Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Sally Ann; Corley, Robin P; Heath, Andrew C; Iacono, William G; Neale, Michael C; Hewitt, John K

    2017-09-01

    The Colorado Twin Registry is a population based registry initiated in 1984 with the involvement of the Colorado Department of Health, Division of Vital Statistics. Recruitment includes birth cohorts several years prior to 1984 and all subsequent years. As part of a recent evaluation of Colorado birth records for the years 2006 through 2008 we became aware of a shifting trend in the proportion of MZ and DZ twins in the Colorado population. Historically (Bulmer 1970 The biology of twinning in man, Clarendon, Oxford) we have expected a 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 ratio of MZ, same-sex DZ and opposite sex DZ twins in Caucasian populations. An excess of MZ pairs in most studies was assumed to be due to selection bias. Somewhat more recently, Hur et al.(1995 Behav Genet 25, 337-340) provided evidence that the DZ twinning rate was falling and that therefore selection bias was not the reason for higher MZ enrollment in most twin studies. They suggested that twin researchers might consider strategies to over-enroll DZ pairs to maximize statistical power. In contrast, we now find that of the 3217 twin births in Colorado from 2006 to 2008 with identified sex information the MZ rate is estimated at only 22%, and we have corroborating reports from other states of similar estimates. These were calculated applying Weinberg's rule which assumes an equal birth rate for same sex and opposite sex DZ pairs so that the proportion of MZ in a sample is the proportion of same sex (MM + FF) minus the proportion of opposite-sex (MF, FM). We explore factors, such as an increase in the proportion of non-Caucasian parents and an increase in average maternal age, which may contribute to this shift.

  2. International comparisons of preterm birth: higher rates of late preterm birth are associated with lower rates of stillbirth and neonatal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisonkova, S; Sabr, Y; Butler, B; Joseph, K S

    2012-12-01

    To examine international rates of preterm birth and potential associations with stillbirths and neonatal deaths at late preterm and term gestation. Ecological study. Canada, USA and 26 countries in Europe. All deliveries in 2004. Information on preterm birth (Statistics Canada, the EURO-PERISTAT project and the National Center for Health Statistics. Pearson correlation coefficients and random-intercept Poisson regression were used to examine the association between preterm birth rates and gestational age-specific stillbirth and neonatal death rates. Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated after adjustment for maternal age, parity and multiple births. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths ≥ 32 and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation. International rates of preterm birth (births. Preterm birth rates at 32-36 weeks were inversely associated with stillbirths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) of gestation and inversely associated with neonatal deaths at ≥ 32 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91) and ≥ 37 weeks (adjusted rate ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86) of gestation. Countries with high rates of preterm birth at 32-36 weeks of gestation have lower stillbirth and neonatal death rates at and beyond 32 weeks of gestation. Contemporary rates of preterm birth are indicators of both perinatal health and obstetric care services. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  3. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of ... statistical software. SAS is used. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis of Gambella's ..... World Bank Conference on Land And. Poverty. Washington DC, World Bank, April.

  4. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-10-01

    Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Active Management of Risk in Multiparous Pregnancy at Term: association between a higher preventive labor induction rate and improved birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, James M.; Caughey, Aaron; Stenson, Ms. Morghan H.; Cronholm, Peter; Kellar, Lisa; Bennett, Ian; Margo, Katie; Stratton, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if exposure of multiparous women to a high rate of preventive labor induction was associated with a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate. Study Design Retrospective cohort study involving 123 multiparas, who were exposed to the frequent use of preventive labor induction, and 304 multiparas, who received standard management. Rates of cesarean delivery and other adverse birth outcomes were compared in the two groups. Logistic regression controlled for confounding covariates. Results The exposed group had a lower cesarean delivery rate (aOR 0.09, 0.8% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.02) and a higher uncomplicated vaginal delivery rate (OR 0.53, 78.9% vs. 66.4%, p=0.01). Exposure was not associated with higher rates of other adverse birth outcomes. Conclusion Exposure of multiparas to a high rate of preventive labor induction was significantly associated with improved birth outcomes including a very low cesarean delivery rate. A prospective randomized trial is needed to determine causality. PMID:19254584

  6. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in very preterm birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L K; Draper, E S; Manktelow, B N; Dorling, J S; Field, D J

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in the incidence of very preterm birth over the past decade. Ecological study of all 549 618 births in the former Trent health region, UK, from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2003. All singleton births of 22(+0) to 32(+6) weeks gestation (7 185 births) were identified from population surveys of neonatal services and stillbirths. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence of very preterm birth (22-32 weeks) and extremely preterm birth (22-28 weeks) by year of birth and decile of deprivation (child poverty section of the Index of Multiple Deprivation). Incidence of very preterm singleton birth rose from 11.9 per 1000 births in 1994 to 13.7 per 1000 births in 2003. Those from the most deprived decile were at nearly twice the risk of very preterm birth compared with those from the least deprived decile, with 16.4 per 1000 births in the most deprived decile compared with 8.5 per 1000 births in the least deprived decile (incidence rate ratio 1.94; 95% CI (1.73 to 2.17)). This deprivation gap remained unchanged throughout the 10-year period. The magnitude of socio-economic inequalities was the same for extremely preterm births (22-28 weeks incidence rate ratio 1.94; 95% CI (1.62 to 2.32)). This large, unique dataset of very preterm births shows wide socio-economic inequalities that persist over time. These findings are likely to have consequences on the burden of long-term morbidity. Our research can assist future healthcare planning, the monitoring of socio-economic inequalities and the targeting of interventions in order to reduce this persistent deprivation gap.

  8. Predictors of third and Higher order births in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate (TFR reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above mentioned predictors. Material and Methods: State/Union Territories wise proportions of women: progressing to ≥3 births, more sons desire, birth spacing <24 months, adopting modern contraception and median marriage age <18 years along with infant mortality rate (IMR were taken from NFHS-III report. Correlation matrix and stepwise forward multiple regression carried. Significance was seen at 5%. Results: Hindi speaking states constituting 38.92% nation population recorded TFR ≥3. Positive correlation of mothers progressing ≥ 3 births was highest (0.746 with those desiring more sons followed by IMR (0.445; while maximum negative correlation with those practicing modern contraceptives (-0.565 followed by median age at marriage (-0.391. Multiple regression analysis in order identified desire of more sons, practicing modern contraception and shorter birth spacing as the significant predictors and jointly explained 77.9% of the total variation with gain of 15.5% by adding modern contraceptive practice and 8.3% by adding shorter birth spacing. Conclusions: Desire of more sons appeared the most important predictor to progress ≥3 births that is governed by society culture and educational attainment, require attitudinal change. Further, mothers need motivation to practice both spacing and terminal methods once family is complete.

  9. Disproportion in the falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R R

    1977-10-08

    Since 1962 there has been a disproportionately greater fall in the number of small (less than 1000 g) live births than total live births: this has applied to Sheffield and to England and Wales but more to the former. This may have affected falling neonatal mortality rates.

  10. Cladoceran birth and death rates estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Wilfried; Taylor, B. E.; Kirsch-Prokosch, Susanne

    1987-01-01

    I. Birth and death rates of natural cladoceran populations cannot be measured directly. Estimates of these population parameters must be calculated using methods that make assumptions about the form of population growth. These methods generally assume that the population has a stable age distribution. 2. To assess the effect of variable age distributions, we tested six egg ratio methods for estimating birth and death rates with data from thirty-seven laboratory populations of Daphnia puli...

  11. Male scarcity is associated with higher prevalence of premature gestation and low birth weight births across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Clark, Jillian; Vanas, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Modern adverse birth outcomes may partially result from mechanisms evolved to evaluate environmental conditions and regulate maternal investment trade-offs. Male scarcity in a population is associated with a cluster of characteristics related to higher mating effort and lower paternal investment. We predicted that modern populations with male scarcity would have shorter gestational times and lower birth weights on average. We compared US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention county-aggregated year 2000 birth records with US Decennial Census data. We combined these data in a path model with the degree of male scarcity and known socio-economic predictors of birth outcomes as exogenous predictors of prematurity and low birth weight, with single mother households as a proportion of families with children as a mediator (N = 450). Male scarcity was directly associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Male scarcity made significant indirect predictions of rates of prematurity and low birth weight, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers. Aggregate socio-economic status also indirectly predicted birth outcomes, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers, whereas the proportion African American retained both direct and indirect predictions of adverse birth outcomes. Male scarcity influences life history tradeoffs, with consequences for important social and public health issues such as adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  13. Low birth weight,very low birth weight rates and gestational age-specific birth weight distribution of korean newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-04-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. The mean birth weight and GA of a crude population are 3,188 +/-518 g and 38.7+/-2.1 weeks, respectively. The LBW and the VLBW rates are 7.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The preterm birth rate (less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) is 8.4% and the very preterm birth rate (less than 32 completed weeks of gestation) is 0.7%. The mean birth weights for female infants, multiple births, and births delivered by cesarean section were lower than those for male, singletons, and births delivered vaginally. The risk of delivering LBW or VLBW infant was higher for the teenagers and the older women (aged 35 yr and more). We have also obtained the percentile distribution of GA-specific birth weight in infants over 23 weeks of gestation.

  14. Birth rates and pregnancy complications in adolescent pregnant women giving birth in the hospitals of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchon, Rukmanee; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Suchonwanich, Yolsilp

    2014-08-01

    To determine the rates of births in adolescent pregnant women in diferent regions of Thailand and assess the rates of complications occurring at pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in women admitted in the hospitals ofThailand. The secondary analysis of data from pregnant women aged 10 to 49 years, who were admitted to hospitals and recorded in the National Health Security Office database between October 2010 and September 2011 was carried out. Adolescent birth rate by the regions and rate of complications ofpregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by age groups were analyzed. Highest birth rate was found among women aged 19 years (58.3 per 1, 000 population). The distribution of adolescent births varied across regions of Thailand, which was high in central region. Rate of preterm delivery was highest (10%) in adolescent aged 10 to 14 years. Rate of diabetes mellitus (6%), preeclampsia (4%), and postpartum hemorrhage (3%) among women aged 35 to 49 years were substantially higher than those among women aged 34 years or less. Adolescent birth rate varied across regions of Thailand. Complications occurred differently by ages of women. Holistic policy and planning strategies for proper prevention and management among pregnant women in different age groups are needed

  15. Investigating the reasons for Spain's falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, X

    1998-09-12

    On August 25, 1998, the Spanish National Institute of Statistics announced that Spain, which has had the most accelerated decrease in fecundity of all European countries during the last 25 years, had the lowest birth rate in Europe. Spain's average birth rate was 2.86 in 1970, 2.21 in 1980, and 1.21 in 1994. According to Eurostat, Spain's average birth rate in 1995 was 1.18, while the European Community's was 1.43. Although all the countries of the European Community have birth rates below 2.1, Spain's is 44% below this minimum rate needed to achieve generation replacement. In 1994 and 1997, in 5 northern communities, including the Basque country and Galicia, the birth rate was less than 1.0. The lowest birth rate (0.76 in 1997) was in the northern region of Asturias. Although southern autonomous regions have higher birth rates (between 1.21 and 1.44 for 1997) than northern ones, these are also decreasing (from 3.36 in 1970 to 1.29 in 1997 in Andalusia). Credit for the rapid decrease is given to improved quality of life and education, increased contraceptive usage, and social change. Employment of women has increased, and unemployed sons are remaining at home for longer periods. The most important reasons are 1) the increased number of single people and 2) the increased average age of women having their first child. The latter increase began in 1988. Most Spanish women now have their first child between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The average age was 28 years in 1975; in 1995, it was 30 years. Women from the northern autonomous regions have the highest average age at first birth (Basque women, 31.2 years in 1995). The pattern of fecundity in Spain is different from other countries in Europe. In Spain, the decrease started in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Until the 1980s, Spain had one of the highest birth rates in Europe. This was followed by a decrease in the 1990s. However, in 1997, there were 3000 more births than in 1996. The National Institute of Demography

  16. Dealing with China's future population decline: a proposal for replacing low birth rates with sustainable rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Wang, Xiuqing

    2009-09-01

    Decreasing population levels due to declining birth rates are becoming a potentially serious social problem in developed and rapidly developing countries. China urgently needed to reduce birth rates so that its population would decline to a sustainable level, and the family planning policy designed to achieve this goal has largely succeeded. However, continuing to pursue this policy is leading to serious, unanticipated problems such as a shift in the country's population distribution towards the elderly and increasing difficulty supporting that elderly population. Social and political changes that promoted low birth rates and the lack of effective policies to encourage higher birth rates suggest that mitigating the consequences of the predicted population decline will depend on a revised approach based on achieving sustainable birth rates.

  17. Increasing low birth weight rates: deliveries in a tertiary hospital in istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yasemin; Cömert, Serdar; Turan, Cem; Unal, Orhan; Piçak, Abdülkadir; Ger, Lale; Telatar, Berrin

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and stillbirth deliveries were determined. Among 19,533 total births, there were 450 (23.04 per 1000) stillbirths. Low birth weight rate was 10.61%. A significant increase in yearly distribution of low birth weight deliveries was observed (Pbirth weight and extremely low birth weight delivery rates were 3.14% and 1.58% respectively. Among 2073 low birth weight infants, 333 (16.06%) were stillbirths. The stillbirth delivery rate and the birth of a female infant among low birth weight deliveries were significantly higher than infants with birth weight ≥2500g (Pbirth weight and maternal age. The rate of cesarean section among low birth weight infants was 49.4%. High low birth weight and stillbirth rates, as well as the increase in low birth weight deliveries over the past five years in this study are striking. For reduction of increased low birth weight rates, appropriate intervention methods should be initiated.

  18. Low Birth Weight, Very Low Birth Weight Rates and Gestational Age-Specific Birth Weight Distribution of Korean Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. ...

  19. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of triplets or higher-order extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R; Wrage, Lisa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2011-03-01

    Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401-1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95-1.71]). Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.

  20. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Research Matters July 21, 2014 Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder At a ... more effective than standard therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could ...

  1. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  2. Variation in rates of postterm birth in Europe: reality or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, J; Blondel, B; Alexander, S; Bréart, G

    2007-09-01

    To compare rates of postterm birth in Europe. Analysis of data from vital statistics, birth registers, and national birth samples collected for the PERISTAT project. Thirteen European countries. All live births or representative samples of births for the year 2000 or most recent year available. Comparison of national and regional rates of postterm birth. Other indicators (birthweight, deliveries with a non-spontaneous onset and mortality) were used to assess the validity of postterm rates. The proportion of births at 42 completed weeks of gestation or later. Postterm rates varied greatly, from 0.4% (Austria, Belgium) to over 7% (Denmark, Sweden) of births. Higher postterm rates were associated with a greater proportion of babies with birthweight 4500 g or more. Fetal and early neonatal mortality rates were higher among postterm births than among births at 40 weeks. Countries with higher proportions of births with a nonspontaneous onset of labour had lower postterm birth rates. The shapes of the gestational-age distributions at term varied. In some countries, there was a sharp cutoff in deliveries at 40 weeks, while elsewhere this occurred at 41 weeks. These results suggest that practices for managing pregnancies continuing beyond term differ in Europe and raise questions about the health and other impacts in countries with markedly high or low postterm rates. Some variability in these rates may also be due to methods for determining gestational age, which has broader implications for international comparisons of gestational age, including rates of postterm and preterm births and small-for-gestational-age newborns.

  3. The indeterminate rate problem for birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    1987-01-01

    A birth-death process is completely determined by its set of rates if and only if this set satisfies a certain condition C, say. If for a set of rates R the condition C is not fulfilled, then the problem arises of characterizing all birth-death processes which have rate set R (the indeterminate rate

  4. Variations in multiple birth rates and impact on perinatal outcomes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; Gissler, M.; Hindori-Mohangoo, A.D.; Blondel, B.; Klungsøyr, K.; Verdenik, I.; Mierzejewska, E.; Velebil, P.; Sól Ólafsdóttir, H.; Macfarlane, A.; Zeitlin, J.; et al.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Infants from multiple pregnancies have higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death and differences in multiple birth rates (MBR) exist between countries. We aimed to describe differences in MBR in Europe and to investigate the impact of these differences on adverse

  5. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    in countries with few cultural, social or economic barriers. Developing world birth rates have fallen since the 1960s from an average of six children to four in the 1990s, but a replacement level of 2.1 is needed to reach balanced growth.

  6. Trends in Birth Rates: New York City 1970-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon L.; Elkin, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Examined teen birth rates in New York City health districts over 25 years, noting ethnic variations. Data from Department of Health vital statistics indicated that the decline in the birth rate among New York City teens was most significant in health districts populated predominantly by blacks. There were substantial decreases among older teens…

  7. A lower limit for the birth rate of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Vivekanand, M.

    1981-01-01

    Using experimental data on observed pulsars, a lower limit for the birth rate of pulsars in our galaxy was estimated, taking into account the beam factor which allows for the possibility that only a fraction of all pulsars is beamed towards the earth. The calculation reduces the discrepancy between pulsar and supernova birth rates. (U.K.)

  8. Epidemiologic Surveillance of Teenage Birth Rates in the United States, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Decesare, Julie Zemaitis; Hans, Jennifer; Roussos-Ross, Kay

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the geographic variation in the average teenage birth rates by county in the contiguous United States. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used in this retrospective cohort to count the total number of live births to females aged 15-19 years by county between 2006 and 2012. Software for disease surveillance and spatial cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of high or low teenage births in counties or areas of greater than 100,000 teenage females. The analysis was then adjusted for percentage of poverty and high school diploma achievement. The unadjusted analysis identified the top 10 clusters of teenage births. The cluster with the highest rate was a city and the surrounding 40 counties, demonstrating an average teen birth rate of 67 per 1,000 females in the age range, 87% higher than the rate in the contiguous United States. Adjustments for poverty rates and high school diploma achievement shifted the top clusters to other areas. Despite an overall national decline in the teenage birth rate, clusters of elevated teenage birth rates remain. These clusters are not random and remain higher than expected when adjusted for poverty and education. This data set provides a framework to focus targeted interventions to reduce teenage birth rates in this high-risk population.

  9. Second-birth rates in Denmark from 1980 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Thygesen, Lau Casper

    2010-01-01

    A statistical age-period-cohort model was used to depict second-time birth rates and the spacing between the first and second child in Denmark, including 524,316 one-child mothers who gave birth to 296,923 second children 1980-1994. The spacing between the first and second child varies according...... to age, as older women had shorter duration from first to second child than younger women. Our results emphasize the importance of including an interaction between age and duration since first birth when analysing second-birth rates....

  10. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  11. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  12. Reduction of preterm birth rates starts at preconception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudijk, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, in the absence of other chronic disease, is associated with preterm birth (PTB) according to the article by Kim et al. Perhaps their most interesting finding is that obesity is positively associated in nulliparous women with extremely PTB rates (birth at < 28 weeks of gestation), both

  13. Going public: do risk and choice explain differences in caesarean birth rates between public and private places of birth in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Yvette D; Prosser, Samantha J; Thompson, Rachel

    2012-10-01

    women who birth in private facilities in Australia are more likely to have a caesarean birth than women who birth in public facilities and these differences remain after accounting for sector differences in the demographic and health risk profiles of women. However, the extent to which women's preferences and/or freedom to choose their mode of birth further account for differences in the likelihood of caesarean birth between the sectors remains untested. women who birthed in Queensland, Australia during a two-week period in 2009 were mailed a self-report survey approximately 3 months after birth. Seven hundred and fifty-seven women provided cross-sectional retrospective data on where they birthed (public or private facility), mode of birth (vaginal or caesarean) and risk factors, along with their preferences and freedom to choose their mode of birth. A hierarchical logistic regression was conducted to determine the extent to which maternal risk and freedom to choose one's mode of birth explain sector differences in the likelihood of having a caesarean birth. while there was no sector difference in women's preference for mode of birth, women who birthed in private facilities had higher odds of feeling able to choose either a vaginal or caesarean birth, and feeling able to choose only a caesarean birth. Women had higher odds of having caesarean birth if they birthed in private facilities, even after accounting for significant risk factors such as age, body mass index, previous caesarean and use of assisted reproductive technology. However, there was no association between place of birth and odds of having a caesarean birth after also accounting for freedom to choose one's mode of birth. these findings call into question suggestions that the higher caesarean birth rate in the private sector in Australia is attributable to increased levels of obstetric risk among women birthing in the private sector or maternal preferences alone. Instead, the determinants of sector

  14. Exchange-Driven Growth with Birth Rate Less Than Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhenquan; Ye Gaoxiang; Ke Jianhong

    2005-01-01

    We further study the kinetic behavior of the exchange-driven growth with birth and death for the case of birth rate kernel being less than that of death based on the mean-field theory. The symmetric exchange rate kernel is K(k,j) = K'(k,j) = Ikj υ , and the birth and death rates are proportional to the aggregate's size. The long time asymptotic behavior of the aggregate size distribution a k (t) is found to obey a much unusual scaling law with an exponentially growing scaling function Φ(x) = exp (x).

  15. Crude and intrinsic birth rates for Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, J R

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to estimate birth rates for Asian countries. The main sources of information in developing countries has been census age-sex distribution, although inaccuracies in the basic data have made it difficult to reach a high degree of accuracy. Different methods bring widely varying results. The methodology presented here is based on the use of the conventional child-woman ratio from the census age-sex distribution, with a rough estimate of the expectation of life at birth. From the established relationships between child-woman ratio and the intrinsic birth rate of the nature y = a + bx + cx(2) at each level of life expectation, the intrinsic birth rate is first computed using coefficients already computed. The crude birth rate is obtained using the adjustment based on the census age-sex distribution. An advantage to this methodology is that the intrinsic birth rate, normally an involved computation, can be obtained relatively easily as a biproduct of the crude birth rates and the bases for the calculations for each of 33 Asian countries, in some cases over several time periods.

  16. On the Regional Birth Rate Differences in Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shukurov, Sobir

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate, theoretically and empirically, regional variation in crude birthrates in Uzbekistan at a provincial (viloyat) level for the period 1991-2010. Also, it offers maps showing the provincial crude birth rates for this period, and probe the ways in which regional fertility differences have arisen. A panel data analysis is also carried out to explain determinants of birth rates. The findings of this study underline that increased women’s particip...

  17. [Birth rates evolution in Spain. Birth trends in Spain from 1941 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés de Llano, J M; Alberola López, S; Garmendia Leiza, J R; Quiñones Rubio, C; Cancho Candela, R; Ramalle-Gómara, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse trends of births in Spain and its Autonomous Communities (CCAA) over a 70 year period (1941-2010). The crude birth rates per 1,000 inhabitants/year were calculated by CCAA using Joinpoint regression models. Change points in trend and annual percentage of change (APC) were identified. The distribution of 38,160,305 births between 1941 and 2010 shows important changes in trends both nationally and among the CCAA. There is a general pattern for the whole country, with 5 turning points being identified with changes in trend and annual percentage change (APC). Differences are also found among regions. The analysis of trends in birth rates and the annual rates of change should enable public health authorities to properly plan pediatric care resources in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The Green Bay cesarean section study. III. Falling cesarean birth rates without a formal curtailment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmire, H F; DeMott, R K

    1994-06-01

    We observed decreases in cesarean birth rates at two Green Bay hospitals after the 1990 publication of our first cesarean section study. The purpose of this study was to determine the causes of those decreases and to see whether any outcome changes occurred with lower rates. An additional objective was to determine the perceptions of the 10 physicians regarding the determinants of cesarean birth rates. We compared recent cesarean birth rates (1990 to 1992) to former rates (1986 to 1988) for 10 of the 11 physicians analyzed in our previous studies. Newborn outcomes were analyzed to determine whether variations occur in comparing low to high cesarean rate physician groups. The total, primary, and repeat cesarean birth rates declined from 13.3% to 10.2%, 8.6% to 6.8%, and 4.7% to 3.4%, respectively, between 1986 to 1988 and 1990 to 1992. Variations in cesarean rates occurred among physicians and groups of physicians. Higher cesarean rates did not result in better perinatal outcome. Literature reports, residency training, continuing medical education attendance, and liability risks were the major determinants of cesarean birth as perceived by the 10 physicians in the study. The least important determinant, rated fifteenth of 15, was the national cesarean birth rate.

  19. Black/white differences in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates among New York City hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Hebert, Paul; Chatterjee, Samprit; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Chassin, Mark R

    2008-03-01

    We sought to determine whether differences in the hospitals at which black and white infants are born contribute to black/white disparities in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. We performed a population-based cohort study using New York City vital statistics records on all live births and deaths of infants weighing 500 to 1499 g who were born in 45 hospitals between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2001 (N = 11 781). We measured very low birth weight risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates for each New York City hospital and assessed differences in the distributions of non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white very low birth weight births among these hospitals. Risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates for very low birth weight infants in New York City hospitals ranged from 9.6 to 27.2 deaths per 1000 births. White very low birth weight infants were more likely to be born in the lowest mortality tertile of hospitals (49%), compared with black very low birth weight infants (29%). We estimated that, if black women delivered in the same hospitals as white women, then black very low birth weight mortality rates would be reduced by 6.7 deaths per 1000 very low birth weight births, removing 34.5% of the black/white disparity in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. Volume of very low birth weight deliveries was modestly associated with very low birth weight mortality rates but explained little of the racial disparity. Black very low birth weight infants more likely to be born in New York City hospitals with higher risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates than were very low birth weight infants, contributing substantially to black-white disparities.

  20. Pregnant Women in Sport Climbing - Is there a Higher Risk for Preterm Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastig, Jan; Hillebrandt, David; Rath, Werner; Küpper, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Sport climbing is a popular recreational sport with an increasing proportion of female athletes. International recommendations emphasize the physical and mental benefits of regular sport activity during any uncomplicated pregnancy. In this context, sport climbing is associated with a high risk potential.The aim of this study was to examine if there is a higher risk for preterm birth in active climbing athletes.Original manuscript.A retrospective self-report online survey in the German language collected data between September 2012 and November 2013. In addition to anthropometric and demographic data, data on climbing experience, preferred climbing discipline, skill level and changes of climbing habits during pregnancy, known risk factors for preterm birth and information on delivery and the newborn were requested. The rate of preterm birth of the survey was tested with Fisher's exact test with information from the German Federal Statistical Office.Sample size was 32. 72% had a university degree, 81% were primiparous, all were singleton pregnancies. A 33 rd questionnaire was excluded because of described preeclampsia. Age ranged between 21 and 39 years, climbing experience before pregnancy between 2 and 24 years, and skill level before pregnancy between 4 and 7 on the UIAA scale (International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation). Half of the women climbed until the 36 th week and 90% adjusted their climbing habits mostly by reducing climbing difficulty and doing more top roping. 2 preterm births in the 36 th week of gestation were found (2 from 15, p=0.36). According to the data from the German Federal Statistical Office, 8.9% births in the year 2013 in Germany were preterm.This is the first study investigating the risk of preterm birth in recreational sport climbing athletes. No significantly higher proportion of preterm birth could be found. Limitations are small sample size and high social status of participants. What is known about the subject: Sport

  1. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Franzetta, Kerry, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Ryan, Suzanne, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2001 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing continue to steadily decline, and the 2001 rates are historic lows for each age group. NCHS data showed that almost 80% of teen births nationwide…

  2. Female literacy rate is a better predictor of birth rate and infant mortality rate in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Educated women are known to take informed reproductive and healthcare decisions. These result in population stabilization and better infant care reflected by lower birth rates and infant mortality rates (IMRs, respectively. Materials and Methods: Our objective was to study the relationship of male and female literacy rates with crude birth rates (CBRs and IMRs of the states and union territories (UTs of India. The data were analyzed using linear regression. CBR and IMR were taken as the dependent variables; while the overall literacy rates, male, and female literacy rates were the independent variables. Results: CBRs were inversely related to literacy rates (slope parameter = -0.402, P < 0.001. On multiple linear regression with male and female literacy rates, a significant inverse relationship emerged between female literacy rate and CBR (slope = -0.363, P < 0.001, while male literacy rate was not significantly related to CBR (P = 0.674. IMR of the states were also inversely related to their literacy rates (slope = -1.254, P < 0.001. Multiple linear regression revealed a significant inverse relationship between IMR and female literacy (slope = -0.816, P = 0.031, whereas male literacy rate was not significantly related (P = 0.630. Conclusion: Female literacy is relatively highly important for both population stabilization and better infant health.

  3. Seasonality in twin birth rates, Denmark, 1936-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelykke, B; Søgaard, J; Nielsen, J

    1987-12-01

    A study was made of seasonality in twin birth rate in Denmark between 1977 and 1984. We studied all twin births (N = 45,550) in all deliveries (N = 3,679,932) during that period. Statistical analysis using a simple harmonic sinusoidal model provided no evidence for seasonality. However, sequential polynomial analysis disclosed a significant fit to a fifth order polynomial curve with peaks in twin birth rates in May-June and December, along with troughs in February and September. A falling trend in twinning rate broke off in Denmark around 1970, and from 1970 to 1984 an increasing trend was found. The results are discussed in terms of possible environmental influences on twinning.

  4. Single blastocyst transfer: The key to reduce multiple pregnancy rates without compromising the live birth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Sundhararaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, to achieve higher pregnancy rates, multiple embryos were transferred after an in-vitro fertilisation (IVF. However, this practice is being reassessed, because it leads to multiple pregnancies that is known to cause adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Aim: To compare the pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles among women undergoing elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT vs. those undergoing double blastocyst transfer (DBT. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective data analysis of 582 patients undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles performed from January 2012 to June 2015. Materials and Methods: Patients, who underwent IVF/ICSI and developed more than one blastocyst, were included in the study. Donor cycles were excluded from the study. All the embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in sequential media followed by transfer of two blastocysts (DBT or eSBT and cryopreservation of the remaining. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test. Results: Out of 582 patients, in 149 patients one blastocyst was transferred and in 433 patients two blastocysts were transferred. There was no statistical difference in the biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in both the groups. Statistics demonstrated a significant drop in miscarriage rate in eSBT group. There was no incidence of twins in eSBT group, whereas twin birth rate per clinical pregnancy was 29.02% in DBT group. Conclusion: Single blastocyst transfer is an effective method to reduce the risk of multiple births without compromising the pregnancy outcomes. Given the promising potential of vitrification; the remaining blastocyst can be cryopreserved.

  5. High birth rates despite easy access to contraception and abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and compare contraceptive use, fertility, birth, and abortion rates in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National data on births, abortions, fertility rate (1975-2013), redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives and sales figures...... contraception followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were the most common methods. During 1975-2013 abortion rates decreased in Denmark (from 27/1000 women to 15/1000 women aged 15-44/1000 women) and Finland (from 20 to 10/1000 women), remained stable in Norway (≈16) and Sweden (≈20......) and increased in Iceland (from 6 to 15/1000 women). Birth rates remained stable around 60/1000 women aged 15-44 in all countries except for Iceland where the birth rate decreased from 95 to 65/1000 women. Abortion rates were highest in the age group 20-24 years. In the same age group, Sweden had a lower...

  6. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: keli@bnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  7. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Haiying; Zhang Keli

    2011-01-01

    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: → Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. → An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. → Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  8. No evidence of purported lunar effect on hospital admission rates or birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that a fraction of nursing professionals believe in a "lunar effect"-a purported correlation between the phases of the Earth's moon and human affairs, such as birth rates, blood loss, or fertility. This article addresses some of the methodological errors and cognitive biases that can explain the human tendency of perceiving a lunar effect where there is none. This article reviews basic standards of evidence and, using an example from the published literature, illustrates how disregarding these standards can lead to erroneous conclusions. Román, Soriano, Fuentes, Gálvez, and Fernández (2004) suggested that the number of hospital admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding was somehow influenced by the phases of the Earth's moon. Specifically, the authors claimed that the rate of hospital admissions to their bleeding unit is higher during the full moon than at other times. Their report contains a number of methodological and statistical flaws that invalidate their conclusions. Reanalysis of their data with proper procedures shows no evidence that the full moon influences the rate of hospital admissions, a result that is consistent with numerous peer-reviewed studies and meta-analyses. A review of the literature shows that birth rates are also uncorrelated to lunar phases. Data collection and analysis shortcomings, as well as powerful cognitive biases, can lead to erroneous conclusions about the purported lunar effect on human affairs. Adherence to basic standards of evidence can help assess the validity of questionable beliefs.

  9. The relationship between resettlement and birth rates: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study aims to examine the possible impacts of resettlement on birth rates by using the length of stay variable in the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Methods: Data in all three rounds of Gambella Administrative Region's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are analyzed. The neighboring ...

  10. Investigating recent trends in the U.S. teen birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2015-05-01

    We investigate trends in the U.S. rate of teen childbearing between 1981 and 2010, focusing specifically on the sizable decline since 1991. We focus on establishing the role of state-level demographic changes, economic conditions, and targeted policies in driving recent aggregate trends. We offer three main observations. First, the recent decline cannot be explained by the changing racial and ethnic composition of teens. Second, the only targeted policies that have had a statistically discernible impact on aggregate teen birth rates are declining welfare benefits and expanded access to family planning services through Medicaid, but these policies can account for only 12.6 percent of the observed decline since 1991. Third, higher unemployment rates lead to lower teen birth rates and can account for 16 percent of the decline in teen birth rates since the Great Recession began. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  12. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Kiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. Methods In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. Results 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5 experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8% experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2. The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18. There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery

  13. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kiran; Premji, Shahirose S; Rose, Marianne S; Kazi, Ambreen; Khowaja, Shaneela; Tough, Suzanne

    2011-11-02

    High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5) experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8%) experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2). The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18). There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. There

  14. Change in Population Characteristics and Teen Birth Rates in 77 Community Areas: Chicago, Illinois, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Shauna; Masinter, Lisa; Kolak, Marynia; Feinglass, Joe

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed community area differences in teen births in Chicago, Illinois, from 1999 to 2009. We analyzed the association between changes in teen birth rates and concurrent measures of community area socioeconomic and demographic change. Mean annual changes in teen birth rates in 77 Chicago community areas were correlated with concurrent census-based population changes during the decade. Census measures included changes in race/ethnicity, adult high school dropouts, poverty or higher-income households, crowded housing, unemployment, English proficiency, foreign-born residents, or residents who moved in the last five years. We included non-collinear census measures with a pbirths in a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Teen birth rates in Chicago fell faster than the overall birth rates, from 85 births per 1,000 teens in 1999 to 57 births per 1,000 teens in 2009. There were strong positive associations between increases in the percentage of residents who were black and Hispanic, poor, without a high school diploma, and living in crowded housing, and a negative association with an increase in higher-income households. Population changes in poverty, Hispanic population, and high school dropouts were the only significant measures in the final model, explaining almost half of the variance in teen birth rate changes. The study provides a model of census-based measures that can be used to evaluate predicted vs. observed rates of change in teen births across communities, offering the potential to more appropriately prioritize public health resources for preventing unintended teen pregnancy.

  15. The higher temperature in the areola supports the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zanardo

    Full Text Available Numerous functional features that promote the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum are concentrated in the human female's areolar region. The aim of this study was to look more closely into the thermal characteristics of areola, which are said to regulate the local evaporation rate of odors and chemical signals that are uniquely important for the neonate's 'breast crawl'. A dermatological study of the areolae and corresponding intern breast quadrants was undertaken on the mothers of 70 consecutive, healthy, full-term breastfed infants. The study took place just after the births at the Policlinico Abano Terme, in Italy from January to February 2014. Temperature, pH and elasticity were assessed one day postpartum using the Soft Plus 5.5 (Callegari S.P.A., Parma, Italy. The mean areolar temperature was found to be significantly higher than the corresponding breast quadrant (34.60 ±1.40°C vs. 34.04 ±2.00°C, p<0.001 and the pH was also significantly higher (4.60±0.59 vs. 4.17±0.59, p<0.001. In contrast, the elasticity of the areolar was significantly lower (23.52±7.83 vs. 29.02±8.44%, p<0.003. Our findings show, for the first time, that the areolar region has a higher temperature than the surrounding breast skin, together with higher pH values and lower elasticity. We believe that the higher temperature of the areolar region may act as a thermal signal to guide the infant directly to the nipple and to the natural progression of the birth to breastfeeding continuum.

  16. The impact of sex ratio and economic status on local birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, A; Morrison, E

    2013-04-23

    Human mating and reproductive behaviour can vary depending on various mechanisms, including the local sex ratio. Previous research shows that as sex ratios become female-biased, women from economically deprived areas are less likely to delay reproductive opportunities to wait for a high-investing mate but instead begin their reproductive careers sooner. Here, we show that the local sex ratio also has an impact on female fertility schedules. At young ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the poorest areas, whereas the opposite is true for the richest areas. At older ages, a female-biased ratio is associated with higher birth rates in the richest, but not the poorest areas. These patterns suggest that female-female competition encourages poorer women to adopt a fast life-history strategy and give birth early, and richer women to adopt a slow life-history strategy and delay reproduction.

  17. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  18. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N.E.; H.L. Torrance (Helen); F. Mol (Femke); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); Scheenjes, E.; T. Traas (Theo); Janssen, C.; B.J. Cohlen (Ben); G. Teklenburg (Gijs); J.P. de Bruin (J.); van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J.W.M.; Moll, E.; K. Fleischer; M.H.A. van Hooff (Marcel); C.H. de Koning; A.E.P. Cantineau (Astrid); C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius); M.F.G. Verberg; Nijs, M.; Manger, A.P.; M.M.E. van Rumste (Minouche); van der Voet, L.F.; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; den Hartog, J.E.; A. Sluijmer (Alexander); Jansen, F.W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M.L.; Pelinck, M.J.; J. van Disseldorp (Jeroen); M. van Wely (Madelon); J.M.J. Smeenk; Pieterse, Q.D.; J.C. Boxmeer (Jolanda); Groenewoud, E.R.; M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.C. Kasius (J. C.); F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after

  19. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenhuijze, N.E. van; Torrance, H.L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J.S.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M.A.F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; Bruin, J.P. de; Oppenraaij, R. van; Maas, J.W.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; Hooff, M.H. van; Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Verberg, M.; Nijs, M.; Manger, A.P.; Rumste, M. van; Voet, L.F. van der; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; Hartog, J.E. Den; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F.W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M.L.; Pelinck, M.J.; Disseldorp, J. van; Wely, M. van; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q.D.; Boxmeer, J.C.; Groenewoud, E.R.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Kasius, J.C.; Broekmans, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo

  20. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J. S. E.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M. A. F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W. M.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, M. H.; de Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, C. B.; Verberg, M.; Nijs, M.; Manger, A. P.; van Rumste, M.; van der Voet, L. F.; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.; den Hartog, J. E.; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F. W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M. L.; Pelinck, M. J.; van Disseldorp, J.; van Wely, M.; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q. D.; Boxmeer, J. C.; Groenewoud, E. R.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Kasius, J. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the

  1. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study : A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, Joop S E; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M.A.F.; Janssen, Bert J C; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; Bruin, Jacob P; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W M; Moll, Etelka; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, Marcel H; de Koning, C.; Cantineau, A.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Verberg, M.F.G.; Nijs, M. M.; Manger, A. P.; Van Rumste, M. M.; Van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A.; Visser, J.; Brinkhuis, E.A.; den Hartog, J. E.; Sluijmer, A.; Jansen, F. W.; Hermes, W.; Bandell, M. L.; Pelinck, M. J.; van Disseldorp, J.; Wely, M.; Smeenk, J.; Pieterse, Q.D.; Boxmeer, J.C.; Groenewoud, Eva R.; Eijkemans, M. J.C.; Kasius, J. C.; Broekmans, F. J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo

  2. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: A randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342)

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoogenhuijze, N. E.; Torrance, H. L.; Mol, F.; Laven, J. S. E.; Scheenjes, E.; Traas, M. A. F.; Janssen, C.; Cohlen, B.; Teklenburg, G.; de Bruin, J. P.; van Oppenraaij, R.; Maas, J. W. M.; Moll, E.; Fleischer, K.; van Hooff, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro ferti...

  3. Malaria model with periodic mosquito birth and death rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Bassidy; Friedman, Avner; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of malaria, a disease that involves a complex life cycle of parasites, requiring both human and mosquito hosts. The novelty of the model is the introduction of periodic coefficients into the system of one-dimensional equations, which account for the seasonal variations (wet and dry seasons) in the mosquito birth and death rates. We define a basic reproduction number R(0) that depends on the periodic coefficients and prove that if R(0)1 then the disease is endemic and may even be periodic.

  4. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component.Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households.This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  5. Literacy Rates and its Impact on Birth Rates in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Equality in socio-economic component is essential for human development and social change. Educational inequality reduces economic growth and women's empowerment on the one hand and increases birth rate on the other. In population studies, it has been established that educational level is collinearly related with demographic behaviour. This study aims to investigate inequalities in literacy rates and its impact on birth rates in Nowpara-I Gram Panchayat (GP located in the Krishnagar II C.D. Block, Nadia District of West Bengal using a household survey conducted in 356 households among women aged 49 and above in triangulation with secondary data. The aim of this study is to explore the causes of the spatial inequalities in education and its effect on spatial variations in birth rates. The key finding suggest that in Nowpara-I, negative relationships exist between female education and birth rate because education has a positive impact on empowerment, late marriage, use of contraceptives and family size.

  6. Variations in Multiple Birth Rates and Impact on Perinatal Outcomes in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Heino

    Full Text Available Infants from multiple pregnancies have higher rates of preterm birth, stillbirth and neonatal death and differences in multiple birth rates (MBR exist between countries. We aimed to describe differences in MBR in Europe and to investigate the impact of these differences on adverse perinatal outcomes at a population level.We used national aggregate birth data on multiple pregnancies, maternal age, gestational age (GA, stillbirth and neonatal death collected in the Euro-Peristat project (29 countries in 2010, N = 5 074 643 births. We also used European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE data on assisted conception and single embryo transfer (SET. The impact of MBR on outcomes was studied using meta-analysis techniques with random-effects models to derive pooled risk ratios (pRR overall and for four groups of country defined by their MBR. We computed population attributable risks (PAR for these groups.In 2010, the average MBR was 16.8 per 1000 women giving birth, ranging from 9.1 (Romania to 26.5 (Cyprus. Compared to singletons, multiples had a nine-fold increased risk (pRR 9.4, 95% Cl 9.1-9.8 of preterm birth (<37 weeks GA, an almost 12-fold increased risk (pRR 11.7, 95% CI 11.0-12.4 of very preterm birth (<32 weeks GA. Pooled RR were 2.4 (95% Cl 1.5-3.6 for fetal mortality at or after 28 weeks GA and 7.0 (95% Cl 6.1-8.0 for neonatal mortality. PAR of neonatal death and very preterm birth were higher in countries with high MBR compared to low MBR (17.1% (95% CI 13.8-20.2 versus 9.8% (95% Cl 9.6-11.0 for neonatal death and 29.6% (96% CI 28.5-30.6 versus 17.5% (95% CI 15.7-18.3 for very preterm births, respectively.Wide variations in MBR and their impact on population outcomes imply that efforts by countries to reduce MBR could improve perinatal outcomes, enabling better long-term child health.

  7. Perinatal mortality in twin pregnancy: an analysis of birth weight-specific mortality rates and adjusted mortality rates for birth weight distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, E; González de Agüero, R; de Agustin, J L; Pérez-Hiraldo, M P; Bescos, J L

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the fetal mortality rate (FMR), early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) and perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of twin and single births. It is based on a survey which was carried out in 22 Hospital Centers in Spain in 1980, and covered 1,956 twins born and 110,734 singletons born. The FMR in twins was 36.3/1000 and 8.8/1000 for singletons. The ENMR in twins was 36.1/1000 and 5.7/1000 for singletons. The PMR in twins was 71.1/1000 and 14.4/1000 for singletons. When birthweight-specific PMR in twin and singletons births are compared, there were no differences between the rates for groups 500-999 g and 1000-1499 g. For birthweight groups of 1500-1999 g (124.4 vs 283.8/1000) and 2000-2999 g (29.6 vs 73.2/1000) the rates for twins were about twice lower than those for single births. The PMR for 2500 g and over birthweight was about twice higher in twins than in singletons (12.5 vs 5.5/1000). After we adjusted for birthweight there was a difference in the FMR (12.6 vs 9.8/1000) and the PMR (19.1 vs 16.0/1000, and no difference in the ENMR between twins and singletons (5.9 vs 6.4/1000), indicating that most of the differences among crude rates are due to differences in distribution of birthweight.

  8. Heterogeneous rates for birth defects in Latin America: hints on causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Camelo, J S; Orioli, I M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to disclose risk factors associated with birth defects which were heterogeneously distributed in the different geographic regions sampled by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC). The material included 2,159,065 hospital births, delivered in the 1967-1989 period in 24 geographic regions of Latin America. Birth defect types with 50 case-control pairs or more were analyzed. A risk factor was defined as that available variable with differential geographic rates, correlated with those of a given birth defect type. Identified factors were tested by case-control multivariate logistic regression to confirm their role in the occurrence of the defect. Altitude and maternal acute illness during first trimester of pregnancy, named influenza, were risk factors for microtia. Prenatal drug exposure, mainly sex hormones, were connected with the occurrence of hypospadias in low frequency areas, while Native ancestry was a "protective" factor in the same regions. Acute (influenza), and chronic (epilepsy and syphilis) maternal illness during first trimester of pregnancy and gravidity higher than four were risk factors for cleft lip. The independence of these variables from maternal age suggested that low maternal socioeconomic level could explain the high birth defect order and, perhaps, syphilis in mothers. Postaxial polydactyly was associated with parental consanguinity, as well as Afro-American ancestry, suggesting genetic heterogeneity.

  9. NCHS - Birth Rates for Unmarried Women by Age, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes birth rates for unmarried women by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1970. National data on births by Hispanics...

  10. NCHS - Teen Birth Rates for Females by Age Group, Race, and Hispanic Origin: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes teen birth rates for females by age group, race, and Hispanic origin in the United States since 1960. National data on births by Hispanic...

  11. Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Lopman, Ben A; Patel, Manish M; Parashar, Umesh D; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2011-11-07

    Rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. Rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. While numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. By fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamics to published age distributions of cases from 15 countries, we obtain estimates of local transmission rates. Model-predicted patterns of seasonal incidence based solely on differences in birth rates and transmission rates are significantly correlated with those observed (Spearman's ρ = 0.65, p birth rates and transmission rates and explore how vaccination may impact these patterns. Our results suggest that the relative lack of rotavirus seasonality observed in many tropical countries may be due to the high birth rates and transmission rates typical of developing countries rather than being driven primarily by environmental conditions. While vaccination is expected to decrease the overall burden of disease, it may increase the degree of seasonal variation in the incidence of rotavirus in some settings.

  12. Preterm birth rates in Japan from 1979 to 2014: Analysis of national vital statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Soyoko; Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Watanabe, Chiho

    2018-03-01

    Secular trends of preterm birth in Japan between 1979 and 2014 were examined to determine whether changes could be explained by a shift in the distribution of maternal age at delivery and parity and/or by changes in age-specific preterm birth rates. Live birth data for 1979 to 2014 were obtained from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Analyses were limited to singleton children born in Japan (n = 43 632 786). Preterm birth was defined using two cut-offs at rates of preterm birth were calculated for firstborn and later-born singletons by maternal age at delivery for specific time periods. Throughout the study period, the rates of preterm birth (both at rates of preterm birth at rates of preterm birth showed a secular increase for preterm births at rates of preterm birth among mothers aged in their 20s and early 30s increased between 1979 and 2014, which contributed to the secular increase in rates of preterm birth at < 37 weeks. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

    2008-02-01

    Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

  14. Maternity care in the Netherlands: the changing home birth rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    1998-01-01

    In 1965 two-thirds of all births in The Netherlands occurred at home. In the next 25 years, that situation became reversed with more than two-thirds of births occurring in hospital and fewer than one-third at home. Several factors have influenced that change, including the introduction of short-stay

  15. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs). Methods This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national l...

  16. Timing of translocation influences birth rate and population dynamics in a forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facka, Aaron N; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patricia; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Callas, Richard; Powell, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted that female fishers released in November and December (early) would have a higher probability of giving birth to kits the following March or April than females released in January, February, and March (late), just prior to or during the period of blastocyst implantation and gestation. Over four winters (2008–2011), we translocated 56 adult female fishers that could have given birth in the spring immediately after release. Denning rates, an index of birth rate, for females released early were 92% in California and 38% in Washington. In contrast, denning rates for females released late were 40% and 11%, in California and Washington, a net reduction in denning rate of 66% across both sites. To understand how releasing females nearer to parturition could influence population establishment and persistence, we used stochastic population simulations using three-stage Lefkovitch matrices. These simulations showed that translocating female fishers early had long-term positive influences on the mean population size and on quasi-extinction thresholds compared to populations where females were released late. The results from both empirical data and simulations show that the timing of translocation, with respect to life history events, should be considered during

  17. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  18. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  19. Is there a link between blastomere contact surfaces of day 3 embryos and live birth rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paternot Goedele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-cell communication and adhesion are essential for the compaction process of early stage embryos. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive objective calculation system of embryo compaction in order to test the hypothesis that embryos with a larger mean contact surface result in a higher live birth rate compared to embryos with a lower mean contact surface. Methods Multilevel images of 474 embryos transferred on day 3 were evaluated by the Cellify software. This software calculates the contact surfaces between the blastomeres. The primary outcome of this study was live birth. An ideal range of contact surface was determined and the positive and negative predictive value, the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the curve for this new characteristic were calculated. Results In total, 115 (24% transferred embryos resulted in a live birth. Selection of an embryo for transfer on its mean contact surface could predict live birth with a high sensitivity (80% and high negative predicting value (83% but with a low positive predictive value (27%, a low specificity (31% and low area under the ROC curve (0.56. The mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a single medium was significantly higher compared to the mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a sequential medium (p = 0.0003. Conclusions Neither the mean contact surface nor the number of contact surfaces of a day 3 embryo had an additional value in the prediction of live birth. The type of culture medium, however, had an impact on the contact surface of an embryo. Embryos cultured in a single medium had a significant larger contact surface compared to embryos cultured in the sequential medium.

  20. Undergoing varicocele repair before assisted reproduction improves pregnancy rate and live birth rate in azoospermic and oligospermic men with a varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, E Will; Wiener, Laura Elizabeth; Rajanahally, Saneal; Crowell, Karen; Coward, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how varicocele repair (VR) impacts pregnancy (PRs) and live birth rates in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproduction wherein the male partner has oligospermia or azoospermia and a history of varicocele. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Azoospermic and oligospermic males with varicoceles and in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) with IUI, IVF, or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) with IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Measurement of PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates. Odds ratios for the impact of VR on PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates for couples undergoing ART. Seven articles involving a total of 1,241 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that VR improved live birth rates for the oligospermic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.699) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.761). Pregnancy rates were higher in the azoospermic group (OR = 2.336) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.760). Live birth rates were higher for patients undergoing IUI after VR (OR = 8.360). Sperm retrieval rates were higher in persistently azoospermic men after VR (OR = 2.509). Oligospermic and azoospermic patients with clinical varicocele who undergo VR experience improved live birth rates and PRs with IVF or IVF/ICSI. For persistently azoospermic men after VR requiring TESE for IVF/ICSI, VR improves sperm retrieval rates. Therefore, VR should be considered to have substantial benefits for couples with a clinical varicocele even if oligospermia or azoospermia persists after repair and ART is required. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Behaviour and growth performance of low-birth-weight piglets cross-fostered in multiparous sows with piglets of higher birth weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the behaviour, pre-weaning survival rate and growth performance of low birth weight (BW piglets cross-fostered with piglets of higher weights. Piglets were transferred to 60 foster sows, and divided in three groups (G; n=20: G1- 12 low BW piglets (0.80 - 1.25kg; G2- six low BW piglets and six intermediate BW piglets (1.40 - 1.60kg, and G3- six low BW piglets and six high BW piglets (>1.70kg. For the analysis, groups G2 and G3 were subdivided in LG2 (six G2 light piglets; IG2 (six G2 intermediate piglets, LG3 (six G3 light piglets, and HG3 (six G3 heavy piglets. Behavioural observations were carried out on days 1, 2, 4 and 6 (visual direct observation and on days 3 and 5 (video recording after birth. The percentage of missed nursings was higher in LG3 piglets than in LG1, IG2 and HG3 piglets, on days 1 and 2. On day 4, light piglets (LG1, LG2 and LG3 missed more nursings than IG2 and HG3 piglets. On day 3, video recording showed a higher percentage of missed nursings in LG1, LG2, and LG3 piglets as compared to HG3 piglets. On day 1, the number of fights during nursing was higher in IG2 than in LG1 and LG3 piglets. Also on day 1, number of fights and percentage of piglets engaged in fights, during 15min after nursing, were higher in LG1, LG3 and HG3 than in LG2 piglets. More playful behaviours were observed on day 2 in IG2 and HG3 piglets compared to LG1, LG2 and LG3 piglets. Light piglets (LG1, LG2, and LG3 presented similar body weight on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 after birth, regardless of being mixed with piglets of higher weights or not; however, the survival rate until day 16 was most compromised in LG3 piglets compared to the other groups. Despite the lack of influence of littermates' weight on the growth of low BW piglets, their survival rate indicates that they should not be mixed with high BW piglets.

  2. [A preliminary analysis of the high birth rate in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, N

    1981-01-01

    The author first provides some basic demographic data for India and points out that the current annual rate of population growth of 2.45 percent is slightly higher than the annual increase in food production. Problems in the areas of employment, education, housing, and transportation, as well as the general problem of poverty, are seen as a consequence of this imbalance. The lack of success of the national family planning program is attributed primarily to the failure to achieve a satisfactory rate of economic growth. Contributory factors include early marriage, the low status of women, the desire for large families, and administrative problems associated with the family planning program.

  3. The spatial distribution and birth-rate of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, O.H.; Kasumov, F.K.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of pulsars in the wide range of observed luminosities has been obtained. It is shown that the function of luminosity (FL) within 3 x 10 26 30 erg s -1 conforms to the power law dN/dL - c 1 Lsup(-γ), where γ = 1.76 +- 0.06. For L 26 erg s -1 , FL changes its inclination and may be approximated as dN/dL approximately Lsup(-γ 1 ), where γ 1 = 0.7 +- 0.2. On the basis of statistical selection, including all pulsars with L > 3 x 10 28 erg s -1 , the distribution of pulsars has been investigated as a function of the distance to the centre R and galactic plane Z. The obtained laws of the radial and Z-distribution of pulsars and galactic supernova remnants and also the radial distribution of types I and II supernovae in the models Sb and Sc support the hypothesis of their origin from the objects of the flat subsystem of Population I. Since there are some arguments in favour of a possible connection between supernovae I and the objects of the intermediate component of the Galaxy, one cannot exclude the possibility of supernovae explosions at the end of the evolution of stars with masses of 1.5-2 Msub(sun). It is also shown that pulsars and supernovae are evidently objects that are connected genetically, and, within the limits of statistical error, they have a similar birth-rate. The empirical law of the evolution of a pulsar's luminosity as a function of its true age has been obtained, according to which L = c 2 tsup(-β), where c 2 = (3.69+- 3.4) x 10 35 ,β = 1.32 +- 0.11. (Auth.)

  4. Planned home compared with planned hospital births: mode of delivery and Perinatal mortality rates, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooy, Jacoba; Birnie, Erwin; Denktas, Semiha; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2017-06-08

    To compare the mode of delivery between planned home versus planned hospital births and to determine if differences in intervention rates could be interpreted as over- or undertreatment. Intervention and perinatal mortality rates were obtained for 679,952 low-risk women from the Dutch Perinatal Registry (2000-2007). Intervention was defined as operative vaginal delivery and/or caesarean section. Perinatal mortality was defined as the intrapartum and early neonatal mortality rate up to 7 days postpartum. Besides adjustment for maternal and care factors, we included for additional casemix adjustment: presence of congenital abnormality, small for gestational age, preterm birth, or low Apgar score. The techniques used were nested multiple stepwise logistic regression, and stratified analysis for separate risk groups. An intention-to-treat like analysis was performed. The intervention rate was lower in planned home compared to planned hospital births (10.9% 95% CI 10.8-11.0 vs. 13.8% 95% CI 13.6-13.9). Intended place of birth had significant impact on the likelihood to intervene after adjustment (planned homebirth (OR 0.77 95% CI. 0.75-0.78)). The mortality rate was lower in planned home births (0.15% vs. 0.18%). After adjustment, the interaction term home- intervention was significant (OR1.51 95% CI 1.25-1.84). In risk groups, a higher perinatal mortality rate was observed in planned home births. The potential presence of over- or under treatment as expressed by adjusted perinatal mortality differs per risk group. In planned home births especially multiparous women showed universally lower intervention rates. However, the benefit of substantially fewer interventions in the planned home group seems to be counterbalanced by substantially increased mortality if intervention occurs.

  5. Higher Prevalence of Left-Handedness in Twins? Not After Controlling Birth Time Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.

  6. Perinatal and infant mortality rates and place of birth in Italy, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; La Vecchia, C

    1988-06-01

    In 1980, the ratio of home birth to public hospital perinatal and neonatal mortality rates decreased from Northern to Southern Italy, being inversely related to the proportion of home deliveries and probably reflecting the effect of planned versus unplanned home births. The post neonatal mortality rate in Southern Italy was about four times as high in children born at home (9.5/1,000 live births) than in those delivered in public hospitals (2.6/1,000 live births), probably reflecting differences in the socioeconomic status according to the birthplace selection in various regions.

  7. Trihalomethanes in public drinking water and stillbirth and low birth weight rates: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Bennett, James E; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-12-01

    During 2003-2004, United Utilities water company in North West England introduced enhanced coagulation (EC) to four treatment works to mitigate disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. This enabled examination of the relation between DBPs and birth outcomes whilst reducing socioeconomic confounding. We compared stillbirth, and low and very low birth weight rates three years before (2000-2002) with three years after (2005-2007) the intervention, and in relation to categories of THM change. We created exposure metrics for EC and trihalomethane (THM) concentration change (n=258 water zones). We linked 429,599 live births and 2279 stillbirths from national birth registers to the water zone at birth. We used Poisson regression to model the differences in birth outcome rates with an interaction between before/after the intervention and EC or THM change. EC treatment reduced chloroform concentrations more than non-treatment (mean -29.7 µg/l vs. -14.5 µg/l), but not brominated THM concentrations. Only 6% of EC water zones received 100% EC water, creating exposure misclassification concerns. EC intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth outcome rates. Areas with the highest chloroform decrease (30 - 65 μg/l) had the greatest percentage decrease in low -9 % (-12, -5) and very low birth weight -16% (-24, -8) rates. The interaction between before/after intervention and chloroform change was statistically significant only for very low birth weight, p=0.02. There were no significant decreases in stillbirth rates. In a novel approach for studying DBPs and adverse reproductive outcomes, the EC intervention to reduce DBPs did not affect birth outcome rates. However, a measured large decrease in chloroform concentrations was associated with statistically significant reductions in very low birth weight rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Birth and fertility rates for states by Hispanic origin subgroups: United States, 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, T J

    2006-05-01

    This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. Between 1990 and 2000, the total U.S. Hispanic population increased 58 percent, from 22,353,999 to 35,305,818. Over the same period of time, births to Hispanic mothers increased 37 percent, from 595,073 to 815,868. The smaller increases in births compared with the population resulted in a falling birth rate among Hispanic mothers (26.7 in 1990 to 23.1 births per 1,000 total population in 2000). Birth and fertility rates for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban mothers all fell between 1990 and 2000. Among the Hispanic subgroups, fertility rates in 2000 ranged from 105.1 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for Mexican women to 49.3 for Cuban women. Differences in fertility exist not only between Hispanic subgroups but also within groups among States. For example, total fertility rates for Puerto Rican mothers, which estimates the number of children a group of 1,000 women will have in their lifetime, ranged in 2000 from 1,616.5 in New York to 2,403.0 in Pennsylvania.

  9. Vortex reconnection rate, and loop birth rate, for a random wavefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannay, J. H.

    2017-04-01

    A time dependent, complex scalar wavefield in three dimensions contains curved zero lines, wave ‘vortices’, that move around. From time to time pairs of these lines contact each other and ‘reconnect’ in a well studied manner, and at other times tiny loops of new line appear from nowhere (births) and grow, or the reverse, existing loops shrink and disappear (deaths). These three types are known to be the only generic events. Here the average rate of their occurrences per unit volume is calculated exactly for a Gaussian random wavefield that has isotropic, stationary statistics, arising from a superposition of an infinity of plane waves in different directions. A simplifying ‘axis fixing’ technique is introduced to achieve this. The resulting formulas are proportional to the standard deviation of angular frequencies, and depend in a simple way on the second and fourth moments of the power spectrum of the plane waves. Reconnections turn out to be more common than births and deaths combined. As an expository preliminary, the case of two dimensions, where the vortices are points, is studied and the average rate of pair creation (and likewise destruction) per unit area is calculated.

  10. Vortex reconnection rate, and loop birth rate, for a random wavefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H

    2017-01-01

    A time dependent, complex scalar wavefield in three dimensions contains curved zero lines, wave ‘vortices’, that move around. From time to time pairs of these lines contact each other and ‘reconnect’ in a well studied manner, and at other times tiny loops of new line appear from nowhere (births) and grow, or the reverse, existing loops shrink and disappear (deaths). These three types are known to be the only generic events. Here the average rate of their occurrences per unit volume is calculated exactly for a Gaussian random wavefield that has isotropic, stationary statistics, arising from a superposition of an infinity of plane waves in different directions. A simplifying ‘axis fixing’ technique is introduced to achieve this. The resulting formulas are proportional to the standard deviation of angular frequencies, and depend in a simple way on the second and fourth moments of the power spectrum of the plane waves. Reconnections turn out to be more common than births and deaths combined. As an expository preliminary, the case of two dimensions, where the vortices are points, is studied and the average rate of pair creation (and likewise destruction) per unit area is calculated. (paper)

  11. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Live birth rate and number of blastomeres on day 2 transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    -lapse assessment, ACDs and/or recalculated fragmentation >25 % was recognized in 106/578 (18.3 %) of transferred embryos. None of them resulted in a live birth. After exclusion of these embryos, the number of blastomeres on the day of transfer did not have any impact on life birth rate. Conclusion Conventional...

  13. Variation in home-birth rates between midwifery practices in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: to examine the reasons for the variation in home-birth rates between midwifery practices. method: multi-level analysis of client and midwife associated, case-specific and structural factors in relation to 4420 planned and actual home or hospital births in 42 midwifery practices. Findings:

  14. Representations for the rate of convergence of birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2002-01-01

    We display some representations for the rate of convergence of a birth-death process, which are useful for obtaining upper and lower bounds. The expressions are brought to light by exploiting the spectral representation for the transition probabilities of a birth-death process and results from the

  15. Representations for the rate of convergence of birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2001-01-01

    We display some representations for the rate of convergence of a birth-death process, which are useful for obtaining upper and lower bounds. The expressions are brought to light by exploiting the spectral representation for the transition probabilities of a birth-death process and results from the

  16. [Declining birth rates as a cause of unemployment? Some remarks on the Gunther paradox].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A

    1980-01-01

    Gunther (1931) regarded the fact that a diminishing future labor force due to lack of demand leads to increasing unemployment at the present time as a paradox. The presumed connection between declining birth rates and rising unemployment in contrast to a rising birth rate and declining unemployment in a transition period of about 15-20 years is called a Guenther paradox. The author tries to explain the Guenther paradox by means of a macrodemoeconomic model with disequilibrium on the labor market. Clearly there is a relationship between birth rate and unemployment. (author's)

  17. Long-Term Persistency of Abnormal Heart Rate Variability following Long NICU Stay and Surgery at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Morin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with painful procedures during the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU stay. Full-term newborns can also experience pain, following surgery. These procedures can have long-lasting consequences. It has been shown that children born preterm show pain responses and cardiac alterations. This study aimed to explore the heart rate reactivity to pain in 107 subjects born either preterm or full-term who were between 7 and 25 years old at testing. We also evaluated the effect of pain experienced at birth, as represented by a longer NICU stay, time under ventilation, and surgery at birth. Participants were asked to immerse their right forearm in 10°C water for 2 minutes. Electrocardiograms were recorded at baseline and during the immersion procedure. Full-term subjects showed a stable increase in heart rate throughout the procedure, whereas preterm ones showed a strong increase at the beginning, which decreased over time. Also, preterm and full-term subjects who experienced pain at birth showed higher resting heart rate, stronger sympathetic activity, and lower cardiac vagal activity. Our study demonstrated a long-term impact of a long NICU stay and surgery at birth on cardiac autonomic activity. This could lead to impaired reactions to pain or stress in later life.

  18. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  19. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K

    1993-10-01

    The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.

  20. Live birth rates after MESA or TESE in men with obstructive azoospermia: is there a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Barbey, Natalie; Meissner, Andreas; Repping, Sjoerd; Silber, Sherman J.

    2015-01-01

    How do live birth rates compare after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for men with obstructive azoospermia when using sperm derived from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) versus microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA)? Our study suggests that proximal epididymal sperm (from MESA)

  1. Teen Birth Rates for Age Group 15-19 in the United States by County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set contains mean teen birth rates by year for each county and state in the United States. Hierarchical Bayesian space-time models were used to generate...

  2. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-05-17

    Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs). This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national live birth registry system of Brazil's National Health Service - Live Birth Information System (Sinasc), for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The preterm birth rates was calculated on a yearly basis and grouped into three-year periods (2000-2002, 2003-2005, 2006-2008, 2009-2011) and one two-year period (2012-2013), according to gestational age and mother's Regional Health Office of residence. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis. The predominance of preterm birth rate increased from 6.8 % in 2000 to 10.5 % in 2013, with an average increase of 0.20 % per year (r(2) = 0.89), and a greater share of moderate preterm births (32 to rate of prematurity and average annual growth during that period (7.55 % and 0.35 %, respectively). The trend analysis of preterm birth rates according to RHO showed a growing trend for almost all RHOs - except for the 7(th) RHO where a declining trend was observed (-0.95 a year); and in the 20(th), 21(st) and 22(nd) RHOs which remained unchanged. In the last three-year of the study period (2011-2013), no RHO showed preterm birth rates below 7.3 % or prevalence of moderate preterm birth below 9.4 %. The results show an increase in preterm births with differences among Macro-regional and RHOs, which indicate the need to improve actions during the prenatal period according to the specificities of each region.

  3. The inner state differences of preterm birth rates in Brazil: a time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of premature births has increased worldwide, with regional differences. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births in the state of Paraná, Brazil, according to Macro-regional and Regional Health Offices (RHOs. Methods This is an ecological time series study using preterm births records from the national live birth registry system of Brazil’s National Health Service - Live Birth Information System (Sinasc, for residents of the state of Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The preterm birth rates was calculated on a yearly basis and grouped into three-year periods (2000–2002, 2003–2005, 2006–2008, 2009–2011 and one two-year period (2012–2013, according to gestational age and mother’s Regional Health Office of residence. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis. Results The predominance of preterm birth rate increased from 6.8 % in 2000 to 10.5 % in 2013, with an average increase of 0.20 % per year (r2 = 0.89, and a greater share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which increased from 5.8 % to 9 %. The same pattern was observed for all Macro-regional Health Offices, with highlight to the Northern Macro-Regional Office, which showed the highest average rate of prematurity and average annual growth during that period (7.55 % and 0.35 %, respectively. The trend analysis of preterm birth rates according to RHO showed a growing trend for almost all RHOs – except for the 7th RHO where a declining trend was observed (−0.95 a year; and in the 20th, 21st and 22nd RHOs which remained unchanged. In the last three-year of the study period (2011–2013, no RHO showed preterm birth rates below 7.3 % or prevalence of moderate preterm birth below 9.4 %. Conclusions The results show an increase in preterm births

  4. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth ra...

  5. On the distance scale of planetary nebulae and white dwarf birth rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemann, V.

    1977-01-01

    Arguments are presented which favor an increase of the distance scale of planetary nebulae by 30% compared to the Seaton-Webster scale. The consequences for evolutionary tracks, PN and white dwarf relations, and birth rates are discussed. It is concluded that opposite to Smith jr. (1976) underestimated, and that the proposed change in distance scale of PN brings white dwarf and PN birth rates into almost complete agreement. (orig.) [de

  6. Teen Birth Rates for Urban and Rural Areas in the United States, 2007-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Rossen, Lauren M; Branum, Amy M

    2016-11-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Birth rates for teenagers aged 15-19 declined in urban and rural counties from 2007 through 2015, with the largest declines in large urban counties and the smallest declines in rural counties. •From 2007 through 2015, the teen birth rate was lowest in large urban counties and highest in rural counties. •Declines in teen birth rates in all urban counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest in Arizona, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Minnesota, and Colorado, with 17 states experiencing a decline of 50% or more. •Declines in teen birth rates in all rural counties between 2007 and 2015 were largest (50% or more) in Colorado and Connecticut. •In 2015, teen birth rates were highest in rural counties and lowest in large urban counties for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic females. Teen birth rates have demonstrated an unprecedented decline in the United States since 2007 (1). Declines occurred in all states and among all major racial and Hispanic-origin groups, yet disparities by both geography and demographic characteristics persist (2,3). Although teen birth rates and related declines have been described by state, patterns by urban-rural location have not yet been examined. This report describes trends in teen birth rates in urban (metropolitan) and rural (nonmetropolitan) areas in the United States overall and by state from 2007 through 2015 and by race and Hispanic origin for 2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  7. Maybe Next Month? Temperature Shocks, Climate Change, and Dynamic Adjustments in Birth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Barreca, Alan I.; Deschenes, Olivier; Guldi, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic adjustments could be a useful strategy for mitigating the costs of acute environmental shocks when timing is not a strictly binding constraint. To investigate whether such adjustments could apply to fertility, we estimate the effects of temperature shocks on birth rates in the United States between 1931 and 2010. Our innovative approach allows for presumably random variation in the distribution of daily temperatures to affect birth rates up to 24 months into the future. We find that a...

  8. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at 'higher risk' of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-04-01

    To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at 'higher risk' of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Prospective cohort study. OUs and planned home births in England. 8180 'higher risk' women in the Birthplace cohort. We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. The risk of 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure 'intrapartum related mortality and morbidity' (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97-3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. The babies of 'higher risk' women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between the groups. © 2015 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John

  9. Child mortality estimation: consistency of under-five mortality rate estimates using full birth histories and summary birth histories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh Silva

    Full Text Available Given the lack of complete vital registration data in most developing countries, for many countries it is not possible to accurately estimate under-five mortality rates from vital registration systems. Heavy reliance is often placed on direct and indirect methods for analyzing data collected from birth histories to estimate under-five mortality rates. Yet few systematic comparisons of these methods have been undertaken. This paper investigates whether analysts should use both direct and indirect estimates from full birth histories, and under what circumstances indirect estimates derived from summary birth histories should be used.Usings Demographic and Health Surveys data from West Africa, East Africa, Latin America, and South/Southeast Asia, I quantify the differences between direct and indirect estimates of under-five mortality rates, analyze data quality issues, note the relative effects of these issues, and test whether these issues explain the observed differences. I find that indirect estimates are generally consistent with direct estimates, after adjustment for fertility change and birth transference, but don't add substantial additional insight beyond direct estimates. However, choice of direct or indirect method was found to be important in terms of both the adjustment for data errors and the assumptions made about fertility.Although adjusted indirect estimates are generally consistent with adjusted direct estimates, some notable inconsistencies were observed for countries that had experienced either a political or economic crisis or stalled health transition in their recent past. This result suggests that when a population has experienced a smooth mortality decline or only short periods of excess mortality, both adjusted methods perform equally well. However, the observed inconsistencies identified suggest that the indirect method is particularly prone to bias resulting from violations of its strong assumptions about recent mortality

  10. Anti-müllerian hormone levels are associated with live birth rates in ART, but the predictive ability of anti-müllerian hormone is modest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alson, Sara S E; Bungum, Leif J; Giwercman, Aleksander; Henic, Emir

    2018-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) level and cumulative live birth rates (LBR) in patients undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle, and to compare serum AMH levels with Antral Follicle Count (AFC) and Ovarian Sensitivity Index (OSI) as predictors of live birth. A prospective cohort study of 454 patients under the age of 40 and with a regular menstrual cycle of 21-35 days, undergoing their first IVF treatment cycles between September 2010 and June 2015. Participants were divided into three groups based on their AMH level, (AMH ≤10, AMH 10-distribution between patients with or without live birth was analyzed using a Mann-Whitney-test, and live birth rates were compared between groups by a chi-squared test for linear trend. The ability of AMH, OSI and AFC as predictors of live birth was assessed by a receiver operating characteristics-analysis and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Patients with live birth had a higher AMH, median (range) 26 [0-137] pmol/l, compared with patients without live birth, AMH 22 [0-154] pmol/l, p = 0.035. Mean live birth rate (SD) was 0.36 (0.48) in the total cohort, 0.26 (0.44) in AMH-group birth rates increased with 8% per AMH-group (95% CI: 0.02 -0.14, p = 0.015). The AUC for AFC was 0.56, for AMH 0.57 and for OSI 0.63, respectively. AMH concentration in serum is associated with live birth rates after IVF. Our results suggest that both AMH, AFC and OSI have an equal but modest predictive ability in relation to live birth rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Delivery by Cesarean Section is not Associated With Decreased at-Birth Fracture Rates in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellur, S; Jain, M; Cuthbertson, D; Krakow, D; Shapiro, JR; Steiner, RD; Smith, PA; Bober, MB; Hart, T; Krischer, J; Mullins, M; Byers, PH; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, FH; Rauch, F; Sutton, VR; Lee, B; Nagamani, SC

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes to recurrent fractures. The moderate-to-severe forms of OI present with antenatal fractures and the mode of delivery that would be safest for the fetus is not known. Methods We conducted systematic analyses on the largest cohort of individuals (n=540) with OI enrolled to-date in the OI Linked Clinical Research Centers. Self-reported at-birth fracture rates were compared in individuals with OI types I, III, and IV. Multivariate analyses utilizing backward-elimination logistic regression model building were performed to assess the effect of multiple covariates including method of delivery on fracture-related outcomes. Results When accounting for other covariates, at-birth fracture rates did not differ based on whether delivery was by vaginal route or by cesarean section (CS). Increased birth weight conferred higher risk for fractures irrespective of the delivery method. In utero fracture, maternal history of OI, and breech presentation were strong predictors for choosing CS for delivery. Conclusion Our study, the largest to analyze the effect of various factors on at-birth fracture rates in OI shows that delivery by CS is not associated with decreased fracture rate. With the limitation that the fracture data were self-reported in this cohort, these results suggest that CS should be performed only for other maternal or fetal indications, but not for the sole purpose of fracture prevention in OI. PMID:26426884

  12. Recent changes in the trends of teen birth rates, 1981-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Phyllis A; Smith, Ruben A; Tevendale, Heather D; Ferré, Cynthia

    2011-03-01

    To explore trends in teen birth rates by selected demographics. We used birth certificate data and joinpoint regression to examine trends in teen birth rates by age (10-14, 15-17, and 18-19 years) and race during 1981-2006 and by age and Hispanic origin during 1990-2006. Joinpoint analysis describes changing trends over successive segments of time and uses annual percentage change (APC) to express the amount of increase or decrease within each segment. For teens younger than 18 years, the decline in birth rates began in 1994 and ended in 2003 (APC: -8.03% per year for ages 10-14 years; APC: -5.63% per year for ages 15-17 years). The downward trend for 18- and 19-year-old teens began earlier (1991) and ended 1 year later (2004) (APC: -2.37% per year). For each study population, the trend was approximately level during the most recent time segment, except for continuing declines for 18- and 19-year-old white and Asian/Pacific Islander teens. The only increasing trend in the most recent time segment was for 18- and 19-year-old Hispanic teens. During these declines, the age distribution of teens who gave birth shifted to slightly older ages, and the percentage whose current birth was at least their second birth decreased. Teen birth rates were generally level during 2003/2004-2006 after the long-term declines. Rates increased among older Hispanic teens. These results indicate a need for renewed attention to effective teen pregnancy prevention programs in specific populations. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Parity Specific Birth Rates for West Germany: An Attempt to Combine Survey Data and Vital Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we combine vital statistics and survey data to obtain parity specific birth rates for West Germany. Since vital statistics do not provide birth parity information, one is confined to using estimates. The robustness of these estimates is an issue, which is unfortunately only rarely addressed when fertility indicators for (West) Germany are reported. In order to check how reliable our results are, we estimate confidence intervals and compare them to results from survey data and e...

  14. Low birthweight and preterm birth rates 1 year before and after the Irish workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Z; Clarke, V; Conroy, R; McNamee, E; Daly, S; Clancy, L

    2009-12-01

    It is well-established that maternal smoking has adverse birth outcomes (low birthweight, LBW, and preterm births). The comprehensive Irish workplace smoking ban was successfully introduced in March 2004. We examined LBW and preterm birth rates 1 year before and after the workplace smoking ban in Dublin. A cross-sectional observational study analysing routinely collected data using the Euroking K2 maternity system. Coombe University Maternal Hospital. Only singleton live births were included for analyses (7593 and 7648, in 2003 and 2005, respectively). Detailed gestational and clinical characteristics were collected and analysed using multivariable logistic regression analyses and subgroup analyses. Maternal smoking rates, mean birthweights, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of LBW and preterm births in 2005 versus 2003. There was a 25% decreased risk of preterm births (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59-0.96), a 43% increased risk of LBW (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.10-1.85), and a 12% fall in maternal smoking rates (from 23.4 to 20.6%) in 2005 relative to 2003. Such patterns were significantly maintained when specific subgroups were also analysed. Mean birthweights decreased in 2005, but were not significant (P=0.99). There was a marginal increase in smoking cessation before pregnancy in 2005 (P=0.047). Significant declines in preterm births and in maternal smoking rates after the smoking ban are welcome signs. However, the increased LBW birth risks might reflect a secular trend, as observed in many industrialised nations, and merits further investigations.

  15. Birth Rates of Ethnic Groups in Croatia from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pavić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to an ethnic group can affect both socio-economic status and birth-rate (fertility of the individual. Thus women of minority ethnic groups usually have a relatively high birth-rate, and they are more often single mothers, have lower education and generally lower socio-economic status. Although numerous international researches confirmed the differences in birth rates between ethnic groups, the relationship between ethnicity and birth rates has almost not been investigated in Croatia. This research analyzed the fertility rates of ethnic groups in the Republic of Croatia as well as the relationship between mother's ethnicity and socio-economic variables: age at birth, education, economic activity, nuptiality and birth order. The birth data from DEM-1 forms were used for years 1998 to 2008 as well as the data from the 2001 Census. The links between the mother’s ethnicity and all of the socio-economic variables was established although the magnitude of this correlation was small. Also, there were significant differences in the fertility rates of ethnic groups. The women of Albanian, Bosniak, Romani and other ethnicities, and to some degree Serbian women as well, had lower socio-economic status while the Romani and Albanian women had high fertility. However, it is not possible to establish a clear relationship between ethnicity and fertility owing to methodological difficulties and the way of keeping vital statistics. The inclusion of the variable ethnicity and the presentation of socio-economic variables according to mother’s ethnicity in the official statistical publications would facilitate future research and enable to create a more efficient demographic and social policy.

  16. Preconceptional antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, but not thyroid-stimulating hormone, are associated with decreased live birth rates in infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seungdamrong, Aimee; Steiner, Anne Z; Gracia, Clarisa R; Legro, Richard S; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Schlaff, William D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Robinson, Randal D; Huang, Hao; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Jin, Susan; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-10-25

    To study whether preconceptual thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies are associated with poor reproductive outcomes in infertile women. Secondary analysis of data from two multicenter, randomized, controlled trials conducted by the Reproductive Medicine Network of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between preconceptual TSH levels and anti-TPO antibodies. Not applicable. Serum samples from 1,468 infertile women were utilized. None. Cumulative conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates were calculated. Conception, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live birth rates did not differ between patients with TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L vs. TSH < 2.5 mIU/L. Women with anti-TPO antibodies had similar conception rates (33.3% vs. 36.3%) but higher miscarriage rates (43.9% vs. 25.3%) and lower live birth rates (17.1% vs. 25.4%) than those without anti-TPO antibodies. Adjusted, multivariable logistic regression models confirmed elevated odds of miscarriage (odds ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.22) and lower odds of live birth (oddr ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.96) in patients with anti-TPO antibodies. In infertile women, preconceptional TSH ≥2.5 mIU/L is not associated with adverse reproductive outcomes; however, anti-TPO antibodies are associated with increased risk of miscarriage and decreased probability of live birth. PPCOS II NCT00719186; AMIGOS NCT01044862. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. HIGHER PARENTAL PERCEPTIONS OF WEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTH OF MORE SONS IN AN AUSTRALIAN POPULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, A M; O'Donnell, M H

    2017-09-20

    Many industrialized nations are currently experiencing a decline in average secondary sex ratio (SSR) resulting in fewer boys being born relative to girls. While many potential factors may explain the decline in the birth of males relative to females, it seems most studies support the idea that male offspring are produced less often when environmental conditions are poor owing to males being more susceptible to loss in harsh environments. This study investigates the maternal factors that are associated with the sex of offspring in a cohort of the Australian population. It found that greater parental perceptions of wealth were significantly associated with an increase in the number of sons produced. These results suggest that male offspring are born at increased numbers to women with higher available resources, which may reflect the fact that male offspring are more vulnerable in poor environments.

  18. Live-Birth Rate Associated With Repeat In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D A C; Tilling, Kate; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    The likelihood of achieving a live birth with repeat in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to 3 or 4 embryo transfers. To determine the live-birth rate per initiated ovarian stimulation IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed up until June 2012. In vitro fertilization, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted, and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30%, and 100%, respectively, of women who discontinued due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of 0 had they continued. Among the 156,947 women, the median age at start of treatment was 35 years (interquartile range, 32-38; range, 18-55), and the median duration of infertility for all 257,398 cycles was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-6; range, cycle was 29.5% (95% CI, 29.3%-29.7%). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth cycle, with 65.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-65.8%) of women achieving a live birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 years using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (95% CI, 32.0%-32.5%) and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (95% CI, 67.8%-68.9%). For women aged 40 to 42 years, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.8%), with 6 cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (95% CI, 29.7%-33.3%). For women older than 42 years, all rates within each cycle

  19. Anomalous dependence of population growth on the birth rate in the plant-herbivore system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xue M.; Han, Seung K.; Chung, Jean S.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a simulation of the two-species plant-herbivore system by using the agent-based NetLogo program and constructed a dynamic model of populations consistent with the simulation results. The dynamic model is a three-dimensional system including the mean energy of the herbivore in addition to two variables denoting the populations of plants and herbivores. A steady-state analysis of the dynamic model shows that the dependence of the herbivore population on the birth and the death rates observed from the agent model is consistent with the prediction of the dynamic model. Especially, the anomalous dependence of the herbivore population on the birth rate, where the population decreases with the birth rate for small death rate, is consistently explained by a phase plane analysis of the dynamic model.

  20. Trends in birth weight-specific and -adjusted infant mortality rates in Taiwan between 2004 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2018-06-01

    A yearly increase in the proportion of very low birth weight (VLBW) live births has resulted in the slowdown of decreasing trends in crude infant mortality rates (IMRs). In this study, we examined the trends in birth weight-specific as well as birth weight-adjusted IMRs in Taiwan. We linked three nationwide datasets, namely the National Birth Reporting Database, National Birth Certification Registry, and National Death Certification Registry databases, to calculate the IMRs according to the birth weight category. Trend tests and mortality rate ratios in the periods 2010-2011 and 2004-2005 were used to examine the extent of reduction in birth weight-specific and birth weight-adjusted IMRs. The proportion of VLBW (births increased from 0.78% in 2004-2005 to 0.89% in 2010-2011, thus exhibiting a 15% increase. The extents of the decreases in birth weight-specific IMRs in the 500-999, 1000-1499, 1500-1999, 2000-2499, and 2500-2999 g birth weight categories were 15%, 33%, 43%, 30%, and 28%, respectively, from 2004-2005 to 2010-2011. The reduction in IMR in each birth weight category was larger than the reduction in the crude IMR (13%). By contrast, the IMR in the birth weight category exhibited a 56% increase during the study period. The IMRs were calculated by excluding all live births with a birth weight of birth weight-adjusted IMRs, which were calculated using a standard birth weight distribution structure for adjustment, exhibited similar extent reductions. In countries with an increasing proportion of VLBW live births, birth weight-specific or -adjusted IMRs are more appropriate than other indices for accurately assessing the real extent of reduction in IMRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. FABGEN, a transient power-generation and isotope birth rate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, H.C.

    1975-04-01

    A description is given of the FABGEN program, a fast-running program for calculating fuel element power-generation rates and selected fission product birth rates in a known neutron flux as functions of time. A first forward difference calculation is used, and the time step is one day. Provisions are made for including various fuel element lengths, variation of thermal flux with time, and use of different fertile isotopes. Five different fission products may be specified for birth-rate calculations. A daily summary may be output, or totals by days may be accumulated for final output. (U.S.)

  2. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A Kushnir

    Full Text Available Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations.We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles, as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles.During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7% involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P 44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater.Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women.Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  3. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Albertini, David F; Darmon, Sarah K; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women women >44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  4. Rich or poor: Who should pay higher tax rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo

    2017-08-01

    A dynamic agent model is introduced with an annual random wealth multiplicative process followed by taxes paid according to a linear wealth-dependent tax rate. If poor agents pay higher tax rates than rich agents, eventually all wealth becomes concentrated in the hands of a single agent. By contrast, if poor agents are subject to lower tax rates, the economic collective process continues forever.

  5. Fertility and Birth Rates: Indicators of Child and Youth Well-Being. Updated. October 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Tracking trends in fertility and birth rates is essential in planning for the current and future needs of multiple generations. Sustained high fertility rates lead to disproportionately large populations of young dependents, driving demand for supports for young families, for additional schools, and for affordable child care. For example, during…

  6. Family planning, population policy and declining birth rates in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacic, J

    1989-01-01

    Although Yugoslavia has below-replacement fertility (a net reproduction rate in 1986 of 0.92), there are vast regional differentials. In the less developed autonomous province of Kosovo, for example, the population has doubled in the past 30 years. By region, the net reproduction rate ranges from a low of 0.83 in Croatia to a high of 1.80 in Kosovo. Until the late 1970s, when pronatalism and centralized economic planning had weakened in influence, there was an avoidance of demographic planning and policy. In 1975, the Federal Assembly issued a document on the country's demographic patterns and goals and called on republics and autonomous provinces to adapt the document to local situations--a step that was not taken. By the 1980s, the deteriorating political, economic, and demographic situation in regions with high fertility forced more explicit attention to the formulation of a national population policy. The 1989 Resolution on Population Development Policy and Family Planning sets the goal of replacement- level fertility for both high and low fertility regions and calls for an integrated approach to population issues and socioeconomic development. Decentralization, however, has represented a major obstacle to the execution of federal policy at the republic and lower local levels. While this is a chronic problem that must be addressed on the macro level, some progress could be achieved in problematic regions such as Kosovo through educational campaigns aimed at convincing individual couples of the advantages of family size of 2-3 children.

  7. Fluid queues driven by a birth and death process with alternating flow rates

    OpenAIRE

    P. R. Parthasarathy; K. V. Vijayashree; R. B. Lenin

    2004-01-01

    Fluid queue driven by a birth and death process (BDP) with only one negative effective input rate has been considered in the literature. As an alternative, here we consider a fluid queue in which the input is characterized by a BDP with alternating positive and negative flow rates on a finite state space. Also, the BDP has two alternating arrival rates and two alternating service rates. Explicit expression for the distribution function of the buffer occupancy is obtained. The case where the s...

  8. Perinatal Risks in "Late Motherhood" Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate - an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, V; Voigt, M; Schild, R L; Hesse, V; Carstensen, M; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: "Late motherhood" is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what "late motherhood" associated with "high risk" is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998-2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of "late" mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with "control" groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the "control" group included women aged 22-26 (27-31; 29-33) years. Women in the "late motherhood" group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The "late motherhood" groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the "control" group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the "control" group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of "late" mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: "Late motherhood" that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate.

  9. Perinatal Risks in “Late Motherhood” Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate – an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, V.; Voigt, M.; Schild, R. L.; Hesse, V.; Carstensen, M.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Straube, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: “Late motherhood” is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what “late motherhood” associated with “high risk” is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998–2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of “late” mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with “control” groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the “control” group included women aged 22–26 (27–31; 29–33) years. Women in the “late motherhood” group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The “late motherhood” groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the “control” group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the “late motherhood” group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the “control” group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the “late motherhood” group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of “late” mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: “Late motherhood” that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate. PMID:25253904

  10. Variations in teenage birth rates, 1991-98: national and state trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Curtin, S C; Mathews, T J

    2000-04-24

    This report presents national birth rates for teenagers for 1991-98 and the percent change, 1991-98. State-specific teenage birth rates by age, race, and Hispanic origin for 1991 and 1998 and the percent change, 1991 to 1998, are also presented. Tabular and graphical descriptions of the trends in teenage birth rates for the Nation and each State, by age group, race, and Hispanic origin of the mother, are discussed. Birth rates for teenagers 15-19 years declined nationally between 1991 and 1998 for all age and race and Hispanic origin populations, with the steepest declines recorded for black teenagers. State-specific rates fell significantly in all States for ages 15-19 years; declines ranged from 10 to 38 percent. In general, rates by State fell more for younger than for older teenagers, ranging by State from 10 to 46 percent for ages 15-17 years. Statistically significant reductions for older teenagers ranged from 3 to 39 percent. Reductions by State were largest for black teenagers 15-19 years, with rates falling 30 percent or more in 15 States. Among the factors accounting for these declines are decreased sexual activity, increases in condom use, and the adoption of the implant and injectable contraceptives.

  11. Empowering surgical nurses improves compliance rates for antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, Zvi; Kama, Naama; Mamet, Yaakov; Glick, Joseph; Dusseldorp, Natan; Froom, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Empowering surgical nurses improves compliance rates for antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean birth. This paper is a report of a study of the effect of empowering surgical nurses to ensure that patients receive antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean birth. Despite the consensus that single dose antibiotic prophylaxis is beneficial for women have either elective or non-elective caesarean delivery, hospitals need methods to increase compliance rates. In a study in Israel in 2007 surgical nurses were empowered to ensure that a single dose of cefazolin was given to the mother after cord clamping. A computerized system was used to identify women having caesarean births, cultures sent and culture results. Compliance was determined by chart review. Rates of compliance, suspected wound infections, and confirmed wound infections in 2007 were compared to rates in 2006 before the policy change. Relative risks were calculated dividing 2007 rates by those in 2006, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Taylor's series that does not assume a normal distribution. Statistical significance was assessed using the chi-square test. The compliance rate was increased from 25% in 2006 to 100% in 2007 (chi-square test, P rates decreased from 16.8% (186/1104) to 12.6% (137/1089) after the intervention (relative risk 0.75, 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.92). Surgical nurses can ensure universal compliance for antibiotic prophylaxis in women after caesarean birth, leading to a reduction in wound infections.

  12. Nonlinear fluctuation-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkonen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for the one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov's ecological model and Lanchester's model of modern warfare

  13. Nonlinear fluctuations-induced rate equations for linear birth-death processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Fock-space approach to the solution of master equations for one-step Markov processes is reconsidered. It is shown that in birth-death processes with an absorbing state at the bottom of the occupation-number spectrum and occupation-number independent annihilation probability of occupation-number fluctuations give rise to rate equations drastically different from the polynomial form typical of birth-death processes. The fluctuation-induced rate equations with the characteristic exponential terms are derived for Mikhailov’s ecological model and Lanchester’s model of modern warfare.

  14. The birth rate of hypospadias in the Turku area in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Kaleva, M; Haavisto, A M

    2001-01-01

    Reports based on national registers of congenital malformations have suggested that the birth rate of hypospadias has increased during the last few decades. Register-based information may, however, have pitfalls because of changes in diagnostics, reporting accuracy and registration system. The aim...... and surgically treated for hypospadias by the age of 8 years. No difference was found either from malformation register-based data concerning the nationwide birth rate of hypospadias during the years 1993 to 1998. Due to differences in national registration systems between countries, prospective studies...

  15. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages...

  16. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust

    2013-10-01

    We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n = 1 674 308) and Quebec (n = 2 291 253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20 to 29 years, whereas rates decreased or remained stable in women aged 35 years and older. The overall increase over time was driven by age-specific PTB rates, although the contribution of younger women was countered by fewer births at this age in both Denmark and Quebec. PTB rates increased among women aged 20 to 29 years, but their contribution to the overall PTB rates was offset by older maternal age over time. Women aged 20 to 29 years should be targeted to reduce PTB rates, as potential for prevention may be greater in this age group.

  17. The ex-pat effect: presence of recent Western immigrants is associated with changes in age at first birth and birth rate in a Maya population from rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Luseadra; Collard, Mark; Altman, Rachel; Richards, Michael; Nepomnaschy, Pablo

    2017-08-01

    Economic transitions expose indigenous populations to a variety of ecological and cultural challenges, especially regarding diet and stress. These kinds of challenges are predicted by evolutionary ecological theory to have fitness consequences (differential reproduction) and, indeed, are often associated with changes in fertility dynamics. It is currently unclear whether international immigration might impact the nature of such an economic transition or its consequences for fertility. To examine measures of fertility, diet and stress in two economically transitioning Maya villages in Guatemala that have been differentially exposed to immigration by Westerners. This study compared Maya women's ages at first birth and birth rates between villages and investigated whether these fertility indicators changed through time. It also explored whether the villages differed in relation to diet and/or a proxy of stress. It was found that, in the village directly impacted by immigration, first births occurred earlier, but birth rate was slower. In both villages, over the sampled time window, age at first birth increased, while birth rate decreased. The villages do not differ significantly in dietary indicators, but the immigration-affected village scored higher on the stress proxy. Immigration can affect fertility in host communities. This relationship between immigration and fertility dynamics may be partly attributable to stress, but this possibility should be evaluated prospectively in future research.

  18. Rates of interventions in labor and birth across Canada: findings of the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Beverley; Kaczorowski, Janusz; O'Brien, Beverley; Royle, Cathie

    2012-09-01

    Rates of interventions in labor and birth should be similar across a country if evidence-based practice guidelines are followed. This assumption is tested by comparison of some practices across the 13 provinces and territories of Canada. The objective of this study was to describe the wide provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine interventions and practices during labor and birth as reported by women in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. A sample of 8,244 eligible women was identified from a randomly selected sample of recently born infants drawn from the May 2006 Canadian Census. The sample was stratified by province and territory. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with participating birth mothers by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews took an average of 45 minutes and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (9-14 mo in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78%). Provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine intervention used during labor and birth are reported. The percentage range of mothers' experience of induction (range 30.9%), epidural (53.7%), continuous electronic fetal monitoring (37.9%), and medication-free pain management during labor (40.7%) are provided, in addition to the use of episiotomy (14.1%) or "stitches" (48.3%), being in a "flat lying position" (42.2%), and having their legs in stirrups for birth (35.7%). Wide variations in the use of most of the interventions were found, ranging from 14.1 percent to 53.7 percent. Rates of intervention in labor and birth showed considerable variation across Canada, suggesting that usage is not always evidence based but may be influenced by a variety of other factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  20. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. METHODS: We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n = 1 674 308) and Quebec (n...... = 2 291 253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. RESULTS: PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20...... to 29 years, whereas rates decreased or remained stable in women aged 35 years and older. The overall increase over time was driven by age-specific PTB rates, although the contribution of younger women was countered by fewer births at this age in both Denmark and Quebec. CONCLUSIONS: PTB rates increased...

  1. Permanence for a Delayed Nonautonomous SIR Epidemic Model with Density-Dependent Birth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yingke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on some well-known SIR models, a revised nonautonomous SIR epidemic model with distributed delay and density-dependent birth rate was considered. Applying some classical analysis techniques for ordinary differential equations and the method proposed by Wang (2002, the threshold value for the permanence and extinction of the model was obtained.

  2. Clinic access and teenage birth rates: Racial/ethnic and spatial disparities in Houston, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Megan M; O'Connell, Heather A

    2018-03-01

    Teenage motherhood is a pressing issue in the United States, and one that is disproportionately affecting racial/ethnic minorities. In this research, we examine the relationship between the distance to the nearest reproductive health clinic and teenage birth rates across all zip codes in Houston, Texas. Our primary data come from the Texas Department of State Health Services. We use spatial regression analysis techniques to examine the link between clinic proximity and local teenage birth rates for all females aged 15 to 19, and separately by maternal race/ethnicity. We find, overall, limited support for a connection between clinic distance and local teenage birth rates. However, clinics seem to matter most for explaining non-Hispanic white teenage birth rates, particularly in high-poverty zip codes. The racial/ethnic and economic variation in the importance of clinic distance suggests tailoring clinic outreach to more effectively serve a wider range of teenage populations. We argue social accessibility should be considered in addition to geographic accessibility in order for clinics to help prevent teenage pregnancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang-sun

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, a...

  4. Linking high parity and maternal and child mortality: what is the impact of lower health services coverage among higher order births?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveldt, Emily; DeCormier Plosky, Willyanne; Stover, John

    2013-01-01

    A number of data sets show that high parity births are associated with higher child mortality than low parity births. The reasons for this relationship are not clear. In this paper we investigate whether high parity is associated with lower coverage of key health interventions that might lead to increased mortality. We used DHS data from 10 high fertility countries to examine the relationship between parity and coverage for 8 child health intervention and 9 maternal health interventions. We also used the LiST model to estimate the effect on maternal and child mortality of the lower coverage associated with high parity births. Our results show a significant relationship between coverage of maternal and child health services and birth order, even when controlling for poverty. The association between coverage and parity for maternal health interventions was more consistently significant across countries all countries, while for child health interventions there were fewer overall significant relationships and more variation both between and within countries. The differences in coverage between children of parity 3 and those of parity 6 are large enough to account for a 12% difference in the under-five mortality rate and a 22% difference in maternal mortality ratio in the countries studied. This study shows that coverage of key health interventions is lower for high parity children and the pattern is consistent across countries. This could be a partial explanation for the higher mortality rates associated with high parity. Actions to address this gap could help reduce the higher mortality experienced by high parity birth.

  5. Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M.; Hamilton, Brady E.; He, Yulei; Wei, Rong; Dienes, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time interaction models to produce smoothed estimates of teen birth rates at the county level from 2003–2012. Results indicate that teen birth rates show evidence of clustering, where hot and cold spots occur, and identify spatial outliers. Findings from this analysis may help inform efforts targeting the prevention efforts by illustrating how geographic patterns of teen birth rates have changed over the past decade and where clusters of high or low teen birth rates are evident. PMID:28552189

  6. Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M; Hamilton, Brady E; He, Yulei; Wei, Rong; Dienes, Erin

    2017-06-01

    Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time interaction models to produce smoothed estimates of teen birth rates at the county level from 2003-2012. Results indicate that teen birth rates show evidence of clustering, where hot and cold spots occur, and identify spatial outliers. Findings from this analysis may help inform efforts targeting the prevention efforts by illustrating how geographic patterns of teen birth rates have changed over the past decade and where clusters of high or low teen birth rates are evident. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Estimating diversification rates for higher taxa: BAMM can give problematic estimates of rates and rate shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Wiens, John J

    2018-01-01

    Estimates of diversification rates are invaluable for many macroevolutionary studies. Recently, an approach called BAMM (Bayesian Analysis of Macro-evolutionary Mixtures) has become widely used for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. At the same time, several articles have concluded that estimates of net diversification rates from the method-of-moments (MS) estimators are inaccurate. Yet, no studies have compared the ability of these two methods to accurately estimate clade diversification rates. Here, we use simulations to compare their performance. We found that BAMM yielded relatively weak relationships between true and estimated diversification rates. This occurred because BAMM underestimated the number of rates shifts across each tree, and assigned high rates to small clades with low rates. Errors in both speciation and extinction rates contributed to these errors, showing that using BAMM to estimate only speciation rates is also problematic. In contrast, the MS estimators (particularly using stem group ages), yielded stronger relationships between true and estimated diversification rates, by roughly twofold. Furthermore, the MS approach remained relatively accurate when diversification rates were heterogeneous within clades, despite the widespread assumption that it requires constant rates within clades. Overall, we caution that BAMM may be problematic for estimating diversification rates and rate shifts. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Cumulative live-birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or isolated polycystic ovaries undergoing in-vitro fertilisation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-02-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the cumulative live birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. We studied 104 women with PCOS, 184 with PCO and 576 age-matched controls undergoing the first IVF treatment cycle between 2002 and 2009. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers combined after the same stimulation cycle. Women in both the PCOS (n = 104) and isolated PCO groups (n = 184) had higher ovarian response parameters compared to age-matched controls (n = 576), and higher rates of withholding fresh embryo transfer for risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The actual incidence of moderate to severe OHSS was significantly higher in the PCOS (11.5 %) but not the isolated PCO group (8.2%) compared to controls (4.9%). The live birth rates in the fresh cycle were comparable among the 3 groups, but the PCOS group had a significantly higher miscarriage rate compared to the other 2 groups. Cumulative live birth rate was significantly higher in the isolated PCO group (60.3%), but not the PCOS group (50.0%), compared to controls (47.5%). Women in the isolated PCO group, but not the PCOS group, had a significantly higher cumulative live birth rate compared to controls. This could be explained by the quantitative effect of the higher number of transferable embryos obtained per stimulation cycle, which is uncompromised by the unfavourable embryo competence otherwise observed in PCOS.

  9. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on semen quality, reproductive hormones and live birth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2018-01-01

    Context: Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Objective: Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. Design: A si...... of vitamin D supplementation on live birth rate and serum inhibin B in oligozoospermic and vitamin D deficient men may be of clinical importance and warrant verification by others. Trial ID: NCT01304927.......Context: Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Objective: Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. Design...... calcium daily for 150 days, while the other group received placebo. Results: Serum concentrations of 25-OHD and 1,25OH2D3 were significantly higher in men treated with vitamin D + calcium for 150 days compared with placebo. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with changes in semen parameters...

  11. Effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate: a systematic review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Néstor J; Uribe, Sergio; Martinez, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Preterm birth is a highly complex syndrome that includes distinct clinical subtypes in which many different causes may be involved. The results of epidemiological, molecular, microbiological and animal-model studies support a positive association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth. However, the results of intervention studies carried out to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the risk of preterm birth are controversial. This systematic review critically analyzes the methodological issues of meta-analyses of the studies to determine the effect of periodontal treatment to reduce preterm birth. The quality of the individual randomized clinical trials selected is of highest relevance for a systematic review. This article describes the methodological features that should be identified a priori and assessed individually to determine the quality of a randomized controlled trial performed to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on pregnancy outcomes. The AMSTAR and the PRISMA checklist tools were used to assess the quality of the six meta-analyses selected, and the bias domain of the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool was applied to evaluate each of the trials included in the meta-analyses. In addition, the methodological characteristics of each clinical trial were assessed. The majority of the trials included in the meta-analyses have significant methodological flaws that threaten their internal validity. The lack of effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate concluded by four meta-analyses, and the positive effect of treatment for reducing preterm birth risk concluded by the remaining two meta-analyses are not based on consistent scientific evidence. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials using rigorous methodology, including appropriate definition of the exposure, adequate control of confounders for

  12. Are low Danish fertility rates explained by changes in timing of births?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Gerster, Mette; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The most commonly used indicator of fertility, the period total fertility rate (TFR(p)), tends to underestimate actual fertility when women delay childbearing. The objective of this study was to examine to which extent fluctuations in Danish fertility rates result from changes in timing...... from the Danish Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset, 1980-2001. We evaluated fluctuations in period fertility rates by the tempo-adjusted TFR(') - a proposed variant of the conventional TFR(p) taking period changes in timing of births into account. Tempo-effects were given by the difference between...... of births and, thus, whether the conventional TFR(p) is a distorted indicator of fertility quantum. In addition, we investigated whether such changes in timing explained the observed regional differences in the TFR(p) in Denmark. METHODS: The study applied age-, period-, county-, and parity-specific data...

  13. Scaling in Rate-Changeable Birth and Death Processes with Random Removals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianhong; Lin Zhenquan; Chen Xiaoshuang

    2009-01-01

    We propose a monomer birth-death model with random removals, in which an aggregate of size k can produce a new monomer at a time-dependent rate I(t)k or lose one monomer at a rate J(t)k, and with a probability P (t) an aggregate of any size is randomly removed. We then analytically investigate the kinetic evolution of the model by means of the rate equation. The results show that the scaling behavior of the aggregate size distribution is dependent crucially on the net birth rate I(t) - J(t) as well as the birth rate I(t). The aggregate size distribution can approach a standard or modified scaling form in some cases, but it may take a scale-free form in other cases. Moreover, the species can survive finally only if either I(t) - J(t) ≥ P (t) or [J(t) + P (t) - I(t)]t ≅ 0 at t >> 1; otherwise, it will become extinct.

  14. The Relationship between Resettlement and Birth Rates: The Case of Gambella, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Aynalem; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to examine the possible impacts of resettlement on birth rates by using the length of stay variable in the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Data in all three rounds of Gambella Administrative Region's Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are analyzed. The neighboring administrative region of Benishangul-Gumuz is used as a control. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is applied with duration of residence as a categorical independent variable. The statistical software SAS is used. In a univariate analysis of Gambella's DHS 2000, duration of residence has a significant effect on mothers' age at first birth (p Resettlement had a disruptive effect on birth rates among females who were just coming into marriageable ages in places of origin but were resettled to Gambella. Although the disruptive effects waned over time, the initial shortfall resulted in reduced overall lifetime births for settler women who were not past the midpoint of their reproductive years at arrival. Based on the reproductive history of female settlers with different duration of residence in the resettlement schemes, we recommend the reinstatement of the length of residence question in future DHS surveys in Ethiopia to allow a longitudinal tracking of demographic trends among nonnative populations.

  15. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  16. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. METHODS: A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies...... with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean...... and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. RESULTS: The change from use of second to first...

  17. Trends and Progress in Reducing Teen Birth Rates and the Persisting Challenge of Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Greer, Danielle M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Salm Ward, Trina C; Cisler, Ron A

    2017-08-01

    We examined progress made by the Milwaukee community toward achieving the Milwaukee Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative's aggressive 2008 goal of reducing the teen birth rate to 30 live births/1000 females aged 15-17 years by 2015. We further examined differential teen birth rates in disparate racial and ethnic groups. We analyzed teen birth count data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health system and demographic data from the US Census Bureau. We computed annual 2003-2014 teen birth rates for the city and four racial/ethnic groups within the city (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Hispanic/Latina, Asian non-Hispanic). To compare birth rates from before (2003-2008) and after (2009-2014) goal setting, we used a single-system design to employ two time series analysis approaches, celeration line, and three standard deviation (3SD) bands. Milwaukee's teen birth rate dropped 54 % from 54.3 in 2003 to 23.7 births/1000 females in 2014, surpassing the goal of 30 births/1000 females 3 years ahead of schedule. Rate reduction following goal setting was statistically significant, as five of the six post-goal data points were located below the celeration line and points for six consecutive years (2010-2014) fell below the 3SD band. All racial/ethnic groups demonstrated significant reductions through at least one of the two time series approaches. The gap between white and both black and Hispanic/Latina teens widened. Significant reduction has occurred in the overall teen birth rate of Milwaukee. Achieving an aggressive reduction in teen births highlights the importance of collaborative community partnerships in setting and tracking public health goals.

  18. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth rate figures in the 1960s, the populists’ views of the 1930s resurfaced in public discourse in the 1960s and 1970s and up to the present day. The concern about the increasing trend of single-child families in rural settlements as well as in urban areas appeared in the various works of Hungarian writers and journalists throughout the previous century. The present paper intends to focus on the intellectual background to the public debates on the population issue, outlining the accounts of the interwar ‘village explorers’ briefly, and the way they are related to the pre-Second World War populist movement. Finally the reappearance of the debates between populists and non-populists of the 1970s is discussed, a debate that is still continuing.

  19. Factors related to low birth rate among married women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Eun; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Roh, Eun Ha

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing low birth rate among married women using the National Survey data in Korea. We compared the different influences on women's first and subsequent childbirths. This study was a secondary analysis using the "National Survey on Fertility and Family Health and Welfare", which was a nationally representative survey conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. We analyzed the data of 3,482 married women (aged between 19 and 39 years) using SPSS 20.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and binary and ordinal logistic regression models. The factors influencing women's first childbirth included perceptions about the value of marriage and children and their education level. The factors influencing their subsequent childbirths included multifaceted variables of maternal age during the first childbirth, residential area, religion, monthly household income, perceptions about the value of marriage and children, and social media. It is necessary to improve women's awareness and positive perceptions about marriage and children in order to increase the birth rate in Korea. Moreover, consistently providing financial and political support for maternal and childcare concerns and using social media to foster more positive attitudes toward having children may enhance birth rates in the future.

  20. Enabling Higher Data Rates for Planetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Townes, S. A.; Lazio, J.; Bell, D. J.; Chahat, N. E.; Kovalik, J. M.; Kuperman, I.; Sauder, J.; Liebrecht, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    The data rate from deep space spacecraft has increased by more than 10 orders of magnitude since the first lunar missions in the 1960s. The demand for increased data rates has stemmed from the increasing sophistication of the science questions being addressed and the concomitant increase in the complexity of the missions themselves (from fly-by to orbit to land and rove). Projections for the next few decades suggest the demand for data rates for deep space missions will continue to increase by approximately one order of magnitude every decade, driven by these same factors. Achieving higher data rates requires a partnership between the spacecraft and the ground system. We describe a series of technology developments for flight telecommunications systems, both at radio frequency (RF) and optical, to enable spacecraft to transmit and receive larger data volumes. These technology developments include deployable high gain antennas for small spacecraft, re-programmable software-defined radios, and optical communication packages designed for CubeSat form factors. The intent is that these developments would provide enhancements in capability for both spacecraft-Earth and spacecraft-spacecraft telecommunications. We also describe the future planning for NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), which remains the prime conduit for data from all planetary science missions. Through a combination of new antennas and backends being installed over the next five years and incorporation of optical communications, the DSN aims to ensure that the historical improvements in data rates and volumes will continue for many decades. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  2. Population trends and live birth rates associated with common ART treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Georgina M; Wand, Handan; Macaldowie, Alan; Chapman, Michael G; Farquhar, Cynthia M; Bowman, Mark; Molloy, David; Ledger, William

    2016-11-01

    Have ART live birth rates improved in Australia over the last 12 years? There were striking improvements in per-cycle live birth rates observed for frozen/thaw embryo transfers, blastocyst transfer and single embryo transfer (SET), while live birth rates following ICSI were lower than IVF for non-male factor infertility in most years. ART and associated techniques have become the predominant treatment of infertility over the past 30 years in most developed countries. However, there are differences in ART laboratory and clinical practices, and success rates worldwide. Australia has one of the highest ART utilization rates and lowest multiple birth rates in the world, thus providing a unique setting to investigate the contribution of common ART strategies in an unrestricted population of patients to ART success rates. A retrospective cohort study of 585 065 ART treatment cycles performed in Australia between 2002 and 2013 using the Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Database (ANZARD). An unrestricted population of all women who underwent autologous ART treatment between 2002 and 2013. Visual descriptive analysis was used to assess the trends in ART procedures by the calendar years. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of a live birth for four common ART techniques were calculated after controlling for important confounders including female age, infertility diagnosis, stage of the embryo (blastocyst versus cleavage stage), type of embryo (fresh versus thawed), fertilization method (IVF versus ICSI) and number of embryos transferred (SET versus multiple embryos). The overall live birth rate per embryo transfer increased from 19.2% in 2002 to 23.3% in 2013 (21.9-24.3% for fresh embryo transfers and 14.6-23.3% for frozen/thaw embryo transfers). This occurred concurrently with an increase in SET from 29.7% to 78.9%, and an increase in the average age of women undergoing treatment from 35.0 to 35.9 years. Individuals who had a frozen/thaw embryo transfer cycle in 2002

  3. A 'nu' look at gravitational waves: the black hole birth rate from neutrinos combined with the merger rate from LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jonathan H.; Fairbairn, Malcolm, E-mail: jonathan.davis@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: malcolm.fairbairn@kcl.ac.uk [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-01

    We make projections for measuring the black hole birth rate from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) by future neutrino experiments, and constrain the black hole merger fraction ε, when combined with information on the black hole merger rate from gravitational wave experiments such as LIGO. The DSNB originates from neutrinos emitted by all the supernovae in the Universe, and is expected to be made up of two components: neutrinos from neutron-star-forming supernovae, and a sub-dominant component at higher energies from black-hole-forming 'unnovae'. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of simulated data of the DSNB in an experiment similar to Hyper-Kamiokande, focusing on this second component. Since all knowledge of the neutrino emission from unnovae comes from simulations of collapsing stars, we choose two sets of priors: one where the unnovae are well-understood and one where their neutrino emission is poorly known. By combining the black hole birth rate from the DSNB with projected measurements of the black hole merger rate from LIGO, we show that the fraction of black holes which lead to binary mergers observed today ε could be constrained to be within the range 2 ⋅ 10{sup −4} ≤ ε ≤ 3 ⋅ 10{sup −2} at 3 σ confidence, after ten years of running an experiment like Hyper-Kamiokande.

  4. A 'nu' look at gravitational waves: the black hole birth rate from neutrinos combined with the merger rate from LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Jonathan H.; Fairbairn, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    We make projections for measuring the black hole birth rate from the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) by future neutrino experiments, and constrain the black hole merger fraction ε, when combined with information on the black hole merger rate from gravitational wave experiments such as LIGO. The DSNB originates from neutrinos emitted by all the supernovae in the Universe, and is expected to be made up of two components: neutrinos from neutron-star-forming supernovae, and a sub-dominant component at higher energies from black-hole-forming 'unnovae'. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis of simulated data of the DSNB in an experiment similar to Hyper-Kamiokande, focusing on this second component. Since all knowledge of the neutrino emission from unnovae comes from simulations of collapsing stars, we choose two sets of priors: one where the unnovae are well-understood and one where their neutrino emission is poorly known. By combining the black hole birth rate from the DSNB with projected measurements of the black hole merger rate from LIGO, we show that the fraction of black holes which lead to binary mergers observed today ε could be constrained to be within the range 2 ⋅ 10 −4 ≤ ε ≤ 3 ⋅ 10 −2 at 3 σ confidence, after ten years of running an experiment like Hyper-Kamiokande.

  5. Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

  6. Rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos living in Florida: disparities by country/region of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P; Maddox, Lorene M

    2015-01-01

    HIV incidence in the USA is three times higher for Latinos than for non-Latino whites. Latinos differ in educational attainment, poverty, insurance coverage, and health-care access, factors that affect HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, and testing. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in demographics, risk factors, and rate of new HIV diagnoses by birth country/region among Latinos in Florida to guide the targeting of primary and secondary prevention programs. Using Florida HIV/AIDS surveillance data from 2007 to 2011 and the American Community Survey, we compared demographic and risk factors, and calculated annual and five-year age-adjusted rates of new HIV diagnoses for 5801 Latinos by birth country/region. Compared to US-born Latinos, those born in Cuba and South America were significantly more likely to report the HIV transmission mode of MSM; those born in the Dominican Republic (DR) heterosexual transmission; and those born in Puerto Rico injection drug use. Mexican- and Central American-born Latinos were more likely to be diagnosed with AIDS within a month of HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnoses among Latinos declined 33% from 2007 to 2011. HIV diagnoses over time decreased significantly for Latinos born in Mexico and increased nonsignificantly for those born in the DR. Although this study was limited to Latinos living in Florida, results suggest that tailoring HIV primary prevention and testing initiatives to specific Latino groups may be warranted.

  7. Hispanic Teen Pregnancy and Birth Rates: Looking Behind the Numbers. Child Trends Research Brief. Publication #2005-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…

  8. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  9. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  10. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [CHALLENGING THE OPTIMAL NUMBER OF RETRIEVED OOCYTES AND ITS IMPACT ON PREGNANCY AND LIVE BIRTH RATES IN IVF/ICSI CYCLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Idit; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Koifman, Mara; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-06-01

    Large numbers of retrieved oocytes are associated with higher chances of having cryopreservation of embryos. However, the process entailed exposes women to increased risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Furthermore, mild ovary stimulation protocols are more patient-friendly and with less adverse effects. Only limited reports exist on the significance of the number of retrieved oocytes achieved in a single stimulation cycle. To investigate the optimal number of retrieved oocytes to achieve pregnancy and live birth. This retrospective analysis included 1590 IVF cycles. Oocytes maturation, fertilization, cleavage, as well as pregnancy and live birth rates were analyzed according to the number of retrieved oocytes. Oocyte maturation, fertilization and cleavage rates were lower in cycles with more than 10 retrieved oocytes compared with other groups. Live birth rates were highest when the number of retrieved oocytes was 11-15. Retrieval of more than 15 oocytes was not associated with a significant increase in chances of conception and birth. The better oocyte quality with 10 or less oocytes retrieved could be the result of a possible interference with the natural selection, or the minimized exposure of growing follicles to the potentially negative effects of ovarian stimulation. Although the average number of available embryos was higher when more than 10 oocytes were retrieved, achievement of more than 15 oocytes did not improve IVF outcome in terms of pregnancy and delivery rates. Analysis of 1590 IVF cycles including the frozen-thawed transfers shows that the best outcomes were achieved with an optimal number of 11-15 oocytes.

  12. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ikuma

    Full Text Available Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first trial and 65-83% cumulatively. To date, however, there has been no cohort study comparing age and the number of previous miscarriages in matched patients undergoing or not undergoing PGD. Thus, we compared the live birth rate of patients with RPL associated with a translocation undergoing PGD with that of patients who chose natural conception.After genetic counseling, 52 patients who desired natural conception and 37 patients who chose PGD were matched for age and number of previous miscarriages and these comprised the subjects of our study. PGD was performed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The live birth rates on the first PGD trial and the first natural pregnancy after ascertainment of the carrier status were 37.8% and 53.8%, respectively (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.23. Cumulative live birth rates were 67.6% and 65.4%, respectively, in the groups undergoing and not undergoing PGD. The time required to become pregnancy was similar in both groups. PGD was found to reduce the miscarriage rate significantly. The prevalence of twin pregnancies was significantly higher in the PGD group. The cost of PGD was $7,956 U.S. per patient.While PGD significantly prevented further miscarriages, there was no difference in the live birth rate. Couples should be fully informed of the similarity in the live birth rate, the similarity in time to become pregnancy, the advantages of PGD, such as the reduction in the miscarriage rate, as well as

  13. Increasing Low Birth Weight Rates: Deliveries in a Tertiary Hospital in Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Telatar; Orhan Ünal; Abdülkadir Piçak; Lale Ger; Serdar Cömert; Cem Turan; Yasemin Akin

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Methods:Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth...

  14. Correlating multidimensional fetal heart rate variability analysis with acid-base balance at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, Martin G; Durosier, Lucien D; Xu, Yawen; Wang, Xiaogang; Gao, Xin; Stampalija, Tamara; Herry, Christophe; Seely, Andrew JE; Casati, Daniela; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Alfirevic, Zarko

    2014-01-01

    Fetal monitoring during labour currently fails to accurately detect acidemia. We developed a method to assess the multidimensional properties of fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) from trans-abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) during labour. We aimed to assess this novel bioinformatics approach for correlation between fHRV and neonatal pH or base excess (BE) at birth. We enrolled a prospective pilot cohort of uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at 38–42 weeks’ gestation in Milan, Italy, and Liverpool, UK. Fetal monitoring was performed by standard cardiotocography. Simultaneously, with fECG (high sampling frequency) was recorded. To ensure clinician blinding, fECG information was not displayed. Data from the last 60 min preceding onset of second-stage labour were analyzed using clinically validated continuous individualized multiorgan variability analysis (CIMVA) software in 5 min overlapping windows. CIMVA allows simultaneous calculation of 101 fHRV measures across five fHRV signal analysis domains. We validated our mathematical prediction model internally with 80:20 cross-validation split, comparing results to cord pH and BE at birth. The cohort consisted of 60 women with neonatal pH values at birth ranging from 7.44 to 6.99 and BE from −0.3 to −18.7 mmol L −1 . Our model predicted pH from 30 fHRV measures (R 2 = 0.90, P < 0.001) and BE from 21 fHRV measures (R 2 = 0.77, P < 0.001). Novel bioinformatics approach (CIMVA) applied to fHRV derived from trans-abdominal fECG during labor correlated well with acid-base balance at birth. Further refinement and validation in larger cohorts are needed. These new measurements of fHRV might offer a new opportunity to predict fetal acid-base balance at birth. (fast track communication)

  15. Cumulative live birth rates after IVF in patients with polycystic ovaries: phenotype matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Pareyn, Stéphanie; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Raimundo, José M; Anckaert, Ellen; Santos-Ribeiro, Samuel; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Tournaye, Herman; Blockeel, Christophe

    2018-05-07

    Do cumulative live birth rates (CLBR) vary among women with different polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) phenotypes who undergo IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment? In this retrospective cohort study, data from 567 patients undergoing an assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle between January 2010 and December 2015 were collected. Demographical traits, cycle characteristics and clinical and laboratory data were analysed. After conventional ovarian stimulation using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol, the median number of oocytes retrieved ranged between 11 and 13.5 and did not differ significantly among the studied groups. Live birth rate (LBR) after fresh embryo transfer and CLBR after transfer of all fresh and vitrified embryos were significantly lower in women with hyperandrogenic PCOS phenotypes A (LBR 16.7%, CLBR 25.8%) and C (LBR 18.5%, CLBR 27.8%) compared with women with normoandrogenic PCOS phenotype D (LBR 33.7%, CLBR 48%) (P-value for LBR 0.01 and 0.03, respectively; P-value for CLBR 0.002 and 0.01, respectively) and controls with a polycystic ovarian morphology (LBR 37.1%, CLBR 53.3%) (P-value for LBR 0.002 and 0.01, respectively; P-value for CLBR counselling and tailored approaches when treating PCOS patients with hyperandrogenism who require ART. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  17. Graduation Rates and the Higher Education Demographic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, B. Tom; Thomas, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In his 1918 orienting work, The Higher Learning in America, Veblen highlights two primary aims of the higher education institution: (a) scientific and scholarly inquiry, and (b) the instruction of students (Veblen, 1918). As of 2006, this overarching mission remained intact. In contemporary literature, a common measure of the efficacy of the…

  18. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions.

  19. ESTIMATING RETURN RATE OF HIGHER EDUCATION FUND IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenikhina V. A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Russian government pays great attention to the field of higher and postgraduate education. But in the Russian scientific literature there are gaps related to the effectiveness of the overall evaluation of the higher education sector. The article dwells upon the problem of interregional income spread of the Russian population. Empirical estimator of difference influence accounting for human capital accumulated in Russian regions on wage levels and maximum increase of total wage levels and population income for 2001-2011 is carried out. Higher education, exceeding the influence of accumulated volume of the main funds, has a great influence on income spread in Russian regions. Besides, increase of higher education fund in Russian regions contributes to the population’s wage increase and growth in income, but at the same time it decreases legal wages. Results of the study extend knowledge of the economics of education of the Russian Federation.

  20. Perinatal and maternal outcomes in planned home and obstetric unit births in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications: secondary analysis of the Birthplace national prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Townend, J; Rowe, R; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M; Linsell, L; Macfarlane, A; McCourt, C; Newburn, M; Marlow, N; Pasupathy, D; Redshaw, M; Sandall, J; Silverton, L; Hollowell, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore and compare perinatal and maternal outcomes in women at ‘higher risk’ of complications planning home versus obstetric unit (OU) birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting OUs and planned home births in England. Population 8180 ‘higher risk’ women in the Birthplace cohort. Methods We used Poisson regression to calculate relative risks adjusted for maternal characteristics. Sensitivity analyses explored possible effects of differences in risk between groups and alternative outcome measures. Main outcome measures Composite perinatal outcome measure encompassing ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (intrapartum stillbirth, early neonatal death, neonatal encephalopathy, meconium aspiration syndrome, brachial plexus injury, fractured humerus or clavicle) and neonatal admission within 48 hours for more than 48 hours. Two composite maternal outcome measures capturing intrapartum interventions/adverse maternal outcomes and straightforward birth. Results The risk of ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ or neonatal admission for more than 48 hours was lower in planned home births than planned OU births [adjusted relative risks (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.31–0.81]. Adjustment for clinical risk factors did not materially affect this finding. The direction of effect was reversed for the more restricted outcome measure ‘intrapartum related mortality and morbidity’ (RR adjusted for parity 1.92, 95% CI 0.97–3.80). Maternal interventions were lower in planned home births. Conclusions The babies of ‘higher risk’ women who plan birth in an OU appear more likely to be admitted to neonatal care than those whose mothers plan birth at home, but it is unclear if this reflects a real difference in morbidity. Rates of intrapartum related morbidity and mortality did not differ statistically significantly between settings at the 5% level but a larger study would be required to rule out a clinically important difference between

  1. Hot spots, cluster detection and spatial outlier analysis of teen birth rates in the U.S., 2003–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Diba; Rossen, Lauren M.; Hamilton, Brady E.; He, Yulei; Wei, Rong; Dienes, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Teen birth rates have evidenced a significant decline in the United States over the past few decades. Most of the states in the US have mirrored this national decline, though some reports have illustrated substantial variation in the magnitude of these decreases across the U.S. Importantly, geographic variation at the county level has largely not been explored. We used National Vital Statistics Births data and Hierarchical Bayesian space-time interaction models to produce smoothed estimates o...

  2. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  3. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  4. Emotional Competence and Drop-Out Rates in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the emotional competence of first year undergraduates enrolled on a high or low drop-out rate (HDR and LDR, respectively) course, at a newly established university within the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was…

  5. Day 4 good morula embryo transfer provided compatible live birth rate with day 5 blastocyst embryo in fresh IVF/ET cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryh-Sheng; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Huei

    2018-02-01

    Embryo transfers during cleavage stage (day 2 or day 3) and blastocyst stages (day 5 or day 6) are common in current daily practice in fresh IVF/ET cycles. Data regarding transferring day 4 embryos, morula/compact stage, is still restricted and the grading system is also inconsistent, as between IVF clinics. This study provided a new detailed classification system for morula/compact stage embryos and compared successes rates between day 4 and day 5 ET. This was a retrospective study. A review of medical records from January 1st, 2013, to December 31st 2015, performed for all conventional insemination and ICSI cycles with a GnRH-antagonist protocol at the Infertility Division of MacKay Memorial Hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. There were 427 cycles included in our study, 107 in study group (day 4 MET) and 320 in control group (day 5 BET). Pregnancy rates and live birth rate were compatible, as between morula embryo transfer (MET) and blastocyst embryo transfer (BET). The implantation rate (36.3% vs. 39.6%, respectively, p = 0.500), clinical pregnancy rate (49.5% vs. 51.9%, respectively, p = 0.737), and live birth rate (42.1% vs. 45.6%, respectively, p = 0.574) were statistically insignificant between groups. The term birth rate was statistically higher in the MET group than in the BET group (95.7% vs. 79.5%, respectively, p = 0.006). When the clinical outcomes between day 4 good MET and day 5 good BET were compared, the results were compatible. The implantation rate (48.8% vs. 41.1%, respectively, p = 0.335), clinical pregnancy rate (55.0% vs. 53.2%, respectively, p = 0.867), and live birth rate (47.5% vs. 47.1%, respectively, p = 1.000) showed no significant difference. The term birth rate was also higher in day 4 good MET group than in day 5 good BET group (100% vs. 78.3%, respectively, p = 0.025). In this study, we performed day 4 MET avoid BET on Sunday. The grading system we provided was more detailed for embryo selection and it was easier to

  6. Student Ratings of Instruction in Turkish Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Sert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The end-of-term student evaluations have a twofold purpose: to provide information for administrators to make personnel decisions, and to help instructors to improve the quality of their teaching. The aim of this study is to investigate the ‘utility’ of the Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI. To that end, the concerns of the administrators, instructors and students regarding the use of the SRI in formative and summative evaluations are questioned. This study also investigates possible variables associated with the SRI: 1 what are the differences in ratings among the below-average, average and the above-average students? and 2 what is the correlation between the students’ grades and ratings? The participants of the study consisted of 5 administrators, 17 instructors and 292 students from the faculty of education of a foundation university in Ankara. A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods was adopted. In the first phase, causal comparative and correlation research methods were implemented. In the second phase, qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the SRI among the below-average, average and above-average students. The correlation between the student grades and the SRI was significant at a low level. The SRI were reportedly utilised to make teaching more effective and to make decisions when employing part-time personnel only. The permanent personnel were not affected by the SRI. Suggestions have been put forward to verify the usefulness of SRI.

  7. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions : the MOSAIC birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A. C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    Objective: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. Design: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. Participants:

  8. Planned home compared with planned hospital births: Mode of delivery and Perinatal mortality rates, an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, J. (Jacoba); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To compare the mode of delivery between planned home versus planned hospital births and to determine if differences in intervention rates could be interpreted as over- or undertreatment. Methods: Intervention and perinatal mortality rates were obtained for 679,952 low-risk

  9. Fast maximum likelihood estimation of mutation rates using a birth-death process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaowei; Zhu, Hongxiao

    2015-02-07

    Since fluctuation analysis was first introduced by Luria and Delbrück in 1943, it has been widely used to make inference about spontaneous mutation rates in cultured cells. Under certain model assumptions, the probability distribution of the number of mutants that appear in a fluctuation experiment can be derived explicitly, which provides the basis of mutation rate estimation. It has been shown that, among various existing estimators, the maximum likelihood estimator usually demonstrates some desirable properties such as consistency and lower mean squared error. However, its application in real experimental data is often hindered by slow computation of likelihood due to the recursive form of the mutant-count distribution. We propose a fast maximum likelihood estimator of mutation rates, MLE-BD, based on a birth-death process model with non-differential growth assumption. Simulation studies demonstrate that, compared with the conventional maximum likelihood estimator derived from the Luria-Delbrück distribution, MLE-BD achieves substantial improvement on computational speed and is applicable to arbitrarily large number of mutants. In addition, it still retains good accuracy on point estimation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Use of ICSI in IVF cycles in women with tubal ligation does not improve pregnancy or live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstad, F W; Nangia, Ajay K; Luke, B; Stern, J E; Mak, W

    2016-12-01

    Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility. However, it is unknown whether couples with tubal ligation only diagnosis and therefore iatrogenic infertility could benefit from the use of ICSI during their ART cycles. Longitudinal cohort of nationally reported cycles in the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS) of ART cycles performed in the USA between 2004 and 2012. There was a total of 8102 first autologous fresh ART cycles from women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation only and no reported male factor in the SART database. Of these, 957 were canceled cycles and were excluded from the final analysis. The remaining cycles were categorized by the use of conventional IVF (IVF, n = 3956 cycles) or ICSI (n = 3189 cycles). The odds of fertilization, clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG) and LB were calculated by logistic regression modeling, and the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by adjusting for the confounders of year of treatment, maternal age, race and ethnicity, gravidity, number of oocytes retrieved, day of embryo transfer and number of embryos transferred. The main outcome measures of the study were odds of fertilization (2PN/total oocytes), clinical intrauterine gestation (CIG/cycle) and live birth (LB/cycle). The fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI versus IVF group (57.5% vs 49.1%); however, after adjustment this trend was no longer significant (AOR 1.14, 0.97-1.35). Interestingly, both odds of CIG (AOR 0.78, 0

  11. Associations between Birth Order and Personality Traits: Evidence from Self-Reports and Observer Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, Tyrone; Herbst, Jeffrey H.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1998-01-01

    Sulloway (1996) proposed that personality traits developed in childhood mediate the association of birth order with scientific radicalism. Birth-order effects on traits within the five-factor model of personality were examined in three studies. Self-reports on brief measures of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness in a national sample (N= 9664) were unrelated to birth order. Self-reports on the 30 facet scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) in an adult sample (N= 612) ...

  12. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  14. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Ho Jee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC: −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6 and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2. The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8 and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7 and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC: −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8. By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  15. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-05-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages. There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor. Individual-specific qualities come more to fruition if the starting position in life is better.

  16. Expensive Brains: “Brainy” Rodents have Higher Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrero, Raúl; May-Collado, Laura J.; Agnarsson, Ingi; Hernández, Cristián E.

    2011-01-01

    Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution of traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass (BM) varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006). Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR) correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species BM is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of BM for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of BM) and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur. PMID:21811456

  17. Exploration of preterm birth rates associated with different models of antenatal midwifery care in Scotland: Unmatched retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew; Winter, Clare; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-06-01

    preterm birth represents a significant personal, clinical, organisational and financial burden. Strategies to reduce the preterm birth rate have had limited success. Limited evidence indicates that certain antenatal care models may offer some protection, although the causal mechanism is not understood. We sought to compare preterm birth rates for mixed-risk pregnant women accessing antenatal care organised at a freestanding midwifery unit (FMU) and mixed-risk pregnant women attending an obstetric unit (OU) with related community-based antenatal care. unmatched retrospective 4-year Scottish cohort analysis (2008-2011) of mixed-risk pregnant women accessing (i) FMU antenatal care (n=1107); (ii) combined community-based and OU antenatal care (n=7567). Data were accessed via the Information and Statistics Division of the NHS in Scotland. Aggregates analysis and binary logistic regression were used to compare the cohorts׳ rates of preterm birth; and of spontaneous labour onset, use of pharmacological analgesia, unassisted vertex birth, and low birth weight. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, parity, deprivation score and smoking status in pregnancy. after adjustment the 'mixed risk' FMU cohort had a statistically significantly reduced risk of preterm birth (5.1% [n=57] versus 7.7% [n=583]; AOR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.98]; p=0.034). Differences in these secondary outcome measures were also statistically significant: spontaneous labour onset (FMU 83.9% versus OU 74.6%; AOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.46-2.08]; pbirth weight was not statistically significant after adjustment for other variables. There was no significant difference in the rate of perinatal or neonatal death. given this study׳s methodological limitations, we can only claim associations between the care model and or chosen outcomes. Although both cohorts were mixed risk, differences in risk levels could have contributed to these findings. Nevertheless, the significant difference in preterm birth rates in this study

  18. Live birth rates are satisfactory following multiple IVF treatment cycles in poor prognosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Kamarul B; Keane, Kevin N; Walz, Nikita L; Mitrovic, Katarina I; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Yovich, John L

    2017-03-01

    This seven-year retrospective study analysed the live birth rate (LBR) for women undergoing IVF treatment with various antral follicle counts (AFC). The LBR decreased with lower AFC ratings, and in 290 treatment cycles for women in the poorest AFC category, ≤4 follicles (group E), the LBR was the lowest at 10.7%. The pregnancy loss rate (PLR) significantly increased with poorer AFC categories, from 21.8% in AFC group A (≥20 follicles), to 54.4% in AFC group E (p<0.0001). This trend was repeated with advancing age, from 21.6% for younger women (<35years), to 32.9, 48.5 and 100% for ages 35-39, 40-44 and ≥45 years, respectively (p<0.0001). However, LBR within the specific AFC group E cohort was also age-dependent and decreased significantly from 30.0% for <35 years old, to 13.3, 3.9 and 0% for patients aged 35-39, 40-44 and ≥45 years, respectively. Most, importantly, LBR rates within these age groups were not dependent on the number of IVF attempts (1st, 2nd, 3rd or ≥4 cycles), which indicated that cycle number should not be the primary deciding factor for cessation of IVF treatment in responding women <45years old. Copyright © 2016 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    ; P = 0.02) and birth weight SD score (β = 0.06; P = 0.008) when adjusted for prepregnancy BMI, HbA1c at 36 weeks, smoking, parity, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Higher gestational weight gain in women with type 1 diabetes was associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of glycemic......OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at ... (prepregnancy BMI Women...

  20. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    . The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here......BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...

  1. An estimation of intrapartum-related perinatal mortality rates for booked home births in England and Wales between 1994 and 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R; Dougherty, M; Whittle, M

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain the best estimate of intrapartum-related perinatal mortality (IPPM) rates for booked home births. A population-based cross-sectional study. England and Wales. All births in England and Wales, including home births (intended or unintended) occurring between 1994 and 2003. All IPPM data were derived from the Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health. Denominators were derived by using unintended home births and transfer rates from home to hospital, from previous studies, with sensitivity analyses. IPPM rates were calculated for the three following subgroups: (a) the completed home birth group, (b) the transferred group and (c) the unintended home birth group. IPPM rate. The overall IPPM rate for England and Wales improved between 1994 and 2003. However, data to obtain a precise estimate of IPPM rate for booked home birth were not available. The average IPPM rate for all births in the study period was 0.79 per 1000 births (95% CI 0.77-0.81), and the estimated IPPM rate for booked home births was 1.28 or 0.74 per 1000 births, depending on the method of calculation (range 0.49-1.47). The IPPM rates for the completed home birth group appeared to be lower throughout the study period compared with the unintended home birth groups. Those women who had booked for a home birth, but later needed to transfer their care for a hospital birth, appeared to have the highest risk of IPPM in the study period. The results of this study need to be interpreted with caution due to inconsistencies occurring in the recorded data. However, the data do highlight two important features. First, they suggest that IPPM rates for home births do not appear to have improved over the study period examined, even though rates did so overall. Second, although the women who booked for home births and had their babies at home seemed to have a generally low IPPM rate, those who required their care to be transferred to hospital did not. Women who book for

  2. "Terrain Paper" on Demography and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    Major demographic trends and consequences for higher education are examined. The Baby Boom sharply increased birth rates from 1946 to 1964 and was followed by a decline in births that lasted from 1964 to 1978. Currently there is an increased birth rate, but of much smaller size than the Baby Boom rates, due largely to the smaller size of the…

  3. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  4. "How to have healthy children". Responses to the falling birth rate in Norway, c. 1900-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ida

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on initiatives to improve infant health, as they developed in Norway especially during the interwar period. Falling birth rates were felt as a menace to the survival of the nation and specific initiatives were taken to oppose it. But crises engendered by the reduction in fertility strengthened opportunities for introducing policies to help the fewer children born survive and grow up to become healthy citizens. Legislation supporting mothers started in 1892 increased in the interwar years including economic features. Healthy mother and baby stations and hygienic clinics, aimed at controlling births were developed by voluntary organisations inspired from France and England respectively. A sterilization law (1934) paralleled some German policies.

  5. Why is the teen birth rate in the United States so high and why does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality

  6. Europe-wide fertility trends since the 1990s: Turning the corner from declining first birth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Burkimsher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the period 1995-2002 there was a change in trajectory from decline to rise in first birth fertility rates across Europe. Objective: A number of previous studies have looked at the demographic causes of the transition. This study evaluates their conclusions by analysing a comprehensive set of indicators for fifteen countries with data in the Human Fertility Database. Methods: Comparisons are made between the four years before and after the fertility trough, to discover what changed between these two periods. Results: In the period before the trough, peak age-specific fertility rates were falling; these tended to stabilise after the year of minimum fertility. The width of the fertility curve, however, was already widening in the 1990s, and this trend continued. The transition from fall to rise in TFR1 occurred when the increase in the width of the curve more than compensated for any further falls in peak rates; this explanation is valid for countries in both Eastern and Western Europe. The increasing width of the fertility curve was caused by two factors: the decline in young (pre-modal fertility slowed, whilst the rise in older (post-modal fertility accelerated. For some countries, a rise in underlying cohort rates also contributed to the rise in period rates. The likelihood of childless women entering motherhood also rose in some but not all countries. Conclusions: During the 1990s, women were postponing first births across Europe. A rebound took place for several reasons, with the overarching driver being the strong rise in late fertility. Comments: In some countries the steep rise in late fertility had an unexpected and paradoxical effect on postponement rates (defined as the year-on-year increase in mean age at first birth. Recuperation at post-modal ages of postponed first births caused an acceleration in 'postponement' rates, as defined by this metric.

  7. Spatially varying predictors of teenage birth rates among counties in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Shoff

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Limited information is available about teenage pregnancy and childbearing in rural areas, even though approximately 20 percent of the nation's youth live in rural areas. Identifying whether there are differences in the teenage birth rate (TBR across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important because these differences may reflect modifiable ecological-level influences such as education, employment, laws, healthcare infrastructure, and policies that could potentially reduce the TBR. OBJECTIVE The goals of this study are to investigate whether there are spatially varying relationships between the TBR and the independent variables, and if so, whether these associations differ between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties. METHODS We explore the heterogeneity within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan county groups separately using geographically weighted regression (GWR, and investigate the difference between metropolitan/nonmetropolitan counties using spatial regime models with spatial errors. These analyses were applied to county-level data from the National Center for Health Statistics and the US Census Bureau. RESULTS GWR results suggested that non-stationarity exists in the associations between TBR and determinants within metropolitan/nonmetropolitan groups. The spatial regime analysis indicated that the effect of socioeconomic disadvantage on TBR significantly varied by the metropolitan status of counties. CONCLUSIONS While the spatially varying relationships between the TBR and independent variables were found within each metropolitan status of counties, only the magnitude of the impact of the socioeconomic disadvantage index is significantly stronger among metropolitan counties than nonmetropolitan counties. Our findings suggested that place-specific policies for the disadvantaged groups in a county could be implemented to reduce TBR in the US.

  8. Comparison of Obstetric Outcome in Terms of the Risk of Low Birth Weight, Preterm Delivery, Cesarean Section Rate and Anemia in Primigravid Adolescents and Older Primigravida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the obstetric outcome in terms of risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, cesarean section rate and anemia in primigravid adolescents and older primigravida. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Three hundred primigravid women presenting to department of obstetrics and gynecology of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, having live singleton pregnancy, including 150 adolescents (A/sup 2/ 19 years) and 150 adults (A/sup 3/ 20 years) were studied. Obstetric outcome in terms of gestational age at delivery, infant's birth weight, presence of anemia and cesarean section rate was compared between two groups. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Chi-square test was applied with 0.05 as level of significance. Results: The mean age of adolescent subjects was 17.3 + 1.5 years and of adults 25.6 + 3.4 years. Mean gestational age at delivery was similar in two groups (39.2 weeks and 39.4 weeks, p = 0.37). Adolescents were more likely to have a preterm delivery (11.2% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.04) and low birth weight infants (19.3% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.005) than adults. Adolescents were more likely to be anemic (46% vs. 32%, p = 0.01) than adults. However, cesarean section rate was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that primiparous adolescents have significantly higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery, low birth weight infants and anemia as compared to adult primiparas. (author)

  9. Ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation who had discordant anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count measurements: a retrospective study.

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    Hang Wun Raymond Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF treatment who had discordant baseline serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH level and antral follicle count (AFC. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on 1,046 women undergoing the first IVF cycle in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects receiving standard IVF treatment with the GnRH agonist long protocol were classified according to their quartiles of baseline AMH and AFC measurements after GnRH agonist down-regulation and before commencing ovarian stimulation. The number of retrieved oocytes, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI and cumulative live-birth rate for each classification category were compared. RESULTS: Among our studied subjects, 32.2% were discordant in their AMH and AFC quartiles. Among them, those having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. Subjects discordant in AMH and AFC had intermediate OSI which differed significantly compared to those concordant in AMH and AFC on either end. OSI of those discordant in AMH and AFC did not differ significantly whether either AMH or AFC quartile was higher than the other. CONCLUSIONS: When AMH and AFC are discordant, the ovarian responsiveness is intermediate between that when both are concordant on either end. Women having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate.

  10. Intrauterine growth-restricted piglets have similar gastric emptying rates but lower rectal temperatures and altered blood values when compared with normal-weight piglets at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Klarlund, M. V.; Pedersen, Janni Hales

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) piglets have lower survival rates and are more likely to have empty stomachs 24 h after birth than normal piglets. Although hypoglycemia may result from low colostrum intake per se, it is not known if slow gastric emptying may be an additional risk factor...... that the gastric emptying rate and blood glucose would be lower in IUGR piglets. We investigated gastric emptying rates in normal and IUGR piglets and blood glucose and rectal temperatures at birth and after 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. In addition, blood parameters relevant for metabolism were studied. Forty......-eight piglets (24 normal and 24 IUGR) were classified at birth as either normal or IUGR on the basis of head morphology. Piglets were removed from the sow at birth before suckling, and birth weight was recorded. Pooled porcine colostrum was tube-fed to all piglets at 12 mL/kg BW as soon as possible after birth...

  11. Reasons for and challenges of recent increases in teen birth rates: a study of family planning service policies and demographic changes at the state level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Gaydos, Laura M

    2010-06-01

    After declining for over a decade, the birth rate in the United States for adolescents aged 15-19 years increased by 3% in 2006 and 1% again in 2007. We examined demographic and policy reasons for this trend at state level. With data merged from multiple sources, descriptive analysis was used to detect state-level trends in birth rate and policy changes from 2000 to 2006, and variations in the distribution of teen birth rates, sex education, and family planning service policies, and demographic features across each state in 2006. Regression analysis was then conducted to estimate the effect of several reproductive health policies and demographic features on teen birth rates at the state level. Instrument variable was used to correct possible bias in the regression analysis. Medicaid family planning waivers were found to reduce teen birth rates across all ages and races. Abstinence-only education programs were found to cause an increase in teen birth rates among white and black teens. The increasing Hispanic population is another driving force for high teen birth rates. Both demographic factors and policy changes contributed to the increase in teen birth rates between 2000 and 2006. Future policy and behavioral interventions should focus on promoting and increasing access to contraceptive use. Family planning policies should be crafted to address the special needs of teens from different cultural backgrounds, especially Hispanics. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  13. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Näslund Thagaard

    Full Text Available To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates.A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL, biparietal diameter (1st trimester, BPD (2nd trimester, and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods.The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1-2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4-4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used.Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used.

  14. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund Thagaard, Ida; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Olesen Larsen, Severin; Holm, Jens-Christian; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. The change from use of second to first trimester measurements for dating was associated with a significant increase in the rate of post-term deliveries from 2.1-2.9% and a significant decrease in the rate of pre-term deliveries from 5.4-4.6% caused by systematic discrepancies. Thereby 25.1% would pass 41 weeks when GA is defined by CRL and 17.3% when BPD (2nd trimester) is used. Calibration for these discrepancies resulted in a lower post-term birth rate, from 3.1-1.4%, when first compared to second trimester dating was used. Systematic discrepancies were identified when biometric formulas were used to determine duration of pregnancy. This should be corrected in clinical practice to avoid an overestimation of post-term birth and unnecessary inductions when first trimester formulas are used.

  15. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  16. A multicenter prospective study to assess the effect of early cleavage on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Maria José; Arroyo, Gemma; Busquet, Ana; Calderón, Gloria; Cuadros, Jorge; Hurtado de Mendoza, Maria Victoria; Moragas, Marta; Herrer, Raquel; Ortiz, Agueda; Pons, Carme; Ten, Jorge; Vilches, Miguel Angel; Figueroa, Maria José

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of early cleavage (EC) on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rates. Prospective cross-sectional study. Multicenter study. Seven hundred embryo transfers and 1,028 early-stage human embryos. None. Implantation according to the presence of EC and embryo quality. The presence of EC is associated with embryo quality, especially in cycles with autologous oocytes. However, the use of EC as an additional criterion for selecting an embryo for transfer does not appear to significantly improve likelihood of implantation. Furthermore, embryos that presented EC had live-birth rates per implanted embryo similar to those that did not show any sign of cleavage. At least for conventional embryo culture and morphologic evaluations, the additional evaluation of EC in embryos may not be valuable to improve embryo implantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pregnancy and Multiple Births rate after Transferring 2 or 3 Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mostajeran

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF is a progressing common reproduction method and if the number of transferred embryo increases, the pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancies will increase which may lead to higher medical costs and human suffering. We compared pregnancy and multiple pregnancies rate after two or three transferred embryo via IVF. Methods: From April 2003 to June 2004, 301 referred infertile women to Isfahan infertility center underwent IVF with transferring two or three good quality embryos. Results: From 298 patients, 2 and 3 embryos were transferred in 155 patients and in 143 patients, respectively. Pregnancy rate was 19.4% versus 24.5% in 2 and 3 embryos transferred patients, respectively. Twin gestations were found in 5(3.2% of 2 embryos transferred patients and in 11(7.7% of 3 embryos transferred patients. Discussion: Transferring two or three embryos with good quality increase the rate of twin gestations in young women, without significant improve in the chance of singleton conception. Key words: In Vitro Fertilization, Multiple gestations, Embryo transfer

  18. Causes of death and infant mortality rates among full-term births in the United States between 2010 and 2012: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoliya, Neha; Fink, Günther

    2018-03-01

    While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation). Multivariable logistic models were used to assess the extent to which state-level differences in full-term infant mortality (FTIM) were attributable to observed differences in maternal and birth characteristics. Random effects models were used to assess the relative contribution of state-level variation to FTIM. Hypothetical mortality outcomes were computed under the assumption that all states could achieve the survival rates of the best-performing states. A total of 10,175,481 infants born full-term in the US between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, were analyzed. FTIM rate (FTIMR) was 2.2 per 1,000 live births overall, and ranged between 1.29 (Connecticut, 95% CI 1.08, 1.53) and 3.77 (Mississippi, 95% CI 3.39, 4.19) at the state level. Zero states reached the rates reported in the 6 low-mortality European countries analyzed (FTIMR 2.75. Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) accounted for 43% of FTIM; congenital malformations and perinatal conditions accounted for 31% and 11.3% of FTIM, respectively. The largest mortality differentials between states with good and states with poor FTIMR were found for SUDI, with particularly large risk differentials for deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% CI 1.86, 3.42) and suffocation (OR 4.40, 95% CI 3.71, 5.21). Even though these mortality differences

  19. Effects of current education on second- and third-birth rates among Norwegian women and men born in 1964: Substantive interpretations and methodological issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of approaches have been employed to assess the importance of women's education for their second- or third-birth rates. Some researchers have included the educational level measured at a relatively high age in their models, whereas others have included current education. A few have taken selection into account by modelling first-, second-, and higher-order birth rates jointly, with a common unobserved factor. The corresponding education-fertility relationships among men, however, has not attracted any attention. In this study, based on Norwegian register data for the 1964 cohort, a high current educational level for a woman is found to stimulate her second- and third-birth rates. Controlling for selection through joint modelling turns out to be quite unimportant, but the results are very different if the educational level attained by age 39 is included instead of current education. It is important to be aware of such sensitivity to the specification of education. The corresponding effects for men are also positive, but not more strongly positive than those for women. These results may suggest that we should not take for granted that women's education generally reduces fertility, and that it does so because of higher opportunity costs for the better educated. However, it is also possible that a high current educational level is linked with modest aspirations for further schooling, which would tend to stimulate subsequent fertility, that it is partly caused by some individual, family or community characteristics that also lead to high fertility, or that it even to some extent is a result of plans to have a child fairly soon. These alternative interpretations are discussed.

  20. Gay Male Only-Children: Evidence for Low Birth Weight and High Maternal Miscarriage Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Blanchard, Ray; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that there may be a maternal immune response underpinning the etiology of sexual orientation of gay male only-children. This maternal immune response appears to be distinct from that which is purported to explain the classic fraternal birth order effect found in studies of male sexual orientation. We tested two predictions related to the hypothesized maternal immune response in mothers of gay male only-children: (1) elevated fetal loss among mothers who have had gay male only-children and (2) lower birth weight in gay male only-children. Mothers of at least one gay son (n = 54) and mothers of heterosexual son(s) (n = 72) self-reported their pregnancy histories, including the birth weights of newborns and number of fetal losses (e.g., miscarriages). Mothers of gay male only-children (n = 8) reported significantly greater fetal loss compared with mothers of males with four other sibship compositions (gay with no older brothers, gay with older brothers, heterosexual only-children, heterosexual with siblings) (n = 118). Also, firstborn gay male only-children (n = 4) had a significantly lower birth weight than firstborn children in the four other sibship compositions (n = 59). Duration of pregnancy was not significantly different among the groups of firstborn children in the birth weight analyses. Thus, this study found further support for a distinct pattern of maternal immune response implicated in the etiology of male sexual orientation. Mechanisms that may underlie this potential second type of maternal immune response are discussed.

  1. Rates of preterm birth following antenatal exposure to severe life events: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Abel, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and other pregnancy complications have been linked to maternal stress during pregnancy. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: Mothers of all singleton live births (n = 1.35 million births...... to estimate the effect of exposure on preterm birth, very preterm birth and extremely preterm birth. RESULTS: There were 58 626 (4.34%) preterm births (births and 3288 (0.24%) extremely preterm births in the study cohort. Severe life events in close relatives in the 6...... months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 16% (relative risk, RR = 1.16, [95% CI: 1.08-1.23]). Severe life events in older children in the 6 months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 23% (RR = 1.23, [95% CI: 1.02-1.49]) and the risk of very preterm birth by 59...

  2. The reduction of the intrapartum still birth rate at the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I; Chang, A; Renou, P; Wood, C

    1977-06-18

    A significant reduction in intrapartum anoxic fetal deaths has occurred at the Queen Victoria Memorial Hospital over the last ten years. The possible explanations for this include a variety of factors, which may either improve the health of the population presenting to the hospital, or improve obstetric care. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the use of fetal diagnostic techniques has contributed to the reduction of intrapartum anoxic still births.

  3. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  4. Lower marriage and divorce rates among twins than among singletons in Danish birth cohorts 1940-1964

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Inge; Martinussen, Torben; McGue, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    compare rates of marriage and divorce in a sample of 35,975 twins and 81,803 singletons born 1940-1964. Cox-regressions are used in order to control for potential confounders. We find that compared with singletons twins have significantly lower marriage rates: (males: 15-19 years: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0...... twins compared with singletons (HR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.83-0.90). These differences offset each other, thus 57% of both populations remain in their first marriage until censoring. The interpretation may be that since twins have a partner from birth, they do not have the same need for marriage as singletons...

  5. Replacing single frozen-thawed euploid embryos in a natural cycle in ovulatory women may increase live birth rates compared to medicated cycles in anovulatory women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alexis P; Setton, Robert; Stone, Logan D; Pereira, Nigel; Xu, Kangpu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes between natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles in ovulatory women and programmed FET cycles in anovulatory women after undergoing in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening (IVF-PGS). This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an academic medical center. Patients undergoing single FET IVF-PGS cycles between October 2011 and December 2014 were included. Patients were stratified by type of endometrial replacement: programmed cycles with estrogen/progesterone replacement and natural cycles. IVF-PGS with 24-chromosome screening was performed on all included patients. Those patients with euploid embryos had single embryo transfer in a subsequent FET. The primary study outcome was live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes included implantation, biochemical pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. One hundred thirteen cycles met inclusion criteria: 65 natural cycles and 48 programmed cycles. The programmed FET group was younger (35.9 ± 4.5 vs. 37.5 ± 3.7, P = 0.03) and had a higher AMH (3.95 ± 4.2 vs. 2.37 ± 2.4, P = 0.045). The groups were similar for BMI, gravidity, parity, history of uterine surgery, and incidence of Asherman's syndrome. There was also no difference in embryo grade at biopsy or transfer, and proportion of day 5 and day 6 transfers. Implantation rates were higher in the natural FET group (0.66 ± 0.48 vs. 0.44 ± 0.50, P = 0.02). There was no difference in the rates of biochemical pregnancy or miscarriage. After controlling for age, live birth/ongoing pregnancy rate was higher in natural FETs with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.68 (95% CI 1.22-5.87). Natural FET in ovulatory women after IVF-PGS is associated with increased implantation and live birth rates compared to programmed FET in anovulatory women. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these findings hold true in other patient cohorts.

  6. Variation in hepatitis B immunization coverage rates associated with provider practices after the temporary suspension of the birth dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullooly John P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and U.S. Public Health Service recommended suspending the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine due to concerns about potential mercury exposure. A previous report found that overall national hepatitis B vaccination coverage rates decreased in association with the suspension. It is unknown whether this underimmunization occurred uniformly or was associated with how providers changed their practices for the timing of hepatitis B vaccine doses. We evaluate the impact of the birth dose suspension on underimmunization for the hepatitis B vaccine series among 24-month-olds in five large provider groups and describe provider practices potentially associated with underimmunization following the suspension. Methods Retrospective cohort study of children enrolled in five large provider groups in the United States (A-E. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the birth dose suspension and a child's probability of being underimmunized at 24 months for the hepatitis B vaccine series. Results Prior to July 1999, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth varied widely (3% to 90% across the five provider groups. After the national recommendation to suspend the hepatitis B birth dose, the percent of children who received a hepatitis B vaccination at birth decreased in all provider groups, and this trend persisted after the policy was reversed. The most substantial decreases were observed in the two provider groups that shifted the first hepatitis B dose from birth to 5–6 months of age. Accounting for temporal trend, children in these two provider groups were significantly more likely to be underimmunized for the hepatitis B series at 24 months of age if they were in the birth dose suspension cohort compared with baseline (Group D OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7 – 4.4; Group E OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3 – 4.2. This represented 6% more children in Group D and 9

  7. BCG Vaccination at Birth and Rate of Hospitalization for Infection Until 15 Months of Age in Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensballe, Lone Graff; Ravn, Henrik; Birk, Nina Marie

    2018-01-01

    Background: The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis might reduce the non-tuberculosis-related child mortality rate in low-income settings. We tested the hypothesis that BCG vaccination at birth would reduce early childhood hospitalization for infection in Denmark, a high...... analysis, we observed 588 hospitalizations for infection (mean, 0.28 hospitalization per child) among the 2129 children allocated to receive the BCG vaccine and 595 hospitalizations for infection (mean, 0.28 hospitalization per child) among the 2133 children allocated to the control group (hazard ratio [HR...... months in Danish children. In future studies, the role of maternal BCG-vaccination, premature birth, and cesarean delivery needs further exploration....

  8. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranna Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS. DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w (DS-low or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w diet (DS-high during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w (DS-regular throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P<0.05. The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P<0.025. The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P<0.0001. Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers.

  9. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... for NIC. For babies rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  10. Births: final data for 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce A; Hamilton, Brady E; Sutton, Paul D; Ventura, Stephanie J; Menacker, Fay; Kirmeyer, Sharon

    2006-09-29

    . The twinning rate increased, but the rate of triplet and higher order multiple births was down slightly.

  11. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power

  12. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  13. CFSC (Community and Family Study Center) study finds birth rates falling everywhere - family planning (family planning) is a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The findings of the Community and Family Study Center study, based on estimated crude birthrates and total fertility rates for 1968 and 1975, indicate that there has been a significant reduction in fertility levels of both developed and developing countries. Despite regional variations, the estimates show an average proportional decline of 8.5% in total fertility rates between 1968 and 1975. Of the 148 nations studied, 113 were in developing regions and 35 in the developed regions. Information on important social and economic development factors, such as life expectancy, literacy, percent of labor force in agriculture, per capita income, and family planning program strength were gathered for each country. Analyses of these data are reported in "The Public Interest" (to be published) "Population Reference Bulletin," October 1978, and a paper presented at the 1978 Population Association of America Meetings in Atlanta, Georgia. The recent change in fertility affected 81% of the world's population, primarily the peoples of Asia, Latin America, and North America. The total fertility rate in the world in 1968 was 4635 and declined to 4068 in 1975. More substantial declines occurred in Asia and Latin America, where the number of fewer births 1000 women would bear under a given fertility schedule declined by 845 births and 617 births, respectively. As more research is conducted to investigate the underlying causes of this decline, it is likely to confirm the important role that family planning programs have had in developing nations. Although major improvements in the socioeconomic well-being of the developing areas continue as an essential goal, the need to maintain the organized provision of family planning services should not be understated.

  14. Endometrial thickness significantly affects clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Dai, Wei; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the relationship between endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer and pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles, we retrospectively analyzed data from 2997 patients undergoing their first FET cycles from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients were divided into three groups (Group A, ≤8 mm; Group B, 9-13 mm; Group C, ≥14 mm) according to the endometrial thickness on embryo transfer day. Compared with patients in the other two groups, patients with thin endometrial thickness in Group A had significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (33.4%, 41.3% and 45.4%, p birth rate (23.8%, 32.2% and 34.0%, p confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.77, p birth rate (aOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.16-1.95, p < 0.01) were significant. We conclude that for patients undergoing FET, endometrial thickness on the embryo transfer day significantly affects IVF outcomes in cleavage embryo transfer cycles independent of other factors.

  15. Geographic distribution of dementia mortality: elevated mortality rates for black and white Americans by place of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Kosheleva, Anna; Wadley, Virginia G; Weiss, Christopher; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that patterns of elevated stroke mortality among those born in the United States Stroke Belt (SB) states also prevailed for mortality related to all-cause dementia or Alzheimer Disease. Cause-specific mortality (contributing cause of death, including underlying cause cases) rates in 2000 for United States-born African Americans and whites aged 65 to 89 years were calculated by linking national mortality records with population data based on race, sex, age, and birth state or state of residence in 2000. Birth in a SB state (NC, SC, GA, TN, AR, MS, or AL) was cross-classified against SB residence at the 2000 Census. Compared with those who were not born in the SB, odds of all-cause dementia mortality were significantly elevated by 29% for African Americans and 19% for whites born in the SB. These patterns prevailed among individuals who no longer lived in the SB at death. Patterns were similar for Alzheimer Disease-related mortality. Some non-SB states were also associated with significant elevations in dementia-related mortality. Dementia mortality rates follow geographic patterns similar to stroke mortality, with elevated rates among those born in the SB. This suggests important roles for geographically patterned childhood exposures in establishing cognitive reserve.

  16. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Validity of pre and post-term birth rates based on the date of last menstrual period compared to early obstetric ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the last menstrual period (LMP estimate in determining pre and post-term birth rates, in a prenatal cohort from two Brazilian cities, São Luís and Ribeirão Preto. Pregnant women with a single fetus and less than 20 weeks' gestation by obstetric ultrasonography who received prenatal care in 2010 and 2011 were included. The LMP was obtained on two occasions (at 22-25 weeks gestation and after birth. The sensitivity of LMP obtained prenatally to estimate the preterm birth rate was 65.6% in São Luís and 78.7% in Ribeirão Preto and the positive predictive value was 57.3% in São Luís and 73.3% in Ribeirão Preto. LMP errors in identifying preterm birth were lower in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of LMP for the estimate of the post-term birth rate was very low and tended to overestimate it. LMP can be used with some errors to identify the preterm birth rate when obstetric ultrasonography is not available, but is not suitable for predicting post-term birth.

  18. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." excerpt

  19. Is the fertile window extended in women with polycystic ovary syndrome? Utilizing the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry to assess the impact of reproductive aging on live-birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Suleena Kansal; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Dokras, Anuja

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follow the same age-related decline in IVF outcomes as women with tubal factor infertility over the reproductive life span. PCOS is characterized by increased ovarian reserve as assessed by antral follicle counts and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. It is unclear whether these surrogate markers of ovarian reserve reflect a true lengthening of the reproductive window. Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women with PCOS and tubal factor infertility (42,286 cycles). IVF. Pregnancy and live-birth rates. The mean number of oocytes retrieved was higher in women with PCOS compared with in women with tubal factor (16.4 vs. 12.8; odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.29). The clinical pregnancy (42.5% vs. 35.8%; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.38) and live-birth rates were also increased in women with PCOS (34.8% vs. 29.1%; OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24-1.35). A similar rate of decline in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was noted in both groups (20-44 years). The implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live-birth rates were not significantly different for each year after age 40 in the two groups. Despite a higher oocyte yield in all age groups, women with PCOS over age 40 had similar clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates compared with women with tubal factor infertility. These findings suggest that the reproductive window may not be extended in PCOS and that patients with infertility should be treated in a timely manner despite indicators of high ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The relation of age to low birth weight rates among foreign-born black mothers: a population-based exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Stephanie B; Bennett, Amanda C; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2014-01-01

    In stark contrast to the J or U- shaped relationship between age and low birth weight rates (birth weight rates among US-born Blacks are lowest in their teens and rise with increasing age (ie, weathering). The age-related pattern of low birth weight rates among foreign-born Black mothers is unknown. To determine the relationship between age and low birth weight rates among foreign-born Black mothers. Stratified analyses were performed on the 2003-2004 National Center for Health Statistics vital record datasets of foreign-born Black mothers. Maternal age was categorized into six subgroups. Potential confounding variables examined included marital status, parity, and prenatal care usage. Foreign-born Black mothers (N = 143,235) demonstrated a J/U-shaped age-related pattern of low birth weight rates with the lowest rates observed among those in their twenties and early thirties. The subgroups of 15-19 and 35-39 year old mothers had low birth weight rates of 12.0% and 11.4% compared to 9.1% for 25-29 year old mothers; RR = 1.31 (1.22-1.42) and 1.25 (1.20-1.31), respectively. The J/U-shaped age-related pattern persisted independent of marital status, parity and prenatal care usage. Foreign-born black mothers do not exhibit a weathering pattern of rising low birth weight rates with advancing age regardless of traditional individual-level risk factors. Further research into the age-related pattern of birth outcome among impoverished foreign-born Black mothers is warranted.

  1. Higher B-cell activating factor levels at birth are positively associated with maternal dairy farm exposure and negatively related to allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Anna-Carin; Hesselmar, Bill; Nordström, Inger; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A high proportion of circulating immature/naive CD5(+) B cells during early infancy is a risk factor for allergy development. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is an important cytokine for B-cell maturation. We sought to investigate whether BAFF levels are related to environmental exposures during pregnancy and early childhood and whether BAFF levels are associated with postnatal B-cell maturation and allergic disease. In the FARMFLORA study, including both farming and nonfarming families, we measured BAFF levels in plasma from mothers and their children at birth and at 1, 4, 18, and 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples were also analyzed for B-cell numbers and proportions of CD5(+) and CD27(+) B cells. Allergic disease was clinically evaluated at 18 and 36 months of age. Circulating BAFF levels were maximal at birth, and farmers' children had higher BAFF levels than nonfarmers' children. Higher BAFF levels at birth were positively associated with proportions of CD27(+) memory B cells among farmers' children and inversely related to proportions of CD5(+) immature/naive B cells among nonfarmers' children. Children with allergic disease at 18 months of age had lower cord blood BAFF levels than nonallergic children. At birth, girls had higher BAFF levels and lower proportions of CD5(+) B cells than boys. Farm exposure during pregnancy appears to induce BAFF production in the newborn child, and high neonatal BAFF levels were associated with more accelerated postnatal B-cell maturation, which lend further strength to the role of B cells in the hygiene hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth subtypes: a retrospective cohort study from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, A M; Mejía, C R; García, P J

    2012-07-01

    To examine the shape (functional form) of the association between the rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and preterm birth and its subtypes.   Retrospective cohort study.   National reference obstetric centre in Lima, Peru.   Pregnant women who delivered singleton babies during the period 2006-2009, resident in Lima, and beginning prenatal care at ≤ 12 weeks of gestation (n=8964).   Data were collected from the centre database. The main analyses consisted of logistic regression with fractional polynomial modelling.   Preterm birth and its subtypes.   Preterm birth occurred in 12.2% of women, being mostly idiopathic (85.7%). The rate of gestational weight gain was independently associated with preterm birth, and the shape of this association varied by pre-pregnancy BMI. In women who were underweight, the association was linear (per 0.1 kg/week increase) and protective (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82-1.00). In women of normal weight or who were overweight, the association was U-shaped: the odds of delivering preterm increased exponentially with rates 0.66 kg/week, and 0.50 kg/week, respectively. In women who were obese, the association was linear, but non-significant (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.95-1.06). The association described for preterm birth closely resembled that of idiopathic preterm birth, although the latter was stronger. The rate of gestational weight gain was not associated with indicated preterm birth or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes.   In Peruvian pregnant women starting prenatal care at ≤ 12 weeks of gestation, the rate of gestational weight gain is independently associated with preterm birth, mainly because of its association with idiopathic preterm birth, and the shape of both associations varies by pre-pregnancy BMI. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  3. The CFTR Met 470 allele is associated with lower birth rates in fertile men from a population isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülüm Kosova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene in reproductive physiology, numerous variants in this gene have been implicated in etiology of male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD. Here, we studied the fertility effects of three CBAVD-associated CFTR polymorphisms, the (TGm and polyT repeat polymorphisms in intron 8 and Met470Val in exon 10, in healthy men of European descent. Homozygosity for the Met470 allele was associated with lower birth rates, defined as the number of births per year of marriage (P = 0.0029. The Met470Val locus explained 4.36% of the phenotypic variance in birth rate, and men homozygous for the Met470 allele had 0.56 fewer children on average compared to Val470 carrier men. The derived Val470 allele occurs at high frequencies in non-African populations (allele frequency = 0.51 in HapMap CEU, whereas it is very rare in African population (Fst = 0.43 between HapMap CEU and YRI. In addition, haplotypes bearing Val470 show a lack of genetic diversity and are thus longer than haplotypes bearing Met470 (measured by an integrated haplotype score [iHS] of -1.93 in HapMap CEU. The fraction of SNPs in the HapMap Phase2 data set with more extreme Fst and iHS measures is 0.003, consistent with a selective sweep outside of Africa. The fertility advantage conferred by Val470 relative to Met470 may provide a selective mechanism for these population genetic observations.

  4. Impact of Agricultural Modernization on Crude Birth Rate in Indian Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMAT ALI

    1981-01-01

    Pooled cross-section and time-series data of 11 districts in the Indian Punjab have yielded three hypotheses: (1) High infant-mortality rates lead to high fertility rates and high fertility rates cause high infant-mortality rates; (2) Agricultural modernization affects fertility and infant-mortality; and (3) The direction and strength of the effects of agricultural modernization on fertility and infant-mortality depend upon the distribution of the benefits of such modernization.

  5. International variations in the gestational age distribution of births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delnord, Marie; Mortensen, Laust; Hindori-mohangoo, Ashna D.

    2018-01-01

    -income countries/regions in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2010 to study preterm and early term births overall and by spontaneous or indicated onset. Pearson correlation coefficients were adjusted for clustering in time trend analyses. Results: Preterm and early term births ranged from 4.1% to 8.2% (median 5.......5%) and 15.6% to 30.8% (median 22.2%) of live births in 2010, respectively. Countries with higher preterm birth rates in 2004–2010 had higher early term birth rates (r > 0.50, P correlated overall (adjusted-r = 0.55, P

  6. A randomised, simulated study assessing auscultation of heart rate at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogdt, Kevin G. J. A.; Morrison, Allison C.; Wood, Fiona E.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Wyllie, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    Heart rate is a primary clinical indicator directing newborn resuscitation. The time taken to assess the heart rate by auscultation in relation to accuracy during newborn resuscitation is not known. To assess both the accuracy and time taken to assess heart rate by stethoscope in simulated

  7. Live birth rates in the different combinations of the Bologna criteria poor ovarian responders: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Giulini, Simone; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Tirelli, Alessandra; Argento, Cindy; Re, Claudia; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Marsella, Tiziana; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2015-06-01

    to compare the baseline characteristics and chance of live birth in the different categories of poor responders identified by the combinations of the Bologna criteria and establish whether these groups comprise a homogenous population. database containing clinical and laboratory information on IVF treatment cycles carried out at the Mother-Infant Department of the University Hospital of Modena between year 2007 and 2011 was analysed. This data was collected prospectively and recorded in the registered database of the fertility centre. Eight hundred and thirty women fulfilled the inclusion/ exclusion criteria of the study and 210 women fulfilled the Bologna criteria definition for poor ovarian response (POR). Five categories of poor responders were identified by different combinations of the Bologna criteria. There were no significant differences in female age, AFC, AMH, cycle cancellation rate and number of retrieved oocytes between the five groups. The live birth rate ranged between 5.5 and 7.4 % and was not statistically different in the five different categories of women defined as poor responders according to the Bologna criteria. The study demonstrates that the different groups of poor responders based on the Bologna criteria have similar IVF outcomes. This information validates the Bologna criteria definition as women having a uniform poor prognosis and also demonstrates that the Bologna criteria poor responders in the various subgroups represent a homogenous population with similar pre-clinical and clinical outcomes.

  8. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Sobotka, Thomás; Hansen, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    lower TNCR and that in terms of their total fertility rate, the declining TNCR is compensated by an increasing use of ART. Our hypothesis of an ongoing birth cohort-related decline in fecundity was also supported by our finding of increasing and substantial use of ART in the management of infertility......Recent findings of poor semen quality among at least 20% of normal young men in Denmark prompted us to use unique Danish registers on births and induced abortions to evaluate a possible effect of the poor male fecundity on pregnancy rates among their presumed partners - the younger cohorts of women....... We have analysed data from the Danish birth and abortion registries as well as the Danish registry for assisted reproduction (ART) and defined a total natural conception rate (TNCR), which is equal to fertility rate plus induced abortion rate minus ART conception rate. A unique personal...

  9. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.K.; Sobotka, T.; Hansen, Marc Allan

    2008-01-01

    lower TNCR and that in terms of their total fertility rate, the declining TNCR is compensated by an increasing use of ART. Our hypothesis of an ongoing birth cohort-related decline in fecundity was also supported by our finding of increasing and substantial use of ART in the management of infertility......Recent findings of poor semen quality among at least 20% of normal young men in Denmark prompted us to use unique Danish registers on births and induced abortions to evaluate a possible effect of the poor male fecundity on pregnancy rates among their presumed partners--the younger cohorts of women....... We have analysed data from the Danish birth and abortion registries as well as the Danish registry for assisted reproduction (ART) and defined a total natural conception rate (TNCR), which is equal to fertility rate plus induced abortion rate minus ART conception rate. A unique personal...

  10. Pre-notification letter type and response rate to a postal survey among women who have recently given birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Porter, Maree; Williamson, Jennifer L; Patterson, Jillian A; Roberts, Christine L

    2015-12-01

    Surveys are commonly used in health research to assess patient satisfaction with hospital care. Achieving an adequate response rate, in the face of declining trends over time, threatens the quality and reliability of survey results. This paper evaluates a strategy to increase the response rate in a postal satisfaction survey with women who had recently given birth. A sample of 2048 Australian women who had recently given birth at seven maternity units in New South Wales were invited to participate in a postal survey about their recent experiences with maternity care. The study design included a randomised controlled trial that tested two types of pre-notification letter (with or without the option of opting out of the survey). The study also explored the acceptability of a request for consent to link survey data with existing routinely collected health data (omitting the latter data items from the survey reduced survey length and participant burden). This consent was requested of all women. The survey had an overall response rate of 46% (913 completed surveys returned, total sample 1989). Women receiving the pre-notification letter with the option of opting out of the survey were more likely to actively decline to participate than women receiving the letter without this option, although the overall numbers of women declining were small (27 versus 12). Letter type was not significantly associated with the return of a completed survey. Among women who completed the survey, 97% gave consent to link their survey data with existing health data. The two types of pre-notification letters used in our study did not influence the survey response rate. However, seeking consent for record linkage was highly acceptable to women who completed the survey, and represents an important strategy to add to the arsenal for designing and implementing effective surveys. In addition to aspects of survey design, future research should explore how to more effectively influence personal

  11. Elevated serum estradiol levels in artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer cycles negatively impact ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Rani; Jindal, Sangita; Feil, Heather; Buyuk, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between serum estradiol (E 2 ) levels during artificial autologous frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles and ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates (OP/LB). A historical cohort study was conducted in an academic setting in order to correlate peak and average estradiol levels with ongoing pregnancy/live birth rates for all autologous artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles performed from 1/2011 to 12/2014. Average and peak E 2 levels from 110 autologous artificial FET cycles from 95 patients were analyzed. Average E 2 levels were significantly lower in cycles resulting in OP/LB compared to those that did not (234.1 ± 16.6 pg/ml vs. 315 ± 24.8 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.04). Although peak E 2 levels were not significantly different between cycles resulting in OP/LB compared with those that did not (366.9 ± 27.7 pg/ml vs. 459.1 ± 32.3 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.19), correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) downward trend in OP/LB rates with increasing peak E 2 levels. This study suggests that elevated E 2 levels in artificial autologous FET cycles are associated with lower OP/LB rates. Estradiol levels should be monitored during artificial FET cycles.

  12. National High School Graduation Rate: Are Recent Birth Cohorts Taking More Time to Graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Myungkook; Kim, Jeounghee

    2016-01-01

    Debates about the national high school graduation rate have heated up as various national high school graduation estimates based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) and the Current Population Survey (CPS) do not coincide with one another partially due to different assumptions about graduation age. This study found that (a) while graduation rate by…

  13. The sustainability of the pay-as-you-go system with falling birth rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Cardoso, P.

    2002-01-01

    A model is presented that explains the mix between funded and unfunded pension systems. It turns out that total pension and the relative shares of the two systems may be explained and are determined by the population growth rate, technological growth, the time-preference discount rate, the relative

  14. Twins: prevalence, problems, and preterm births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Suneet P; Scardo, James A; Hayes, Edward; Abuhamad, Alfred Z; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2010-10-01

    The rate of twin pregnancies in the United States has stabilized at 32 per 1000 births in 2006. Aside from determining chorionicity, first-trimester screening and second-trimester ultrasound scanning should ascertain whether there are structural or chromosomal abnormalities. Compared with singleton births, genetic amniocentesis-related loss at births is higher (0.9% vs 2.9%, respectively). Selective termination for an anomalous fetus is an option, although the pregnancy loss rate is 7% at experienced centers. For singleton and twin births for African American and white women, approximately 50% of preterm births are indicated; approximately one-third of these births are spontaneous, and 10% of the births occur after preterm premature rupture of membranes. From 1989-2000, the rate of preterm twin births increased, for African American and white women alike, although the perinatal mortality rate has actually decreased. As with singleton births, tocolytics should be used judiciously and only for a limited time (births. Administration of antenatal corticosteroids is an evidence-based recommendation. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in birth weight-specific and -adjusted infant mortality rates in Taiwan between 2004 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Liang

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: In countries with an increasing proportion of VLBW live births, birth weight-specific or -adjusted IMRs are more appropriate than other indices for accurately assessing the real extent of reduction in IMRs.

  16. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, I.; Noble, S.; Robinson, R.; Molloy, L.; Tilling, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Study Design and Setting Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Av...

  17. Associations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) with Lower Birth Weight: An Evaluation of Potential Confounding by Glomerular Filtration Rate Using a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model (PBPK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Marc-André; Loccisano, Anne E; Morken, Nils-Halvdan; Yoon, Miyoung; Wu, Huali; McDougall, Robin; Maisonet, Mildred; Marcus, Michele; Kishi, Reiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been associated with lower birth weight in epidemiologic studies. This association could be attributable to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is related to PFAS concentration and birth weight. We used a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of pregnancy to assess how much of the PFAS-birth weight association observed in epidemiologic studies might be attributable to GFR. We modified a PBPK model to reflect the association of GFR with birth weight (estimated from three studies of GFR and birth weight) and used it to simulate PFAS concentrations in maternal and cord plasma. The model was run 250,000 times, with variation in parameters, to simulate a population. Simulated data were analyzed to evaluate the association between PFAS levels and birth weight due to GFR. We compared simulated estimates with those from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. The reduction in birth weight for each 1-ng/mL increase in simulated cord plasma for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 2.72 g (95% CI: -3.40, -2.04), and for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was 7.13 g (95% CI: -8.46, -5.80); results based on maternal plasma at term were similar. Results were sensitive to variations in PFAS level distributions and the strength of the GFR-birth weight association. In comparison, our meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies suggested that each 1-ng/mL increase in prenatal PFOS and PFOA levels was associated with 5.00 g (95% CI: -21.66, -7.78) and 14.72 g (95% CI: -8.92, -1.09) reductions in birth weight, respectively. Results of our simulations suggest that a substantial proportion of the association between prenatal PFAS and birth weight may be attributable to confounding by GFR and that confounding by GFR may be more important in studies with sample collection later in pregnancy.

  18. Inclusion of non-viable neonates in the birth record and its impact on infant mortality rates in Shelby County, Tennessee, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Lee Williams

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Rates of infant death are one of the most common indicators of a population’s overall health status. Infant mortality rates (IMRs are used to make broad inferences about the quality of health care, effects of health policies and even environmental quality. The purpose of our study was threefold: i to examine the characteristics of births in the area in relation to gestational age and birthweight; ii to estimate infant mortality using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth, and iii to calculate proportional mortality ratios for each cause of death using variable gestational age and/or birthweight criteria for live birth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all Shelby County resident-linked birth and infant death certificates during the years 1999 to 2004. Descriptive test statistics were used to examine infant mortality rates in relation to specific maternal and infant risk factors. Through careful examination of 1999-2004 resident-linked birth and infant death data sets, we observed a disproportionate number of non-viable live births (≤20 weeks gestation or ≤350 grams in Shelby County. Issuance of birth certificates to these non-viable neonates is a factor that contributes to an inflated IMR. Our study demonstrates the complexity and the appropriateness of comparing infant mortality rates in smaller geographic units, given the unique characteristics of live births in Shelby County. The disproportionate number of pre-viable infants born in Shelby County greatly obfuscates neonatal mortality and de-emphasizes the importance of post-neonatal mortality.

  19. The association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and increased birth weight, adiposity and inflammation in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Allen, K; Tang, M L K; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Skilton, M R; Cheung, M; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Burgner, D; Vuillermin, P

    2018-01-01

    Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074). Data on maternal comorbidities and infant birth anthropomorphic measures were compiled, and infant aortic intima-media thickness was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound. In a selected subgroup of term infants (n = 161), matched maternal and cord lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and maternal soluble CD14 were measured. Analysis was completed by using pairwise correlation and linear regression. Because of their non-normal distribution, pathology blood measures were log transformed prior to analysis. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with increased birth weight (mean difference 17.8 g per kg m -2 , 95% CI 6.6 to 28.9; p = 0.002), newborn mean skin-fold thickness (mean difference 0.1 mm per kg m -2 , 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; p pregnancy BMI, 95% CI 0.6 to 7.7%, p = 0.02), but not cord blood soluble CD14. Inclusion of maternal hsCRP as a covariate attenuated the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and both newborn skin-fold thickness and cord blood hsCRP. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased newborn adiposity and inflammation. These associations may be partially mediated by maternal inflammation during pregnancy. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Combined advanced parental age has an additive negative effect on live birth rates-data from 4057 first IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Zander-Fox, Deirdre; Vincent, Andrew D; Lane, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an additive effect of combined advanced maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates. Retrospective data analysis of 4057 first cycles at a fertility centre between 2009 and 2013 was compiled. Donor, preimplantation genetic screening and double embryo transfer cycles were excluded. Main outcomes measured were clinical pregnancy, viable pregnancy, live birth and term birth. Logistic regression indicated strong negative associations for maternal ages exceeding 27 years with clinical pregnancies (p < 0.001), viable pregnancies (p < 0.001), live births (p < 0.001) and term births (p < 0.001). There was evidence of negative associations between paternal age and both viable pregnancies (p = 0.06) and live births (p = 0.04), such that the probability of pregnancy was 10% further reduced for women who were 35 years with a partner over 40 years vs. women aged 35 years with a partner under 30 years. There was evidence of an interaction between maternal age and the paternal age on term births (p = 0.02) such that advanced paternal age's effect on the probability of a term birth was only evident in couples where the maternal age ranged between ~27 and 35 years. There is an additive effect to pregnancy and live birth rates when both partners are of an advanced age, thus highlighting the need for pre-conception public health messaging and a combined approach to ART counselling assessing both parental ages in combination.

  1. A higher chest compression rate may be necessary for metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; You, Je Sung; Cho, Young Soon; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol

    2012-01-01

    Metronome guidance is a simple and economical feedback system for guiding cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, a recent study showed that metronome guidance reduced the depth of chest compression. The results of previous studies suggest that a higher chest compression rate is associated with a better CPR outcome as compared with a lower chest compression rate, irrespective of metronome use. Based on this finding, we hypothesized that a lower chest compression rate promotes a reduction in chest compression depth in the recent study rather than metronome use itself. One minute of chest compression-only CPR was performed following the metronome sound played at 1 of 4 different rates: 80, 100, 120, and 140 ticks/min. Average compression depths (ACDs) and duty cycles were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance, and the values in the absence and presence of metronome guidance were compared. Both the ACD and duty cycle increased when the metronome rate increased (P = .017, metronome rates of 80 and 100 ticks/min were significantly lower than those for the procedures without metronome guidance. The ACD and duty cyle for chest compression increase as the metronome rate increases during metronome-guided CPR. A higher rate of chest compression is necessary for metronome-guided CPR to prevent suboptimal quality of chest compression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current practices in the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in patients with higher-order multiple gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emily; Hunter, Tiffany; Okun, Nanette; Farine, Dan

    2015-05-01

    We sought to determine the interventions utilized by maternal-fetal medicine specialists in the prediction and prevention of preterm labor in higher-order multiple (HOM) gestations. Online questionnaires and email surveys were sent to all the maternal-fetal medicine specialists in Canada (n=122). Questionnaire items included interventions physicians routinely recommended for HOM gestations including: (1) bed rest; (2) cervical length measurement on transvaginal ultrasound; (3) corticosteroids use; (4) cerclage; and (5) tocolytic therapy. Response rate was 66% (81/122), with 68% of respondents in practice for >10 years. Of physicians, 91% did not routinely recommend bed rest (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.7-97.2). In all, 82% (95% CI, 73.63-90.4%) recommended routine cervical length assessment with 32.3% (95% CI, 20.7-43.2) and 37.1% (95% CI, 25.3-48.6) of this group suggesting assessment at 16-18 and 19-21 weeks, respectively. Frequency of assessment varied from biweekly (53.3%; 95% CI, 40.9-65.0), to monthly (23.3%; 95% CI, 12.8-33.1), to a single measurement repeated only if abnormal (12.5%; 95% CI, 4.5-20.8). In all, 28% (95% CI, 18.2-37.8) recommended routine administration of corticosteroids for lung maturation. Timing of administration varied, with 24% initiating steroids between 24-26 weeks, 59% between 27-28 weeks, and 17% after 28 weeks. None reported routine cerclage placement. However, 71% (95% CI, 61.1-80.8) would perform cerclage based on history or ultrasound. Of respondents, 81% (95% CI, 72.4-89.5) would consider using tocolytic agents for threatened preterm labor including calcium channel blockers (94%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (5%), and nitroglycerin transdermal patch (24%). The variable practice guidelines and paucity of data for management of HOM pregnancy places the onus on individual practitioners to develop their own management schemes. This results in heterogeneous management, which is based on conflicting international

  3. Vastus Lateralis Motor Unit Firing Rate Is Higher in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Alessio; Hunt, Michael A; Hodges, Paul W; Garland, S Jayne

    2018-05-01

    To compare neural drive, determined from motor unit firing rate, in the vastus medialis and lateralis in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Women (N=56) 19 to 35 years of age, including 36 with patellofemoral pain and 20 controls. Not applicable. Participants sustained an isometric knee extension contraction at 10% of their maximal voluntary effort for 70 seconds. Motor units (N=414) were identified using high-density surface electromyography. Average firing rate was calculated between 5 and 35 seconds after recruitment for each motor unit. Initial firing rate was the inverse of the first 3 motor unit interspike intervals. In control participants, vastus medialis motor units discharged at higher rates than vastus lateralis motor units (P=.001). This was not observed in women with patellofemoral pain (P=.78) because of a higher discharge rate of vastus lateralis compared with control participants (P=.002). No between-group differences were observed for vastus medialis (P=.93). Similar results were obtained for the initial motor unit firing rate. These findings suggest that women with patellofemoral pain have a higher neural drive to vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis, which may be a contributor of the altered patellar kinematics observed in some studies. The different neural drive may be an adaptation to patellofemoral pain, possibly to compensate for decreased quadriceps force production, or a precursor of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000-2008): a linked data population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Tracy, Sally; Tracy, Mark; Bisits, Andrew; Brown, Chris; Thornton, Charlene

    2014-05-21

    To examine the rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity in the first 28 days among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000-2008). Linked data population-based retrospective cohort study involving five data sets. New South Wales, Australia. 691 738 women giving birth to a singleton baby during the period 2000-2008. Rates of neonatal resuscitation, perinatal mortality, neonatal admission following birth and readmission to hospital in the first 28 days of life in public and private obstetric units. Rates of obstetric intervention among low-risk women were higher in private hospitals, with primiparous women 20% less likely to have a normal vaginal birth compared to the public sector. Neonates born in private hospitals were more likely to be less than 40 weeks; more likely to have some form of resuscitation; less likely to have an Apgar birth admission and to be readmitted to hospital in the first 28 days for birth trauma (5% vs 3.6%); hypoxia (1.7% vs 1.2%); jaundice (4.8% vs 3%); feeding difficulties (4% vs 2.4%) ; sleep/behavioural issues (0.2% vs 0.1%); respiratory conditions (1.2% vs 0.8%) and circumcision (5.6 vs 0.3%) but they were less likely to be admitted for prophylactic antibiotics (0.2% vs 0.6%) and for socioeconomic circumstances (0.1% vs 0.7%). Rates of perinatal mortality were not statistically different between the two groups. For low-risk women, care in a private hospital, which includes higher rates of intervention, appears to be associated with higher rates of morbidity seen in the neonate and no evidence of a reduction in perinatal mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The rise in caesarean birth rate in Sagamu, Nigeria: reflection of changes in obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, O T; Sotunsa, J O; Sule-Odu, A O

    2004-06-01

    A retrospective and comparative study of women delivered by caesarean section over two different 3-year periods was conducted at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. The caesarean section rate (CSR) increased from 10.3% in 1989-1991 to 23.1% in 2000-2003. The most frequent indication in both periods was different: prolonged/obstructed labour (20.0%) in 1989-1991 and antepartum haemorrhage (14.9%) in 2000-2003. Malpresentation, antepartum haemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were responsible for 51.7% of the difference in the CSR recorded between both periods. The CSR rose from 13.3% to 25.0% while the instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) rate decreased significantly by 11.4% among the nulliparous women between the periods. Increase in CSR can be attributed mainly to reduction in IVD rate and alteration in the management of labour complications and induction policy. Strategies to reduce the CSR should cut across all indications and focus on encouraging instrumental vaginal deliveries, especially among nulliparous women.

  6. Mode of delivery affected questionnaire response rates in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Isabelle; Noble, Sian; Robinson, Ross; Molloy, Lynn; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Cohort studies must collect data from their participants as economically as possible, while maintaining response rates. This randomized controlled trial investigated whether offering a choice of online or paper questionnaires resulted in improved response rates compared with offering online first. Eligible participants were young people in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study (born April 1, 1991, to December 31, 1992, in the Avon area). After exclusions, 8,795 participants were randomized. The "online first" group were invited to complete the questionnaire online. The "choice" group were also sent a paper questionnaire and offered a choice of completion method. The trial was embedded within routine data collection. The main outcome measure was the number of questionnaires returned. Data on costs were also collected. Those in the "online first" arm of the trial were less likely to return a questionnaire [adjusted odds ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82, 0.99]. The "choice" arm was more expensive (mean difference per participant £0.71; 95% CI: £0.65, £0.76). It cost an extra £47 to have one extra person to complete the questionnaire in the "choice" arm. Offering a choice of completion methods (paper or online) for questionnaires in ALSPAC increased response rates but was more expensive than offering online first. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  8. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  9. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  10. Do differences in maternal age, parity and multiple births explain variations in fetal and neonatal mortality rates in Europe? - Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Pal-De Bruin, K.M. van der; Buitendijk, S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal mortality rates differ markedly between countries in Europe. If population characteristics, such as maternal age, parity or multiple births, contribute to these differences, standardised rates may be useful for international comparisons of health status and especially quality of care. This

  11. Global, regional and national levels and trends of preterm birth rates for 1990 to 2014: protocol for development of World Health Organization estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joshua P; Chawanpaiboon, Saifon; Watananirun, Kanokwaroon; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Petzold, Max; Moller, Ann-Beth; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Seuc, Armando H; Hogan, Daniel; Tunçalp, Ozge; Allanson, Emma; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Bonet, Mercedes; Oladapo, Olufemi T; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2016-06-17

    The official WHO estimates of preterm birth are an essential global resource for assessing the burden of preterm birth and developing public health programmes and policies. This protocol describes the methods that will be used to identify, critically appraise and analyse all eligible preterm birth data, in order to develop global, regional and national level estimates of levels and trends in preterm birth rates for the period 1990 - 2014. We will conduct a systematic review of civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) data on preterm birth for all WHO Member States, via national Ministries of Health and Statistics Offices. For Member States with absent, limited or lower-quality CRVS data, a systematic review of surveys and/or research studies will be conducted. Modelling will be used to develop country, regional and global rates for 2014, with time trends for Member States where sufficient data are available. Member States will be invited to review the methodology and provide additional eligible data via a country consultation before final estimates are developed and disseminated. This research will be used to generate estimates on the burden of preterm birth globally for 1990 to 2014. We invite feedback on the methodology described, and call on the public health community to submit pertinent data for consideration. Registered at PROSPERO CRD42015027439 CONTACT: pretermbirth@who.int.

  12. Impact of a stepwise introduction of smoke-free legislation on the rate of preterm births: analysis of routinely collected birth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Bianca; Martens, Evelyne; Nemery, Benoit; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim S

    2013-02-14

    To investigate the incidence of preterm delivery in the Belgian population after implementation of smoke-free legislation in three phases (in public places and most workplaces January 2006, in restaurants January 2007, and in bars serving food January 2010). Logistic regression analyses on routinely collected birth data from January 2002 to December 2011. Flanders, Belgium. All live born singleton births delivered at 24-44 weeks of gestation (n = 606,877, with n = 448,520 spontaneous deliveries). Preterm birth (gestational age restaurants), and an annual slope change of -2.65% (-5.11% to -0.13%; P=0.04) after 1 January 2010 (ban on smoking in bars serving food). The analysis for all births gave similar results: a step change of -3.18% (-5.38% to -0.94%; P<0.01) on 1 January 2007, and an annual slope change of -3.50% (-6.35% to -0.57%; P=0.02) after 1 January 2010. These changes could not be explained by personal factors (infant sex, maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, national origin, level of urbanisation); time related factors (underlying trends, month of the year, day of the week); or population related factors (public holidays, influenza epidemics, and short term changes in apparent temperature and particulate air pollution). Our study shows a consistent pattern of reduction in the risk of preterm delivery with successive population interventions to restrict smoking. This finding is not definitive but it supports the notion that smoking bans have public health benefits from early life.

  13. Evaluation of the product ratio coherent model in forecasting mortality rates and life expectancy at births by States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shair, Syazreen Niza; Yusof, Aida Yuzi; Asmuni, Nurin Haniah

    2017-05-01

    Coherent mortality forecasting models have recently received increasing attention particularly in their application to sub-populations. The advantage of coherent models over independent models is the ability to forecast a non-divergent mortality for two or more sub-populations. One of the coherent models was recently developed by [1] known as the product-ratio model. This model is an extension version of the functional independent model from [2]. The product-ratio model has been applied in a developed country, Australia [1] and has been extended in a developing nation, Malaysia [3]. While [3] accounted for coherency of mortality rates between gender and ethnic group, the coherency between states in Malaysia has never been explored. This paper will forecast the mortality rates of Malaysian sub-populations according to states using the product ratio coherent model and its independent version— the functional independent model. The forecast accuracies of two different models are evaluated using the out-of-sample error measurements— the mean absolute forecast error (MAFE) for age-specific death rates and the mean forecast error (MFE) for the life expectancy at birth. We employ Malaysian mortality time series data from 1991 to 2014, segregated by age, gender and states.

  14. Rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth in relation to prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester: a follow-up study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiqun; Ji, Zhenpeng; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2016-08-12

    To evaluate the association between rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth varying prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester. Data from Maternal and Newborn's Health Monitoring System on 17475 pregnant women who delivered live singletons at ≥ 28 weeks of gestation between October 2013 and September 2014 from 12 districts/counties of 6 provinces in China and started prenatal care at ≤ 12 weeks of gestation was analyzed. Gestational weight gain was categorized by rate of weight gain during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester, based on the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the association between rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth stratified by prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester. Excessive weight gain occurred in 57.9 % pregnant women, and insufficient weight gain 12.5 %. Average rate of gestational weight gain in 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester was independently associated with preterm birth (U-shaped), and the association varied by prepregnancy body mass indices and trimesters. In underweight women, excessive gestational weight gain was positively associated with preterm birth (OR 1.93, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.29- 2.88) when compared with women who gained adequately. While in overweight/obese women, insufficient gestational weight gain was positively associated with preterm birth (OR 3.92, 95 % CI: 1.13-13.67). When stratifying by trimester, we found that excessive weight gain in 3(rd) trimester had a significantly positive effect on preterm birth (OR 1.27, 95 % CI: 1.02-1.58). Excessive gestational weight gain among underweight pregnant women, insufficient gestational weight gain among overweight/obese women and excessive gestational weight gain in 3(rd) trimester were important predictors of preterm birth.

  15. Live birth rates in the first complete IVF cycle among 20 687 women using a freeze-all strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianqian; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Li; Lu, Xuefeng; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Yun; Kuang, Yanping

    2018-05-01

    What is the chance of having a child following one complete IVF cycle for patients using a freeze-all strategy? The chance of having a child after the first complete IVF cycle was 50.74% with the freeze-all strategy. Several studies have reported on live birth rates (LBRs) based on only the fresh embryo transfer cycle or fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. However, the LBR using a freeze-all strategy in IVF is unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 20 687 women who started their first IVF cycles using a freeze-all strategy during the period from 1 January 2007, through 31 March 2016, in China. Data on 20 687 women undergoing their first complete cycles using a freeze-all strategy from 2007 to 2016 were analyzed to estimate LBRs. The LBR in a complete cycle was defined as the chance of a live birth from an ovarian stimulation cycle including all subsequent frozen embryo transfers from this stimulation. The relationship between LBR and number of oocyte was explored. The LBR for the first complete cycle was 50.74% for patients using a freeze-all strategy. By age group, the LBR declined from 63.81% for women under 31 years old to 4.71% for women over 40 years old after the first complete cycle. The LBRs improved as the number of oocytes retrieved increased up to 25 in the freeze-all strategy. This was a retrospective study without a control group. Data on BMI and smoking status were not collected in this database. Our results showed that 50.74% of patients could achieve a live birth after the first complete cycle via a freeze-all strategy. In addition, the LBRs were positively correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved via the freeze-all strategy. These findings are critical for patients and clinicians in making an informed decision to embark on IVF treatment. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (31770989 to Y.W.) and the Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Foundation of China (JYLJ030

  16. Lower rates of preterm birth in women of Arab ancestry: an epidemiologic paradox--Michigan, 1993-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Reda, Darline K; Grigorescu, Violanda; Posner, Samuel F; Davis-Harrier, Amanda

    2007-11-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), Arab-American communities in the country; however, little is known about PTB in this population. This study examined the maternal demographic profile and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) among foreign-born and US-born women of Arab ancestry relative to US-born Whites in Michigan. Using Michigan Vital Statistics data, we examined correlates of PTB for primiparous U.S.-born white (n = 205,749), U.S.-born Arab (n=1,697), and foreign-born Arab (n=5,997) women who had had a live-born singleton infant during 1993-2002. We examined variables commonly reported to be associated with PTB, including mother's age and education; insurance type; marital status of parents; receipt of prenatal care; mother's chronic hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use; and infant sex. Foreign-born Arabs are less educated and more likely to be on Medicaid, and they receive less prenatal care than US-born Whites. Prevalence of PTB was 8.5, 8.0, and 7.5% for US-born Whites, US-born Arabs, and foreign-born Arabs, respectively. Pregnancy-related hypertension was the only predictor of PTB that these three groups had in common: Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.1 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.99, 2.21), AOR=2.6 (95% CI=1.24, 5.51), and AOR=2.6 (95% CI=1.55, 4.31) for US-born whites, US-born Arabs, and foreign-born Arabs, respectively. Foreign-born Arab women in Michigan have a higher-risk maternal demographic profile than that of their US-born white counterparts; however, their prevalence of PTB is lower, which is consistent with the epidemiologic paradox reported among foreign-born Hispanic women.

  17. Why do younger women have higher breast cancer recurrence rates after breast-conserving surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Reiki; Matsuda, Masakazu; Miyayama, Haruhiko; Okazaki, Shinji; Kai, Chiharu; Ozaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    Preventing breast cancer recurrence after breast-conserving surgery is an important issue. The main factors contributing to such recurrence are positive margins, absence of radiotherapy and young age. To investigate the clinical significance of age in breast-conserving surgery, we examined the relationship between clinicopathological findings or outcome and age, especially young age. The cases were divided into three groups by age; 35 years old or less, 36-50y.o. and 51y.o. or higher. Between April 1989 and March 2003, 743 patients were treated with breast-conserving surgery. There were 49 patients aged 35 years old or less (6.6%). Younger age significantly correlated with positive surgical margin, lymph node metastases, higher proliferative activity, negative estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PgR), larger tumor size, and shorter nipple-tumor distances. Although younger patients had a higher recurrence rate irrespective of radiotherapy, margin status had an impact on recurrence rate. Thus, the reason young age was a significant factor for breast recurrence after breast-conserving surgery was that young patients frequently had numerous risk factors such as positive margin, higher proliferative activity, positive nodes, negative ER/PgR and larger tumor. However, negative surgical margins could reduce recurrence rates even in young women. These results suggest that more suitable criteria and strategies may be needed for young patients with breast cancer. (author)

  18. Place matters: variation in the black/white very preterm birth rate across U.S. metropolitan areas, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Hogue, Carol R

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the distribution of very preterm (VPT) birth rates by race across metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Rates of singleton VPT birth for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women were calculated with National Center for Health Statistics 2002-2004 natality files for infants in 168 MSAs. Subanalysis included stratification by parity, age, smoking, maternal education, metropolitan size, region, proportion of MSA that was black, proportion of black population living below the poverty line, and indices of residential segregation. The mean metropolitan-level VPT birth rate was 12.3, 34.8, and 15.7 per 1,000 live births for white, black, and Hispanic women, respectively. There was virtually no overlap in the white and black distributions. The variation in mean risk across cities was three times greater for black women compared with white women. The threefold disparity in mean rate, and two- to threefold increased variation as indicated by standard deviation, was maintained in all subanalyses. Compared with white women, black women have three times the mean VPT birth risk, as well as three times the variance in city-level rates. The racial disparity in VPT birth rates was composed of characteristics that were constant across MSAs, as well as factors that varied by MSA. The increased sensitivity to place for black women was unexplained by measured maternal and metropolitan factors. Understanding determinants of differences in both the mean risk and the variation of risk among black and white women may contribute to reducing the disparity in risk between races.

  19. Natalidad y riesgo reproductivo en adolescentes de Chile, 1990­1999 Birth rates and reproductive risk in adolescents in Chile, 1990­1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Donoso Siña

    2003-07-01

    ía volumes published by Chile's National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas for 1990­1999. From that database we calculated the trends in the number of live births and in the rates of maternal mortality, late fetal mortality, neonatal mortality, and infant mortality among the teenage mothers under 15 and from 15 to 19 years old. We calculated the risk odds ratio (OR for both of those age groups in comparison with women from 20 to 34 years old. The groups were compared using Fisher's exact test or the chi-square test, and the analysis of trends in the period studied was carried out with Pearson's correlation, with an alpha level of 0.05. RESULTS: In the period studied, for the teenage mothers under age 15, the respective rates for maternal mortality, late fetal mortality, neonatal mortality, and infant mortality were 41.9 per 100 000 live births, 5.1 per 1 000 live births, 15.2 per 1 000 live births, and 27.4 per 1 000 live births. For the adolescents from 15 to 19 years, the corresponding rates were 19.3, 4.1, 8.1, and 16.6; for the women 20­34 years old, they were 26.8, 5.0, 6.7, and 12.1. The adolescents under 15 had higher risks of maternal mortality (OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50 to 4.31; P = 0.372 and of fetal mortality (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.36; P = 0.890, but those differences were not statistically significant. However, the younger adolescents did have significantly higher risks of neonatal mortality (OR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.92­2.68; P < 0.0001 and of infant mortality (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 2.04 to 2.62; P < 0.0001. In comparison to the women 20­34 years old, the teenage mothers from 15 to 19 years old had significantly lower risks of maternal mortality (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.92; P < 0.008 and of fetal mortality (OR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.86; P < 0.0001 but significantly higher risks of neonatal mortality (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.25; P < 0.0001 and of infant mortality (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.35 to 1.42; P < 0

  20. High rate of translocation-based gene birth on the Drosophila Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Ray; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian

    2017-10-31

    The Y chromosome is a unique genetic environment defined by a lack of recombination and male-limited inheritance. The Drosophila Y chromosome has been gradually acquiring genes from the rest of the genome, with only seven Y-linked genes being gained over the past 63 million years (0.12 gene gains per million years). Using a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-powered genomic scan, we show that gene transfers to the Y chromosome are much more common than previously suspected: at least 25 have arisen across three Drosophila species over the past 5.4 million years (1.67 per million years for each lineage). The gene transfer rate is significantly lower in Drosophila melanogaster than in the Drosophila simulans clade, primarily due to Y-linked retrotranspositions being significantly more common in the latter. Despite all Y-linked gene transfers being evolutionarily recent (Drosophila Y chromosome to be more dynamic than previously appreciated. Our analytical method provides a powerful means to identify Y-linked gene transfers and will help illuminate the evolutionary dynamics of the Y chromosome in Drosophila and other species. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. The influence of living arrangements, marital patterns and family configuration on employment rates among the 1945-1954 birth cohort: evidence from ten European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogg, Jim; Renaut, Sylvie

    2007-09-01

    As they approach retirement, Europeans in mid-life display a range of living arrangements and marital patterns. These configurations influence labour force participation for men and women in different ways and these differences are accentuated between countries. Using data from the first Wave (2004) of the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), the paper examines the relationship between living arrangements, marital patterns, family configurations and participation in the labour force for the birth cohort of 1945-1954. The data show that the probability of being in paid employment was higher for respondents living in a couple in northern Europe than in southern Europe. In all countries, men in a couple had significantly higher employment rates than women in a couple, but employment rates of women in a couple differed significantly between countries. Multivariate analysis with country effects confirmed the negative influence of age, poor health, lower levels of education and household income on the probability of being in paid employment, but the effect of variables concerning living arrangements, marital patterns and family configurations varied according to country. A multilevel analysis showed that the between country variance of being in paid employment could not be explained by individual characteristics alone, that a large part of the country variance could be explained by the country specific effect of women in a couple, and that the level of 'modern' life styles in each country (rates of cohabitation outside marriage, divorce or separation and recomposed families) had a significant effect on employment rates, especially for women in a couple.

  2. A population-level analysis of birth weight indices in Peel Region, Ontario: the impact of ethnic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramuscak, Nancy L; Jiang, Depeng; Dooling, Kathleen L; Mowat, David L

    2012-07-18

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the elevated rate of low birth weight (LBW) in the Region of Peel, Ontario can be attributed to the high proportion of immigrants in the population. In addition, we examined how the infant birth weight distribution in Peel differs by maternal region of birth. Provincial live birth registration data were used to compare rates of LBW, preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in Peel and Ontario for the years 2002 through 2006 by maternal region of birth. Birth weight for gestational age curves were developed for singletons and were specific for infant sex and maternal region of birth using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method. Quantile regression was used to examine whether the median birth weight at term (37 to 42 weeks) differed by maternal region of birth. The rate of LBW was higher in Peel than in Ontario (6.8% and 6.0%, respectively). This is the result of a higher SGA rate and not due to differences in rates of preterm birth. Infants of immigrant mothers had significantly lower median birth weights at all gestations, showing that the birth weight distribution among infants of immigrant mothers is shifted towards lower birth weights. At the population level, the shifted birth weight distribution among singleton infants of immigrant mothers has significant impact on the LBW rate observed in Peel.

  3. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  4. [Percentage of births and fertility rates in adolescents in Mexico (2008-2012): stratification and priorization of municipalities with high risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pablo, Adelmo Eloy; Navarrete-Hernández, Eduardo; Canún-Serrano, Sonia; Valdés-Hernández, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Mexico in 2008 was designed as the first place of adolescent pregnancy at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, with specific fertility rate (SFR) for 15-1 9years of age of 64.2/1,000 woman at the same age. Estimate of percentage births and SFR in adolescent population at national, state and municipal level in Mexico in 2008-2012 at the total group of adolescents 10 to 1 9 years old and by subgroups of 10-14 and 15 tol 9 years old, identifying the priority municipalities with adolescence pregnancies. Data bases of certificates of live birth and fetal death with gestational age of 22-45 weeks were joined in 2008-2012. A data base of 1 0'585,032 births in 2008-2012 was obtained, 98.9% were live births and 1.1% was stillbirths. The SFR nationwide for the period 2008-2012 were of the order of 3.l for the group of 10-1 4years, 75.3 for 15-19, 39.6 for the total group of 10-19 years and 66.1 for 20 to 49 years per 1000 women for the same age. In the last decade it has increased teen pregnancy as well as the percentage of births and the fertility rate in this age group, worrying situation for the high risk of biological, psychological and social damage that pregnancy early.

  5. Does skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding at birth affect the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage: Results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, A; Fahy, K; Rolfe, M; Skinner, V; Hastie, C

    2015-11-01

    to examine the effect of skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding within 30 minutes of birth, on the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in a sample of women who were at mixed-risk of PPH. retrospective cohort study. two obstetric units plus a freestanding birth centre in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. after excluding women (n=3671) who did not have opportunity for skin to skin and breast feeding, I analysed birth records (n=7548) for the calendar years 2009 and 2010. Records were accessed via the electronic data base ObstetriX. skin to skin contact and breast feeding within 30 minutes of birth. outcome measure was PPH i.e. blood loss of 500ml or more estimated at birth. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression (unadjusted and adjusted). after adjustment for covariates, women who did not have skin to skin and breast feeding were almost twice as likely to have a PPH compared to women who had both skin to skin contact and breast feeding (aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.72, pbirth may be effective in reducing PPH rates for women at any level of risk of PPH. The greatest effect was for women at lower risk of PPH. The explanation is that pronurturance promotes endogenous oxytocin release. Childbearing women should be educated and supported to have pronurturance during third and fourth stages of labour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term trends in sunshine duration and its association with schizophrenia birth rates and age at first registration--data from Australia and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John; Selten, Jean-Paul; Chant, David

    2002-04-01

    Based on the well-described excess of schizophrenia births in winter and spring, we hypothesised that individuals with schizophrenia (a) would be more likely to be born during periods of decreased perinatal sunshine, and (b) those born during periods of less sunshine would have an earlier age of first registration. We undertook an ecological analysis of long-term trends in perinatal sunshine duration and schizophrenia birth rates based on two mental health registers (Queensland, Australia n=6630; The Netherlands n=24,474). For each of the 480 months between 1931 and 1970, the agreement between slopes of the trends in psychosis and long-term sunshine duration series were assessed. Age at first registration was assessed by quartiles of long-term trends in perinatal sunshine duration. Males and females were assessed separately. Both the Dutch and Australian data showed a statistically significant association between falling long-term trends in sunshine duration around the time of birth and rising schizophrenia birth rates for males only. In both the Dutch and Australian data there were significant associations between earlier age of first registration and reduced long-term trends in sunshine duration around the time of birth for both males and females. A measure of long-term trends in perinatal sunshine duration was associated with two epidemiological features of schizophrenia in two separate data sets. Exposures related to sunshine duration warrant further consideration in schizophrenia research.

  7. Ratings of self and parents by youth: are they affected by family status, gender, and birth order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, T S

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, 648 youths from across the state of Kansas voluntarily evaluated themselves and their parents using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Self-concept was found to be significantly higher for those from intact families in comparison with those from divorced remarried families. Evaluations of mothers were significantly higher for those from intact and divorced nonremarried families as compared with those from divorced remarried families. The ratings of fathers by youths from intact families were significantly more favorable than the ratings by those from either divorced nonremarried or divorced remarried families. Interestingly, gender by family status two-way interaction effects were also found for self-concept and ratings of fathers. Possible explanations for these findings, and their implications, are discussed.

  8. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  9. Splenectomy is associated with higher infection and pneumonia rates among trauma laparotomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Kelly A; Connelly, Christopher R; Hart, Kyle D; Schreiber, Martin A; Watters, Jennifer M

    2017-05-01

    Splenectomy increases lifetime risk of thromboembolism (VTE) and is associated with long-term infectious complications, primarily, overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). Our objective was to evaluate risk of VTE and infection at index hospitalization post-splenectomy. Retrospective review of all patients who received a laparotomy in the NTDB. Propensity score matching for splenectomy was performed, based on ISS, abdominal abbreviated injury score >3, GCS, sex and mechanism. Major complications, VTE, and infection rates were compared. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate splenectomy-associated complications. 93,221 laparotomies were performed and 17% underwent splenectomy. Multiple logistic regression models did not demonstrate an association between splenectomy and major complications (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p = 0.25) or VTE (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.96-1.14, p = 0.33). Splenectomy was independently associated with infection (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14, p = 0.045). Subgroup analysis of patients with infection demonstrated that splenectomy was most strongly associated with pneumonia (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.57, p Splenectomy is not associated with higher overall complication or VTE rates during index hospitalization. However, splenectomy is associated with a higher rate of pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups. NCHS Data Brief. Number 89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Teen childbearing has been generally on a long-term decline in the United States since the late 1950s. In spite of these declines, the U.S. teen birth rate remains one of the highest among other industrialized countries. Moreover, childbearing by teenagers continues to be a matter of public concern because of the elevated health risks for teen…

  11. Why Is the Teen Birth Rate in the United States so High and Why Does It Matter? NBER Working Paper No. 17965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Melissa Schettini; Levine, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines two aspects of teen childbearing in the United States. First, it reviews and synthesizes the evidence on the reasons why teen birth rates are so uniquely high in the United States and especially in some states. Second, it considers why and how it matters. We argue that economists' typical explanations are unable to account for…

  12. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    formed part of the Odense Child Cohort and focused on mothers who gave birth to full-term singletons between April and October 2012. They received the same three to five questions, about breastfeeding, infant formula and introduction to complementary foods, three days after birth and then at weekly.......1% exclusively. Complementary food was introduced at an average age of 20 weeks. Breastfeeding cessation was associated with maternal smoking, lower maternal age and supplementation with infant formula in the first days after birth (all p

  13. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  15. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  16. Higher order constraints on the Higgs production rate from fixed-target DIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints of fixed-target DIS data in fits of parton distributions including QCD corrections to next-to-next-to leading order are studied. We point out a potential problem in the analysis of the NMC data which can lead to inconsistencies in the extracted value for α s (M Z ) and the gluon distribution at higher orders in QCD. The implications for predictions of rates for Standard Model Higgs boson production at hadron colliders are investigated. We conclude that the current range of excluded Higgs boson masses at the Tevatron appears to be much too large. (orig.)

  17. Strain rate effects in nuclear steels at room and higher temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, G. E-mail: george.solomos@jrc.it; Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Pizzinato, V.; Viaccoz, B

    2004-04-01

    An investigation of strain rate, temperature and size effects in three nuclear steels has been conducted. The materials are: ferritic steel 20MnMoNi55 (vessel head), austenitic steel X6CrNiNb1810 (upper internal structure), and ferritic steel 26NiCrMo146 (bolting). Smooth cylindrical tensile specimens of three sizes have been tested at strain rates from 0.001 to 300 s{sup -1}, at room and elevated temperatures (400-600 deg. C). Full stress-strain diagrams have been obtained, and additional parameters have been calculated based on them. The results demonstrate a clear influence of temperature, which amounts into reducing substantially mechanical strengths with respect to RT conditions. The effect of strain rate is also shown. It is observed that at RT the strain rate effect causes up shifting of the flow stress curves, whereas at the higher temperatures a mild downshifting of the flow curves is manifested. Size effect tendencies have also been observed. Some implications when assessing the pressure vessel structural integrity under severe accident conditions are considered.

  18. A changing epidemiology of suicide? The influence of birth cohorts on suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    The increases in suicide among middle-aged baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States since 1999 suggest a changing epidemiology of suicide. Using data from 1935 to 2010, this paper conducts age-period-cohort analyses to determine the impact of cohorts in shaping temporal patterns of suicide in the United States. The analysis demonstrates that age, period and cohort effects are all important in determining suicide trends. Net of age and period effects, the cohort pattern of suicide rates is U-shaped, with cohorts born between 1915 and 1945 possessing among the very lowest suicide rates. Suicide rates begin to rise with boomers and subsequent cohorts exhibit increasingly higher rates of suicide. The general pattern exists for both men and women but is especially pronounced among males. The average suicide rate over the entire period for males is about 28 per 100,000, 95% CI [27.4, 28.7]. For males born in 1930-34, the suicide rate is estimated to be 17.4 per 100,000, 95% CI [15.9, 18.8]; for males born between 1955 and 1959, the rate is essentially the same as the average for the period while for males born between 1985 and 1989, the suicide rate is estimated to be 37.8 per 100,000, 95% CI [33.1, 43.4]. The results dispute popular claims that boomers exhibit an elevated suicide rate relative to other generations, but boomers do appear to have ushered in new cohort patterns of suicide rates over the life course. These patterns are interpreted within a Durkheimian framework that suggests weakened forms of social integration and regulation among postwar cohorts may be producing increased suicide rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. International variations in the gestational age distribution of births: an ecological study in 34 high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnord, Marie; Mortensen, Laust; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D; Blondel, Béatrice; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Richards, Jennifer L; Deb-Rinker, Paromita; Rouleau, Jocelyn; Morisaki, Naho; Nassar, Natasha; Bolumar, Francisco; Berrut, Sylvie; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Kramer, Michael S; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have investigated international variations in the gestational age (GA) distribution of births. While preterm births (22-36 weeks GA) and early term births (37-38 weeks) are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared to full term births (39-40 weeks), it is not known if countries with high preterm birth rates also have high early term birth rates. We examined rate associations between preterm and early term births and mean term GA by mode of delivery onset. We used routine aggregate data on the GA distribution of singleton live births from up to 34 high-income countries/regions in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2010 to study preterm and early term births overall and by spontaneous or indicated onset. Pearson correlation coefficients were adjusted for clustering in time trend analyses. Preterm and early term births ranged from 4.1% to 8.2% (median 5.5%) and 15.6% to 30.8% (median 22.2%) of live births in 2010, respectively. Countries with higher preterm birth rates in 2004-2010 had higher early term birth rates (r > 0.50, P birth rates suggest that common risk factors could underpin shifts in the GA distribution. Targeting modifiable population risk factors for delivery before 39 weeks GA may provide a useful preterm birth prevention paradigm.

  20. Planned home and hospital births in South Australia, 1991-2006: differences in outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennare, Robyn M; Keirse, Marc J N C; Tucker, Graeme R; Chan, Annabelle C

    2010-01-18

    To examine differences in outcomes between planned home births, occurring at home or in hospital, and planned hospital births. Population-based study using South Australian perinatal data on all births and perinatal deaths during the period 1991-2006. Analysis included logistic regression adjusted for predictor variables and standardised perinatal mortality ratios. Perinatal death, intrapartum death, death attributed to intrapartum asphyxia, Apgar score home births accounted for 0.38% of 300,011 births in South Australia. They had a perinatal mortality rate similar to that for planned hospital births (7.9 v 8.2 per 1000 births), but a sevenfold higher risk of intrapartum death (95% CI, 1.53-35.87) and a 27-fold higher risk of death from intrapartum asphyxia (95% CI, 8.02-88.83). Review of perinatal deaths in the planned home births group identified inappropriate inclusion of women with risk factors for home birth and inadequate fetal surveillance during labour. Low Apgar scores were more frequent among planned home births, and use of specialised neonatal care as well as rates of postpartum haemorrhage and severe perineal tears were lower among planned home births, but these differences were not statistically significant. Planned home births had lower caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates, and a seven times lower episiotomy rate than planned hospital births. Perinatal safety of home births may be improved substantially by better adherence to risk assessment, timely transfer to hospital when needed, and closer fetal surveillance.

  1. Higher Growth Rate of Branch Duct Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Associates With Worrisome Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Argiriadi, Pamela; Lee, Karen; Liu, Xiaoyu; Bagiella, Emilia; Lucas, Aimee L; Kim, Michelle Kang; Kumta, Nikhil A; Nagula, Satish; Sarpel, Umut; DiMaio, Christopher J

    2018-03-11

    or invasive cancers. BD-IPMNs that developed worrisome features were associated with a significantly higher rate of growth than lesions with low-risk features. Low risk BD-IPMNs that grow more than 2.5 mm/year might require surveillance. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  3. Differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section in six Palestinian hospitals: a population-based birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Katariina; Hassan, Sahar; Fosse, Erik; Lieng, Marit; Zimmo, Kaled; Anti, Marit; Sørum Falk, Ragnhild; Vikanes, Åse

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. Design A prospective population-based birth cohort study. Setting Obstetric departments in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. Participants 32 321 women scheduled to deliver vaginally from 1 March 2015 until 29 February 2016. Methods To assess differences in sociodemographic and antenatal obstetric characteristics by hospital, χ2 test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. Logistic regression was used to estimate differences in odds for emergency caesarean section, and ORs with 95% CIs were assessed. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the adjusted ORs of emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies for five Palestinian hospitals as compared with the reference (Hospital 1). Results The prevalence of emergency caesarean section varied across hospitals, ranging from 5.8% to 22.6% among primiparous women and between 4.8% and 13.1% among parous women. Compared with the reference hospital, the ORs for emergency caesarean section were increased in all other hospitals, crude ORs ranging from 1.95 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.67) to 4.75 (95% CI 3.49 to 6.46) among primiparous women. For parous women, these differences were less pronounced, crude ORs ranging from 1.37 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.67) to 2.99 (95% CI 2.44 to 3.65). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs were reduced but still statistically significant, except for one hospital among parous women. Conclusion Substantial differences in odds for emergency caesarean section between the six Palestinian governmental hospitals were observed. These could not be explained by the studied sociodemographic or antenatal obstetric characteristics. PMID:29500211

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF CLOSE DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS AS GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: EVOLUTIONARY CHANNELS, BIRTH RATES, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinzhong; Han Zhanwen; Zhang Fenghui; Zhang Yu

    2010-01-01

    Close double white dwarfs (CDWDs) are believed to dominate the Galactic gravitational wave (GW) radiation in the frequency range 10 -4 to 0.1 Hz, which will be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) detector. The aim of this detector is to detect GW radiation from astrophysical sources in the universe and to help improve our understanding of the origin of the sources and their physical properties (masses and orbital periods). In this paper, we study the probable candidate sources in the Galaxy for the LISA detector: CDWDs. We use the binary population synthesis approach of CDWDs together with the latest findings of the synthesis models from Han, who proposed three evolutionary channels: (1) stable Roche lobe overflow plus common envelope (RLOF+CE), (2) CE+CE, and (3) exposed core plus CE. As a result, we systematically investigate the detailed physical properties (the distributions of masses, orbital periods, and chirp masses) of the CDWD sources for the LISA detector, examine the importance of the three evolutionary channels for the formation of CDWDs, and carry out Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that RLOF+CE and CE+CE are the main evolutionary scenarios leading to the formation of CDWDs. For the LISA detectable sources, we also explore and discuss the importance of these three evolutionary channels. Using the calculated birth rate, we compare our results to the LISA sensitivity curve and the foreground noise floor of CDWDs. We find that our estimate for the number of CDWD sources that can be detected by the LISA detector is greater than 10,000. We also find that the detectable CDWDs are produced via the CE+CE channel and we analyze the fraction of the detectable CDWDs that are double helium (He+He), or carbon-oxygen plus helium (CO+He) WD binary systems.

  5. Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juan; Mu, Yi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Wen; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Xiaona; Scherpbier, Robert W; Guo, Sufang; Li, Mingrong; Dai, Li; Deng, Kui; Deng, Changfei; Li, Qi; Kang, Leni; Zhu, Jun; Ronsmans, Carine

    2018-03-05

    To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. Observational study. China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016. Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time. Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time. China is the only country that

  6. Antral follicle counts are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction, with superior treatment outcome in women with polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jan; Brodin, Thomas; Berglund, Lars; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Olovsson, Matts; Bergh, Torbjörn

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the association of antral follicle count (AFC) with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcome in a large unselected cohort of patients covering the entire range of AFC. Prospective observational study. University-affiliated private infertility center. 2,092 women undergoing 4,308 IVF-ICSI cycles. AFC analyzed for associations with treatment outcome and statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age. Pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and stimulation outcome parameters. The AFC was log-normally distributed. Pregnancy rates and live-birth rates were positively associated with AFC in a log-linear way, leveling out above AFC ∼30. Treatment outcome was superior among women with polycystic ovaries, independent from ovulatory status. The findings were significant also after adjustment for age and number of oocytes retrieved. Pregnancy and live-birth rates are log-linearly related to AFC. Polycystic ovaries, most often excluded from studies on ovarian reserve, fit as one extreme in the spectrum of AFC; a low count constitutes the other extreme, with the lowest ovarian reserve and poor treatment outcome. The findings remained statistically significant also after adjustment for the number of oocytes retrieved, suggesting this measure of ovarian reserve comprises information on oocyte quality and not only quantity. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rabies Vaccination: Higher Failure Rates in Imported Dogs than in those Vaccinated in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Nodari, E; Alonso, S; Mancin, M; De Nardi, M; Hudson-Cooke, S; Veggiato, C; Cattoli, G; De Benedictis, P

    2017-03-01

    The current European Union (EU) legislation decrees that pets entering the EU from a rabies-infected third country have to obtain a satisfactory virus-neutralizing antibody level, while those moving within the EU require only rabies vaccination as the risk of moving a rabid pet within the EU is considered negligible. A number of factors driving individual variations in dog vaccine response have been previously reported, including a high rate of vaccine failure in puppies, especially those subject to commercial transport. A total of 21 001 observations collected from dogs (2006-2012) vaccinated in compliance with the current EU regulations were statistically analysed to assess the effect of different risk factors related to rabies vaccine efficacy. Within this framework, we were able to compare the vaccination failure rate in a group of dogs entering the Italian border from EU and non-EU countries to those vaccinated in Italy prior to international travel. Our analysis identified that cross-breeds and two breed categories showed high vaccine success rates, while Beagles and Boxers were the least likely to show a successful response to vaccination (88.82% and 90.32%, respectively). Our analysis revealed diverse performances among the commercially available vaccines, in terms of serological peak windows, and marked differences according to geographical area. Of note, we found a higher vaccine failure rate in imported dogs (13.15%) than in those vaccinated in Italy (5.89%). Our findings suggest that the choice of vaccine may influence the likelihood of an animal achieving a protective serological level and that time from vaccination to sampling should be considered when interpreting serological results. A higher vaccine failure in imported compared to Italian dogs highlights the key role that border controls still have in assessing the full compliance of pet movements with EU legislation to minimize the risk of rabies being reintroduced into a disease-free area.

  8. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  9. Estimating intrapartum-related perinatal mortality rates for booked home births: when the 'best' available data are not good enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyte, G; Dodwell, M; Newburn, M; Sandall, J; Macfarlane, A; Bewley, S

    2009-06-01

    To critically appraise a recent study on the safety of home birth (Mori R, Dougherty M, Whittle M. BJOG 2008;115:554) and assess its contribution to the debate about risks and benefits of planned home birth for women at low risk of complications. Critical appraisal of a published paper. England and Wales. Home births from 1994-2003 and all women giving birth in the same time period. Six members of a multidisciplinary group appraised the paper independently. Comments were collated and synthesised. Assessment of: overall methodology; assumptions used in estimating figures; methods used for calculations; conclusions drawn from the results and reliability and consistency of data. Although there were some positive aspects to the study, there were weaknesses in design and an inaccurate estimate of risk. Our evidence suggests that the conclusions drawn did not reflect the results and the methodological weaknesses found in the study rendered both the results and conclusions invalid. On the basis of our critical appraisal, the study does not contribute to the existing evidence about the safety of home birth to inform decision-making or provision of care. The limitations could have been identified by the peer review process and the problems were compounded by an inaccurate press release. Great care needs to be taken by journals to ensure the accuracy of information before dissemination to the scientific community, clinicians and the public. These data should not have been used to inform national guidelines.

  10. The impact of postpartum contraception on reducing preterm birth: findings from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria I; Chang, Richard; Thiel de Bocanegra, Heike

    2015-11-01

    Family planning is recommended as a strategy to prevent adverse birth outcomes. The potential contribution of postpartum contraceptive coverage to reducing rates of preterm birth is unknown. In this study, we examine the impact of contraceptive coverage and use within 18 months of a birth on preventing preterm birth in a Californian cohort. We identified records for second or higher-order births among women from California's 2011 Birth Statistical Master File and their prior births from earlier Birth Statistical Master Files. To identify women who received contraceptive services from publicly funded programs, we applied a probabilistic linking methodology to match birth files with enrollment records for women with Medi-Cal or Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program (PACT) claims. The length of contraceptive coverage was determined through applying an algorithm based on the specified method and the quantity dispensed. Preterm birth was defined as a birth occurring birth using subcategories defined by the World Health Organization: extremely preterm (birth and control for key covariates. The cohort consisted of 111,948 women who were seen at least once by a Medi-Cal or Family PACT provider within 18 months of delivery. Of the cohort, 9.75% had a preterm birth. Contraceptive coverage was found to be protective against preterm birth. For every month of contraceptive coverage, odds of a preterm birth confidence interval, 0.986-0.993). Improving postpartum contraceptive use has the potential to reduce preterm births. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  12. Eczema, birth order, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ann Maree; Crouch, Simon; Lightfoot, Tracy; Ansell, Pat; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve

    2008-05-15

    The association between infections occurring in the first 2 years of life and development of eczema was investigated in 1,782 control children from a national population-based case-control study in the United Kingdom conducted over the period 1991-1996. Dates of eczema and infectious diagnoses were ascertained from contemporaneously collected primary care records. Children diagnosed with eczema before the age of 2 years had more prior clinically diagnosed infections recorded than did children without eczema (rate ratio = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36). The difference in infection rates between children with and without eczema was apparent from birth and throughout the first 2 years of life. As expected, compared with children of second or higher birth order, those firstborn were at increased risk of eczema (p = 0.020); however, the relation between eczema and prior infection was evident only among children of second or higher birth order and not among firstborn children (rate ratio = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.59, and rate ratio = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.20, respectively). The authors' results are consistent with the notion that the association between birth order and eczema is unlikely to be attributable to variations in early infectious exposure.

  13. Effect of a policy to reduce user fees on the rate of skilled birth attendance across socioeconomic strata in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Étienne V; Karp, Igor; Serme, Jean De Dieu; Bicaba, Abel

    2016-05-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates are associated with underutilization of skilled birth attendance (SBA). In 2007, Burkina Faso introduced a subsidy scheme for SBA fees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Burkina Faso's subsidy policy on SBA rate across socioeconomic status (SES) strata. We used a quasi-experimental design. The data sources were two representative surveys (n = 1408 and n = 1403) of women from Houndé and Ziniaré health districts of Burkina Faso, and a survey of health centres assessing structural quality of care. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used with robust variance estimators. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (RR) and rate differences (RD) as a function of time and SES. For lowest-SES women, immediately upon the introduction of the subsidy policy, the rate of SBA was 45% higher (RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.77) than expected in the absence of subsidy introduction. The results indicated a sustained effect after introduction of the subsidy policy, based on RR estimate (95% CI) of 1.48 (1.21-1.81) at 2 years. For middle-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.28 (1.09-1.49) immediately after introduction of the subsidy policy and 1.30 (1.11-1.51) at 2 years, respectively. For highest-SES women, the RR estimates were 1.19 (1.02-1.38) immediately after subsidy introduction and 1.21 (1.06-1.38) at 2 years, respectively. The RD (95% CI) was 14% (3-24%) for lowest-SES women immediately after introduction of the policy, and the effect was sustained at 14% (4-25%) at 2 years. Our study suggests that the introduction of a user-fee subsidy in Burkina Faso resulted in increased rates of SBA across all SES strata. The increase was sustained over time and strongest among the poorest women. These findings have important implications for evidence-informed policy making in Burkina Faso and other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by

  14. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  16. The relationship between attendance at birth and maternal mortality rates: an exploration of United Nations' data sets including the ratios of physicians and nurses to population, GNP per capita and female literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J; Wharrad, H

    2001-05-01

    the proportion of births attended by trained health personnel (83%, n=118). Multiple regression analyses reveal a more complex picture, with nurses disappearing altogether when regressed with physicians, GNP, female literacy and MMR. The three variables, attendance at birth by trained personnel, GNP and physicians per 1000 population explained 87% of the variation in MMR (n=112) when included in the multiple regression analysis. As in the previous papers, caution is required regarding the validity and reliability of the UN data sources used in these analyses. Maternal mortality rates are particularly susceptible to inaccuracies. Nevertheless, the strength of the positive correlations suggests that real relationships are identified between the independent variables and the dependent variable of MMR. The strength of the linear and multiple correlations between births attended by trained personnel and lower MMRs indicates that maternal deaths are substantially reduced when a high proportion of births are attended by health professionals, including primary health care workers trained in midwifery skills, with the maintenance of an aseptic environment, the identification of maternal and foetal complications, and the opportunity when necessary to transfer parturient mothers to centres with higher level skills and facilities.

  17. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  18. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul; Park, Jaehong; Jeong, Haedo

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO 3 ) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H 2 O 2 ) and complexing agent (citric acid; C 6 H 8 O 7 ) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H 2 O 2 -citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H 2 O 2 at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  19. Measuring the distribution of adolescent births among 15-19-year-olds in Chile: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Marissa; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Although within Latin America Chile has one of the lowest birth rates among adolescents, it has a high rate in comparison to other developed nations. To explore trends in birth rates among adolescents by selected demographics in Chile. The national trend in birth rates was examined for women aged 15-19 years between 1992 and 2012. The birth rates for regions and communes were calculated using birth and census data and were analysed to determine its relationship to the regional or communal poverty rate, which were obtained from the Casen Survey. Differences in educational attainment were explored among adolescents with first-order and second-order or higher births using the Chi-square test. The birth rate among adolescents has experienced a 25% decline in the past 20 years. Cross-regional variance in birth rates could not be explained by poverty rates. Within the Metropolitan Region, there is a positive correlation between poverty and adolescent birth rates. Among adolescents giving birth, 67% had completed 10-12 years of school at birth, but there is a significant difference in educational attainment between girls with a first-order and those with a higher-order birth. In Chile, the adolescent birth rate varies greatly among regions and communes. This study found that urban and wealthy areas had lower birth rates than poor and rural ones, and that girls with a first-order birth had completed more years of school than girls with higher-order births. © Faculty of Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  1. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  2. Mothers' knowledge about birth asphyxia: The need to do more!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... antenatal care during their last pregnancy, about birth asphyxia and relate their knowledge to their places of ..... Table 1: Distribution of mothers who were counseled ... higher rates of unsatisfactory knowledge compared to the.

  3. Birth Order, Club Membership and Mass Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeh, Aida K.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationship between birth order, club membership and mass media exposure for women college students in Lebanon. Findings show the total membership rate and mass media consumption are higher among last born girls than first born. Birth order differences are explained in terms of the differential socialization of children. (Author)

  4. Advanced Parental Ages and Low Birth Weight in Autism Spectrum Disorders--Rates and Effect on Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Lahat, Eli; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To assess the distribution of parental age and birth weight in a large cohort with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare them to Israeli national data. (2) To examine possible relationships between these risk factors and functioning. Methods: The study included 529 participants diagnosed with ASD using standardized tests:…

  5. Higher Education Support Services and Graduation Rates of Structured Education Program Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Seth

    2017-01-01

    The 1st-year retention rate of the Structured Education Program (SEP) is 90%, yet the 6-year graduation rate of SEP students is 29%. The gap between SEP 1st-year retention and graduation rates is the problem that this study addressed. The low graduation rate of SEP students is an important issue because graduation rates are used to measure the…

  6. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  7. Rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth in relation to prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester: a follow-up study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Aiqun; Ji, Zhenpeng; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the association between rate of gestational weight gain and preterm birth varying prepregnancy body mass indices and trimester. Methods Data from Maternal and Newborn?s Health Monitoring System on 17475 pregnant women who delivered live singletons at???28?weeks of gestation between October 2013 and September 2014 from 12 districts/counties of 6 provinces in China and started prenatal care at???12?weeks of gestation was analyzed. Gestational weight gain was categorized b...

  8. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  9. Removal of boron(III) by N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives with higher adsorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, Yoshinari; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Matsuda, Toshio; Mihara, Nobutake; Yamada, Kouji; Nambu, Nobuyoshi; Itoh, Osamu; Doi, Takao; Kaida, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    To obtain adsorbents for boron(III) derived from a natural polymer, two forms (powder and fiber) of N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were newly synthesized. After the graft polymerization of two forms of cellulose with vinyl monomer having epoxy groups, the N-methylglucamine-type cellulose derivatives were obtained by the reaction of the grafted cellulose with N-methylglucamine. The adsorption capacities of the cellulose derivatives for boron(III) were the same levels as that of a commercially available N-methylglucamine-type polystyrene resin. However, the cellulose derivatives adsorbed boron(III) more quickly than the polystyrene resin. The adsorption and desorption of boron(III) with a column method using the cellulose fiber were achieved at a higher flow rate than that using the polystyrene resin. In addition, the boron(III), adsorbed on the cellulose fiber column, was quantitatively recovered with dilute hydrochloric acid in 20- and 200-fold increased concentrations. Consequently, it was found that the cellulose derivatives were superior to the polystyrene resin as adsorbents for boron(III) for treatment of a large quantity of wastewater

  10. Recent trends in the incidence of multiple births and its consequences on perinatal problems in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Park, Young Sil; Shim, Kye Shik; Choi, Yong Sung; Chang, Ji Young; Hahn, Won Ho; Bae, Chong-Woo

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to survey multiple birth data and to analyze the recent trends of multiple births and its consequences on perinatal problems in Korea from 1991 to 2008. Data were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. The total number of multiple births showed increasing trends. The multiple birth rate was maintained within less than 10.0 for the decade from 1981 to 1990. However, it increased gradually to reach 27.5 in 2008. The maternal age for multiple births was higher than for total live births. The mean birth weight of the total live births was 3.23 kg; for the multiple births it was 2.40 kg in 2008. The incidence of low birth weight infants (LBWI) among total live births was 3.8% in 2000 and 4.9% in 2008. For multiple births it was 49.2% and 53.0% during the same years. The incidence of preterm births among total live births was 3.8% in 2000 and 5.5% in 2008; for the multiple births it was 38.3% and 51.5% during the same years. The incidence of multiple births and its consequences on perinatal problems (preterm, LBWI, and advanced-maternal age) have been increased steadily over the last two decades in Korea.

  11. Modeling of live-birth rates and cost-effectiveness of oocyte cryopreservation for cancer patients prior to high- and low-risk gonadotoxic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle Schumacher, B; Grover, N; Mesen, T; Steiner, A; Mersereau, J

    2017-10-01

    What is the live-birth rate (LBR) and cost-effectiveness of fertility preservation with oocyte cryopreservation (FP-OC) compared to expectant management in cancer patients age 25-40 based on estimated gonadotoxicity of treatments 5 years after cancer diagnosis? Oocyte cryopreservation prior to cancer treatment is more costly, yet more effective (producing more live births), than not undergoing oocyte cryopreservation but it is most beneficial for patients undergoing high-risk chemotherapy (HRC). The decision to undergo FP prior to treatment is multifactorial and can be costly and delay treatment. Not all treatments carry the same gonadotoxicity and patients may choose to undergo FP-OC based on the probability of premature ovarian insufficiency, predicted outcomes and cost. A comprehensive model that incorporates age at diagnosis and toxicity of treatment to help guide patients in the decision to undergo FP-OC does not yet exist. This study used a Decision Analysis Model to estimate effectiveness and cost of FP for cancer patients. Age-based estimates of LBR and cost per live birth were calculated for ages 25-40 years based on gonadotoxicity of treatment. A decision analysis model was constructed using Treeage Pro 2015 with case base probabilities derived from national registries, practice guidelines and medical records from a national network of infertility practices (IntegraMed). Compared to no FP-OC, FP-OC improved LBRs for women of all ages undergoing either low-risk chemotherapy (LRC) or HRC; however, it was most cost effective for women undergoing LRC at older ages or HRC at younger ages. Although FP-OC results in higher LBRs, it was always more costly. Using donor oocyte IVF can be a successful alternative to autologous FP-OC. Decision tree results reflect probabilities of certain events and are compiled from multiple reputable sources but are not directly derived from a recruited cohort of patients. Outcomes are based on United States estimates and should be

  12. Continuous fermentation and in-situ reed separation of butyric acid for higher sugar consumption rate and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroi, George Nabin; Skiadas, Ioannis; Westermann, Peter

    that disconnection of the REED system resulted to much lower (48 and 83% for glucose and xylose, respectively) sugars consumption rates and consequently lower butyric acid production rates. It was also noticeable that continuous operation, even without the REED system, resulted to higher glucose consumption rates...

  13. Getting a piece of the pie? The economic boom of the 1990s and declining teen birth rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Cynthia G; Geronimus, Arline T; Phipps, Maureen G

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, the 1990s was a decade of dramatic economic growth as well as a period characterized by substantial declines in teenage childbearing. This study examines whether falling teen fertility rates during the 1990s were responsive to expanding employment opportunities and whether the implementation of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act (PRWORA), increasing rates of incarceration, or restrictive abortion policies may have affected this association. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models were estimated to assess the relationship between age-specific birth rates and state-specific unemployment rates from 1990 to 1999 for Black and White females aged 10-29. Falling unemployment rates in the 1990s were associated with decreased childbearing among African-American women aged 15-24, but were largely unrelated to declines in fertility for Whites. For 18-19 year-old African-Americans, the group for whom teen childbearing is most normative, our model accounted for 85% of the decrease in rates of first births. Young Black women, especially older teens, may have adjusted their reproductive behavior to take advantage of expanded labor market opportunities.

  14. Higher rate of serious perinatal events in non-Western women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marianne Brehm; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Weber, Tom

    2016-01-01

    children born at Hvidovre Hospital who died perinatally and included the patient files in a series of case studies. Our data were linked to data from popu­lation-covering registries in Statistics Denmark. Timing, causes of death as well as social, medical and obstetric characteristics of the parents were...... described according to maternal country of origin. Results: This study included 125 perinatal deaths. The data indicated that intrapartum death, death caused by maternal disease, lethal malformation and preterm birth may be more frequent among non-Western than among Danish-born women. Obesity...... in Denmark. Six of 28 perinatal deaths in the non-Western group were intrapartum deaths and warrants further concern. Funding: This project was funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research as part of the SULIM project. Trial registration: The linkage of data from patient files to data from Statistics...

  15. Higher rate of serious perinatal events in non-Western women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Christensen, Marianne; Fredsted Villadsen, Sarah; Weber, Tom

    2016-01-01

    children born at Hvidovre Hospital who died perinatally and included the patient files in a series of case studies. Our data were linked to data from population-covering registries in Statistics Denmark. Timing, causes of death as well as social, medical and obstetric characteristics of the parents were...... described according to maternal country of origin. RESULTS: This study included 125 perinatal deaths. The data indicated that intrapartum death, death caused by maternal disease, lethal malformation and preterm birth may be more frequent among non-Western than among Danish-born women. Obesity...... in Denmark. Six of 28 perinatal deaths in the non-Western group were intrapartum deaths and warrants further concern. FUNDING: This project was funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research as part of the SULIM project. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The linkage of data from patient files to data from Statistics...

  16. Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina’s Downturns

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Cruces; Pablo Glüzman; Luis Felipe López Calva

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of recent crises in Argentina (including the severe downturn of 2001-2002) on health and education outcomes. The identification strategy relies on both the inter-temporal and the cross-provincial co-variation between changes in regional GDP and outcomes by province. These results indicate significant and substantial effects of aggregate fluctuations on maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight, with countercyclical though not significant patterns fo...

  17. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  18. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  19. Specific-locus experiments show that female mice exposed near the time of birth to low-LET ionizing radiation exhibit both a low mutational response and a dose-rate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.; Lee, S.S.; Kelly, E.M.; Bangham, J.W.; Raymer, G.D.; Hunsicker, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Female mice were exposed to 300 R of 73-93 R/min X-radiation either as fetuses at 18.5d post conception (p.c.) or within 9h after birth. Combining the similar results from these 2 groups yielded a specific-locus mutation frequency of 9.4x10 -8 mutation/locus/R, which is statistically significantly higher than the historical-control mutation frequency, but much lower than the rate obtained by irradiating mature and maturing oocytes in adults. Other females, exposed at 18.5 days p.c. to 300 R of 0.79 R/min γ-radiation, yielded a mutation frequency that was statistically significantly lower than the frequency at high dose rates. The low-dose-rate group also had markedly higher fertility. It appears that the doe-rate effect for mutations induced near the time of birth may be more pronounced than that reported for mature and maturing oocytes of adults. A hypothesis sometimes advanced to explain low mutation frequencies recovered from cell populations that experience considerable radiation-induced cell killing is that there is selection against mutant cells. The reason for the relatively low mutational response following acute irradiation in the experiments is unknown; however, the finding of a dose-rate effect in these oocytes in the presence of only minor radiation-induced cell killing (as judged from fertility) makes it seem unlikely that selection was responsible for the low mutational response following acute exposure. Had selection been an important factor, the mutation frequency should have increased when oocyte killing was markedly reduced. (author). 32 refs.; 5 figs.; 5 tabs

  20. [Planned home versus planned hospital births: adverse outcomes comparison by reviewing the international literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucon, C; Brillac, T

    2013-06-01

    To assess the safety of planned home birth compared to hospital birth, in low-risk pregnancies. An international literature review was conducted. Mortality, adverse outcomes and medical interventions were compared. Home birth was not associated with higher mortality rates, but with lower maternal adverse outcomes. Perinatal adverse outcomes are not significantly different at home and in hospital. Medical interventions are more frequent in hospital births. Home birth attended by a well-trained midwife is not associated with increased mortality and morbidity rates, but with less medical interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher USA State Resident Neuroticism Is Associated With Lower State Volunteering Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2017-12-01

    Highly neurotic persons have dispositional characteristics that tend to precipitate social anxiety that discourages formal volunteering. With the 50 American states as analytical units, Study 1 found that state resident neuroticism correlated highly ( r = -.55) with state volunteering rates and accounted for another 26.8% of the volunteering rate variance with selected state demographics controlled. Study 2 replicated Study 1 during another period and extended the association to college student, senior, secular, and religious volunteering rates. Study 3 showed state resident percentages engaged in other social behaviors involving more familiarity and fewer demands than formal volunteering related to state volunteering rates but not to neuroticism. In Study 4, state resident neuroticism largely accounted statistically for relations between state volunteering rates and state population density, collectivism, social capital, Republican preference, and well-being. This research is the first to show that state resident neuroticism is a potent predictor of state volunteering rates.

  2. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence A. Hamrick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocating academic financial resources to optimize graduation rates

  3. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  4. Using geographical information systems to explore disparities in preterm birth rates among foreign-born and U.S.-born Black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2011-01-01

    To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003-2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Clear visual patterns of "bad" neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p < .0001). This study demonstrated how GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Using Geographical Information Systems to Explore Disparities in Preterm Birth Rates Among Foreign-born and U.S.-born Black Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Joan Rosen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine spatial patterns of neighborhood contextual factors of stress with preterm birth (PTB) and nativity (foreign-born and U.S.-born) among Black mothers. Design Descriptive geographic-spatial research. Setting & Participants Births to Philadelphia residents during 2003–2005 in the context of Philadelphia residential neighborhoods (N = 350) were studied. Methods All data were aggregated to neighborhood levels (census tracts). Maps were created to assess geographic-spatial patterns. A geographic information system (GIS) database was created that imported geo-coded data on births, crime (assaults with guns and domestic abuse), poverty, race, and nativity (foreign-born vs. U.S.-born). Results Clear visual patterns of “bad” neighborhoods emerged and were significantly associated with higher prevalence of PTB for foreign-born Black and U.S.-born Black mothers (p GIS visually clarified important spatial patterns of adverse living conditions and PTB prevalence. Nurses can use GIS to better understand living environments of mothers and their families and to target interventions in geographical areas with the greatest service needs. Further research on individual and contextual factors is warranted to address the observed health disparities among the heterogeneous groups of foreign-born Black mothers. Despite limitations of aggregate data, it is clear that where mothers live matters. This has important implications for nursing practice and policy. PMID:22273411

  6. Predicting higher education graduation rates from institutional characteristics and resource allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Florence A. Hamrick; John H. Schuh; Mack C. Shelley

    2004-01-01

    This study incorporated institutional characteristics (e.g., Carnegie type, selectivity) and resource allocations (e.g., instructional expenditures, student affairs expenditures) into a statistical model to predict undergraduate graduation rates. Instructional expenditures, library expenditures, and a number of institutional classification variables were significant predictors of graduation rates. Based on these results, recommendations as well as warranted cautions are included about allocat...

  7. Results of a pilot scale melter test to attain higher production rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Chapman, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A pilot-scale melter test was completed as part of the effort to enhance glass production rates. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of bulk glass temperature and feed oxide loading. The maximum glass production rate obtained, 86 kg/hr-m 2 , was over 200% better than the previous record for the melter used

  8. Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K N; Petry, N M; Bickel, W K

    1999-03-01

    Fifty-six heroin addicts and 60 age-matched controls were offered choices between monetary rewards ($11-$80) available immediately and larger rewards ($25-$85) available after delays ranging from 1 week to 6 months. Participants had a 1-in-6 chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Delay-discounting rates were estimated from the pattern of participants' choices. The discounting model of impulsiveness (Ainslie, 1975) implies that delay-discounting rates are positively correlated with impulsiveness. On average, heroin addicts' discount rates were twice those of controls (p = .004), and discount rates were positively correlated with impulsivity as measured by self-report questionnaires (p discounting rate as a measure of impulsiveness, a characteristic associated with substance abuse.

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...

  10. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue

    OpenAIRE

    Beliz?n, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Premature birth is the world?s leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the ?omics? approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence ...

  11. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Higher speciation and lower extinction rates influence mammal diversity gradients in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Krishnapriya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-02-04

    Little is known about the patterns and correlates of mammal diversity gradients in Asia. In this study, we examine patterns of species distributions and phylogenetic diversity in Asia and investigate if the observed diversity patterns are associated with differences in diversification rates between the tropical and non-tropical regions. We used species distribution maps and phylogenetic trees to generate species and phylogenetic diversity measures for 1° × 1° cells across mainland Asia. We constructed lineage-through-time plots and estimated diversification shift-times to examine the temporal patterns of diversifications across orders. Finally, we tested if the observed gradients in Asia could be associated with geographical differences in diversification rates across the tropical and non-tropical biomes. We estimated speciation, extinction and dispersal rates across these two regions for mammals, both globally and for Asian mammals. Our results demonstrate strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients of species and phylogenetic diversity with Southeast Asia and the Himalayas showing highest diversity. Importantly, our results demonstrate that differences in diversification (speciation, extinction and dispersal) rates between the tropical and the non-tropical biomes influence the observed diversity gradients globally and in Asia. For the first time, we demonstrate that Asian tropics act as both cradles and museums of mammalian diversity. Temporal and spatial variation in diversification rates across different lineages of mammals is an important correlate of species diversity gradients observed in Asia.

  14. Cumulative live birth rates after one ART cycle including all subsequent frozen-thaw cycles in 1050 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, M; Bogstad, J; Løssl, K

    2017-01-01

    birth increases. There are no previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing CLBRs in GnRH-antagonist versus GnRH-agonist protocols. Previous studies on CLBR are either retrospective cohort studies including multiple fresh cycles or RCTs comparing single embryo transfer (SET) with double embryo...... transfer (DET). STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: CLBR was a secondary outcome in a Phase IV, dual-center, open-label, RCT including 1050 women allocated to a short GnRH-antagonist or a long GnRH-agonist protocol in a 1:1 ratio over a 5-year period using a web-based concealed randomization code. The minimum...... follow-up time from the first IVF cycle was 2 years. The aim was to compare CLBR between the two groups following utilization of all fresh and frozen embryos from the first ART cycle. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All women referred for their first ART cycle at two public fertility clinics...

  15. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  16. Reducing Error Rates for Iris Image using higher Contrast in Normalization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu Ghali, Abdulrahman; Jamel, Sapiee; Abubakar Pindar, Zahraddeen; Hasssan Disina, Abdulkadir; Mat Daris, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Iris recognition system is the most secured, and faster means of identification and authentication. However, iris recognition system suffers a setback from blurring, low contrast and illumination due to low quality image which compromises the accuracy of the system. The acceptance or rejection rates of verified user depend solely on the quality of the image. In many cases, iris recognition system with low image contrast could falsely accept or reject user. Therefore this paper adopts Histogram Equalization Technique to address the problem of False Rejection Rate (FRR) and False Acceptance Rate (FAR) by enhancing the contrast of the iris image. A histogram equalization technique enhances the image quality and neutralizes the low contrast of the image at normalization stage. The experimental result shows that Histogram Equalization Technique has reduced FRR and FAR compared to the existing techniques.

  17. Prevalence of multiple birth in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yazdekhasti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to increasing rate of using assisted reproductive technology (ART which result in higher rates of multiple birth and natal difficulties, we aimed to determine the prevalence rate of multiple birth pregnancies. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study evaluating birth files in 2009–2010 of main hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Results: Among 31640 files' studies, 614 cases of multiple birth pregnancies were investigated. The product of these pregnancies were 1286 (50.2% females infants including 557 twins (17.6/1000, 56 triplets (1.8/1000, and one case of quadruple (0.03/1000. Infants weigh <2500 g were 84.9% of all. Mothers had a mean age of 27.9 ± 4.9 which 30.4% of them had a positive history of using ART. Conclusion: The prevalence of multiple birth pregnancies is growing. The need for more mother and child care is important. Using ART world wide is leading more multiple birth which could be a cause for more complicated pregnancies.

  18. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  19. Planned home births: the need for additional contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    following individual risk factors: breech presentation (neonatal mortality rate, 127.52/10.000 births), nulliparous pregnant women (neonatal mortality rate, 22.5/10,000), previous cesarean delivery (18.91/10,000 births), and a gestational age ≥41 weeks (neonatal mortality rate, 17.17/10,000 births). Planned home births with ≥1 of the 5 risk factors had significantly higher neonatal death risks compared with deliveries with none of the risks. Neonatal death risk was further increased when a woman's age of ≥35 years was combined with either a first-time birth or a gestational age of ≥41 weeks. In this study, we show 2 risk factors with significantly increased neonatal mortality rates at planned home births in addition to the 3 factors that are listed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. These additional risks factors have neonatal mortality rates that are approaching or exceeding those for planned home birth after cesarean delivery: first-time births and a gestational age of ≥ 41 weeks. Therefore, 2 additional risk factors (first-time births and a gestational age of ≥41 weeks) should be added to the 3 absolute contraindications of planned home births that are listed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (previous cesarean delivery, malpresentation, multiple gestations) for a total of 5 contraindications for planned home births. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher contamination rate than usual. Treatment and disinfection of water in hot whirlpool systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschman, W

    1985-10-01

    Hot whirlpools must meet the hygienic standards set in the Federal Law Concerning Prevention of Epidemics of 18 Dec 1979. The low water volume of whirlpool systems and the extraordinary contamination rate in uninterrupted operation require a specific water treatment and disinfestation technology to make up for the poor buffer capacity of the low water volume. (orig./BWI).

  1. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  2. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold

  3. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  4. Cumulative live birth rates after one or more complete cycles of IVF: a population-based study of linked cycle data from 178,898 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLernon, David J; Maheshwari, Abha; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-03-01

    What is the chance of a live birth following one or more linked complete cycles of IVF (including ICSI)? The chance of a live birth after three complete cycles of IVF was 42.3% for treatment commencing from 1999 to 2007. IVF success has generally been reported on the basis of live birth rates after a single episode of treatment resulting in the transfer of a fresh embryo. This fails to capture the real chance of having a baby after a number of complete cycles-each involving the replacement of fresh as well as frozen-thawed embryos. Population-based observational cohort study of 178 898 women between 1992 and 2007. Participants included all women who commenced IVF treatment at a licenced clinic in the UK as recorded in the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) national database. Exclusion criteria included women whose treatment involved donor insemination, egg donation, surrogacy and the transfer of more than three embryos. Cumulative rates of live birth, term (>37 weeks) singleton live birth, and multiple pregnancy were estimated for two time-periods, 1992-1998 and 1999-2007. Conservative estimates assumed that women who did not return for IVF would not have the outcome of interest while optimal estimates assumed that these women would have similar outcome rates to those who continued IVF. A total of 71 551 women commenced IVF treatment during 1992-1998 and an additional 107 347 during 1999-2007. After the third complete IVF cycle (defined as three fresh IVF treatments-including replacement of any surplus frozen-thawed embryos), the conservative CLBR in women who commenced IVF during 1992-1998 was 30.8% increasing to 42.3% during 1999-2007. The optimal CLBRs were 44.6 and 57.1%, respectively. After eight complete cycles the optimal CLBR was 82.4% in the latter time period. The conservative rate for multiple pregnancy per pregnant woman fell from 31.9% during the earlier time period to 26.2% during the latter. Linkage of all IVF treatments to

  5. Honest signaling in trust interactions: smiles rated as genuine induce trust and signal higher earning opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Centorrino, S.; Djemai, E.; Hopfensitz, A.; Milinski, M.; Seabright, P.

    2015-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that smiles perceived as honest serve as a signal that has evolved to induce cooperation in situations requiring mutual trust. Potential trustees (84 participants from Toulouse, France) made two video clips averaging around 15 seconds for viewing by potential senders before the latter decided whether to ‘send’ or ‘keep’ a lower stake (4 euros) or higher stake (8 euros). Senders (198 participants from Lyon, France) made trust decisions with respect to the recorded clips....

  6. Surgical site infection and transfusion rates are higher in underweight total knee arthroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manrique, MD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that UW TKA patients have a higher likelihood of developing SSI and requiring blood transfusions. The specific reasons are unclear, but we conjecture that it may be related to decreased wound healing capabilities and low preoperative hemoglobin. Investigation of local tissue coverage and hematologic status may be beneficial in this patient population to prevent SSI. Based on the results of this study, a prospective evaluation of these factors should be undertaken.

  7. Mode of birth and medical interventions among women at low risk of complications: A cross-national comparison of birth settings in England and the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ank de Jonge

    Full Text Available To compare mode of birth and medical interventions between broadly equivalent birth settings in England and the Netherlands.Data were combined from the Birthplace study in England (from April 2008 to April 2010 and the National Perinatal Register in the Netherlands (2009. Low risk women in England planning birth at home (16,470 or in freestanding midwifery units (11,133 were compared with Dutch women with planned home births (40,468. Low risk English women with births planned in alongside midwifery units (16,418 or obstetric units (19,096 were compared with Dutch women with planned midwife-led hospital births (37,887.CS rates varied across planned births settings from 6.5% to 15.5% among nulliparous and 0.6% to 5.1% among multiparous women. CS rates were higher among low risk nulliparous and multiparous English women planning obstetric unit births compared to Dutch women planning midwife-led hospital births (adjusted (adj OR 1.89 (95% CI 1.64 to 2.18 and 3.66 (2.90 to 4.63 respectively. Instrumental vaginal birth rates varied from 10.7% to 22.5% for nulliparous and from 0.9% to 5.7% for multiparous women. Rates were lower in the English comparison groups apart from planned births in obstetric units. Transfer, augmentation and episiotomy rates were much lower in England compared to the Netherlands for all midwife-led groups. In most comparisons, epidural rates were higher among English groups.When considering maternal outcomes, findings confirm advantages of giving birth in midwife-led settings for low risk women. Further research is needed into strategies to decrease rates of medical intervention in obstetric units in England and to reduce rates of avoidable transfer, episiotomy and augmentation of labour in the Netherlands.

  8. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  9. Outcome of planned home and hospital births among low-risk women in Iceland in 2005-2009: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2015-03-01

    At 2.2 percent in 2012, the home birth rate in Iceland is the highest in the Nordic countries and has been rising rapidly in the new millennium. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of planned home births and planned hospital births in comparable low-risk groups in Iceland. The study is a retrospective cohort study comparing the total population of 307 planned home births in Iceland in 2005-2009 to a matched 1:3 sample of 921 planned hospital births. Regression analysis, adjusted for confounding variables, was performed for the primary outcome variables. The rate of oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower when labor started as a planned home birth. Differences in the rates of other primary outcome variables were not significant. The home birth group had lower rates of operative birth and obstetric anal sphincter injury. The rate of 5-minute Apgar score home and hospital birth groups, but the home birth group had a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission. Intervention and adverse outcome rates in both study groups, including transfer rates, were higher among primiparas than multiparas. Oxytocin augmentation, epidural analgesia, and postpartum hemorrhage rates were significantly interrelated. This study adds to the growing body of evidence that suggests that planned home birth for low-risk women is as safe as planned hospital birth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  11. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There seems to be little discussion between patient and physician about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), perhaps because they are not perceived to have adverse effects on fertility. We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users......, years infertile). CONCLUSIONS Concurrent use of CAM during treatment with ART was associated with a 30% lower pregnancy rate that could not be explained by poor prognosis or life style factors. The mechanisms that could account for this association were discussed. Concurrent CAM use should be monitored...... women about to have ART for the first time completed self-report assessments prior to treatment (Time 1, T1) and at 12-month follow-up (Time 2, T2). Data from treatment records were also available for n = 590. RESULTS About 30.6% (n = 223) of women used CAMs during the observation period. At T2...

  12. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh

    2013-01-01

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implanta......Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory...... implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients....

  13. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.

  14. Religious affiliation and psychiatric morbidity in Brazil: higher rates among evangelicals and spiritists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Marín-León, Leticia; Botega, Neury José; Berti De Azevedo Barros, Marilisa; Bosco De Oliveira, Helenice

    2008-11-01

    To verify the association between the prevalence of mental symptoms and excessive alcohol intake with religious affiliation, church attendance and personal religiosity. A household survey of 515 adults randomly sampled included the WHO SUPRE-MISS questionnaire, SRQ-20 and AUDIT. Weighted prevalences were estimated and logistic analyses were performed. Minor psychiatric morbidity was greater among Spiritists and Protestants/ Evangelicals than in Catholics and in the ;no-religion' group. The latter had a greater frequency of abusive alcohol drinking pattern and Protestants/Evangelicals showed lower drinking patterns. Although belonging to Protestant/Evangelical churches in Brazil may inhibit alcohol involvement it seems to be associated to a higher frequency of depressive symptoms. Processes of seeking relief in new religious affiliations among sub-groups with previous minor psychiatric symptoms may probably occur in the Brazilian society.

  15. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. RESULTS: The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation...... of 14,051,377 DKK, median 47,637 (range: 5,000-3,577,043). Of 114 non-surgically treated patients, 40 received 3,715,224 DKK in compensation, with a median amount of 35,788 DKK (range: 5,000-830,073). CONCLUSION: Compensation after surgical treatment was 3.8 times higher than compensation after non......-surgical treatment. It is noteworthy that 34.5% of patients had an overlooked diagnosis which underlines the importance of a correct primary diagnosis. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  16. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends and Characteristics of United States Out-of-Hospital Births 2004-2014: New Information on Risk Status and Access to Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Declercq, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    Out-of-hospital births are increasing in the United States. Our purpose was to examine trends in out-of-hospital births from 2004 to 2014, and to analyze newly available data on risk status and access to care. Newly available data from the revised birth certificate for 47 states and Washington, DC, were used to examine out-of-hospital births by characteristics and to compare them with hospital births. Trends from 2004 to 2014 were also examined. Out-of-hospital births increased by 72 percent, from 0.87 percent of United States births in 2004 to 1.50 percent in 2014. Compared with mothers who had hospital births, those with out-of-hospital births had lower prepregnancy obesity (12.5% vs 25.0%) and smoking (2.8% vs 8.5%) rates, and higher college graduation (39.3% vs 30.0%) and breastfeeding initiation (94.3% vs 80.8%) rates. Among planned home births, 67.1 percent were self-paid, compared with 31.9 percent of birth center and 3.4 percent of hospital births. Vaginal births after cesarean (VBACs) comprised 4.6 percent of planned home births and 1.6 percent of hospital and birth center births. Sociodemographic and medical risk status of out-of-hospital births improved substantially from 2004 to 2014. Improvements in risk status of out-of-hospital births from 2004 to 2014 suggest that appropriate selection of low-risk women is improving. High rates of self-pay for the costs of out-of-hospital birth suggest serious gaps in insurance coverage, whereas higher-than-average rates of VBAC could reflect lack of access to hospital VBACs. Mandating private insurance and Medicaid coverage could substantially improve access to out-of-hospital births. Improving access to hospital VBACs might reduce the number of out-of-hospital VBACs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lead Burden as a Factor for Higher Complication Rate in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kolibash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 [n=168]; Group C: ≥5 [n=16]. Prespecified inhospital and long-term follow-up events were compared. Mortality rates were obtained from Social Security Death Index. Median follow-up was 2 years. Results: Baseline age, gender and race demographics were similar among the three groups. Increasing lead burden was associated with more adverse periprocedural events (A: 3.4%, B: 10.1%, C: 25.0%; P=0.031 and long-term device-related events (A: 1.7%, B: 13.0%, C: 18.8%; P=0.031. Device-related readmissions increased in frequency as lead burden increased (A: 3.5%, B: 18.5%, C: 37.5%; P=0.002. Combined periprocedural and late events also increased with more redundant leads (A: 5.2%, B: 23.2%, C: 44.0%; P=0.001. Total major events were infrequent (3.3%. There was no procedure-related mortality. Long-term all-cause mortality was not significantly different (A: 17.2%, B: 23.8%, C: 25.0%; P=0.567. Conclusions: Greater lead burden was associated with increased number of periprocedural and long-term minor events. It did not significantly impact major events or mortality.

  19. Temporal Trends in Late Preterm and Early Term Birth Rates in 6 High-Income Countries in North America and Europe and Association With Clinician-Initiated Obstetric Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Jennifer L.; Kramer, Michael S.; Deb-Rinker, Paromita

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Clinicians have been urged to delay the use of obstetric interventions (eg, labor induction, cesarean delivery) until 39 weeks or later in the absence of maternal or fetal indications for intervention. Objective: To describe recent trends in late preterm and early term birth rates in 6......: Use of clinician-initiated obstetric intervention (either labor induction or prelabor cesarean delivery) during delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual country-specific late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth rates. Results: The study population included 2 415 432 Canadian...... births in 2006-2012 (3.6% late preterm; 18.7% early term); and 25 788 558 US births in 2006-2014 (6.0% late preterm; 26.9% early term). Late preterm birth rates decreased in Norway (3.9% to 3.5%) and the United States (6.8% to 5.7%). Early term birth rates decreased in Norway (17.6% to 16.8%), Sweden (19...

  20. An integrated approach for a higher success rate in mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the importance of balanced management of hard and soft key success factors, combining the economic logic of corporate performance and human capital through an integrated approach to mergers and acquisitions. The study, based on a questionnaire and interviews, suggests that the achievement level ofmergers and acquisitions’ objectives of acquiring companies in Slovenia should be comparable to findings of similar studies; namely, the objectives that drove the deal were met only half the time. The results indicate that five hard success factors – a professional target search and due diligence, a realistic assessment of synergies, theright mix of financial sources, a detailed post-acquisition integration plan already prepared in the pre-deal phase and its speedy implementation – and five soft success factors – a new “combined” organizational culture, a competent management team, innovative employees, efficient and consistent communication and a creative business environment – are becoming increasingly relevant. Even though they differ in their importance for individual companies in the sample, they are all considered essential to increasing the success rate of corporate combinations

  1. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  2. Lower serotonin level and higher rate of fibromyalgia syndrome with advancing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasever, Melahat; Namlı Kalem, Muberra; Sönmez, Çiğdem; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Yüce, Tuncay; Sahin Aker, Seda; Koç, Acar; Genc, Hakan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between changes in serotonin levels during pregnancy and fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) and the relationships between FS and the physical/psychological state, biochemical and hormonal parameters, which may be related to the musculoskeletal system. This study is a prospective case-control study conducted with 277 pregnant women at the obstetric unit of Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, in the period between January and June 2015. FS was determined based on the presence or absence of the 2010 ACR diagnostic criteria and all the volunteers were asked to answer the questionnaires as Fibromyalgia Impact Criteria (FIQ), Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SS), Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Biochemical and hormonal markers (glucose, TSH, T4, Ca (calcium), P (phosphate), PTH (parathyroid hormone) and serotonin levels) relating to muscle and bone metabolism were measured. In the presence of fibromyalgia, the physical and psychological parameters are negatively affected (p serotonin levels may contribute to the development of fibromyalgia but this was not statistically significant. The Beck Depression Inventory scale statistically showed that increasing scores also increase the risk of fibromyalgia (p serotonin levels in women with FS are lower than the control group and that serotonin levels reduce as pregnancy progresses. Anxiety and depression in pregnant women with FS are higher than the control group. The presence of depression increases the likelihood of developing FS at a statistically significant level. Serotonin impairment also increases the chance of developing FS, but this correlation has not been shown to be statistically significant.

  3. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...

  4. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  5. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  6. Children Receiving Free or Reduced-Price School Lunch Have Higher Food Insufficiency Rates in Summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Barnidge, Ellen; Kim, Youngmi

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, 20% of households in the United States with children lacked consistent access to adequate food. Food insufficiency has significant implications for children, including poor physical and mental health outcomes, behavior problems, and low educational achievements. The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is one policy solution to reduce food insufficiency among children from low-income families. The objective of this project was to evaluate the association between NSLP participation and household food insufficiency by examining trajectories of food insufficiency over 10 calendar months. The calendar months included both nonsummer months when school is in session and summer months when school is out of session. The study used the data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation and conducted linear growth curve analyses in the multilevel modeling context. Comparisons were made between the trajectories of food insufficiencies among recipients of free or reduced-price lunch and their counterparts who are eligible but choose not to participate in the program. Heads of households that included children receiving free or reduced-price lunch (n = 6867) were more likely to be female, black, unmarried, and unemployed, and have a lower educational attainment than those whose children were eligible but did not receive free or reduced-price lunch (n = 11,396). For households participating in the NSLP, the food insufficiency rate was consistent from January to May at ∼4%, and then increased in June and July to >5%. Meanwhile, food insufficiency among eligible nonrecipients was constant throughout the year at nearly 2%. The NSLP protects households from food insufficiency. Policies should be instituted to make enrollment easier for households. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  8. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorani, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT) from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense, mutualistic

  9. Preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone

  10. Neonatal Outcomes in the Birth Center Setting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia C; Danhausen, Kathleen; Alliman, Jill; Phillippi, R David

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review investigates the effect of the birth center setting on neonatal mortality in economically developed countries to aid women and clinicians in decision making. We searched the Google Scholar, CINAHL, and PubMed databases using key terms birth/birthing center or out of hospital with perinatal/neonatal outcomes. Ancestry searches identified additional studies, and an alert was set for new publications. We included primary source studies in English, published after 1980, conducted in a developed country, and researching planned birth in centers with guidelines similar to American Association of Birth Centers standards. After initial review, we conducted a preliminary analysis, assessing which measures of neonatal health, morbidity, and mortality were included across studies. Neonatal mortality was selected as the sole summary measure as other measures were sporadically reported or inconsistently defined. Seventeen studies were included, representing at least 84,500 women admitted to a birth center in labor. There were substantial differences of study design, sampling techniques, and definitions of neonatal outcomes across studies, limiting conclusive statements of the effect of intrapartum care in a birth center. No reviewed study found a statistically increased rate of neonatal mortality in birth centers compared to low-risk women giving birth in hospitals, nor did data suggest a trend toward higher neonatal mortality in birth centers. As in all birth settings, nulliparous women, women aged greater than 35 years, and women with pregnancies of more than 42 weeks' gestation may have an increased risk of neonatal mortality. There are substantial flaws in the literature concerning the effect of birth center care on neonatal outcomes. More research is needed on subgroups at risk of poor outcomes in the birth center environment. To expedite research, consistent use of national and international definitions of perinatal and neonatal mortality within

  11. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  12. Rates of Femicide in Women of Different Races, Ethnicities, and Places of Birth: Massachusetts, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; McKeown, Loreta; Melvin, Patrice; Dang, Quynh; Reed, Joan

    2011-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) homicide in Massachusetts, an IPV mortality data set developed by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health was analyzed. The rates of death were estimated by dividing the number of decedents over the aged-matched population and Poisson regression was used to estimate the…

  13. Increased rate of whole body lipolysis before and after 9 days of bed rest in healthy young men born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Hojbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which may be precipitated by physical inactivity. Methods: 22 LBW and 23 controls were studied before and after bed rest by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with indirect...... calorimetry, infusion of stable isotope tracers, preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results: LBW subjects had similar BMI, but elevated abdominal obesity compared with controls. The basal rate of whole body lipolysis (WBL) was elevated in LBW subjects with and without correction for abdominal...... insulin resistance when exposed to bed rest in LBW subjects. Nine days of bed rest causes severe peripheral insulin resistance, reduced WBL and skeletal muscle HSL activity, as well as a compensatory increased insulin secretion, with no differences in LBW subjects and controls....

  14. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  15. Concerns and perceptions immediately following Superstorm Sandy: ratings for property damage were higher than for health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    Governmental officials, health and safety professionals, early responders, and the public are interested in the perceptions and concerns of people faced with a crisis, especially during and immediately after a disaster strikes. Reliable information can lead to increased individual and community preparedness for upcoming crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate concerns of coastal and central New Jersey residents within the first 100 days of Superstorm Sandy's landfall. Respondents living in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm, with shore residents having higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), more flood waters in their homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 days), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 days). Ratings of concerns varied both among and within categories as a function of location (central vs. coastal New Jersey), stressor level (ranging from 1 to 3 for combinations of power outages, high winds, and flooding), and demographics. Respondents were most concerned about property damage, health, inconveniences, ecological services, and nuclear power plants in that order. Respondents from the shore gave higher ratings to the concerns within each major category, compared to those from central Jersey. Four findings have implications for understanding future risk, recovery, and resiliency: (1) respondents with the highest stressor level (level 3) were more concerned about water damage than others, (2) respondents with flood damage were more concerned about water drainage and mold than others, (3) respondents with the highest stressor levels rated all ecological services higher than others, and (4) shore respondents rated all ecological services higher than central Jersey residents. These data provide information to design future preparedness plans, improve resiliency for future severe weather events, and reduce public health risk.

  16. Trends and characteristics of home and other out-of-hospital births in the United States, 1990-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDorman, Marian F; Menacker, Fay; Declercq, Eugene

    2010-03-03

    This report examines trends and characteristics of out-of-hospital and home births in the United States. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. In 2006, there were 38,568 out-of-hospital births in the United States, including 24,970 home births and 10,781 births occurring in a freestanding birthing center. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of out-of-hospital births increased by 3% from 0.87% in 2004 to 0.90% in 2005 and 2006. A similar pattern was found for home births. After a gradual decline from 1990 to 2004, the percentage of home births increased by 5% to 0.59% in 2005 and remained steady in 2006. Compared with the U.S. average, home birth rates were higher for non-Hispanic white women, married women, women aged 25 and over, and women with several previous children. Home births were less likely than hospital births to be preterm, low birthweight, or multiple deliveries. The percentage of home births was 74% higher in rural counties of less than 100,000 population than in counties with a population size of 100,000 or more. The percentage of home births also varied widely by state; in Vermont and Montana more than 2% of births in 2005-2006 were home births, compared with less than 0.2% in Louisiana and Nebraska. About 61% of home births were delivered by midwives. Among midwife-delivered home births, one-fourth (27%) were delivered by certified nurse midwives, and nearly three-fourths (73%) were delivered by other midwives. Women may choose home birth for a variety of reasons, including a desire for a low-intervention birth in a familiar environment surrounded by family and friends and cultural or religious concerns. Lack of transportation in rural areas and cost factors may also play a role.

  17. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Nicole A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES. In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. Methods National TB surveillance data for 1996–2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. Results TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Conclusions Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

  18. A national study of socioeconomic status and tuberculosis rates by country of birth, United States, 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Nicole A; Davidow, Amy L; Winston, Carla A; Chen, Michael P; Gazmararian, Julie A; Katz, Dolores J

    2012-05-18

    Tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries has historically been associated with poverty and low socioeconomic status (SES). In the past quarter century, TB in the United States has changed from primarily a disease of native-born to primarily a disease of foreign-born persons, who accounted for more than 60% of newly-diagnosed TB cases in 2010. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of SES with rates of TB in U.S.-born and foreign-born persons in the United States, overall and for the five most common foreign countries of origin. National TB surveillance data for 1996-2005 was linked with ZIP Code-level measures of SES (crowding, unemployment, education, and income) from U.S. Census 2000. ZIP Codes were grouped into quartiles from low SES to high SES and TB rates were calculated for foreign-born and U.S.-born populations in each quartile. TB rates were highest in the quartiles with low SES for both U.S.-born and foreign-born populations. However, while TB rates increased five-fold or more from the two highest to the two lowest SES quartiles among the U.S.-born, they increased only by a factor of 1.3 among the foreign-born. Low SES is only weakly associated with TB among foreign-born persons in the United States. The traditional associations of TB with poverty are not sufficient to explain the epidemiology of TB among foreign-born persons in this country and perhaps in other developed countries. TB outreach and research efforts that focus only on low SES will miss an important segment of the foreign-born population.

  19. Impact of the Red River catastrophic flood on women giving birth in North Dakota, 1994-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Zotti, Marianne E; Hsia, Jason

    2011-04-01

    To document changes in birth rates, birth outcomes, and pregnancy risk factors among women giving birth after the 1997 Red River flood in North Dakota. We analyzed detailed county-level birth files pre-disaster (1994-1996) and post-disaster (1997-2000) in North Dakota. Crude birth rates and adjusted fertility rates were calculated. The demographic and pregnancy risk factors were described among women delivering singleton births. Logistic regression was conducted to examine associations between the disaster and low birth weight (Dakota. The proportion of women giving birth who were older, non-white, unmarried, and had a higher education increased. Compared to pre-disaster, there were significant increases in the following maternal measures after the disaster: any medical risks (5.1-7.1%), anemia (0.7-1.1%), acute or chronic lung disease (0.4-0.5%), eclampsia (0.3-2.1%), and uterine bleeding (0.3-0.4%). In addition, there was a significant increase in births that were low birth weight (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.21) and preterm (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16) after adjusting for maternal characteristics and smoking. Following the flood, there was an increase in medical risks, low birth weight, and preterm delivery among women giving birth in North Dakota. Further research that examines birth outcomes of women following a catastrophic disaster is warranted.

  20. Estimativa dos coeficientes específicos de mortalidade infantil segundo peso ao nascer no município de São Paulo (Brasil An estimate of the specific infant mortality rates by birth-weight in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a distribuição do peso ao nascer da coorte dos recém-nascidos que deu origem aos óbitos infantis estudados pela Investigação Interamericana de Mortalidade na Infância no projeto de São Paulo (1968-70 e determinados os riscos de óbito associados a cada intervalo de peso de nascimento. Assim, foram apurados coeficientes de mortalidade infantil de 305,5, 50,2 e 34,4 para recém-nascidos de baixo peso, peso deficiente e peso superior a 3.000 g. A comparação destes coeficientes com os registrados na área americana incluída na investigação citada (Califórnia, revelou excesso de mortalidade, particularmente notável não para os recém-nascidos de baixo peso, mas para os recém-nascidos de peso superior a 3.000 g. O ajuste da mortalidade de São Paulo (Brasil à distribuição do peso ao nascer observada na Califórnia foi capaz de explicar 15% do excesso da mortalidade infantil e 21% do excesso da mortalidade neonatal de São Paulo.By means of the birth-rate distribution found to exist during the Inter-American Investigation of Mortality in Childhood in S. Paulo (1968-70 the infant death rate association with each birth-weight interval was estimated. The infant mortality rates were 305.5, 50.2 and 34.4 respectively for low birth-weight, deficient weight and weight above 3,000 grams. Compared with the rates found in California, USA, by the same Investigation, the infant mortality rates in S. Paulo are higher, particularly for mortality associated with birth-weight of above 3,000 grams. The adjustment of infant mortality rates in S. Paulo according to the birth-weight distribution found in California led to the conclusion that, at that period, only 15% of the excess of the infant mortality of S. Paulo could be attributed exclusively to birth-weight. In the case of neonatal mortality, 21% of the mortality excess in S. Paulo could be attributed to birth-weight.

  1. Preterm birth, an unresolved issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizán, Jose M; Hofmeyr, Justus; Buekens, Pierre; Salaria, Natasha

    2013-11-15

    Premature birth is the world's leading cause of neonatal mortality with worldwide estimates indicating 11.1% of all live births were preterm in 2010. Preterm birth rates are increasing in most countries with continual differences in survival rates amongst rich and poor countries. Preterm birth is currently an important unresolved global issue with research efforts focusing on uterine quiescence and activation, the 'omics' approaches and implementation science in order to reduce the incidence and increase survival rates of preterm babies. The journal Reproductive Health has published a supplement entitled Born Too Soon which addresses factors in the preconception and pregnancy period which may increase the risk of preterm birth and also outlines potential interventions which may reduce preterm birth rates and improve survival of preterm babies by as much as 84% annually. This is critical in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4) for child survival by 2015 and beyond.

  2. Secular trends in the rate of low birth weight in Brazilian State Capitals in the period 1996 to 2010 Tendencia secular de la tasa de bajo peso al nacer en las capitales brasileñas de 1996 a 2010 Tendência secular da taxa de baixo peso ao nascer nas capitais brasileiras de 1996 a 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Jane Ferreira Veloso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular trends in rates of low birth weight in Brazilian state capital cities were evaluated for the period 1996 to 2010 using joinpoint regression models. The rates were calculated using data from the Live Births Information System. Newborns weighing less than 500g were excluded. Only data for capital cities was included since under-registration of births in these cities is lower and new trends can be detected earlier. There was a significant increase in the rate of low birth weight in the Brazilian capitals of the North Region, Northeast Region, South Region and Southeast Region up to 2003/2004, stabilizing thereafter. In the capitals of the Center-west Region the rate increased throughout the whole study period. The rate of low birth weight was higher in the capitals of the more developed regions. The rate of multiple births increased significantly in all Brazilian capitals, while the stillbirth rate decreased and showed a negative correlation with the rate of low birth weight. The increase in the rate of low birth weight may be partially explained by the increase in multiple births, an increase in the birth of infants weighing 500 to 999g and by the reduction in the stillbirth rate.La tendencia secular de la tasa de bajo peso al nacer de 1996 a 2010 en las capitales brasileñas se evaluó utilizando modelos de regresión joinpoint. Las tasas se calcularon a partir del Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos, excluyéndose recién nacidos con un peso A tendência secular da taxa de baixo peso ao nascer de 1996 a 2010 nas capitais brasileiras foi avaliada utilizando-se modelos de regressão joinpoint. As taxas foram calculadas a partir do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, excluindo-se recém-nascido com peso < 500g. Foram incluídos apenas dados das capitais, onde o sub-registro é menor e novas tendências podem ser detectadas mais precocemente. A taxa de baixo peso ao nascer aumentou significantemente nas capitais

  3. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Daniela Izoton de Sadovsky

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Methods: Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. Results: The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend < 0.001. Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. Conclusion: In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies.

  4. Use of donor sperm in addition to oocyte donation after repeated implantation failure in normozoospermic patients does not improve live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, A; García, D; Rodríguez, A; Vassena, R; Vernaeve, V

    2016-11-01

    Does switching to donor semen after at least three failed oocyte donation (OD) cycles with the partner normozoospermic semen increase the live birth rate in a subsequent OD cycle? Switching to donor semen after at least three failed OD cycles with the partner normozoospermic semen does not increase the live birth rate. In some patients, a viable pregnancy cannot be achieved after several OD cycles, despite normal diagnostic findings for the couple. The ESHRE Capri Workshop Group indicates that, in order to improve reproductive outcomes, a semen donation can be offered after three failed ICSI cycles. A retrospective cohort analysis of fourth and fifth OD cycles with either the partner's normozoospermic semen (OD) or double-donation cycles (DD), performed between January 2011 and December 2014 in a private fertility center. These couples did not have a known male factor. The study included 228 cycles (159 OD and 69 DD). The fertilization method was ICSI in all cycles and embryos were transferred fresh. Fertilization rates were compared between groups using ANOVA while pregnancy outcomes were compared using Chi-square tests. Effect of DD on pregnancy outcomes was further analyzed using a logistic regression model adjusted for recipient's age and BMI, number of embryos transferred, day of embryo transfer and morphological embryo quality score. There was no difference in live birth rate between the DD and OD groups (38.2 versus 35.8%, P = 0.73), even after adjustment for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 0.72, 2.76; P = 0.31). Rates of biochemical pregnancy (52.2 versus 54.1%, P = 0.79), clinical pregnancy (41.2 versus 45.9%, P = 0.51) and ongoing pregnancy (38.2 versus 37.1%, P = 0.87) were not different between the DD and the OD groups, as well as fertilization rate (75.3 versus 75.2%, P = 0.97). The DD and OD groups were comparable at baseline in all demographic and cycle variables analyzed (recipient's BMI, number of

  5. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  6. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  7. [Home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S

    In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.

  8. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  9. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk.This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services.Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8% when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%, regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6 for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3 for women of high obstetric risk.The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  10. Economic implications of home births and birth centers: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jane; Petrou, Stavros

    2008-06-01

    It is widely perceived that home births and birth centers may help decrease the costs of maternity care for women with uncomplicated pregnancies and deliveries. This structured review examines the literature relating to the economic implications of home births and birth center care compared with hospital maternity care. The bibliographic databases MEDLINE (from 1950), CINAHL (from 1982), EMBASE (from 1980), and an "in-house" database, Econ2, were searched for relevant English language publications using MeSH and free text terms. Data were extracted with respect to the study design, inclusion criteria, clinical and cost results, and details of what was included in the cost calculations. Eleven studies were included from the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and Canada. Two studies focused on home births versus other forms and locations of care, whereas nine focused on birth centers versus other forms and locations of care. Resource use was generally lower for women cared for at home and in birth centers due to lower rates of intervention, shorter lengths of stay, or both. However, this fact did not always translate into lower costs because, in the U.K. where many studies were conducted, more midwives of a higher grade were employed to manage the birth centers than are usually employed in maternity units, and because of costs of converting existing facilities into delivery rooms. The quality of much of the literature was poor, although no studies were excluded for this reason. Selection bias was likely to be a problem in those studies not based on randomized controlled trials because, even where birth center eligibility was applied throughout, women who choose to deliver at home or in a birth center are likely to be different in terms of expectations and approach from women choosing to deliver in hospital. This review highlights the paucity of economic literature relating to home births and birth centers. Differences in results between studies may be

  11. Higher Magnitude Cash Payments Improve Research Follow-up Rates Without Increasing Drug Use or Perceived Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S.; Marlowe, Douglas B.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Croft, Jason R.; Arabia, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    In a prior study (Festinger et al., 2005) we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n ≅ 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion. PMID:18395365

  12. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  13. The Female Population Growth Projection Year 2021 in Trenggalek Regency by Leslie Matrix Model on the Birth Rate and Life Expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggreini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the number of female residents in Trenggalek Regency in 2021 based on data on birth rate and life expectancy. The use of eigenvalues and eigenvectors aims to determine the dividing age distribution by Leslie matrix model. The eigenvectors are used to determine the number of female populations of each age interval, while the eigenvalues are used to determine population growth rates. The research method used is to determine the subject of research. The next stage is to collect research data, then analyze the data and last draw conclusions. The research data is obtained from BPS Kabupaten Trenggalek and BPS East Java Province that is data of woman population from year 2010-2015. The result of this research using Leslie matrix model for female population in Trenggalek Regency that is discrete model. The discrete model is divided into fourteen age intervals constructed using the birthrate and life expectancy. The conclusions of the study showed that the number of female population in Trenggalek Regency tended to increase with positive eigen value greater than one. In other words, the growth rate of female population in Trenggalek Regency tends to be positive. The success of Leslie's matrix model is the application of case studies in predicting the number of female populations in Trenggalek District by 2021 using the MAPLE 16 Program.

  14. Vital Signs: Repeat Births Among Teens — United States, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Lorrie; Warner, Lee; O’Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Duong, Linh M.; Marshall, Cassondra; Hastings, Philip A.; Harrison, Ayanna T.; Barfield, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother’s education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. Methods To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and t...

  15. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preterm Birth Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglan, Greta B; Lannon, Sophia M; Jones, Katherine M; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth disproportionately affects American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. This disparity in birth outcomes may stem from higher levels of exposure to psychosocial, sociodemographic, and medical risk factors. This paper reviews relevant research related to preterm birth in American Indian and Alaska Native women. This narrative review examines disparities in preterm birth rates between AI/AN and other American women, and addresses several maternal risk factors and barriers that contribute to elevated preterm birth rates among this racial minority group. Additionally, this paper focuses on recent evidence that geographical location can significantly impact preterm birth rates among AI/AN women. In particular, access to care among AI/AN women and differences between rural and urban areas are discussed.

  16. Theoretical and computational study of the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate from hydrogen to higher-Z gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakalov, Dimitar, E-mail: dbakalov@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Adamczak, Andrzej [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Stoilov, Mihail [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsarigradsko chaussée 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Vacchi, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-23

    The recent PSI Lamb shift experiment and the controversy about proton size revived the interest in measuring the hyperfine splitting in muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for comparing ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data on proton electromagnetic structure. This measurement critically depends on the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available data provide only qualitative information, and the theoretical predictions have not been verified. We propose a new method by measurements of the transfer rate in thermalized target at different temperatures, estimate its accuracy and investigate the optimal experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Method for measuring the energy dependence of muon transfer rate to higher-Z gases. • Thermalization and depolarization of muonic hydrogen studied by Monte Carlo method. • Optimal experimental conditions determined by Monte Carlo simulations. • Mathematical model and for estimating the uncertainty of the experimental results.

  17. Decrease in delivery room intubation rates after use of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the delivery room for resuscitation of very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniwale, Manoj; Wertheimer, Fiona

    2017-07-01

    The literature supports minimizing duration of invasive ventilation to decrease lung injury in premature infants. Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommended use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in delivery room for infants requiring prolonged respiratory support. To evaluate the impact of implementation of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) using nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) for resuscitation in very low birth infants. Retrospective study was performed after NIPPV was introduced in the delivery room and compared with infants receiving face mask to provide positive pressure ventilation for resuscitation of very low birth weight infants prior to its use. Data collected from 119 infants resuscitated using NIPPV and 102 infants resuscitated with a face mask in a single institution. The primary outcome was the need for endotracheal intubation in the delivery room. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics software version 24. A total of 31% of infants were intubated in the delivery room in the NIPPV group compared to 85% in the Face mask group (p=rates were 11% in the NIPPV group and 31% in the Face mask group (p<0.001). Epinephrine administration was also lower in NIPPV group (2% vs. 8%; P=0.03). Only 38% infants remained intubated at 24hours of age in the NIPPV group compared to 66% in the Face mask group (p<0.001). Median duration of invasive ventilation in the NIPPV group was shorter (2days) compared to the Face mask group (11days) (p=0.01). The incidence of air-leaks was not significant between the two groups. NIPPV was safely and effectively used in the delivery room settings to provide respiratory support for VLBW infants with less need for intubation, chest compressions, epinephrine administration and subsequent invasive ventilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Harpsøe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor self-rated health (SRH has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. METHODS: Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002 at 16(th and 30(th week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses, emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. RESULTS: Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002 and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12. Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.

  19. Metformin improves pregnancy and live-birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rantala, Anni S; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Perheentupa, Antti; Tinkanen, Helena; Bloigu, Risto; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tapanainen, Juha S

    2012-05-01

    The role of metformin in the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES: We investigated whether metformin decreases the early miscarriage rate and improves the pregnancy rates (PR) and live-birth rates (LBR) in PCOS. This was a multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred twenty women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility were randomized to metformin (n = 160, Diformin; obese women, 1000 mg two times daily; nonobese subjects, 500 mg + 1000 mg daily) or identical doses of placebo (n = 160). After 3 months' treatment, another appropriate infertility treatment was combined if necessary. If pregnancy occurred, metformin/placebo was continued up to the 12th week. Miscarriage rates were low and similar in the two groups (metformin 15.2% vs. placebo 17.9%, P = 0.8). Intent-to-treat analysis showed that metformin significantly improved PR and LBR (vs. placebo) in the whole study population (PR: 53.6 vs. 40.4%, P = 0.006; LBR: 41.9 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.014) and PR in obese women (49.0 vs. 31.4%, P = 0.04), and there was a similar trend in nonobese (PR: 58.6 vs. 47.6%, P = 0.09; LBR: 46.7 vs. 34.5%, P = 0.09) and in obese women with regard to LBR (35.7 vs. 21.9%, P = 0.07). Cox regression analysis showed that metformin plus standard infertility treatment increased the chance of pregnancy 1.6 times (hazard rate 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.27). Obese women especially seem to benefit from 3 months' pretreatment with metformin and its combination thereafter with routine ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility.

  20. 4. The Lunar Effect on Delivery and Other Birth Outcomes in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Objective: It is a widely held belief that the period of a full moon is associated with higher birth rates compared to periods when the moon is not full. We investigated whether more births occurred during a full moon in a rural African population. Design: Data collected from 42 clinical sites in rural.

  1. Severe adverse maternal outcomes among low risk women with planned home versus hospital births in the Netherlands: nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.; Mesman, J.A.J.M.; Manniën, J.; Zwart, J.J.; van Dillen, J.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that low risk women at the onset of labour with planned home birth have a higher rate of severe acute maternal morbidity than women with planned hospital birth, and to compare the rate of postpartum haemorrhage and manual removal of placenta. Design: Cohort study

  2. [Effect of high magnesium ion concentration on the electron transport rate and proton exchange in thylakoid membranes in higher plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'ev, A R; Khorobrykh, S A; Ivanov, B N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport in isolated pea thylakoids were investigated in the pH range from 4.0 up to 8.0. In the absence of magnesium ions in the medium and in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 in the experiments not only without added artificial acceptors but also with ferricyanide or methylviologen as an acceptor, this rate had a well-expressed maximum at pH 5.0. It was shown that, after depression to minimal values at pH 5.5-6.5, it gradually rose with increasing pH. An increase in magnesium ion concentration up to 20 mM essentially affected the electron transfer rate: it decreased somewhat at pH 4.0-5.0 but increased at higher pH values. At this magnesium ion concentration, the maximum rate was at pH 6.0-6.5 and the minimum, at pH 7.0. Subsequent rise upon increasing pH to 8.0 was expressed more sharply. The influence of high magnesium ion concentration on the rate of electron transport was not observed in the presence of gramicidin D. It was found that without uncoupler, the changes in the electron transfer rate under the influence of magnesium ions correlated to the changes in the first-order rate constant of the proton efflux from thylakoids. It is supposed that the change in the ability of thylakoids to keep protons by the action of magnesium ions is the result of electrostatic interactions of these ions with the charges on the external surface of membranes. A possible role of regulation of the electron transport rate by magnesium ions in vivo is discussed.

  3. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, E; Korevaar, J C; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F

    2008-08-01

    An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical parameters of 111 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with 114 women randomized to clomifene citrate plus placebo. The data for age, BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and plasma testosterone were available in all women, 2 h glucose in 80% of women and homeostatic model assessment for assessing insulin sensitivity (HOMA) in 50% of women. Of the women who were allocated to the metformin group, 44 women (40%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. In the placebo group, 52 women (46%) reached an ongoing pregnancy. There was a significantly different chance of an ongoing pregnancy for metformin versus placebo between subgroups based on age and WHR (P = 0.014). There was a positive effect of metformin versus placebo on pregnancy rate in older women (>or=28 years) with a high WHR, a negative effect of metformin versus placebo in young women (Metformin may be an effective addition to clomifene citrate in infertile women with PCOS, especially in older and viscerally obese patients.

  4. Mode of birth and women’s psychological and physical wellbeing in the postnatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Ingrid J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical and psychological problems after childbirth are common, and may have a significant negative and long-term impact on women’s wellbeing and daily functioning. The method of birth may be a particularly important factor influencing women’s health and wellbeing following birth, however, population-wide evidence is limited. This study uses data from 5,332 women who responded to a national survey of women’s experiences of maternity care in England. We examined women’s postnatal wellbeing in the first three months after birth, and whether these varied by mode of birth. Methods This is a secondary analysis of survey data using a random sample of women selected from birth registration. We used multinomial logistic regression models to examine the association between women’s self-reported psychological symptoms, health problems and mode of birth. Results Women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births and unplanned caesarean section births reported the poorest health and wellbeing, while those of women who had unassisted vaginal births and planned caesarean section births were less affected by the birth process. Most women’s physical and emotional health appeared to improve with time, however, those who had a forceps-assisted vaginal birth were more likely to report ongoing posttraumatic-type symptoms several months after the birth. Conclusions Mode of birth was associated with differences in outcomes at three months. By comparison to women who had unassisted vaginal births, the risk of reduced postnatal health and wellbeing was higher amongst the women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births but not amongst women who had ventouse-assisted vaginal births. This would suggest that it is important to differentiate the different types of instrumental birth in outcome studies. Of concern was the higher rate of posttraumatic-type symptoms among women who had forceps-assisted vaginal births relative to the other modes of

  5. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... births and improving neonatal outcomes. View the archived presentation and publication Related Links Is It Worth It? ...

  6. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Draper, Elizabeth S; Kollée, Louis

    2008-01-01

    ,000 total live births were discharged from the hospital alive with a range from 64.1 to 117.1; the range was 10 to 31 per 10,000 live births for infants discharged with a diagnosis of neurologic or respiratory morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Very preterm mortality and morbidity differed between European regions...

  7. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  8. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  9. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  10. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  11. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  12. Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Shia T; McClure, Leslie A; Zaitchik, Ben F; Gohlke, Julia M

    2013-06-10

    Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching

  13. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Following Icsi- Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Aygül Demirol; Süleyman Güven; Timur Gürgan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report preterm birth and low birth weight rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) related pregnancies and to compare our data with literature findings. STUDY DESIGN: Three-hundred and eighty-nine pregnancies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrospectively evaluated. Patients’ characteristics including age, gestational age at delivery and birth weight were noted from special clinic files. Women with early pregnanc...

  14. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.

  15. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  16. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmoto, Christophe Z; Hoàng, Xuyên; Van, Toan Ngo

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births) has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births). The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  17. Birth weight and perinatal mortality: A comparison of "optimal" birth weight in seven western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafmans, W.C.; Richardus, J.H.; Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Bakketeig, L.; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Bergsjø, P.; Macfarlane, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Mackenbach, J.; Aelvoet, W.; Alderdice, F.; Amelink, M.; Bakoula, C.; Blondel, B.; Bødker, B.; Bolumar, F.; Davidson, L.; Gissler, M.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Holt, J.; Kaminski, M.; Leidinger, J.; Lekea, V.; Lindmark, G.; Masuy-Stroobant, G.; Pal, K. van der; Penney, G.; Purificação Araújo, M. Da; Rantakallio, P.; Rebagliato, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that a population's entire birth weight distribution may be shifted towards higher or lower birth weights, and that optimal birth weight may be lower in populations with a lower average birth weight. We evaluated this hypothesis for seven western European

  18. Multiple births associated with assisted human reproduction in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jocelynn L; Geran, Leslie; Rotermann, Michelle

    2011-06-01

    Assisted human reproduction has been associated with increased rates of multiple births. Data suggest that twins and higher order multiple pregnancies are at risk for pre- and postnatal health complications that contribute to stress on both the family and the Canadian health care system. No published Canadian data estimate the contribution of assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates. This study was designed to determine the contributions of age and assisted human reproduction to multiple birth rates in Canada. We performed analyses of existing Canadian databases, using a mathematical model from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More specifically, data from the Canadian Vital Statistics: Births and Stillbirths database were combined with data from the Canadian Assisted Reproductive Technologies Register collected by the Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society. Datasets were standardized to age distributions of mothers in 1978. RESULTS suggest that in vitro fertilization, ovulation induction, and age each contribute more to the rates of triplets than to twins. As expected, the contribution of natural factors was higher to twins than to triplets. These are the first Canadian data analyzed to separate and measure the contributions of age and assisted reproductive technologies to multiple birth rates. Our findings are important for guiding physician and patient education and informing the development of treatment protocols that will result in lower-risk pregnancies and improved long-term health for women and their offspring.

  19. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  20. Home Birth: Know the Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including: A desire to give birth without medical intervention, such as pain medication, labor augmentation, labor induction or fetal heart rate monitoring A desire to give birth in a comfortable, familiar place surrounded by family Dissatisfaction with hospital care ...

  1. Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Central Psychiatric Research Registry for 8109 birth cohort members aged 45 years. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 10, group F codes, Mental and Behavioural Disorders, and one Z code) for identified subjects were organized into 14 mutually exclusive......Objective: Psychiatric comorbidities are common among psychiatric patients and typically associated with poorer clinical prognoses. Subjects of a large Danish birth cohort were used to study the relation between mortality and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Method: We searched the Danish...

  2. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Cumulative live-birth rates per total number of embryos needed to reach newborn in consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles: a new approach to measuring the likelihood of IVF success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nicolás; Bellver, José; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    To report the use of cumulative live-birth rates (CLBRs) per ovarian stimulation cycle to measure the success of IVF is proving to be the most accurate method for advising couples who failed to conceive, although the accuracy yielded is relatively low, and cycle outcome is highly dependent on the number of embryos replaced. Our aim with this work is to report the CLBRs of IVF as a function of the number of embryos required to reach a live birth (EmbR), considering age, day of ET, and infertility etiology. Survival curves and Kaplan-Meier methods to analyze CLBR in a retrospective cohort with respect to the number of EmbR. University-affiliated infertility center. Infertile couples undergoing IVF using own oocytes. None. CLBR per embryo transferred. CLBRs increase rapidly between 1 and 5 EmbR, moderately between 5 and 15, and slowly thereafter. Live-birth rates rise more slowly when embryos are transferred on days 2-3 rather than on days 5-6, with comparable long-term results. Women's age is a negative factor from 35 to 37 years old, with a dramatic decrease in live-birth rates beyond age 40 years. In addition, there are significant worse results in endometriosis patients. The relationship between CLBR and number of EmbR provides realistic and precise information regarding IVF success and can be used to guide couples and practitioners. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Low Birth Weight (LBW), maternal age and multiple ... mothers. Low socio-economic status is the underlying ... rate of low birth weight infants. ... Table 3: Distribution of Age against Birth weight.

  5. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].

  6. Training in Using Earplugs or Using Earplugs with a Higher than Necessary Noise Reduction Rating? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salmani Nodoushan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is one of the most common occupational diseases and the second most common cause of workers' claims for occupational injuries. Objective: Due to high prevalence of NIHL and several reports of improper use of hearing protective devices (HPDs, we conducted this study to compare the effect of face-to-face training in effective use of earplugs with appropriate NRR to overprotection of workers by using earplugs with higher than necessary noise reduction rating (NRR. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 150 workers referred to occupational medicine clinic were randomly allocated to three arms—a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with no training in appropriate use of the device; a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with training; another group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 30, with no training. Hearing threshold was measured in the study groups by real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT method. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand clinical trials Registry, number ACTRN00363175. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 28±5 (range: 19–39 years. 42% of participants were female. The mean noise attenuation in the group with training was 13.88 dB, significantly higher than those observed in other groups. The highest attenuation was observed in high frequencies (4, 6, and 8 kHz in the group with training. Conclusion: Training in appropriate use of earplugs significantly affects the efficacy of earplugs—even more than using an earplug with higher NRR.

  7. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  8. The Offer of Advanced Imaging Techniques Leads to Higher Acceptance Rates for Screening Colonoscopy - a Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Heinz; Gallitz, Julia; Hable, Robert; Vieth, Michael; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Neurath, Markus Friedrich; Riemann, Jurgen Ferdinand; Neumann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy plays a fundamental role in early diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer and requires public and professional acceptance to ensure the ongoing success of screening programs. The aim of the study was to prospectively assess whether patient acceptance rates to undergo screening colonoscopy could be improved by the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Overall, 372 randomly selected patients were prospectively included. A standardized questionnaire was developed that inquired of the patients their knowledge regarding advanced imaging techniques. Second, several media campaigns and information events were organized reporting about advanced imaging techniques, followed by repeated evaluation. After one year the evaluation ended. At baseline, 64% of the patients declared that they had no knowledge about new endoscopic methods. After twelve months the overall grade of information increased significantly from 14% at baseline to 34%. The percentage of patients who decided to undergo colonoscopy because of the offer of new imaging methods also increased significantly from 12% at baseline to 42% after 12 months. Patients were highly interested in the offer of advanced imaging techniques. Knowledge about these techniques could relatively easy be provided using local media campaigns. The offer of advanced imaging techniques leads to higher acceptance rates for screening colonoscopies.

  9. Non-English speakers attend gastroenterology clinic appointments at higher rates than English speakers in a vulnerable patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Justin L.; Kushel, Margot B.; Inadomi, John M.; Yee, Hal F.

    2009-01-01

    Goals We sought to identify factors associated with gastroenterology clinic attendance in an urban safety net healthcare system. Background Missed clinic appointments reduce the efficiency and availability of healthcare, but subspecialty clinic attendance among patients with established healthcare access has not been studied. Study We performed an observational study using secondary data from administrative sources to study patients referred to, and scheduled for an appointment in, the adult gastroenterology clinic serving the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, California. Our dependent variable was whether subjects attended or missed a scheduled appointment. Analysis included multivariable logistic regression and classification tree analysis. 1,833 patients were referred and scheduled for an appointment between 05/2005 and 08/2006. Prisoners were excluded. All patients had a primary care provider. Results 683 patients (37.3%) missed their appointment; 1,150 (62.7%) attended. Language was highly associated with attendance in the logistic regression; non-English speakers were less likely than English speakers to miss an appointment (adjusted odds ratio 0.42 [0.28,0.63] for Spanish, 0.56 [0.38,0.82] for Asian language, p gastroenterology clinic appointment, not speaking English was most strongly associated with higher attendance rates. Patient related factors associated with not speaking English likely influence subspecialty clinic attendance rates, and these factors may differ from those affecting general healthcare access. PMID:19169147

  10. 3D versus 2D Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Higher Cancer Detection Rate in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Peltier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol.

  11. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  12. Ascertaining severe perineal trauma and associated risk factors by comparing birth data with multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampt, Amanda J; Ford, Jane B

    2015-09-30

    Population data are often used to monitor severe perineal trauma trends and investigate risk factors. Within New South Wales (NSW), two different datasets can be used, the Perinatal Data Collection ('birth' data) or a linked dataset combining birth data with the Admitted Patient Data Collection ('hospital' data). Severe perineal trauma can be ascertained by birth data alone, or by hospital International Classification of Diseases Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) diagnosis and procedure coding in the linked dataset. The aim of this study was to compare rates and risk factors for severe perineal trauma using birth data alone versus using linked data. The study population consisted of all vaginal births in NSW between 2001 and 2011. Perineal injury coding in birth data was revised in 2006, so data were analysed separately for 2001-06 and 2006-11. Rates of severe perineal injury over time were compared in birth data alone versus linked data. Kappa and agreement statistics were calculated. Risk factor distributions (maternal age, primiparity, instrumental birth, birthweight ≥4 kg, Asian country of birth and episiotomy) were compared between women with severe perineal trauma identified by birth data alone, and those identified by linked data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of severe perineal trauma. Among 697 202 women with vaginal births, 2.1% were identified with severe perineal trauma by birth data alone, and 2.6% by linked data. The rate discrepancy was higher among earlier data (1.7% for birth data, 2.4% for linked data). Kappa for earlier data was 0.78 (95% CI 0.78, 0.79), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.89, 0.89) for more recent data. With the exception of episiotomy, differences in risk factor distributions were small, with similar aORs. The aOR of severe perineal trauma for episiotomy was higher using linked data (1.33, 95% CI 1.27, 1.40) compared with birth data (1.02, 95% CI 0.97, 1.08). Although discrepancies

  13. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Stephen; Gregory, Steven; Ellis, Genette L.; Iles-Caven, Yasmin; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC) obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8) and 6 (ages 10–11). A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed. PMID:29479332

  14. Parental External Locus of Control in Pregnancy Is Associated with Subsequent Teacher Ratings of Negative Behavior in Primary School: Findings from a British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Nowicki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine whether parents’ locus of control (LOC obtained before the birth of their child predicts the child’s behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7–8 and 6 (ages 10–11. A modified version of the adult Nowicki–Strickland internal–external locus of control scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman’s strengths and difficulties’ questionnaire completed by the children’s class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, it was found that the greater the presence of externality in the parents, the greater the increased risk of the child’s adverse behavior as rated by teachers. The risk was generally greatest if both parents were external and lowest if both were internal. There was a consistent relationship at both Year 3 and Year 6 between maternal externality in pregnancy and children’s emotional difficulties. However, for other behaviors, the pattern of associations varied depending on whether the mother or father was external, the type of adverse behavior, and the School Year in which children were assessed. Prenatal parental externality appears to be significantly associated with a variety of children’s negative behaviors. Of note was the finding that fathers’ as well as mothers’ LOC was important in determining children’s outcomes. Implications of the complexity of the results for the role parents may play in children’s personality and adjustment are discussed.

  15. Factors associated with a poor prognosis for the IVF-ICSI live birth rate in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Perrin, Jeanne; Mancini, Julien; Agostini, Aubert; Boubli, Léon; Courbiere, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    To assess the factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF live birth rate (LBR) in women with stage III and IV endometriosis according to the revised classification of the American Fertility Society (rAFS). A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, in our Reproductive Medicine Center. We analyzed different factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF LBR in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. A total of 101 patients were included, representing 232 IVF-ICSI cycles and 212 embryo transfers. The primary endpoint was the cumulative LBR per cycle and per patient. The cumulative LBR per cycle was 14.7% (n = 34) and that per patient was 31.7% (n = 32). The cumulative LBR was significantly decreased by active smoking [ adj OR = 3.4, 95% CI (1.12-10.60), p = 0.031], poor ovarian response (POR) according to the Bologna criteria [ adj OR = 11.5, 95% CI (1.37-96.83), p = 0.024], and rAFS stage IV [ adj OR = 3.2, 95% CI (1.13-8.95), p = 0.024]. The cumulative LBR per women was 59.4% without factors associated with a poor prognosis and 25.6% in the case of one factor, and it decreased to 7.7% in the case of two or three factors (p endometriosis had a negative impact on the IVF-ICSI cumulative LBR for women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. Because smoking dramatically decreases the LBR with endometriosis, stopping smoking before IVF-ICSI should be strongly advised.

  16. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  17. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  18. HIV positivity but not HPV/p16 status is associated with higher recurrence rate in anal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joshua E; Panico, Vinicius J A; Marconato, Heloisa M F; Sherr, David L; Christos, Paul; Pirog, Edyta C

    2013-12-01

    .06). The regional and distant failure rate was not related to HPV/p16 positivity or histologic differentiation of ACA; however, HIV positivity appeared to be associated with a higher recurrence rate and worse recurrence-free survival.

  19. Satellite telemetry reveals higher fishing mortality rates than previously estimated, suggesting overfishing of an apex marine predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael E; Cortés, Enric; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Harvey, Guy C McN; Sampson, Mark; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood

    2017-08-16

    Overfishing is a primary cause of population declines for many shark species of conservation concern. However, means of obtaining information on fishery interactions and mortality, necessary for the development of successful conservation strategies, are often fisheries-dependent and of questionable quality for many species of commercially exploited pelagic sharks. We used satellite telemetry as a fisheries-independent tool to document fisheries interactions, and quantify fishing mortality of the highly migratory shortfin mako shark ( Isurus oxyrinchus ) in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Forty satellite-tagged shortfin mako sharks tracked over 3 years entered the Exclusive Economic Zones of 19 countries and were harvested in fisheries of five countries, with 30% of tagged sharks harvested. Our tagging-derived estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality rates ( F = 0.19-0.56) were 10-fold higher than previous estimates from fisheries-dependent data (approx. 0.015-0.024), suggesting data used in stock assessments may considerably underestimate fishing mortality. Additionally, our estimates of F were greater than those associated with maximum sustainable yield, suggesting a state of overfishing. This information has direct application to evaluations of stock status and for effective management of populations, and thus satellite tagging studies have potential to provide more accurate estimates of fishing mortality and survival than traditional fisheries-dependent methodology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Water Exchange Produces Significantly Higher Adenoma Detection Rate Than Water Immersion: Pooled Data From 2 Multisite Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix W; Koo, Malcolm; Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Premysl; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Amato, Arnaldo; Erriu, Matteo; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Hu, Chi-Tan; Leung, Joseph W; Liggi, Mauro; Paggi, Silvia; Radaelli, Franco; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Smajstrla, Vit; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Urban, Ondrej

    2018-03-02

    To test the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) significantly increases adenoma detection rates (ADR) compared with water immersion (WI). Low ADR was linked to increased risk for interval colorectal cancers and related deaths. Two recent randomized controlled trials of head-to-head comparison of WE, WI, and traditional air insufflation (AI) each showed that WE achieved significantly higher ADR than AI, but not WI. The data were pooled from these 2 studies to test the above hypothesis. Two trials (5 sites, 14 colonoscopists) that randomized 1875 patients 1:1:1 to AI, WI, or WE were pooled and analyzed with ADR as the primary outcome. The ADR of AI (39.5%) and WI (42.4%) were comparable, significantly lower than that of WE (49.6%) (vs. AI P=0.001; vs. WI P=0.033). WE insertion time was 3 minutes longer than that of AI (Prate (vs. AI) of the >10 mm advanced adenomas. Right colon combined advanced and sessile serrated ADR of AI (3.4%) and WI (5%) were comparable and were significantly lower than that of WE (8.5%) (vs. AI P<0.001; vs. WI P=0.039). Compared with AI and WI, the superior ADR of WE offsets the drawback of a significantly longer insertion time. For quality improvement focused on increasing adenoma detection, WE is preferred over WI. The hypothesis that WE could lower the risk of interval colorectal cancers and related deaths should be tested.

  1. Outcome of planned home births compared to hospital births in Sweden between 1992 and 2004. A population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Christensson, Kyllike; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to measure the risk of adverse outcome for mother and child in planned home births in a Swedish population irrespective of where the birth actually occurred, at home or in hospital after transfer. A population-based study using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Sweden 1992-2004. A total of 897 planned home births were compared with a randomly selected group of 11,341 planned hospital births. Prevalence of mortality and morbidity among mothers and children, emergency conditions, instrumental and operative delivery and perineal lacerations were compared. During this period in Sweden the neonatal mortality rate was 2.2 per thousand in the home birth group and 0.7 in the hospital group (RR 3.6, 95% CI 0.2-14.7). No cases of emergency complications were found in the home birth group. The risk of having a sphincter rupture was lower in the planned home birth group (RR 0.2, 95% CI 0.0-0.7). The risk of having a cesarean section (RR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7) or instrumental delivery (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5) was significantly lower in the planned home birth group. In Sweden, between 1992 and 2004, the intrapartum and neonatal mortality in planned home births was 2.2 per thousand. The proportion is higher compared to hospital births but no statistically significant difference was found. Women in the home birth group more often experienced a spontaneous birth without medical intervention and were less likely to sustain pelvic floor injuries.

  2. Birth setting, labour experience, and postpartum psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Anna L; Yang, Lisa; Feeley, Nancy; Gold, Ian; Hayton, Barbara; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2017-07-01

    although psychosocial risk factors have been identified for postpartum depression (PPD) and perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the role of labour- and birth-related factors remains unclear. The present investigation explored the impact of birth setting, subjective childbirth experience, and their interplay, on PPD and postpartum PTSD. in this prospective longitudinal cohort study, three groups of women who had vaginal births at a tertiary care hospital, a birthing center, and those transferred from the birthing centre to the tertiary care hospital were compared. Participants were followed twice during pregnancy (12-14 and 32-34 weeks gestation) and twice after childbirth (1-3 and 7-9 weeks postpartum). symptoms of PPD and PTSD did not significantly differ between birth groups; however, measures of subjective childbirth experience and obstetric factors did. Moderation analyses indicated a significant interaction between pain and birth group, such that higher ratings of pain among women who were transferred was associated with greater symptoms of postpartum PTSD. women who are transferred appear to have a unique experience that may put them at greater risk for postpartum psychological distress. It may be beneficial for care providers to help prepare women for pain management and potential unexpected complications, particularly if it is their first childbirth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality assessment of home births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sabrina; Colmorn, Lotte B.; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    by nulliparous at home. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that home births in Denmark are characterized by a high level of safety owing to low rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Missing registration on intrapartum transfers and planned versus unplanned home births in the DMBR are, however, major......INTRODUCTION: The safety of home births has been widely debated. Observational studies examining maternal and neonatal outcomes of home births have become more frequent, and the quality of these studies has improved. The aim of the present study was to describe neonatal outcomes of home births...... compared with hospital births and to discuss which data are needed to evaluate the safety of home births. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. Data on all births in Denmark (2003-2013) were collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry (DMBR). The cohort included healthy women...

  4. Association between the birth of twins and parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Goldman, Dana P; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    Mothers of multiple births face higher rates of postpartum depression, yet evidence on the marital consequences of multiple births is limited. We examined the association between twin births and parental divorce. We used the 1980 U.S. Census to identify a large sample of mothers with and without twin births. The goal was to estimate multivariate logistic models of the association between birth of twins and divorce adjusting for race, age at marriage and first birth, and college education. We examined whether the association was affected by maternal education, age and sex composition of twins, and family size. Twins at first birth were associated with greater parental divorce compared with singletons (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; absolute risk 13.7% with twins compared with 12.7%; P=.02). The association was statistically greater among mothers not attending college (14.9% with twins compared with 13.3%; P=.01) compared with those with some college (10.4% with twins compared with 10.5%; P=.34); those with children older than 8 years (15.6% with twins compared with 13.5%; P<.01) compared with younger children (10.6% with twins compared with 10.8%; P=.42); and those with at least one twin girl (13.8% with twins compared with 12.6%; P=.03) compared with twin boys (12.1% with twins compared with 12.5%, P=.38). Mothers with four or more children had a larger association between birth of twins and divorce (15.4% for mothers with twins at fourth birth compared with 11.3% for all other mothers with four or more children; P<.01) compared with mothers with twins at first birth (13.7% for twins at first birth compared with 12.7%; P=.02). Health consequences of twin births for children and mothers are well known. Twin births may be associated with longer-term parental divorce. Specific groups, namely mothers not completing college and mothers who already have more children, may be at higher risk. II.

  5. Medida da freqüência respiratória e do volume corrente para prever a falha na extubação de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em ventilação mecânica Evaluation of respiratory rate and tidal volume to predict extubation failure in mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Davidson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a freqüência respiratória (FR, o volume corrente (VC e a relação FR/VC poderiam prever a falha na extubação em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, de recém-nascidos com idade gestacional OBJECTIVE: To verify if respiratory rate (RR, tidal volume (TV and respiratory rate and tidal volume ratio (RR/TV could predict extubation failure in very low birth weight infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled newborn infants with gestational age <37 weeks and birth weight <1,500g, mechanically ventilated from birth during 48 hours to 30 days and thought to be ready for extubation. As soon as the physicians decided for extubation, the neonates received endotracheal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP for 10 minutes while spontaneous RR, TV and RR/TV were measured using a fixed-orifice pneumotachograph positioned between the endotracheal tube and the ventilator circuit. Thereafter, the neonates were extubated to nasal CPAP. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 48 hours. RESULTS: Of the 35 studied infants, 20 (57% were successfully extubated and 15 (43% required reintubation. RR and RR/TV before extubation had a trend to be higher in unsuccessfully extubated infants. TV was similar in both groups. Sensitivity and specificity of these parameters as predictors of extubation failure were 50 and 67% respectively for RR, 40 and 67% for TV and 40 and 73% for RR/TV. CONCLUSIONS: RR, TV and RR/TV showed low sensitivity and specificity to predict extubation failure in mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants.

  6. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  7. [Outcomes after planned home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Ellen; Øian, Pål; Kumle, Merethe

    2008-11-06

    About 150 planned home births take place in Norway annually. Professionals have different opinions on whether such births are safe or not. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic literature review on maternal and neonatal outcomes after planned home births. A review was performed of literature retrieved from searches in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and The Cochrane Library and relevant references found in the articles. The searches were limited to studies published in 1985 and later. 10 studies with data from 30 204 women who had planned and were selected to home birth at the onset of labour were included. Three of the studies had control groups including women with planned hospital births. All included studies were assessed to be of medium quality. Between 9.9 and 23.1 % of women and infants were transferred to hospital during labour or after birth. There were few caesarean sections, other interventions or complications in the studies assessed; the total perinatal mortality rate was 2.9/1000 and the intrapartum mortality rate 0.8/1000. There is no sound basis for discouraging low-risk women from planning a home birth. Results from the included studies do not directly apply to Norwegian conditions. Outcomes and transfers after planned home births should be systematically registered.

  8. Characteristics and outcome of unplanned out-of-institution births in Norway from 1999 to 2013: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Björn; Smárason, Alexander K; Skogvoll, Eirik; Fasting, Sigurd

    2014-10-01

    To study the incidence, maternal characteristics and outcome of unplanned out-of-institution births (= unplanned births) in Norway. Register-based cross-sectional study. All births in Norway (n = 892 137) from 1999 to 2013 with gestational age ≥22 weeks. Analysis of data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway from 1999 to 2013. Unplanned births (n = 6062) were compared with all other births (reference group). The annual incidence rate of unplanned births was 6.8/1000 births and remained stable during the period of study. Young multiparous women residing in remote municipalities were at the highest risk of experiencing unplanned births. The unplanned birth group had higher perinatal mortality rate for the period, 11.4/1000 compared with 4.9/1000 for the reference group (incidence rate ratio 2.31, 95% confidence interval 1.82-2.93, p life, compared with reference births in the same birthweight category. Unplanned births are associated with adverse outcome. Excessive mortality is possibly caused by reduced availability of necessary medical interventions for vulnerable newborns out-of-hospital. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  9. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  10. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    .80-0.89. The RR of the third and second pregnancy was significantly higher than the first pregnancy while a slight difference between the second and the first pregnancy was also found. Alcohol drinking of mothers, familial inheritance and living area were also found to be related to the occurrence of the birth defects. Conclusions Relatively higher birth defect rates were found in Inner Mongolia. This study found that maternal age less than 25, alcohol drinking, familiar inheritance, lower education level of mothers, times of pregnancies and living in rural areas may increase the risk of birth defects. Ethnic Mongols were less likely to have birth defects than Han Chinese.

  11. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  12. Increase in thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, but not preterm birth-rate, in pregnant Danish women upon iodine fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Boas, Malene; Hilsted, Linda

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The presence of thyroid antibodies in pregnancy has been associated with preterm birth. In the non-pregnant population, the implementation of the Danish iodine fortification program has increased the prevalence of thyroid antibodies. This study investigated the prevalence of thyroid...... peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in pregnant Danish women before, during and after implementation of the iodine fortification program and association with preterm birth. DESIGN: Comparative cohort study of 1368 pregnancies from three cohorts gathered before (1996......-1998), during (2000-2003) and after (2008-2009) the iodine fortification program. METHODS: In cohort 1 (n = 297), TPOAbs were measured (DYNOtest (BRAHMS)). In cohorts 2 (n = 148) and 3 (n = 923), both TPOAbs and TgAbs were measured (Kryptor immunofluorescent assay (BRAHMS)). The prevalence and effect...

  13. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  14. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  15. Trauma centers with higher rates of angiography have a lesser incidence of splenectomy in the management of blunt splenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capecci, Louis M; Jeremitsky, Elan; Smith, R Stephen; Philp, Frances

    2015-10-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) for blunt splenic injury (BSI) is well-established. Angiography (ANGIO) has been shown to improve success rates with NOM. Protocols for NOM are not standardized and vary widely between centers. We hypothesized that trauma centers that performed ANGIO at a greater rate would demonstrate decreased rates of splenectomy compared with trauma centers that used ANGIO less frequently. A large, multicenter, statewide database (Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation) from 2007 to 2011 was used to generate the study cohort of patients with BSI (age ≥ 13). The cohort was divided into 2 populations based on admission to centers with high (≥13%) or low (Splenectomy rates were then compared between the 2 groups, and multivariable logistic regression for predictors of splenectomy (failed NOM) were also performed. The overall rate of splenectomy in the entire cohort was 21.0% (1,120 of 5,333 BSI patients). The high ANGIO group had a lesser rate of splenectoy compared with the low ANGIO group (19% vs 24%; P splenectomy compared with low ANGIO centers (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI 0.58-0.80; P splenectomy rates compared with centers with lesser rate of ANGIO. Inclusion of angiographic protocols for NOM of BSI should be considered strongly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Births after a period of infertility in Victorian women 1982-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, A; Lumley, J

    1993-11-01

    Pregnancies following a period of infertility are often thought to be at increased risk of adverse outcomes. Between 1982-1990, 1465 births were reported to the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection Unit with a history of infertility. We present some characteristics of these births and compare them with all Victorian births in 1986 (n = 61,253) and Australian and New Zealand IVF and GIFT births 1979-1989 (n = 6,675). Women with a history of infertility were older than other Victorian women but younger than the IVF and GIFT group. Multiple births comprised 9% of the infertility group compared with 1.3% in the general Victorian population and 23.7% of IVF and GIFT births. The incidence of low birth-weight (18.6%) and very low birth-weight (4.2%) was higher than in other Victorian births (5.8% and 1.1% respectively) but lower than in IVF and GIFT births (34.6% and 8.9%). Perinatal mortality in the infertility group (33.4 per 1,000) was higher than in the general population (11.1 per 1,000) and similar to the IVF and GIFT group (34.9 per 1,000). The Caesarean section rate after infertility (41%) was more than double the rate in the rest of the Victorian population (16%), and showed a different pattern of indications. The relative risks of low and very low birth-weight, perinatal mortality and Caesarean delivery remained significantly increased for singletons after adjustment for maternal age and parity.

  17. Birth Satisfaction Scale/Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Donovan-Batson, Colleen; Burduli, Ekaterina; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R

    2016-10-01

    to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R). a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected using electronic linkages (Qualtrics ™ ). a convenience sample of childbearing women (n=2229) who had planned to birth in their home or birth center from the US (United States) participated. Participants were recruited via professional and personal contacts, primarily their midwives. the total 30-item BSS score mean was 128.98 (SD 16.92) and the 10-item BSS-R mean score was 31.94 (SD 6.75). Sub-scale mean score