Sample records for higher average reading

1. Self-similarity of higher-order moving averages

Science.gov (United States)

Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna; Türk, Christian

2011-10-01

In this work, higher-order moving average polynomials are defined by straightforward generalization of the standard moving average. The self-similarity of the polynomials is analyzed for fractional Brownian series and quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent H by using the detrending moving average method. We prove that the exponent H of the fractional Brownian series and of the detrending moving average variance asymptotically agree for the first-order polynomial. Such asymptotic values are compared with the results obtained by the simulations. The higher-order polynomials correspond to trend estimates at shorter time scales as the degree of the polynomial increases. Importantly, the increase of polynomial degree does not require to change the moving average window. Thus trends at different time scales can be obtained on data sets with the same size. These polynomials could be interesting for those applications relying on trend estimates over different time horizons (financial markets) or on filtering at different frequencies (image analysis).

2. Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading

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Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun

2015-01-01

Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…

3. The Pulsair 3000 tonometer--how many readings need to be taken to ensure accuracy of the average?

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McCaghrey, G E; Matthews, F E

2001-07-01

Manufacturers of non-contact tonometers recommend that a number of readings are taken on each eye, and an average obtained. With the Keeler Pulsair 3000 it is advised to take four readings, and average these. This report analyses readings in 100 subjects, and compares the first reading, and the averages of the first two and first three readings with the "machine standard" of the average of four readings. It is found that, in the subject group investigated, the average of three readings is not different from the average of four in 95% of individuals, with equivalence defined as +/- 1.0 mmHg.

4. Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities at higher orders

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bolzoni, Paolo; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, Anatoly V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

2013-05-15

We develop a new formalism for computing and including both the perturbative and nonperturbative QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new method is motivated by recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MS factorization scheme. We obtain next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic (NNLL) resummed expressions, which represent generalizations of previous analytic results. Our expressions depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets that are compatible with regard to the jet algorithms demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstanding problem of QCD. We show that the statistical and theoretical uncertainties both do not exceed 5% for scales above 10 GeV. We finally propose to use the jet multiplicity data as a new way to extract the strong-coupling constant. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, we obtain {alpha}{sub s}{sup (5)}(M{sub Z})=0.1199{+-}0.0026 in the MS scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln(x) terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q{sup 2} terms by the renormalization group, in excellent agreement with the present world average.

5. Bimodal Reading: Benefits of a Talking Computer for Average and Less Skilled Readers.

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Montali, Julie; Lewandowski, Lawrence

1996-01-01

Eighteen average readers and 18 less-skilled readers (grades 8 and 9) were presented with social studies and science passages via a computer either visually (on screen), auditorily (read by digitized voice), or bimodally (on screen, highlighted while being voiced). Less-skilled readers demonstrated comprehension in the bimodal condition equivalent…

6. Coping Strategies Applied to Comprehend Multistep Arithmetic Word Problems by Students with Above-Average Numeracy Skills and Below-Average Reading Skills

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Nortvedt, Guri A.

2011-01-01

This article discusses how 13-year-old students with above-average numeracy skills and below-average reading skills cope with comprehending word problems. Compared to other students who are proficient in numeracy and are skilled readers, these students are more disadvantaged when solving single-step and multistep arithmetic word problems. The…

7. Most American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons' online patient education material exceeds average patient reading level.

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Eltorai, Adam E M; Sharma, Pranav; Wang, Jing; Daniels, Alan H

2015-04-01

8. A Call to Embrace Social Reading in Higher Education

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Dean, Matthew D.

2016-01-01

Social reading can broadly be described as the experience surrounding the reading of electronic books, more commonly known as eBooks. Utilising eTextbooks and social reading at a university offers some powerful potential to engage students and help them succeed in their studies. A broad overview of the current landscape and recent initiatives…

9. Making a Case for the Teaching of Reading across the Curriculum in Higher Education

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Bharuthram, Sharita

2012-01-01

Over the past two decades there has been much written in the literature about the importance of reading and the importance of teaching students reading strategies to improve their reading comprehension. Reading is one of the most important academic tasks encountered by students. In higher education, students are exposed to a number of texts and…

10. The true bladder dose: on average thrice higher than the ICRU reference

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barillot, I.; Horiot, J.C.; Maingon, P.; Bone-Lepinoy, M.C.; D'Hombres, A.; Comte, J.; Delignette, A.; Feutray, S.; Vaillant, D.

1996-01-01

11. Evaluation of Navigation System Accuracy Indexes for Deviation Reading from Average Range

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Alexey Boykov

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The method for estimating the mean of square error, kurtosis and error correlation coefficient for deviations from the average range of three navigation parameter indications from the outputs of three information sensors is substantiated and developed.

12. Control of underactuated driftless systems using higher-order averaging theory

OpenAIRE

Vela, Patricio A.; Burdick, Joel W.

2003-01-01

This paper applies a recently developed "generalized averaging theory" to construct stabilizing feedback control laws for underactuated driftless systems. These controls exponentialy stabilize in the average; the actual system may orbit around the average. Conditions for which the orbit collapses to the averaged trajectory are given. An example validates the theory, demonstrating its utility.

13. Conserved upstream open reading frames in higher plants

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Schultz Carolyn J

2008-07-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Upstream open reading frames (uORFs can down-regulate the translation of the main open reading frame (mORF through two broad mechanisms: ribosomal stalling and reducing reinitiation efficiency. In distantly related plants, such as rice and Arabidopsis, it has been found that conserved uORFs are rare in these transcriptomes with approximately 100 loci. It is unclear how prevalent conserved uORFs are in closely related plants. Results We used a homology-based approach to identify conserved uORFs in five cereals (monocots that could potentially regulate translation. Our approach used a modified reciprocal best hit method to identify putative orthologous sequences that were then analysed by a comparative R-nomics program called uORFSCAN to find conserved uORFs. Conclusion This research identified new genes that may be controlled at the level of translation by conserved uORFs. We report that conserved uORFs are rare (

14. Making a case for the teaching of reading across the curriculum in higher education

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Sharita Bharuthram

2012-01-01

15. Reading in Two Orthographies: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Dutch Average and Poor Readers Who Learn English as a Second Language

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Morfidi, Eleni; van der Leij, Aryan; de Jong, Peter F.; Scheltinga, Femke; Bekebrede, Judith

2007-01-01

The present study investigated the reading of secondary school students in their first and second language (L1, L2). Twenty-six average and twenty-six poor readers matched on age, gender, listening and reading comprehension participated. They were native Dutch speakers who started learning English at secondary school (grade 7). We examined whether…

16. Averaging Principle for the Higher Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with a Random Fast Oscillation

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Gao, Peng

2018-04-01

This work concerns the problem associated with averaging principle for a higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation perturbed by a oscillating term arising as the solution of a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation evolving with respect to the fast time. This model can be translated into a multiscale stochastic partial differential equations. Stochastic averaging principle is a powerful tool for studying qualitative analysis of stochastic dynamical systems with different time-scales. To be more precise, under suitable conditions, we prove that there is a limit process in which the fast varying process is averaged out and the limit process which takes the form of the higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation is an average with respect to the stationary measure of the fast varying process. Finally, by using the Khasminskii technique we can obtain the rate of strong convergence for the slow component towards the solution of the averaged equation, and as a consequence, the system can be reduced to a single higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a modified coefficient.

17. Averaging Principle for the Higher Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation with a Random Fast Oscillation

Science.gov (United States)

Gao, Peng

2018-06-01

This work concerns the problem associated with averaging principle for a higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation perturbed by a oscillating term arising as the solution of a stochastic reaction-diffusion equation evolving with respect to the fast time. This model can be translated into a multiscale stochastic partial differential equations. Stochastic averaging principle is a powerful tool for studying qualitative analysis of stochastic dynamical systems with different time-scales. To be more precise, under suitable conditions, we prove that there is a limit process in which the fast varying process is averaged out and the limit process which takes the form of the higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation is an average with respect to the stationary measure of the fast varying process. Finally, by using the Khasminskii technique we can obtain the rate of strong convergence for the slow component towards the solution of the averaged equation, and as a consequence, the system can be reduced to a single higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a modified coefficient.

18. The Effect of Higher Order Thinking Skill Instruction on EFL Reading Ability

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2018-05-01

Full Text Available This quantitative and quasi-experimental study dealt with the effect of the teaching higher order thinking (HOT on the reading comprehension ability of foreign language learners. Since reading ability plays a crucial role in learners’ education, it is language teachers’ mission to be aware of the useful and beneficial strategies to improve their students’ reading comprehension ability. Considering the fruitful results of applying HOT skills in education, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of their instruction on students’ reading comprehension ability. To achieve the objectives of the study, a group of 236 male and female university students majoring in various fields but all taking General English course was selected by convenience sampling. They were randomly assigned into two groups of control and experimental. PET test was applied to homogenize the participants of the two study groups. The study followed pre-test, treatment, post-test design. While the experimental group followed a nine-session treatment on strategies of HOT, the control group was instructed through conventional method determined by the course book. The results of independent samples t-test revealed the positive effect of teaching HOT skills on improving reading comprehension ability of adult EFL learners. Pedagogical implications of these findings for language learners, language teachers, course book developers, and educational policy makers are discussed.

19. Negotiating new literacies in science: An examination of at-risk and average-achieving ninth-grade readers' online reading comprehension strategies

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Sevensma, Kara

20. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

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Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

2017-01-01

This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

1. SiGe HBT cryogenic preamplification for higher bandwidth donor spin read-out

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Curry, Matthew; Carr, Stephen; Ten-Eyck, Greg; Wendt, Joel; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

2014-03-01

Single-shot read-out of a donor spin can be performed using the response of a single-electron-transistor (SET). This technique can produce relatively large changes in current, on the order of 1 (nA), to distinguish between the spin states. Despite the relatively large signal, the read-out time resolution has been limited to approximately 100 (kHz) of bandwidth because of noise. Cryogenic pre-amplification has been shown to extend the response of certain detection circuits to shorter time resolution and thus higher bandwidth. We examine a SiGe HBT circuit configuration for cryogenic preamplification, which has potential advantages over commonly used HEMT configurations. Here we present 4 (K) measurements of a circuit consisting of a Silicon-SET inline with a Heterojunction-Bipolar-Transistor (HBT). We compare the measured bandwidth with and without the HBT inline and find that at higher frequencies the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) with the HBT inline exceeds the SNR without the HBT inline. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

2. Contemporary and prospective fuel cycles for WWER-440 based on new assemblies with higher uranium capacity and higher average fuel enrichment

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gagarinskiy, A.A.; Saprykin, V.V.

2009-01-01

RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' has performed an extensive cycle of calculations intended to validate the opportunities of improving different fuel cycles for WWER-440 reactors. Works were performed to upgrade and improve WWER-440 fuel cycles on the basis of second-generation fuel assemblies allowing core thermal power to be uprated to 107 108 % of its nominal value (1375 MW), while maintaining the same fuel operation lifetime. Currently intensive work is underway to develop fuel cycles based on second-generation assemblies with higher fuel capacity and average fuel enrichment per assembly increased up to 4.87 % of U-235. Fuel capacity of second-generation assemblies was increased by means of eliminated central apertures of fuel pellets, and pellet diameter extended due to reduced fuel cladding thickness. This paper intends to summarize the results of works performed in the field of WWER-440 fuel cycle modernization, and to present yet unemployed opportunities and prospects of further improvement of WWER-440 neutronic and operating parameters by means of additional optimization of fuel assembly designs and fuel element arrangements applied. (Authors)

3. STRENGTHENING STUDENTS’ LITERACY THROUGH REFLECTIVE ESSAY WRITING: AN IMPLEMENTATION OF WRITING TO READ PROGRAM IN HIGHER EDUCATION

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Arina Shofiya

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Literacy is a condition where a person has capability to read for knowledge, write to share knowledge, and think critically. Students’ literacy is a never-end issue in the field of English Language Teaching. Studies have been carried out to investigate literacy practices in various level of education including higher education. Among the problems of students’ literacy in higher education are the amount of their reading and writing practices and their motivation to read and write. The current paper is intended to share an experience in strengthening students’ literacy at the English Department of State Islamic Institute (Institut Agama Islam Negeri/IAIN Tulungagung, East Java. The preliminary investigation of the present study revealed that many students have low motivation to read. In addition, their comprehension was relatively low as represented in their paper works. Under a Classroom Action Research Design, the present study was conducted to propose writing to read program to strengthen the students’ literacy. In such program, the students were required to write a reflective essay based on the selected topics that they had to read prior to classes. The findings showed that writing reflective essay helped students strengthen their literacy as well as improve their motivation to read and to write because the reading and writing activities were done in a more relax and supportive environment that was at home.

Science.gov (United States)

Nakano, Teiko

2016-01-01

This paper reports on the implementation of Japanese extensive reading with international students studying at a Japanese university using graded readers (GRs). GRs chosen for the present study were simplified versions of original Japanese literature and were used to support students in acquiring a top-down reading strategy, a wide range of…

5. AN EVALUATION OF THE READING COMPREHENSION TEXTBOOKS TAUGHT AT THE ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION IN WEST SUMATERA

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Sirajul Munir

2014-05-01

Full Text Available The purpose of presentstudy is to critically assess the reading comprehension textbooks which have been prescribed for use at the English Education Department ofPublic Islamic Higher Education in West Sumatera.The writer used criteria taken from Cunningswoth’s(1995 and Miekley’s (2005. These include(1 Aims and Approaches; (2 Design and Organization; (3 Content; (4 Skills; (5 Vocabulary and Grammar; (6 Exercises and Activities; (7 Methodology; (8 Attractiveness of the Text and Physical Make-Up; (9 Teacher’s Manual; and (10 Practical Consideration. To interpret the checklist, the four rating scale was used, namely excellent, good, fair, and poor. The research showed that every textbook has strong and weak points. This result of this analysis could be used as the basis to gain more effective reading textbooks for the lecturer of reading comprehension. Keywords: evaluation; textbook; Islamic Higher Education

6. Factors in the development of higher levels of reading literacy: Argumentation skills in educational practice

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Branković Marija

2013-01-01

7. Does higher quality early child care promote low-income children's math and reading achievement in middle childhood?

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Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A

2009-01-01

Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.

8. Education under the Heel of Caesar: Reading UK Higher Education Reform through Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra"

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Ward, Sophie

2012-01-01

UK higher education reform (BIS, ) has been presented as a common-sense movement towards efficiency. This article will argue that, in reality, the marketisation of higher education is a movement towards negative freedom, defined after Berlin (2007) as unrestricted choice. Using Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleopatra" as a means to explore…

9. Reading and Writing about Literature on the Internet. Two Innovative Experiences with Blogs in Higher Education

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Neira-Piñeiro, María del Rosario

2015-01-01

This paper describes two innovative experiences with ICT in teacher training by means of the development of two blogs about children's and young adults' literature. The study of both activities shows the usefulness of blogs in higher education and their contribution to the linguistic and literary training of future teachers. The results show that…

10. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

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Hannon, Brenda

2012-01-01

Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

11. Linguistic Knowledge Aspects in Academic Reading: Challenges and Deployed Strategies by English-Major Undergraduates at a Jordanian Institution of Higher Education

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Albashtawi, Abeer H.; Jaganathan, Paramaswari; Singh, Manjet

2016-01-01

This study aimed to investigate the linguistic knowledge aspect in academic reading, the challenges and the deployed strategies by English major undergraduates at a Jordanian institution of higher education. The importance of the study is attributed to the importance of the academic reading at university which is closely related to the academic…

12. Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension (Estrategias de lectura para el desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento para la comprensión de lectura)

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Echeverri Acosta, Luz Marina; McNulty Ferri, Maria

2010-01-01

This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed…

13. Warfarin maintenance dose in older patients: higher average dose and wider dose frequency distribution in patients of African ancestry than those of European ancestry.

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Garwood, Candice L; Clemente, Jennifer L; Ibe, George N; Kandula, Vijay A; Curtis, Kristy D; Whittaker, Peter

2010-06-15

Studies report that warfarin doses required to maintain therapeutic anticoagulation decrease with age; however, these studies almost exclusively enrolled patients of European ancestry. Consequently, universal application of dosing paradigms based on such evidence may be confounded because ethnicity also influences dose. Therefore, we determined if warfarin dose decreased with age in Americans of African ancestry, if older African and European ancestry patients required different doses, and if their daily dose frequency distributions differed. Our chart review examined 170 patients of African ancestry and 49 patients of European ancestry cared for in our anticoagulation clinic. We calculated the average weekly dose required for each stable, anticoagulated patient to maintain an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0, determined dose averages for groups 80 years of age and plotted dose as a function of age. The maintenance dose in patients of African ancestry decreased with age (PAfrican ancestry required higher average weekly doses than patients of European ancestry: 33% higher in the 70- to 79-year-old group (38.2+/-1.9 vs. 28.8+/-1.7 mg; P=0.006) and 52% in the >80-year-old group (33.2+/-1.7 vs. 21.8+/-3.8 mg; P=0.011). Therefore, 43% of older patients of African ancestry required daily doses >5mg and hence would have been under-dosed using current starting-dose guidelines. The dose frequency distribution was wider for older patients of African ancestry compared to those of European ancestry (PAfrican ancestry indicate that strategies for initiating warfarin therapy based on studies of patients of European ancestry could result in insufficient anticoagulation and thereby potentially increase their thromboembolism risk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14. Reading motivation in elementary school students

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Sonja Pečjak

2005-02-01

15. The weighted average cost of capital over the lifecycle of the firm: Is the overinvestment problem of mature firms intensified by a higher WACC?

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Carlos S. Garcia

2016-08-01

Full Text Available Firm lifecycle theory predicts that the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC will tend to fall over the lifecycle of the firm (Mueller, 2003, p. 80-81. However, given that previous research finds that corporate governance deteriorates as firms get older (Mueller and Yun, 1998; Saravia, 2014 there is good reason to suspect that the opposite could be the case, that is, that the WACC is higher for older firms. Since our literature review indicates that no direct tests to clarify this question have been carried out up till now, this paper aims to fill the gap by testing this prediction empirically. Our findings support the proposition that the WACC of younger firms is higher than that of mature firms. Thus, we find that the mature firm overinvestment problem is not intensified by a higher cost of capital, on the contrary, our results suggest that mature firms manage to invest in negative net present value projects even though they have access to cheaper capital. This finding sheds new light on the magnitude of the corporate governance problems found in mature firms.

16. State Averages

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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

17. Dose calculation for photon-emitting brachytherapy sources with average energy higher than 50 keV: report of the AAPM and ESTRO.

Science.gov (United States)

Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Ballester, Facundo; Das, Rupak K; Dewerd, Larry A; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Meigooni, Ali S; Ouhib, Zoubir; Rivard, Mark J; Sloboda, Ron S; Williamson, Jeffrey F

2012-05-01

Recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) on dose calculations for high-energy (average energy higher than 50 keV) photon-emitting brachytherapy sources are presented, including the physical characteristics of specific (192)Ir, (137)Cs, and (60)Co source models. This report has been prepared by the High Energy Brachytherapy Source Dosimetry (HEBD) Working Group. This report includes considerations in the application of the TG-43U1 formalism to high-energy photon-emitting sources with particular attention to phantom size effects, interpolation accuracy dependence on dose calculation grid size, and dosimetry parameter dependence on source active length. Consensus datasets for commercially available high-energy photon sources are provided, along with recommended methods for evaluating these datasets. Recommendations on dosimetry characterization methods, mainly using experimental procedures and Monte Carlo, are established and discussed. Also included are methodological recommendations on detector choice, detector energy response characterization and phantom materials, and measurement specification methodology. Uncertainty analyses are discussed and recommendations for high-energy sources without consensus datasets are given. Recommended consensus datasets for high-energy sources have been derived for sources that were commercially available as of January 2010. Data are presented according to the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism, with modified interpolation and extrapolation techniques of the AAPM TG-43U1S1 report for the 2D anisotropy function and radial dose function.

18. ENGLISH IN INDONESIAN ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION: Examining The Relationship between Performance in The Yes/No Test and Reading Skills

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Sahiruddin Sahiruddin

2008-12-01

Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between performance in the Yes/No test of English recognition vocabulary and reading skills in Indonesian Islamic learners of English as a foreign language (EFL. Participants in the study were 83 Indonesian undergraduate students, comprising an Advanced group (n=41 and Intermediate group (n=42 of EFL learners enrolled in the English department at the State Islamic University (UIN of Malang, Indonesia. All participants completed both tests. The results reveal that the hits accuracy performance between the Advanced EFL group and the Intermediate EFL group was statistically significant, indicating that Yes/No test performance, in context of hits accuracy, did discriminate between levels of English proficiency. However, the differences disappeared with corrected scores since both groups indicated a high false alarm rate. In addition, this study also reveals that there was no evidence of a relationship between Yes/No performance and reading scores. Several pedagogical implications for EFL language teachers are discussed.

19. Augmented Reality Reading Support in Higher Education: Exploring Effects on Perceived Motivation and Confidence in Comprehension for Struggling Readers in Higher Education

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Huisinga, Laura Anne

2017-01-01

Technology has shown promise to aid struggling readers in higher education, particularly through new and emerging technologies. Augmented reality (AR) has been used successfully in the classroom to motivate and engage struggling learners, yet little research exists on how augmented print might help struggling readers. This study explores this gap,…

20. Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies.

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Darina Czamara

Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and dyslexia belong to the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders with prevalences of around 5% in school-aged children. It is estimated that 20-60% of individuals affected with ADHD also present with learning disorders. We investigated the comorbidity between ADHD symptoms and reading/spelling and math difficulties in two on-going population-based birth cohort studies. Children with ADHD symptoms were at significantly higher risk of also showing reading/spelling difficulties or disorder (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.80, p = 6.59×10⁻¹³ as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. For math difficulties the association was similar (OR = 2.55, p = 3.63×10⁻⁰⁴. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and share, at least partially, the same underlying process. Up to date, it is not clear, on which exact functional processes this comorbidity is based.

1. Online Test Tool to Determine the CEFR Reading Comprehension Level of Text

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea

2014-01-01

On the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) scale, the average reading comprehension level of the Dutch population is B1 and the average level of text provided by Dutch government organisations requires a considerably higher reading skills level (C1). This means that part of

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Day, Richard R.

2013-01-01

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Paul Nation

2009-12-01

Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

4. Extensive Reading Program Which Changes Reluctant Engineering Students into Autonomous Learners of English

Science.gov (United States)

Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Takayoshi; Itoh, Kazuaki

This article introduces extensive reading (ER) as an approach to improve fundamental communication skills in English of reluctant EFL learners : average Japanese engineering students. It is distinct from concurrent translation approach from a perspective that the learners use English instead of Japanese to grasp the meaning of what they read and enjoy reading. In the ER program at Toyota National College of Technology, many students developed more positive attitude toward English, increased their reading speed, and achieved higher TOEIC scores, which was compared to those of the students before this ER program was introduced. Comparison between three groups of the students showed strong correlation between their TOEIC scores and the reading amount.

5. Neutron resonance averaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chrien, R.E.

1986-10-01

The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs

6. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

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Aiza Johari

2013-07-01

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Annemarie Wennekers; Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

2018-01-01

Original title: Lees:Tijd The amount of time that Dutch people spend reading has been declining steadily since the 1950s. This decline in reading time contrasts starkly with the positive personal and social benefits that can be derived from reading, according to lots of research. The Reading:

Science.gov (United States)

Tilley, Carol L.

2008-01-01

Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

9. Deaf persons' english reading levels and associations with epidemiological, educational, and cultural factors.

Science.gov (United States)

Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Gorenflo, Daniel W

2013-01-01

One hundred six Michigan d/Deaf persons, part of a study evaluating how to improve d/Deaf persons' understanding of cancer prevention recommendations, had reading levels determined using the Test of Reading Comprehension, Syntactic Sentences. Respondents averaged 52 years old, 59% female, 84% Caucasian, 58% married, and 75% Deaf community members. The mean Test of Reading Comprehension, Syntactic Sentences score was 6.1 (women: 6.2, men: 6.0). Higher scores were associated with greater income (p = .02), employment (p = .01), education (high school p = .002, some college p home, teacher in school, at home now: all p speaking with and satisfaction with physicians and nurses (p Language with physicians and nurses (.019) and Deaf community membership (p = .02). In multivariate analysis, higher scores were associated with higher income, college degree, and teacher using English. Reading levels of a predominantly Deaf population were low. Higher income, college degree, and teacher using English were associated with higher reading levels.

Science.gov (United States)

Kortteinen, Hanna; Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo

2009-01-01

We studied the connection of IQ, reading disability (RD) and their interaction with reading, spelling and other cognitive skills in adolescents with average IQ and RD (n = 22), average IQ, non-RD (n = 71), below average IQ and RD (n = 29), and below average IQ non-RD (n = 33). IQ was not connected to reading and spelling in subjects without RD,…

11. On Averaging Rotations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gramkow, Claus

1999-01-01

In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

Science.gov (United States)

Veltze, Linda

2004-01-01

Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

13. Averaged RMHD equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ichiguchi, Katsuji

1998-01-01

A new reduced set of resistive MHD equations is derived by averaging the full MHD equations on specified flux coordinates, which is consistent with 3D equilibria. It is confirmed that the total energy is conserved and the linearized equations for ideal modes are self-adjoint. (author)

14. Determining average yarding distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

1979-01-01

Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

15. Average Revisited in Context

Science.gov (United States)

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen

2012-01-01

This paper analyses the responses of 247 middle school students to items requiring the concept of average in three different contexts: a city's weather reported in maximum daily temperature, the number of children in a family, and the price of houses. The mixed but overall disappointing performance on the six items in the three contexts indicates…

16. Averaging operations on matrices

2014-07-03

Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

17. Average-energy games

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Patricia Bouyer

2015-09-01

Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.

Science.gov (United States)

Ghelani, Karen; Sidhu, Robindra; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

2004-11-01

19. On Averaging Rotations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Gramkow, Claus

2001-01-01

In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

20. Les effets des hyperliens visibles ou invisibles sur l'acquisition lexicale et sur la compréhension en lecture chez des apprenants intermédiaires et avancés en langue étrangère Effects of Visible and Invisible Hyperlinks on Vocabulary Acquisition and Reading Comprehension for High- and Average-Foreign Language Achievers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ofelia R. Nikolova

2004-12-01

Full Text Available Cet article est consacré à l'étude des effets des hyperliens visibles et invisibles pour les mots annotés dans un environnement informatique centré sur l'acquisition de vocabulaire et la compréhension en lecture pour deux types d'apprenants, intermédiaires et avancés, en français. Deux cent soixante-quatre étudiants de français de deuxième semestre ont été identifiés comme intermédiaires ou avancés. Les étudiants de chaque type ont été ensuite assignés par tirage au sort en deux groupes ; un groupe utilisant des liens visibles et un autre des liens invisibles. Tous les étudiants ont reçu pour instruction de lire un court passage en français (181 mots dans un but de compréhension générale. Les étudiants ont reçu également la permission de consulter à loisir tous les mots annotés (marqués par des caractères gras pour le groupe avec liens visibles. Les apprenants ont été soumis à un prétest de vocabulaire et à des post-tests, immédiats et différés de deux semaines, de vocabulaire et de compréhension en lecture. Les résultats de l'étude ont démontré que les apprenants intermédiaires bénéficient mieux des liens visibles en ce qui concerne leur acquisition de vocabulaire et leur compréhension en lecture que les apprenants avancés. Ces résultats sont discutés dans le cadre des théories de l'apprentissage des langues secondes et des apprenants doués. Des suggestions de pistes pour des recherches futures sont proposées.This study investigated the effects of visible and invisible links for annotated words in a computer module for learning French on the vocabulary acquisition and reading comprehension of two types of students – high – and average-achievers. Two hundred and sixty four second-semester students of French were identified as high- or average-achievers. Each type of students was then randomly assigned to two groups – with visible or invisible hyperlinks. All students were instructed

1. mpscan: Fast Localisation of Multiple Reads in Genomes

Science.gov (United States)

Rivals, Eric; Salmela, Leena; Kiiskinen, Petteri; Kalsi, Petri; Tarhio, Jorma

With Next Generation Sequencers, sequence based transcriptomic or epigenomic assays yield millions of short sequence reads that need to be mapped back on a reference genome. The upcoming versions of these sequencers promise even higher sequencing capacities; this may turn the read mapping task into a bottleneck for which alternative pattern matching approaches must be experimented. We present an algorithm and its implementation, called mpscan, which uses a sophisticated filtration scheme to match a set of patterns/reads exactly on a sequence. mpscan can search for millions of reads in a single pass through the genome without indexing its sequence. Moreover, we show that mpscan offers an optimal average time complexity, which is sublinear in the text length, meaning that it does not need to examine all sequence positions. Comparisons with BLAT-like tools and with six specialised read mapping programs (like bowtie or zoom) demonstrate that mpscan also is the fastest algorithm in practice for exact matching. Our accuracy and scalability comparisons reveal that some tools are inappropriate for read mapping. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that exact matching may be a valuable solution in some read mapping applications. As most read mapping programs somehow rely on exact matching procedures to perform approximate pattern mapping, the filtration scheme we experimented may reveal useful in the design of future algorithms. The absence of genome index gives mpscan its low memory requirement and flexibility that let it run on a desktop computer and avoids a time-consuming genome preprocessing.

2. Average is Over

Science.gov (United States)

Eliazar, Iddo

2018-02-01

The popular perception of statistical distributions is depicted by the iconic bell curve which comprises of a massive bulk of 'middle-class' values, and two thin tails - one of small left-wing values, and one of large right-wing values. The shape of the bell curve is unimodal, and its peak represents both the mode and the mean. Thomas Friedman, the famous New York Times columnist, recently asserted that we have entered a human era in which "Average is Over" . In this paper we present mathematical models for the phenomenon that Friedman highlighted. While the models are derived via different modeling approaches, they share a common foundation. Inherent tipping points cause the models to phase-shift from a 'normal' bell-shape statistical behavior to an 'anomalous' statistical behavior: the unimodal shape changes to an unbounded monotone shape, the mode vanishes, and the mean diverges. Hence: (i) there is an explosion of small values; (ii) large values become super-large; (iii) 'middle-class' values are wiped out, leaving an infinite rift between the small and the super large values; and (iv) "Average is Over" indeed.

3. Prediction and Stability of Reading Problems in Middle Childhood

Science.gov (United States)

Ritchey, Kristen D.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Speece, Deborah L.

2015-01-01

4. Average nuclear surface properties

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groote, H. von.

1979-01-01

The definition of the nuclear surface energy is discussed for semi-infinite matter. This definition is extended also for the case that there is a neutron gas instead of vacuum on the one side of the plane surface. The calculations were performed with the Thomas-Fermi Model of Syler and Blanchard. The parameters of the interaction of this model were determined by a least squares fit to experimental masses. The quality of this fit is discussed with respect to nuclear masses and density distributions. The average surface properties were calculated for different particle asymmetry of the nucleon-matter ranging from symmetry beyond the neutron-drip line until the system no longer can maintain the surface boundary and becomes homogeneous. The results of the calculations are incorporated in the nuclear Droplet Model which then was fitted to experimental masses. (orig.)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2000-01-01

6. When left-hemisphere reading is compromised: Comparing reading ability in participants after left cerebral hemispherectomy and participants with developmental dyslexia.

Science.gov (United States)

Katzir, Tami; Christodoulou, Joanna A; de Bode, Stella

2016-10-01

Science.gov (United States)

Fagan, W. T.

1978-01-01

The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

8. Higher English for CFE

CERN Document Server

Bridges, Ann; Mitchell, John

2015-01-01

A brand new edition of the former Higher English: Close Reading , completely revised and updated for the new Higher element (Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation) - worth 30% of marks in the final exam!. We are working with SQA to secure endorsement for this title. Written by two highly experienced authors this book shows you how to practice for the Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation section of the new Higher English exam. This book introduces the terms and concepts that lie behind success and offers guidance on the interpretation of questions and targeting answer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Richard L. ALLINGTON

2014-10-01

OpenAIRE

Istenič, Vesna

2013-01-01

11. Access of Digitized Print Originals in US and UK Higher Education Libraries Combined with Print Circulation Indicates Increased Usage of Traditional Forms of Reading Materials. A Review of: Joint, Nicholas. “Is Digitisation the New Circulation?: Borrowing Trends, Digitisation and the nature of reading in US and UK Libraries.” Library Review 57.2 (2008: 87-95.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kurt Blythe

2009-03-01

Full Text Available Objective – To discern the statistical accuracy of reports that print circulation is in decline in libraries, particularly higher education libraries in the United States (USand United Kingdom (UK, and to determine if circulation patterns reflect a changing dynamic in patron reading habits.Design – Comparative statistical analysis.Setting – Library circulation statistics from as early as 1982 to as recent as 2006, culled from various sources with specific references to statistics gathered by the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA, the Library and Information Statistics Unit (LISU, the Association of Research Libraries (ARL, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL.Subjects – Higher education institutions in the United States and United Kingdom, along with public libraries to a lesser extent.Methods – This study consists of an analysis of print circulation statistics in public and higher education libraries in the US and UK, combined with data on multimedia circulation in public libraries and instances of digital access in university libraries. Specifically, NEA statistics provided data on print readership levels in the US from 1982 to 2002; LISU statistics were analyzed for circulation figures and gate counts in UK public libraries; ARL statistics from 1996 to 2006 provided circulation data for large North American research libraries; NCES statistics from 1990 to 2004 contributed data on circulation in “tertiary level” US higher education libraries; and ACRL statistics were analyzed for more circulation numbers for US post-secondary education libraries. The study further includes data on UK trends in print readership and circulation in UK higher education libraries, and trends in US public library circulation of non-print materials.Main Results – Analysis of the data indicates that print circulation is down in US and UK public libraries and in ARL member

12. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

Science.gov (United States)

Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

2015-01-01

The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Anja Dular

2013-03-01

Science.gov (United States)

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

1999-01-01

Offers brief descriptions of 34 children's books that are excellent for reading aloud: some of them for inviting interaction, for laughing out loud, for prompting discussion, for living vicariously, for lingering over language, and for making curricular connections. (SR)

15. AUTHENTIC TEXTS FOR CRITICAL READING ACTIVITIES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ila Amalia

2016-03-01

16. Reading Amount as a Mediator of the Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation on Reading Comprehension

Science.gov (United States)

Schaffner, Ellen; Schiefele, Ulrich; Ulferts, Hannah

2013-01-01

This study examined the role of reading amount as a mediator of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation on higher order reading comprehension (comprised of paragraph-and passage-level comprehension) in a sample of 159 fifth-grade elementary students. A positive association between intrinsic reading motivation and reading amount…

Science.gov (United States)

Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Allcock, Claire; Evans, Jennifer R

2018-04-17

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beier, Sofie

2012-01-01

In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bal, Mieke

2006-01-01

Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

Science.gov (United States)

He, Mu

2014-01-01

Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

1. Efficacy of a Word- and Text-Based Intervention for Students With Significant Reading Difficulties.

Science.gov (United States)

Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Garrett J; Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Fletcher, Jack M

2018-05-01

2. L2 Reading in Thailand: Vocational College Students' Application of Reading Strategies to Their Reading of English Texts

Science.gov (United States)

Kasemsap, Bharani; Lee, Hugo Yu-Hsiu

2015-01-01

This study aims to explore the application of reading strategies to the reading of English texts by Thai vocational college students. Data were collected via questionnaire surveys, think-aloud experiments and semi-structured interviews. The research results reveal different typologies of reading strategies adopted by lower and higher level English…

3. The difference between alternative averages

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

James Vaupel

2012-09-01

Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.

4. Foreign language reading and spelling in gifted students with dyslexia in secondary education

OpenAIRE

van Viersen, Sietske; de Bree, Elise H.; Kalee, Lilian; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; de Jong, Peter F.

2017-01-01

A few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the native language (NL), the level of foreign language (FL) literacy of gifted students with dyslexia is higher than the literacy level of averagely intelligent students with dyslexia and whether this di...

5. The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students who evidence different oral reading fluency difficulties.

Science.gov (United States)

Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Morris, Robin D; Lovett, Maureen W; Wolf, Maryanne; Kuhn, Melanie; Meisinger, Beth; Schwanenflugel, Paula

2010-07-01

Science.gov (United States)

Parault, Susan J; Williams, Heather M

2010-01-01

7. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

Science.gov (United States)

Curry, Steven James

2012-01-01

This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

8. 75 FR 78157 - Farmer and Fisherman Income Averaging

Science.gov (United States)

2010-12-15

... to the averaging of farm and fishing income in computing income tax liability. The regulations...: PART 1--INCOME TAXES 0 Paragraph 1. The authority citation for part 1 continues to read in part as... section 1 tax would be increased if one-third of elected farm income were allocated to each year. The...

9. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

2014-11-28

Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

Science.gov (United States)

2011-01-01

The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

11. How to average logarithmic retrievals?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B. Funke

2012-04-01

Full Text Available Calculation of mean trace gas contributions from profiles obtained by retrievals of the logarithm of the abundance rather than retrievals of the abundance itself are prone to biases. By means of a system simulator, biases of linear versus logarithmic averaging were evaluated for both maximum likelihood and maximum a priori retrievals, for various signal to noise ratios and atmospheric variabilities. These biases can easily reach ten percent or more. As a rule of thumb we found for maximum likelihood retrievals that linear averaging better represents the true mean value in cases of large local natural variability and high signal to noise ratios, while for small local natural variability logarithmic averaging often is superior. In the case of maximum a posteriori retrievals, the mean is dominated by the a priori information used in the retrievals and the method of averaging is of minor concern. For larger natural variabilities, the appropriateness of the one or the other method of averaging depends on the particular case because the various biasing mechanisms partly compensate in an unpredictable manner. This complication arises mainly because of the fact that in logarithmic retrievals the weight of the prior information depends on abundance of the gas itself. No simple rule was found on which kind of averaging is superior, and instead of suggesting simple recipes we cannot do much more than to create awareness of the traps related with averaging of mixing ratios obtained from logarithmic retrievals.

OpenAIRE

Rejc, Blanka

2017-01-01

Reading is a fundamental activity of our society and is present in all areas of a person’s life. Authors who deal with reading define reading with different definitions, some of them I also presented in my master’s degree thesis. The ways of reading, typology of readers and knowledge of different reading models are only some of the important theoretical facts that serve as a basis for the research and defining reading. Reading motivation is an important motivational factor, which encourages a...

13. Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.

Science.gov (United States)

Oliver, Marcel

2017-11-01

This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.

14. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

2016-03-01

A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

15. Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.

2007-01-01

The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis

16. Incorporating IStation into Early Childhood Classrooms to Improve Reading Comprehension

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tian Luo

2017-07-01

implementing such technology to a diverse array of learners on different reading levels, such as Tier 1 (high reader, Tier 2 (medium average benchmark reader, and Tier 3 (low reader. It is essential to provide professional development and training opportunities for teachers. Teachers can also train and elevate the higher achieving students with using IStation to monitor their own progress as well as set their own individual learning goals. Recommendation for Researchers: We recommend studies with a larger sample size that would likely yield more definitive and generalizable results, studies using a randomized control group that would have teased out extraneous factors and truly measuring the effects of IStation alone on STAR, as well as longitudinal studies examining the long-term effects of IStation.

17. Averaging models: parameters estimation with the R-Average procedure

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Noventa

2010-01-01

Full Text Available The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982, can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto & Vicentini, 2007 can be used to estimate the parameters of these models. By the use of multiple information criteria in the model selection procedure, R-Average allows for the identification of the best subset of parameters that account for the data. After a review of the general method, we present an implementation of the procedure in the framework of R-project, followed by some experiments using a Monte Carlo method.

18. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers’ Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices

Science.gov (United States)

Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M.; Penner, Emily K.

2014-01-01

19. Evaluations of average level spacings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liou, H.I.

1980-01-01

The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of 168 Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables

20. Reading literacy as a measure of the quality of education: Estimates based on PISA 2009 data

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Pavlović-Babić Dragica

2010-01-01

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sebastian Wallot

2. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

2006-01-01

We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain....

OpenAIRE

Sridhar, M. S.

2009-01-01

Discusses the importance and ways of inculcating reading habit in children at the right age, describes the five reading phases in children along with interest and the material to satiate the need, explains how four deterministic factors affect the reading habit of children, enlists motivations that are behind the reading process with tips to improve reading habit of children.

4. Reading Processes of University Students with Dyslexia - An Examination of the Relationship between Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension.

Science.gov (United States)

Pedersen, Henriette Folkmann; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lauridsen, Lene Louise; Parrila, Rauno

2016-11-01

5. Exploiting scale dependence in cosmological averaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mattsson, Teppo; Ronkainen, Maria

2008-01-01

We study the role of scale dependence in the Buchert averaging method, using the flat Lemaitre–Tolman–Bondi model as a testing ground. Within this model, a single averaging scale gives predictions that are too coarse, but by replacing it with the distance of the objects R(z) for each redshift z, we find an O(1%) precision at z<2 in the averaged luminosity and angular diameter distances compared to their exact expressions. At low redshifts, we show the improvement for generic inhomogeneity profiles, and our numerical computations further verify it up to redshifts z∼2. At higher redshifts, the method breaks down due to its inability to capture the time evolution of the inhomogeneities. We also demonstrate that the running smoothing scale R(z) can mimic acceleration, suggesting that it could be at least as important as the backreaction in explaining dark energy as an inhomogeneity induced illusion

6. SSR: Its Effects on Students' Reading Habits after They Complete the Program.

Science.gov (United States)

1989-01-01

Studies the effect of sustained silent reading (SSR) on recreational reading habits after termination of instruction. Finds that SSR students read more than those not in the program, and that SSR has no impact on above average readers, great impact on average readers, and little impact on below average readers. (RS)

7. High average power supercontinuum sources

The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

Science.gov (United States)

Jacobs, George M.

2016-01-01

How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...

10. When good = better than average

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Don A. Moore

2007-10-01

Full Text Available People report themselves to be above average on simple tasks and below average on difficult tasks. This paper proposes an explanation for this effect that is simpler than prior explanations. The new explanation is that people conflate relative with absolute evaluation, especially on subjective measures. The paper then presents a series of four studies that test this conflation explanation. These tests distinguish conflation from other explanations, such as differential weighting and selecting the wrong referent. The results suggest that conflation occurs at the response stage during which people attempt to disambiguate subjective response scales in order to choose an answer. This is because conflation has little effect on objective measures, which would be equally affected if the conflation occurred at encoding.

11. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

OpenAIRE

Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

2016-01-01

One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

12. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane

2009-01-01

The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the ΛCDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of Ω eff 0 ≈ 4 × 10 −6 , with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10 −8 and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w eff < −1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models

Science.gov (United States)

Iwai, Yuko; Filce, Hollie; Ramp, Ellen

2011-01-01

In this study, the authors examined the impact of metacognitive reading strategies on international college students' academic success by correcting the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS) instrument with (a) grade point averages (GPAs) and (b) the English language proficiency levels, categorized by beginning (students at the English Language…

14. Are reading and face processing related?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja; Petersen, Anders

2015-01-01

Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition......, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development and face processing abilities...

15. Language arts achievement level, attitude survey format, and adolescents' attitudes towards reading.

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, L R; Ryan, B E

1997-01-01

The joint effects of student achievement level and attitude survey format upon attitudes toward reading were investigated. Sixth-grade students completed reading attitude surveys involving a standard Likert-type format or one involving pictures of the comic strip character, Garfield. The survey items were identical for both formats; only the presentation format was varied. There was no significant main effect on attitude responses due to achievement level, but the main effect due to survey format was significant, with the Likert-type format producing significantly higher attitude responses than the Garfield format. The interaction between achievement level and format also was significant, with above average students and average students giving higher attitude responses than did below average students when the Garfield format was used. When the Likert-type format was used, average students and below average students gave higher attitude responses than did above average students. The results imply that attitude responses of adolescents can be manipulated by varying the format of the survey.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Loni Kreis Taglieber

2008-04-01

17. INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING THROUGH READING

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Holly Warzecha, M.A. TESOL

2017-04-01

Science.gov (United States)

Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

1977-01-01

This journal issue concentrates on the theme "Parents and Reading." It presents articles on sharing books with young children, using public relations in a reading program, guiding preschool learning, assessing language readiness, working with reading problems, and teaching reading readiness in Wisconsin kindergartens. Resources and a review of…

Science.gov (United States)

Davis, Frederick B.

This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

20. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

Science.gov (United States)

Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

2016-08-01

1. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prodan, Emil

2009-01-01

We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states

2. Flexible time domain averaging technique

Science.gov (United States)

Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

2013-09-01

Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

CERN Document Server

2014-01-01

This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

4. Processing changes across reading encounters.

Science.gov (United States)

Levy, B A; Newell, S; Snyder, J; Timmins, K

1986-10-01

Five experiments examined changes in the processing of a text across reading encounters. Experiment 1 showed that reading speed increased systematically across encounters, with no loss in the extensiveness of analyses of the printed text, as indicated by the ability to detect nonword errors embedded within that passage. Experiment 2 replicated this improved reading fluency with experience and showed that it occurred even with typescript changes across trials, thus indicating that a primed visual operations explanation cannot account for the effect. The third and fourth experiments then extended the study of the familiarity effect to higher level processing, as indicated by the detection of word errors. Familiarity facilitated the detection of these violations at the syntactic-semantic levels. Finally, Experiment 5 showed that these higher level violations continued to be well detected over a series of reading encounters with the same text. The results indicate that prior experience improves reading speed, with no attenuation of analysis of the printed words or of the passage's message.

5. Effect of Piracetam on Dyslexic's Reading Ability.

Science.gov (United States)

Wilsher, C.; And Others

1985-01-01

Forty-six dyslexic boys (aged eight to 13) were administered Piracetam or placebo in a double-blind, parallel experiment. Although, overall, there were no significant group effects, the within-subject design revealed improvements in reading speed and accuracy in Piracetam Ss. Dyslexics with higher reading ages improved significantly compared to…

6. The average Indian female nose.

Science.gov (United States)

Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh

2011-12-01

This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and average measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.

7. Reading with a simulated 60-channel implant

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Angelica ePerez Fornos

2011-05-01

8. Differences in the predictors of reading comprehension in first graders from low socio-economic status families with either good or poor decoding skills.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Edouard Gentaz

Science.gov (United States)

Mahapatra, Shamita

2016-01-01

Children experience difficulties in reading either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas reading…

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

2010-01-01

There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

Science.gov (United States)

Jehangir, Naz; Yu, Caroline Yizhu; Song, Jeehey; Shariati, Mohammad Ali; Binder, Steven; Beyer, Jill; Santini, Veronica; Poston, Kathleen; Liao, Yaping Joyce

2018-01-01

significantly correlated with age, duration of disease, and VFQ-25 scores. The presence of convergence insufficiency did not significantly correlate with reading time in PD patients, although on average there was slower reading time in those with convergence insufficiency by 8 s (p = 0.2613). We propose that a simple reading task using 120 single-digit numbers can be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting to assess functional ocular motor difficulties in Parkinson's disease that can have a profound impact on quality of life.

Science.gov (United States)

Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R

2018-01-01

Science.gov (United States)

Hauptman, Allyson L.

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

Science.gov (United States)

Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

Science.gov (United States)

McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

2017-01-01

The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

Science.gov (United States)

LeCrone, Nancy

2010-01-01

In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

Science.gov (United States)

Weber, Rose-Marie

1983-01-01

An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

Science.gov (United States)

Bennett, Ruth

The use of traditional stories in American Indian language programs connects students' reading to their lives and familiarizes learners with the rhythms of the oral language. Puppet performances are one way of connecting reading programs to the Native oral tradition. A high school reading lesson in a first-year Hupa language class uses many…

19. L2 Working Memory Capacity and L2 Reading Skill.

Science.gov (United States)

Harrington, Mike; Sawyer, Mark

1992-01-01

Examines the sensitivity of second-language (L2) working memory (ability to store and process information simultaneously) to differences in reading skills among advanced L2 learners. Subjects with larger L2 working memory capacities scored higher on measures of L2 reading skills, but no correlation was found between reading and passive short-term…

20. Reading from electronic devices versus hardcopy text.

Science.gov (United States)

Hue, Jennifer E; Rosenfield, Mark; Saá, Gianinna

2014-01-01

1. Lessons learnt: Observation of Grade 4 reading comprehension teaching in South African schools across the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS 2006 achievement spectrum

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lisa Zimmerman

2014-12-01

2. Cognitive Capitalism: Economic Freedom Moderates the Effects of Intellectual and Average Classes on Economic Productivity.

Science.gov (United States)

Coyle, Thomas R; Rindermann, Heiner; Hancock, Dale

2016-10-01

Cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity. However, the effects of cognitive ability may be stronger in free and open economies, where competition rewards merit and achievement. To test this hypothesis, ability levels of intellectual classes (top 5%) and average classes (country averages) were estimated using international student assessments (Programme for International Student Assessment; Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study; and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) (N = 99 countries). The ability levels were correlated with indicators of economic freedom (Fraser Institute), scientific achievement (patent rates), innovation (Global Innovation Index), competitiveness (Global Competitiveness Index), and wealth (gross domestic product). Ability levels of intellectual and average classes strongly predicted all economic criteria. In addition, economic freedom moderated the effects of cognitive ability (for both classes), with stronger effects at higher levels of freedom. Effects were particularly robust for scientific achievements when the full range of freedom was analyzed. The results support cognitive capitalism theory: cognitive ability stimulates economic productivity, and its effects are enhanced by economic freedom. © The Author(s) 2016.

OpenAIRE

Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

2017-01-01

4. The role of working memory and fluency practice on the reading comprehension of students who are dysfluent readers.

Science.gov (United States)

Swanson, H Lee; O'Connor, Rollanda

2009-01-01

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Unal Ulker

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The academic success of the university students greatly depends on the mastery of an academic reading skill. However, students as well as teachers, take the learning of this skill for granted, as they tend to presuppose that reading skill is acquired as a part of their secondary education. As a result, most first-year students employ non university strategies to read academic texts, which leads to a surface approach to reading and prevents students from a better understanding of the material. This paper will discuss the strategies that involve students in taking a deep approach to reading academic texts.

OpenAIRE

Laísa Cristina dos Santos Guilherme; Rodrigo Ferreira Daverni

2016-01-01

Abstract: Reading in preschool is a time of awakening the taste and pleasure in reading, it is also a source of reflection, discovery and learn to listen. It is then necessary that the contact with the reading start from pre-school, with a variety of texts and the teacher also has the habit of reading in their daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the benefits of daily reading in the classroom pre-school life of a student, which the characteristics of a player and teacher re...

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

2015-01-01

Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

8. Averaged null energy condition from causality

Science.gov (United States)

Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein

2017-07-01

Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.

9. Chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average 2

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Marochnik, L S [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij

1980-11-01

The cosmological solutions are found for the equations for correlators, describing a statistically chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average in which delta-correlated fluctuations with amplitudes h >> 1 are excited. For the equation of state of matter p = n epsilon, the kind of solutions depends on the position of maximum of the spectrum of the metric disturbances. The expansion of the Universe, in which long-wave potential and vortical motions and gravitational waves (modes diverging at t ..-->.. 0) had been excited, tends asymptotically to the Friedmannian one at t ..-->.. identity and depends critically on n: at n < 0.26, the solution for the scalefactor is situated higher than the Friedmannian one, and lower at n > 0.26. The influence of finite at t ..-->.. 0 long-wave fluctuation modes leads to an averaged quasiisotropic solution. The contribution of quantum fluctuations and of short-wave parts of the spectrum of classical fluctuations to the expansion law is considered. Their influence is equivalent to the contribution from an ultrarelativistic gas with corresponding energy density and pressure. The restrictions are obtained for the degree of chaos (the spectrum characteristics) compatible with the observed helium abundance, which could have been retained by a completely chaotic Universe during its expansion up to the nucleosynthesis epoch.

10. FEL system with homogeneous average output

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

2018-01-16

A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

11. Mobile app reading speed test.

Science.gov (United States)

Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

2015-04-01

12. Safety Impact of Average Speed Control in the UK

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Brassøe, Bo; Johansen, Jonas Wibert

2016-01-01

of automatic speed control was point-based, but in recent years a potentially more effective alternative automatic speed control method has been introduced. This method is based upon records of drivers’ average travel speed over selected sections of the road and is normally called average speed control...... in the UK. The study demonstrates that the introduction of average speed control results in statistically significant and substantial reductions both in speed and in number of accidents. The evaluation indicates that average speed control has a higher safety effect than point-based automatic speed control....

13. Averaging of nonlinearity-managed pulses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2005-01-01

We consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the nonlinearity management which describes Bose-Einstein condensates under Feshbach resonance. By using an averaging theory, we derive the Hamiltonian averaged equation and compare it with other averaging methods developed for this problem. The averaged equation is used for analytical approximations of nonlinearity-managed solitons

14. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

Science.gov (United States)

Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

2018-01-01

15. The influence of working memory on reading growth in subgroups of children with reading disabilities.

Science.gov (United States)

Swanson, H Lee; Jerman, Olga

2007-04-01

This 3-year longitudinal study determined whether (a) subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD) (children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal IQ readers) and skilled readers varied in working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) growth and (b) whether growth in an executive system and/or a phonological storage system mediated growth in reading performance. A battery of memory and reading measures was administered to 84 children (11-17 years of age) across three testing waves spaced 1 year apart. The results showed that skilled readers yielded higher WM growth estimates than did the RD groups. No significant differentiation among subgroups of children with RD on growth measures emerged. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that WM (controlled attention), rather than STM (phonological loop), was related to growth in reading comprehension and reading fluency. The results support the notion that deficient growth in the executive component of WM underlies RD.

16. Reading up on sex: Learning to read. Why sex matters, and whether physical fitness and activity are relevant in reading acquisition

OpenAIRE

2013-01-01

When you read this thesis, you rely on a skill you acquired as a child. Most children start at the age of 5-6 years to learn single letters, write their name, and gradually develop the functional skill of decoding strings of letters; in other words, reading. By the age of 10 they are expected to read texts with concentration, endurance, fluency and coherence. The success rate varies, and Norwegian children score slightly above average when reading skills are measured globally, and are better ...

Science.gov (United States)

McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

2015-01-01

18. Higher Education

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders

2018-01-01

exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. RESULTS: Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition......, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. METHOD: We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face...... recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief...

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alhamdu Alhamdu

2016-05-01

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between interest and reading motivation based on literature review. The concept of the interest portrayed as a psychological state that occurs during interaction between individual and specific topic, object or activity including process of willingness, increased attention, concentration and positive feeling to the topic, object or activity. Meanwhile reading motivation emphasized to mental readiness, willingness and refers to beliefs and perception of individual to engage in reading activity. Some researchers were identified factors that influenced reading motivation such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors, self-concept and value of reading, and interest. In general, the literature review described that have positive relationship between interest and reading motivation.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-07-01

Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

2. READING PERFORMANCE OF ELEMENTARY STUDENT TEACHERS IN A DEVELOPING INSTITUTION.

Science.gov (United States)

A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT BISHOP COLLEGE, DALLAS, TEXAS, TO EXAMINE THE READING NEEDS OF PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS. SCORES ON THE NELSON DENNY READING TESTS, ADVANCED FORM A, ON THE OTIS QUICK SCORING TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY, GAMMA FORM BM, AND GRADE POINT AVERAGES COVERING 4 YEARS OF COLLEGE WORK WERE ANALYZED FOR 29 NEGRO ELEMENTARY STUDENT…

3. Reading Culture and Internet Browsing: A Shift of Paradigm among ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Four hypotheses were tested to confirm the average number of hours the participants devout to browsing on one hand and to reading on the other, identify gender difference in respondents' perception of the time they spend and what they use the time for and if their browsing indeed have any impact on their reading habit.

4. Executive Dysfunction among Children with Reading Comprehension Deficits

Science.gov (United States)

Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E. Mark; Eason, Sarah H.; Cutting, Laurie E.

2010-01-01

Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children…

CERN Document Server

Fry, Ron

2012-01-01

6. Are reading and face processing related?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K.; Petersen, Anders

Traditionally, perceptual processing of faces and words is considered highly specialized, strongly lateralized, and largely independent. This has, however, recently been challenged by studies showing that learning to read may affect the perceptual and neural processes involved in face recognition......, reflected in better overall accuracy, a lower perceptual threshold, and higher processing speed for words compared to letters. In sum, we find no evidence that reading skills are abnormal in developmental prosopagnosia, a finding that may challenge the recently proposed hypothesis that reading development...

Science.gov (United States)

Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

2016-12-01

We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

8. Higher Education

Science.gov (United States)

& Development (LDRD) National Security Education Center (NSEC) Office of Science Programs Richard P Databases National Security Education Center (NSEC) Center for Nonlinear Studies Engineering Institute Scholarships STEM Education Programs Teachers (K-12) Students (K-12) Higher Education Regional Education

9. The average size of ordered binary subgraphs

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van Leeuwen, J.; Hartel, Pieter H.

To analyse the demands made on the garbage collector in a graph reduction system, the change in size of an average graph is studied when an arbitrary edge is removed. In ordered binary trees the average number of deleted nodes as a result of cutting a single edge is equal to the average size of a

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

2017-01-01

We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alethia Paola Bogoya González

2011-09-01

12. THE ESSENCE OF QUESTIONING AND EXPLICIT READING INSTRUCTION STRATEGY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sa’dulloh Muzammil

2014-06-01

Full Text Available Teacher’s questioning may function to assist students comprehend more reading materials and to enable them to be proficient readers. Yet, the students may be less benefited from which if the teacher neither provides sufficient explicit reading strategy nor involves higher-level questions. Consequently, the teacher should pay more careful attentions as follows: 1 teacher should involve both lower- and high-lever questions; 2 teacher should provide students with explicit reading strategy; 3 teacher should be aware of the activities in reading phases: pre-, during-, and post-reading.

Science.gov (United States)

... Undaunted Zero Dark Thirty 101109-F-RH756-737 Raptor's Reveille Featured Books Featured Films Featured Art House To House House To House by David Bellavia and John Bruning One of the great heroes of the Iraq War /McMillan/Switzler Read More... Fearless Book: Fearless by Eric Blehm Read More... Zero Dark Thirty Zero

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2011-01-01

Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

Science.gov (United States)

MANGRUM, CHARLES T.

SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF VISION AND READING DISABILITY IS SURVEYED. CONCLUSIONS BASED ON THE LITERATURE IN THE FIELD ARE DISCUSSED. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 70 REFERENCES AND A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ARE APPENDED. A TABLE SUMMARIZING REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND EYE DEFECTS CONTRIBUTING TO READING DISABILITY IS INCLUDED.…

Science.gov (United States)

1984-01-01

Outlines the concept of working memory, with particular reference to a hypothetical subcomponent, the articulatory loop. Discusses the role of the loop in fluent adult reading, then examines the reading performance of adults with deficits in auditory verbal memory, showing that a capacity to articulate is not necessary for the effective…

Science.gov (United States)

Lemov, Doug

2017-01-01

Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

Science.gov (United States)

Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

2004-01-01

Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Henny Uswatun Hasanah

2013-11-01

Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

20. Higher Education.

Science.gov (United States)

Hendrickson, Robert M.

This chapter reports 1982 cases involving aspects of higher education. Interesting cases noted dealt with the federal government's authority to regulate state employees' retirement and raised the questions of whether Title IX covers employment, whether financial aid makes a college a program under Title IX, and whether sex segregated mortality…

1. Reading skills among students with intellectual disabilities.

Science.gov (United States)

Ratz, Christoph; Lenhard, Wolfgang

2013-05-01

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

2016-01-01

To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

3. Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey Scores for Reading Versus Other Near Visual Activities in School-Age Children.

Science.gov (United States)

Clark, Tiana Y; Clark, Robert A

2015-11-01

4. Determination of the diagnostic x-ray tube practical peak voltage (PPV) from average or average peak voltage measurements

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hourdakis, C J, E-mail: khour@gaec.gr [Ionizing Radiation Calibration Laboratory-Greek Atomic Energy Commission, PO Box 60092, 15310 Agia Paraskevi, Athens, Attiki (Greece)

2011-04-07

The practical peak voltage (PPV) has been adopted as the reference measuring quantity for the x-ray tube voltage. However, the majority of commercial kV-meter models measure the average peak, U-bar{sub P}, the average, U-bar, the effective, U{sub eff} or the maximum peak, U{sub P} tube voltage. This work proposed a method for determination of the PPV from measurements with a kV-meter that measures the average U-bar or the average peak, U-bar{sub p} voltage. The kV-meter reading can be converted to the PPV by applying appropriate calibration coefficients and conversion factors. The average peak k{sub PPV,kVp} and the average k{sub PPV,Uav} conversion factors were calculated from virtual voltage waveforms for conventional diagnostic radiology (50-150 kV) and mammography (22-35 kV) tube voltages and for voltage ripples from 0% to 100%. Regression equation and coefficients provide the appropriate conversion factors at any given tube voltage and ripple. The influence of voltage waveform irregularities, like 'spikes' and pulse amplitude variations, on the conversion factors was investigated and discussed. The proposed method and the conversion factors were tested using six commercial kV-meters at several x-ray units. The deviations between the reference and the calculated - according to the proposed method - PPV values were less than 2%. Practical aspects on the voltage ripple measurement were addressed and discussed. The proposed method provides a rigorous base to determine the PPV with kV-meters from U-bar{sub p} and U-bar measurement. Users can benefit, since all kV-meters, irrespective of their measuring quantity, can be used to determine the PPV, complying with the IEC standard requirements.

5. Averaging for solitons with nonlinearity management

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pelinovsky, D.E.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.

2003-01-01

We develop an averaging method for solitons of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a periodically varying nonlinearity coefficient, which is used to effectively describe solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates, in the context of the recently proposed technique of Feshbach resonance management. Using the derived local averaged equation, we study matter-wave bright and dark solitons and demonstrate a very good agreement between solutions of the averaged and full equations

6. Attention Therapy Improves Reading Comprehension in Adjudicated Teens in a Residential Facility

Science.gov (United States)

Shelley-Tremblay, John; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Eyer, Joshua

2012-01-01

This study quantified the influence of visual Attention Therapy (AT) on reading skills and Coherent Motion Threshold (CMT) in adjudicated teens with moderate reading disabilities (RD) residing in a residential alternative sentencing program. Forty-two students with below-average reading scores were identified using standardized reading…

7. Reading comprehension in deaf children: the impact of the mode of acquisition of word meanings

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Wauters, L.N.

2005-01-01

The present volume reports on research on reading comprehension in deaf children and adolescents in the Netherlands. The average reading comprehension scores of deaf children and adolescents are found to be shockingly low. To find an explanation for these low scores, two central factors in reading

8. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rønberg, Louise; Mejding, Jan

2014-01-01

and functional goals in Finland. It appears that the Finnish descriptions are more aligned with current empirical research on reading comprehension. Swedish and Norwegian teachers have the most varied used of both literary and informational text types during a week, whereas Finnish teachers give informational...... texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark......This article presents a comparison of the Nordic countries’ official objectives for reading and analyses of 1005 Nordic teachers’ responses regarding their reading instruction. The specificity and transparency vary greatly in the objectives, from broad outlines in Norway to more specific...

9. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Minute Averages

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-minute average of Level 1 data

10. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Second Averages

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-second average of Level 1 data

11. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

2011-01-01

Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

12. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

Data.gov (United States)

California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

2017-01-01

in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments....... Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

14. Improving consensus structure by eliminating averaging artifacts

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

KC Dukka B

2009-03-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Common structural biology methods (i.e., NMR and molecular dynamics often produce ensembles of molecular structures. Consequently, averaging of 3D coordinates of molecular structures (proteins and RNA is a frequent approach to obtain a consensus structure that is representative of the ensemble. However, when the structures are averaged, artifacts can result in unrealistic local geometries, including unphysical bond lengths and angles. Results Herein, we describe a method to derive representative structures while limiting the number of artifacts. Our approach is based on a Monte Carlo simulation technique that drives a starting structure (an extended or a 'close-by' structure towards the 'averaged structure' using a harmonic pseudo energy function. To assess the performance of the algorithm, we applied our approach to Cα models of 1364 proteins generated by the TASSER structure prediction algorithm. The average RMSD of the refined model from the native structure for the set becomes worse by a mere 0.08 Å compared to the average RMSD of the averaged structures from the native structure (3.28 Å for refined structures and 3.36 A for the averaged structures. However, the percentage of atoms involved in clashes is greatly reduced (from 63% to 1%; in fact, the majority of the refined proteins had zero clashes. Moreover, a small number (38 of refined structures resulted in lower RMSD to the native protein versus the averaged structure. Finally, compared to PULCHRA 1, our approach produces representative structure of similar RMSD quality, but with much fewer clashes. Conclusion The benchmarking results demonstrate that our approach for removing averaging artifacts can be very beneficial for the structural biology community. Furthermore, the same approach can be applied to almost any problem where averaging of 3D coordinates is performed. Namely, structure averaging is also commonly performed in RNA secondary prediction 2, which

15. Verbal and visuospatial working memory as predictors of children's reading ability.

Science.gov (United States)

Pham, Andy V; Hasson, Ramzi M

2014-08-01

16. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General...

17. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

Science.gov (United States)

Bailey, Paul Dean

2012-01-01

Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by the…

Science.gov (United States)

Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Connor, Carol McDonald; Petscher, Yaacov

2009-06-01

Science.gov (United States)

... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

2005-01-01

of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience......This article investigates tourists’ ways of reading their guidebooks on the basis of qualitative interviews with tourists visiting Copenhagen, Denmark. Tourist guidebooks have only been dealt with sporadically by tourism scholars. The relatively few studies that focus on guidebooks either present...... a historical perspective on the guidebook or centre on content analyses of place representation, whereas virtually no research exists on the way in which tourists read and use their guidebooks. This study reveals that tourists read the same guidebooks in a number of different ways regarding types...

Science.gov (United States)

... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

Science.gov (United States)

Hopkins, Charles R.; Kim, Paul Y.

1974-01-01

Since the reading abilities of general business students vary from one individual to the next, the author's report on the readability of three general business textbooks to guide business teachers in their selection of textbooks. (AG)

Data.gov (United States)

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

Science.gov (United States)

Kravitz, Richard; Shapiro, Marvin

1969-01-01

The physical education department of the Pennsylvania Advancement School of Philadelphia has established a reading and communication skill project that uses the appeal of sports to help students improve their basic skills. (Author)

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Fou-Lai

2012-06-01

Science.gov (United States)

Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

2011-01-01

Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

Science.gov (United States)

Hudson, Alida K.; Williams, Joan A.

2015-01-01

This article details one teacher's implementation of reading workshop in her second grade classroom. She provided a framework for authentic reading using the five components of reading workshop: time, choice, response, community, and structure. She found that reading workshop is a highly effective practice for not only increasing students'…

Science.gov (United States)

Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

2017-01-01

There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

Science.gov (United States)

Divoll, Kent; Browning, Sandra

2013-01-01

Students do not always read what is expected in college courses (Berry, Cook, Hill, & Stevens, 2010; Phillips & Phillips, 2007; Sikorski et al., 2002) or they read to cram for an exam or quiz (Clump, Bauer, & Bradley, 2004). The Reading Retention Strategy (RRS) is designed to motivate students to read and assist students in…

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Muhammet BAŞTUĞ

2016-06-01

11. Small Bandwidth Asymptotics for Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

This paper proposes (apparently) novel standard error formulas for the density-weighted average derivative estimator of Powell, Stock, and Stoker (1989). Asymptotic validity of the standard errors developed in this paper does not require the use of higher-order kernels and the standard errors...

12. Trend of Average Wages as Indicator of Hypothetical Money Illusion

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Julian Daszkowski

2010-06-01

Full Text Available The definition of wage in Poland not before 1998 includes any value of social security contribution. Changed definition creates higher level of reported wages, but was expected not to influence the take home pay. Nevertheless, the trend of average wages, after a short period, has returned to its previous line. Such effect is explained in the term of money illusion.

13. 40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-01

... emissions more than the reference control technology, but the combination of the pollution prevention... emissions average. This must include any Group 1 emission points to which the reference control technology... agrees has a higher nominal efficiency than the reference control technology. Information on the nominal...

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Edi Santoso

2015-10-01

15. Computation of the bounce-average code

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cutler, T.A.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Rensink, M.E.

1977-01-01

The bounce-average computer code simulates the two-dimensional velocity transport of ions in a mirror machine. The code evaluates and bounce-averages the collision operator and sources along the field line. A self-consistent equilibrium magnetic field is also computed using the long-thin approximation. Optionally included are terms that maintain μ, J invariance as the magnetic field changes in time. The assumptions and analysis that form the foundation of the bounce-average code are described. When references can be cited, the required results are merely stated and explained briefly. A listing of the code is appended

16. Early Reading Programs in High-Poverty Schools: Emerald Elementary Beats the Odds.

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the early reading program in Emerald Elementary School, located in a Midwest urban fringe district. From 1996 through 1998, Emerald's students performed well above the district average or near the state average on reading achievement. During this period, the school had at least half of its students eligible for free or…

17. Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

Science.gov (United States)

18. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

19. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

KAUST Repository

Liang, Faming

2010-01-01

to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic

20. Should the average tax rate be marginalized?

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Feldman, N. E.; Katuščák, Peter

-, č. 304 (2006), s. 1-65 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : tax * labor supply * average tax Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp304.pdf

1. A practical guide to averaging functions

CERN Document Server

Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

2016-01-01

This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

2. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

Data.gov (United States)

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

3. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon

Data.gov (United States)

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

4. Reading in a Digital Age

Science.gov (United States)

Baron, Naomi S.

2017-01-01

The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

5. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

Science.gov (United States)

Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

1980-01-01

6. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tomáš Balogh

2012-01-01

Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

7. Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Marinaro, A.; Scarpetta, Q.

1984-01-01

An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles

8. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

2004-01-01

Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr...... for approximate Bayesian inference. We demonstrate our approach on regression with Gaussian processes. A comparison with averages obtained by Monte-Carlo sampling shows that our method achieves good accuracy....

9. Using quality scores and longer reads improves accuracy of Solexa read mapping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Xuan Zhenyu

2008-02-01

10. Reading Ability Development from Kindergarten to Junior Secondary: Latent Transition Analyses with Growth Mixture Modeling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yuan Liu

2016-10-01

Full Text Available The present study examined the reading ability development of children in the large scale Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 data; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Pollack, & Atkins-Burnett, 2006 under the dynamic systems. To depict children's growth pattern, we extended the measurement part of latent transition analysis to the growth mixture model and found that the new model fitted the data well. Results also revealed that most of the children stayed in the same ability group with few cross-level changes in their classes. After adding the environmental factors as predictors, analyses showed that children receiving higher teachers' ratings, with higher socioeconomic status, and of above average poverty status, would have higher probability to transit into the higher ability group.

11. Monitoring Progress toward Independent Silent Reading.

Science.gov (United States)

Franc, Lillian H.; Hildebrandt, Jeannette

1984-01-01

Concludes, among other things, that fluent oral reading is an important step toward reading for meaning and independent silent reading and that silent reading should be encouraged from the beginning of reading instruction. (FL)

12. Can the bivariate Hurst exponent be higher than an average of the separate Hurst exponents?

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

2015-01-01

Roč. 431, č. 1 (2015), s. 124-127 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Correlations * Power- law cross-correlations * Bivariate Hurst exponent * Spectrum coherence Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.785, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/E/kristoufek-0452314.pdf

13. Improved averaging for non-null interferometry

Science.gov (United States)

Fleig, Jon F.; Murphy, Paul E.

2013-09-01

Arithmetic averaging of interferometric phase measurements is a well-established method for reducing the effects of time varying disturbances, such as air turbulence and vibration. Calculating a map of the standard deviation for each pixel in the average map can provide a useful estimate of its variability. However, phase maps of complex and/or high density fringe fields frequently contain defects that severely impair the effectiveness of simple phase averaging and bias the variability estimate. These defects include large or small-area phase unwrapping artifacts, large alignment components, and voids that change in number, location, or size. Inclusion of a single phase map with a large area defect into the average is usually sufficient to spoil the entire result. Small-area phase unwrapping and void defects may not render the average map metrologically useless, but they pessimistically bias the variance estimate for the overwhelming majority of the data. We present an algorithm that obtains phase average and variance estimates that are robust against both large and small-area phase defects. It identifies and rejects phase maps containing large area voids or unwrapping artifacts. It also identifies and prunes the unreliable areas of otherwise useful phase maps, and removes the effect of alignment drift from the variance estimate. The algorithm has several run-time adjustable parameters to adjust the rejection criteria for bad data. However, a single nominal setting has been effective over a wide range of conditions. This enhanced averaging algorithm can be efficiently integrated with the phase map acquisition process to minimize the number of phase samples required to approach the practical noise floor of the metrology environment.

14. Analysis and comparison of safety models using average daily, average hourly, and microscopic traffic.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Ling; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Xuesong; Yu, Rongjie

2018-02-01

There have been plenty of traffic safety studies based on average daily traffic (ADT), average hourly traffic (AHT), or microscopic traffic at 5 min intervals. Nevertheless, not enough research has compared the performance of these three types of safety studies, and seldom of previous studies have intended to find whether the results of one type of study is transferable to the other two studies. First, this study built three models: a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the daily crash frequency using ADT, a Bayesian Poisson-lognormal model to estimate the hourly crash frequency using AHT, and a Bayesian logistic regression model for the real-time safety analysis using microscopic traffic. The model results showed that the crash contributing factors found by different models were comparable but not the same. Four variables, i.e., the logarithm of volume, the standard deviation of speed, the logarithm of segment length, and the existence of diverge segment, were positively significant in the three models. Additionally, weaving segments experienced higher daily and hourly crash frequencies than merge and basic segments. Then, each of the ADT-based, AHT-based, and real-time models was used to estimate safety conditions at different levels: daily and hourly, meanwhile, the real-time model was also used in 5 min intervals. The results uncovered that the ADT- and AHT-based safety models performed similar in predicting daily and hourly crash frequencies, and the real-time safety model was able to provide hourly crash frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-02-01

Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

Science.gov (United States)

Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

1992-01-01

Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2015-05-01

18. Beyond reading level: a systematic review of the suitability of cancer education print and Web-based materials.

Science.gov (United States)

Finnie, Ramona K C; Felder, Tisha M; Linder, Suzanne Kneuper; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

2010-12-01

Consideration of categories related to reading comprehension--beyond reading level--is imperative to reach low literacy populations effectively. "Suitability" has been proposed as a term to encompass six categories of such factors: content, literacy demand graphics, layout/typography, learning stimulation, and cultural appropriateness. Our purpose was to describe instruments used to evaluate categories of suitability in cancer education materials in published reports and their findings. We searched databases and reference lists for evaluations of print and Web-based cancer education materials to identify and describe measures of these categories. Studies had to evaluate reading level and at least one category of suitability. Eleven studies met our criteria. Seven studies reported inter-rater reliability. Cultural appropriateness was most often assessed; four instruments assessed only surface aspects of cultural appropriateness. Only two of seven instruments used, the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the comprehensibility assessment of materials (SAM + CAM), were described as having any evidence of validity. Studies using Simplified Measure of Goobledygook (SMOG) and Fry reported higher average reading level scores than those using Flesh-Kincaid. Most materials failed criteria for reading level and cultural appropriateness. We recommend more emphasis on the categories of suitability for those developing cancer education materials and more study of these categories and reliability and validity testing of instruments.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

2008-10-01

Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.

20. Comparison of Reading Levels of Pharmacy Students and Reading Level of Primary Literature

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cathy H Ficzere

2016-09-01

1. Asynchronous Gossip for Averaging and Spectral Ranking

Science.gov (United States)

Borkar, Vivek S.; Makhijani, Rahul; Sundaresan, Rajesh

2014-08-01

We consider two variants of the classical gossip algorithm. The first variant is a version of asynchronous stochastic approximation. We highlight a fundamental difficulty associated with the classical asynchronous gossip scheme, viz., that it may not converge to a desired average, and suggest an alternative scheme based on reinforcement learning that has guaranteed convergence to the desired average. We then discuss a potential application to a wireless network setting with simultaneous link activation constraints. The second variant is a gossip algorithm for distributed computation of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of a nonnegative matrix. While the first variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for an average cost controlled Markov decision problem, the second variant draws upon a reinforcement learning algorithm for risk-sensitive control. We then discuss potential applications of the second variant to ranking schemes, reputation networks, and principal component analysis.

2. Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

Science.gov (United States)

Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

2008-11-01

Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

3. An approach to averaging digitized plantagram curves.

Science.gov (United States)

Hawes, M R; Heinemeyer, R; Sovak, D; Tory, B

1994-07-01

The averaging of outline shapes of the human foot for the purposes of determining information concerning foot shape and dimension within the context of comfort of fit of sport shoes is approached as a mathematical problem. An outline of the human footprint is obtained by standard procedures and the curvature is traced with a Hewlett Packard Digitizer. The paper describes the determination of an alignment axis, the identification of two ray centres and the division of the total curve into two overlapping arcs. Each arc is divided by equiangular rays which intersect chords between digitized points describing the arc. The radial distance of each ray is averaged within groups of foot lengths which vary by +/- 2.25 mm (approximately equal to 1/2 shoe size). The method has been used to determine average plantar curves in a study of 1197 North American males (Hawes and Sovak 1993).

4. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

Science.gov (United States)

Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

5. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

Science.gov (United States)

Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

2014-01-01

For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

6. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

CERN Document Server

Liu, Shu-Jun

2012-01-01

Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

7. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

Science.gov (United States)

Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

2018-04-01

Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Balling, Laura Winther

2013-01-01

Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

9. Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skill of Students with Severe to Profound Hearing Impairment from Second up to Fifth Grade of Exceptional Schools with Normal Hearing Students

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maryam Jalalipour

2016-03-01

10. Regional averaging and scaling in relativistic cosmology

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buchert, Thomas; Carfora, Mauro

2002-01-01

Averaged inhomogeneous cosmologies lie at the forefront of interest, since cosmological parameters such as the rate of expansion or the mass density are to be considered as volume-averaged quantities and only these can be compared with observations. For this reason the relevant parameters are intrinsically scale-dependent and one wishes to control this dependence without restricting the cosmological model by unphysical assumptions. In the latter respect we contrast our way to approach the averaging problem in relativistic cosmology with shortcomings of averaged Newtonian models. Explicitly, we investigate the scale-dependence of Eulerian volume averages of scalar functions on Riemannian three-manifolds. We propose a complementary view of a Lagrangian smoothing of (tensorial) variables as opposed to their Eulerian averaging on spatial domains. This programme is realized with the help of a global Ricci deformation flow for the metric. We explain rigorously the origin of the Ricci flow which, on heuristic grounds, has already been suggested as a possible candidate for smoothing the initial dataset for cosmological spacetimes. The smoothing of geometry implies a renormalization of averaged spatial variables. We discuss the results in terms of effective cosmological parameters that would be assigned to the smoothed cosmological spacetime. In particular, we find that on the smoothed spatial domain B-bar evaluated cosmological parameters obey Ω-bar B-bar m + Ω-bar B-bar R + Ω-bar B-bar A + Ω-bar B-bar Q 1, where Ω-bar B-bar m , Ω-bar B-bar R and Ω-bar B-bar A correspond to the standard Friedmannian parameters, while Ω-bar B-bar Q is a remnant of cosmic variance of expansion and shear fluctuations on the averaging domain. All these parameters are 'dressed' after smoothing out the geometrical fluctuations, and we give the relations of the 'dressed' to the 'bare' parameters. While the former provide the framework of interpreting observations with a 'Friedmannian bias

11. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

Science.gov (United States)

Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

2014-09-01

This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

12. Average-case analysis of numerical problems

CERN Document Server

2000-01-01

The average-case analysis of numerical problems is the counterpart of the more traditional worst-case approach. The analysis of average error and cost leads to new insight on numerical problems as well as to new algorithms. The book provides a survey of results that were mainly obtained during the last 10 years and also contains new results. The problems under consideration include approximation/optimal recovery and numerical integration of univariate and multivariate functions as well as zero-finding and global optimization. Background material, e.g. on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and random fields, is provided.

13. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

2014-01-01

As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

14. The role of phonological awareness in reading comprehension

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maria Silvia Cárnio

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hiromitsu Miyata

16. Predicting English Word Reading Skills for Spanish-Speaking Students in First Grade.

Science.gov (United States)

Páez, Mariela; Rinaldi, Claudia

2006-10-01

17. Model averaging, optimal inference and habit formation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Thomas H B FitzGerald

2014-06-01

Full Text Available Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function – the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge – that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behaviour. Bayesian model averaging – which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence – provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent’s behaviour should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesise that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realisable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behaviour. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded Bayesian inference, focussing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behaviour.

18. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic...

19. Average beta measurement in EXTRAP T1

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hedin, E.R.

1988-12-01

Beginning with the ideal MHD pressure balance equation, an expression for the average poloidal beta, Β Θ , is derived. A method for unobtrusively measuring the quantities used to evaluate Β Θ in Extrap T1 is described. The results if a series of measurements yielding Β Θ as a function of externally applied toroidal field are presented. (author)

20. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2005-01-01

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

1. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Lars Kai

2000-01-01

Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation is l...

2. Gibbs equilibrium averages and Bogolyubov measure

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sankovich, D.P.

2011-01-01

Application of the functional integration methods in equilibrium statistical mechanics of quantum Bose-systems is considered. We show that Gibbs equilibrium averages of Bose-operators can be represented as path integrals over a special Gauss measure defined in the corresponding space of continuous functions. We consider some problems related to integration with respect to this measure

3. High average-power induction linacs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.; Turner, W.C.; Watson, J.A.

1989-01-01

Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of ∼ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper the authors report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs

4. Function reconstruction from noisy local averages

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chen Yu; Huang Jianguo; Han Weimin

2008-01-01

A regularization method is proposed for the function reconstruction from noisy local averages in any dimension. Error bounds for the approximate solution in L 2 -norm are derived. A number of numerical examples are provided to show computational performance of the method, with the regularization parameters selected by different strategies

5. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 31–47. A singularity theorem based on spatial ... In this paper I would like to present a result which confirms – at least partially – ... A detailed analysis of how the model fits in with the .... Further, the statement that the spatial average ...... Financial support under grants FIS2004-01626 and no.

6. Multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forest, M.G.

1979-01-01

The multiphase averaging of periodic soliton equations is considered. Particular attention is given to the periodic sine-Gordon and Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equations. The periodic sine-Gordon equation and its associated inverse spectral theory are analyzed, including a discussion of the spectral representations of exact, N-phase sine-Gordon solutions. The emphasis is on physical characteristics of the periodic waves, with a motivation from the well-known whole-line solitons. A canonical Hamiltonian approach for the modulational theory of N-phase waves is prescribed. A concrete illustration of this averaging method is provided with the periodic sine-Gordon equation; explicit averaging results are given only for the N = 1 case, laying a foundation for a more thorough treatment of the general N-phase problem. For the KdV equation, very general results are given for multiphase averaging of the N-phase waves. The single-phase results of Whitham are extended to general N phases, and more importantly, an invariant representation in terms of Abelian differentials on a Riemann surface is provided. Several consequences of this invariant representation are deduced, including strong evidence for the Hamiltonian structure of N-phase modulational equations

7. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

2006-01-01

The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

8. Essays on model averaging and political economics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Wang, W.

2013-01-01

This thesis first investigates various issues related with model averaging, and then evaluates two policies, i.e. West Development Drive in China and fiscal decentralization in U.S, using econometric tools. Chapter 2 proposes a hierarchical weighted least squares (HWALS) method to address multiple

9. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

10. High average-power induction linacs

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.

1989-01-01

Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs

11. Average Costs versus Net Present Value

NARCIS (Netherlands)

E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

2000-01-01

textabstractWhile the net present value (NPV) approach is widely accepted as the right framework for studying production and inventory control systems, average cost (AC) models are more widely used. For the well known EOQ model it can be verified that (under certain conditions) the AC approach gives

12. Average beta-beating from random errors

CERN Document Server

Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Langner, Andy Sven; Malina, Lukas; Franchi, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

2018-01-01

The impact of random errors on average β-beating is studied via analytical derivations and simulations. A systematic positive β-beating is expected from random errors quadratic with the sources or, equivalently, with the rms β-beating. However, random errors do not have a systematic eﬀect on the tune.

Science.gov (United States)

Westrick, Paul A.

2017-01-01

Undergraduate grade point average (GPA) is a commonly employed measure in educational research, serving as a criterion or as a predictor depending on the research question. Over the decades, researchers have used a variety of reliability coefficients to estimate the reliability of undergraduate GPA, which suggests that there has been no consensus…

14. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING MODEL “DETAILED READING” AT A VOCATIONAL HIGHER INSTITUTION IN BANDUNG

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Widia Resdiana

2017-04-01

15. Tendon surveillance requirements - average tendon force

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fulton, J.F.

1982-01-01

Proposed Rev. 3 to USNRC Reg. Guide 1.35 discusses the need for comparing, for individual tendons, the measured and predicted lift-off forces. Such a comparison is intended to detect any abnormal tendon force loss which might occur. Recognizing that there are uncertainties in the prediction of tendon losses, proposed Guide 1.35.1 has allowed specific tolerances on the fundamental losses. Thus, the lift-off force acceptance criteria for individual tendons appearing in Reg. Guide 1.35, Proposed Rev. 3, is stated relative to a lower bound predicted tendon force, which is obtained using the 'plus' tolerances on the fundamental losses. There is an additional acceptance criterion for the lift-off forces which is not specifically addressed in these two Reg. Guides; however, it is included in a proposed Subsection IWX to ASME Code Section XI. This criterion is based on the overriding requirement that the magnitude of prestress in the containment structure be sufficeint to meet the minimum prestress design requirements. This design requirement can be expressed as an average tendon force for each group of vertical hoop, or dome tendons. For the purpose of comparing the actual tendon forces with the required average tendon force, the lift-off forces measured for a sample of tendons within each group can be averaged to construct the average force for the entire group. However, the individual lift-off forces must be 'corrected' (normalized) prior to obtaining the sample average. This paper derives the correction factor to be used for this purpose. (orig./RW)

Science.gov (United States)

Leton, Donald A.

In recent years, coding and decoding have been claimed to be the processes for converting one language form to another. But there has been little effort to locate these processes in the human learner or to identify the nature of the internal codes. Computer simulation of reading is useful because the similarities in the human reception and…

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Glickman, Theodore S; Gough, Michael

1990-01-01

... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

Science.gov (United States)

Waters, Lindsay

2007-01-01

Over the last 50 years, certain ideas have become dominant that make learning to read different than it once was than the ideas that children are neurologically "wired" to use language "competently" in certain ways. Noam Chomsky has promoted the idea that there are certain "syntactic structures" hard-wired in the human brain. That view, the author…

Science.gov (United States)

Jenkins, Jacquelyn W.; Shaul, Nancy Pera

The program described in this paper was based upon the premise that the activity of cooking in the classroom is an excellent way of integrating all areas of learning and a very useful reading vehicle. Through cooking activities and related field trips, children can add to both their knowledge in basic subject areas and their motor skills as well…

CERN Document Server

Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

2016-01-01

Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

Science.gov (United States)

Duane, Drake D., Ed.; Rawson, Margaret B., Ed.

The nine papers in this book discuss aspects of language processing that contribute to reading difficulty. After a summary of the 1974 World Congress on Dyslexia, at which these papers were presented, the following subjects are examined: historical background and educational treatment of dyslexia; the structure of language; neuroanatomy underlying…

Science.gov (United States)

Phi Delta Kappan, 1992

1992-01-01

Advises administrators to use their summers to relax and recharge their intellectual batteries. Reading suggestions include Edith Wharton's "House of Mirth," Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper," Amy Tan's "Joy Luck Club," China Achebe's "Things Fall Apart," Paule Marshall's "The Chosen…

Science.gov (United States)

Price, Leah

2012-01-01

The digital age is rendering books more common, not less. It is true that there is nothing new about "furniture books": The trade in reading material has long been dwarfed by the market for coffee-table books, books that steakhouse chains buy by the yard, empty bindings that interior decorators use to accessorize the upholstery. As coffee-table…

Science.gov (United States)

Nettle, Keith

Given the strong sense of passing time which seems to be wired into human beings, it is only natural that the Year 2000, or Y2K in contemporary jargon, should lead to serious speculation about the future. Reading and literacy, old skills relatively speaking, continue rightly to figure in those predictions (along with the technologically advanced…

Science.gov (United States)

Kellman, Steven G.

2008-01-01

It is hard to imagine a world without books. Reading represents a mode of thinking and being that may be overshadowed in a contemporary world of web sites, movies, TV shows, CDs and video games. Ultimately, the author concludes that the percentage of serious readers has probably not changed significantly during the past century: what has changed…

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

2015-09-30

SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

Science.gov (United States)

Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle

2011-12-01

8. Capillary Electrophoresis Sensitivity Enhancement Based on Adaptive Moving Average Method.

Science.gov (United States)

Drevinskas, Tomas; Telksnys, Laimutis; Maruška, Audrius; Gorbatsova, Jelena; Kaljurand, Mihkel

2018-06-05

In the present work, we demonstrate a novel approach to improve the sensitivity of the "out of lab" portable capillary electrophoretic measurements. Nowadays, many signal enhancement methods are (i) underused (nonoptimal), (ii) overused (distorts the data), or (iii) inapplicable in field-portable instrumentation because of a lack of computational power. The described innovative migration velocity-adaptive moving average method uses an optimal averaging window size and can be easily implemented with a microcontroller. The contactless conductivity detection was used as a model for the development of a signal processing method and the demonstration of its impact on the sensitivity. The frequency characteristics of the recorded electropherograms and peaks were clarified. Higher electrophoretic mobility analytes exhibit higher-frequency peaks, whereas lower electrophoretic mobility analytes exhibit lower-frequency peaks. On the basis of the obtained data, a migration velocity-adaptive moving average algorithm was created, adapted, and programmed into capillary electrophoresis data-processing software. Employing the developed algorithm, each data point is processed depending on a certain migration time of the analyte. Because of the implemented migration velocity-adaptive moving average method, the signal-to-noise ratio improved up to 11 times for sampling frequency of 4.6 Hz and up to 22 times for sampling frequency of 25 Hz. This paper could potentially be used as a methodological guideline for the development of new smoothing algorithms that require adaptive conditions in capillary electrophoresis and other separation methods.

9. An Evaluation of an eHealth Tool Designed to Improve College Students’ Label-Reading Skills and Feelings of Empowerment to Choose Healthful Foods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

2018-01-01

Full Text Available ObjectiveCollege students are at risk for poor dietary choices. New skills can empower individuals to adopt healthful behaviors, yet eHealth tools designed to develop food-choice skills, such as label-reading skills, are uncommon. We investigated the effects of web-based label-reading training on college students’ perceptions of healthful food-choice empowerment.MethodsStudents completed label-reading training in which they practiced selecting the more healthful food using nutrition labels. We examined improvements in label-reading accuracy (correct healthfulness decisions and perceptions of empowerment, using a 6-item scale. Repeated measures ANOVAs and paired-samples t-tests were used to examine changes in accuracy and empowerment across the training session.ResultsIn addition to increases in label-reading accuracy with training, we found increases in healthful food-choice empowerment scores. Specifically, the proportion of correct (i.e., more healthful food choices increased across the three blocks of practice (p = 0.04 and food-choice empowerment scores were about 7.5% higher on average after training (p < 0.001.Conclusion and implicationsLabel-reading training was associated with increased feelings of empowerment associated with making healthful food choices. Skill focused eHealth tools may offer an important avenue for motivating behavior change through skill development.

OpenAIRE

VASILIKA RRAKU

2014-01-01

The aim of this article is to place the focus on teachers’ beliefs about reading and reading strategies to the purpose of emphasizing the im portance of reading strategies in the reading process. The method of study is analytic analysis of teachers’ beliefs obtained through ques tionnaires delivered to 18 English language teachers of elementary, secondary and high level education in the region of Saranda in lbania. The results of the study pointed to a great concordance between teach ers’ bel...

11. A Comparison of Reading Response Methods to Increase Student Learning

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Cheryl J. Davis

2016-01-01

Full Text Available It is common in college courses to test students on the required readings for that course. With a rise in online education it is often the case that students are required to provide evidence of reading the material. However, there is little empirical research stating the best written means to assess that students read the materials. This study experimentally compared the effect of assigned reading summaries or study questions on student test performance. The results revealed that study questions produced higher quiz scores and higher preparation for the quiz, based on student feedback. Limitations of the study included a small sample size and extraneous activities that may have affected general knowledge on a topic. Results suggest that study questions focusing students on critical information in the required readings improve student learning.

12. Accurate phenotyping: Reconciling approaches through Bayesian model averaging.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Carla Chia-Ming Chen

Full Text Available Genetic research into complex diseases is frequently hindered by a lack of clear biomarkers for phenotype ascertainment. Phenotypes for such diseases are often identified on the basis of clinically defined criteria; however such criteria may not be suitable for understanding the genetic composition of the diseases. Various statistical approaches have been proposed for phenotype definition; however our previous studies have shown that differences in phenotypes estimated using different approaches have substantial impact on subsequent analyses. Instead of obtaining results based upon a single model, we propose a new method, using Bayesian model averaging to overcome problems associated with phenotype definition. Although Bayesian model averaging has been used in other fields of research, this is the first study that uses Bayesian model averaging to reconcile phenotypes obtained using multiple models. We illustrate the new method by applying it to simulated genetic and phenotypic data for Kofendred personality disorder-an imaginary disease with several sub-types. Two separate statistical methods were used to identify clusters of individuals with distinct phenotypes: latent class analysis and grade of membership. Bayesian model averaging was then used to combine the two clusterings for the purpose of subsequent linkage analyses. We found that causative genetic loci for the disease produced higher LOD scores using model averaging than under either individual model separately. We attribute this improvement to consolidation of the cores of phenotype clusters identified using each individual method.

13. Reading skills and mathematics | Bohlmann | South African Journal ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This article considers the relationship between poorly-developed reading skills and academic performance in mathematics. It discusses ... South African Journal of Higher Education Vol.16(3) 2002: 196-206 ... AJOL African Journals Online.

Science.gov (United States)

Donham van Deusen, Jean; Langhorne, Mary Jo

1997-01-01

Describes the Community Reading Month (CRM) initiative in Iowa City, Iowa; its goals are to promote the value of reading and to build a sense of community. Topics include the development of CRM, increased reading scores of Iowa City's elementary school students, activities for people of all ages, and planning and evaluation. (AEF)

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

Science.gov (United States)

Woolley, Gary

2008-01-01

There are many environmental and personal factors that contribute to reading success. Reading comprehension is a complex interaction of language, sensory perception, memory, and motivational aspects. However, most existing assessment tools have not adequately reflected the complex nature of reading comprehension. Good assessment requires a…

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

2017-01-01

This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

Science.gov (United States)

Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van den Boer, M.

2014-01-01

Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

Science.gov (United States)

van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

2017-01-01

This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

1. Digital reading practices of university students

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Karen Shirley LÓPEZ GIL

2016-06-01

OpenAIRE

Westbrook, Jo; Sutherland, Julia; Oakhill, Jane; Sullivan, Susan

2018-01-01

Poorer adolescent readers are often regarded by teachers as unable to read whole narratives and given short, simplified texts, yet are expected to analyse every part in a slow laborious read through. This article reports on a mixed methods study in which 20 English teachers in the South of England changed their current practice to read two whole challenging novels at a faster pace than usual in 12 weeks with their average and poorer readers ages 12-13. Ten teachers received additional trainin...

OpenAIRE

Kim, Young-Suk Grace

2015-01-01

The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

4. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peeters, T.T.J.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Ciftcioglu, Oe. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1994-11-01

The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a {chi}{sup 2} distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.).

5. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeters, T.T.J.M.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

1994-11-01

The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a χ 2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.)

6. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Carmen BOGHEAN

2013-12-01

Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

7. Weighted estimates for the averaging integral operator

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Opic, Bohumír; Rákosník, Jiří

2010-01-01

Roč. 61, č. 3 (2010), s. 253-262 ISSN 0010-0757 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2033; GA ČR GA201/08/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : averaging integral operator * weighted Lebesgue spaces * weights Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03191231

8. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

OpenAIRE

Boer, Daniel

2015-01-01

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of su...

9. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

OpenAIRE

Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis

2012-01-01

We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we de...

Science.gov (United States)

Jehangir, Naz; Yu, Caroline Yizhu; Song, Jeehey; Shariati, Mohammad Ali; Binder, Steven; Beyer, Jill; Santini, Veronica; Poston, Kathleen

2018-01-01

correlated with age, duration of disease, and VFQ-25 scores. The presence of convergence insufficiency did not significantly correlate with reading time in PD patients, although on average there was slower reading time in those with convergence insufficiency by 8 s (p = 0.2613). We propose that a simple reading task using 120 single-digit numbers can be used as a screening tool in the clinical setting to assess functional ocular motor difficulties in Parkinson’s disease that can have a profound impact on quality of life. PMID:29364897

11. Average configuration of the geomagnetic tail

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fairfield, D.H.

1979-01-01

Over 3000 hours of Imp 6 magnetic field data obtained between 20 and 33 R/sub E/ in the geomagnetic tail have been used in a statistical study of the tail configuration. A distribution of 2.5-min averages of B/sub z/ as a function of position across the tail reveals that more flux crosses the equatorial plane near the dawn and dusk flanks (B-bar/sub z/=3.γ) than near midnight (B-bar/sub z/=1.8γ). The tail field projected in the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane deviates from the x axis due to flaring and solar wind aberration by an angle α=-0.9 Y/sub SM/-2.7, where Y/sub SM/ is in earth radii and α is in degrees. After removing these effects, the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is found to depend on interplanetary sector structure. During an 'away' sector the B/sub y/ component of the tail field is on average 0.5γ greater than that during a 'toward' sector, a result that is true in both tail lobes and is independent of location across the tail. This effect means the average field reversal between northern and southern lobes of the tail is more often 178 0 rather than the 180 0 that is generally supposed

12. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mikael Johnson

2007-01-01

Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

13. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Robert Schoen

2005-10-01

Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.

14. Encouraging Recreational Reading (The Printout).

Science.gov (United States)

Balajthy, Ernest

1988-01-01

Describes computer software, including "The Electronic Bookshelf" and "Return to Reading," which provides motivation for recreational reading in various ways, including: quizzes, games based on books, and whole language activities for children's literature and young adult fiction. (MM)

15. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

Science.gov (United States)

Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

1973-01-01

Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

16. Rate of Speech and Reading in Second and Fifth Grade Primary Students in Tehran

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2007-12-01

17. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

2016-01-01

and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

18. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

OpenAIRE

Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

2004-01-01

The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

19. Optimal screening mammography reading volumes; evidence from real life in the East Midlands region of the NHS Breast Screening Programme

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cornford, E.; Reed, J.; Murphy, A.; Bennett, R.; Evans, A.

2011-01-01

20. Improving Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension through the Use of the Collision Plus Arts-Integrated Program

Science.gov (United States)

Knight, Taneka L.

2016-01-01

African American and Latino students attending Title I schools in the metropolitan Atlanta area were not reading on grade level. The majority of students are low performing readers and minimally met the reading comprehension requirements. The 2015 average 8th grade reading score for these students was 246 out of 500. This applied dissertation was…

1. How Specific are Specific Comprehension Difficulties? An Investigation of Poor Reading Comprehension in Nine-Year-Olds

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rønberg, Louise; Petersen, Dorthe Klint

2015-01-01

comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ orthographic coding and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below those of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience, and likewise, a lack of fluent word reading, may be important factors in understanding 9-year-old poor...

2. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

Science.gov (United States)

Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

2016-01-01

Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

3. Initial Reading through Computer Animation.

Science.gov (United States)

Geoffrion, Leo D.; Bergeron, R. Daniel

The Computer Animated Reading Instruction System (CARIS) was developed to introduce reading to children with varied sensory, cognitive, and physical handicaps. CARIS employs an exploratory learning approach which encourages children to experiment with the reading and writing of words and sentences. Brief computer-animated cartoons provide the…

Science.gov (United States)

Wiegand, Wayne

1997-01-01

Discusses the need to place a greater emphasis on the subject of reading in library and information science (LIS) education and research. Topics include literacy studies, print culture history, reader-response theory, ethnography of reading, genre fiction and cultural studies, information versus reading, and access to information versus content of…

5. Teaching Reading in Vocational Education.

Science.gov (United States)

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

This handbook on teaching reading in vocational education is designed to provide vocational education teachers with a resource to use in helping students to develop sound reading skills. Provided in the handbook are information sheets, self-checks, practice activities, and suggestions for further reading dealing with the following topics:…

6. Encouraging Students to Read Mathematics

Science.gov (United States)

Shepherd, Mary D.

2005-01-01

It is generally agreed that the ability to read mathematics is an important skill--one that few of our students possess. A number of people have published some suggestions for helping students learn to read their mathematics textbooks. What these have in common is suggestions for getting students more active while reading. Using these resources as…

7. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

Science.gov (United States)

Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

2014-05-01

8. The "RAP" on Reading Comprehension

Science.gov (United States)

Hagaman, Jessica L.; Luschen, Kati; Reid, Robert

2010-01-01

Reading problems are one of the most frequent reasons students are referred for special education services and the disparity between students with reading difficulties and those who read successfully appears to be increasing. As a result, there is now an emphasis on early intervention programs such as RTI. In many cases, early intervention in…

Science.gov (United States)

Kern, Richard P.; And Others

This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

10. Does systematic reading instruction impede prediction of reading a shallow orthography?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

ALFRED SCHABMANN

2009-09-01

Full Text Available Different methods of reading instructions have been the subject of controversy. This study examined the influence of systematic phonics vs. non-systematic phonics methods of instruction on the prediction of reading. 443 kindergarten children were tested on phonological awareness, naming speed and visual word matching using the Bielefelder Screening (BISC. Children were retested in grades one and four. Results showed that although the prognostic validity of kindergarten measures was generally low, it was considerably higher for grade one children in classes with non-systematic phonics instruction. Children who received systematic phonics instruction scored significantly higher on measures of phonological decoding as compared to their peers who received less systematic instruction. Implications for the prediction of reading and early screenings are discussed.

11. Comparing Performance Standards on the Retention of Words Read Correctly per Minute

Science.gov (United States)

Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Amato, Janelle; Schwilk, Christopher L.; Therrien, William J.

2008-01-01

To measure retention of oral reading fluency, three students attending a learning support classroom used a repeating reading strategy with two passages. Each student read one passage to a high performance standard and the other passage to a lower performance standard. Results show it took the students more practice to reach the higher performance…

12. The Relationship between Implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading and Student Outcomes for Adolescents with Disabilities

Science.gov (United States)

Boardman, Alison; Buckley, Pamela; Maul, Andrew; Vaughn, Sharon

2014-01-01

Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a set of research-based strategies designed to improve reading comprehension, enhance students' content area learning, facilitate access to higher-level texts, and to promote student engagement. The present study examines how fidelity of implementation of CSR is associated with reading outcomes for students…

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thomson, I.

1985-01-01

This invention is a direct reading dosimeter which is light, small enough to be worn on a person, and measures both dose rates and total dose. It is based on a semiconductor sensor. The gate threshold voltage change rather than absolute value is measured and displayed as a direct reading of the dose rate. This is effected by continuously switching the gate of an MOS transistor from positive to negative bias. The output can directly drive a digital readout or trigger an audible alarm. The sensor device can be a MOSFET, bipolar transistor, or MOSFET capacitor which has its electrical characteristics change due to the trapped charge in the insulating layer of the device

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Doubinsky, Sebastien

2017-01-01

What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio

2011-01-01

The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario. (paper)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zitniak, J.; Pargac, M.

2005-01-01

In the Slovak Environmental Agency during relative short time originated the first version of software product using of GPS technology for monitoring of negative phenomena in nature. It was denominated as readShape and its primary goal is to minister for conservator of environment geographically strictly to observe endangered territories as are, for example, fire, fish kill, impact of motor vehicle accident or dangerous objects as are illegal stock-piles, wastes and other. Process of monitoring is described

OpenAIRE

Natalia Samutina

2015-01-01

This paper focuses on fan fiction as a literary experience and especially on fan fiction readers’ receptive strategies. Methodologically, its approach is at the intersection of literary theory, theory of popular culture, and qualitative research into practices of communication within online communities. It presents a general characterization of fan fiction as a type of contemporary reading and writing, drawing upon the influential works by H. Jenkins, A. Dericho, K. Tosenberger, and others. T...

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Glenn Ole Hellekjær

2008-06-01

19. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

Science.gov (United States)

Lawton, Teri

2004-06-01

20. Operator product expansion and its thermal average

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mallik, S [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

1998-05-01

QCD sum rules at finite temperature, like the ones at zero temperature, require the coefficients of local operators, which arise in the short distance expansion of the thermal average of two-point functions of currents. We extend the configuration space method, applied earlier at zero temperature, to the case at finite temperature. We find that, upto dimension four, two new operators arise, in addition to the two appearing already in the vacuum correlation functions. It is argued that the new operators would contribute substantially to the sum rules, when the temperature is not too low. (orig.) 7 refs.

1. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benet, L; Flores, J; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

2003-01-01

Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics

2. Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians

CERN Document Server

Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H

2002-01-01

For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.

3. Baseline-dependent averaging in radio interferometry

Science.gov (United States)

Wijnholds, S. J.; Willis, A. G.; Salvini, S.

2018-05-01

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the applicability and benefits of baseline-dependent averaging (BDA) in modern radio interferometers and in particular the Square Kilometre Array. We demonstrate that BDA does not affect the information content of the data other than a well-defined decorrelation loss for which closed form expressions are readily available. We verify these theoretical findings using simulations. We therefore conclude that BDA can be used reliably in modern radio interferometry allowing a reduction of visibility data volume (and hence processing costs for handling visibility data) by more than 80 per cent.

4. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theodosiou, G.E.

1980-01-01

Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

5. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S

2012-01-01

We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution

6. Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre

2009-01-01

This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. Such measurement settings find applications in medical and geophysical imaging. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain

7. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

2011-01-01

We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

8. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...... (1989). In many cases validity of bootstrap-based inference procedures is found to depend crucially on whether the bandwidth sequence satisfies a particular (asymptotic linearity) condition. An exception to this rule occurs for inference procedures involving a studentized estimator employing a "robust...

9. Average Nuclear properties based on statistical model

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

El-Jaick, L.J.

1974-01-01

The rough properties of nuclei were investigated by statistical model, in systems with the same and different number of protons and neutrons, separately, considering the Coulomb energy in the last system. Some average nuclear properties were calculated based on the energy density of nuclear matter, from Weizsscker-Beth mass semiempiric formulae, generalized for compressible nuclei. In the study of a s surface energy coefficient, the great influence exercised by Coulomb energy and nuclear compressibility was verified. For a good adjust of beta stability lines and mass excess, the surface symmetry energy were established. (M.C.K.) [pt

10. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

Science.gov (United States)

Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S.

2012-07-01

We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution.

11. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

Science.gov (United States)

Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

2015-01-01

We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

12. Bayesian model averaging and weighted average least squares : Equivariance, stability, and numerical issues

NARCIS (Netherlands)

De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.

2011-01-01

In this article, we describe the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals, which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian model-averaging estimator and the weighted-average least-squares

13. Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

Science.gov (United States)

Dirks, Jean; And Others

1983-01-01

Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

2008-04-01

15. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gökhan ARI

2017-12-01

16. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

KAUST Repository

Liang, Faming

2010-10-01

The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

17. Beta-energy averaging and beta spectra

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stamatelatos, M.G.; England, T.R.

1976-07-01

A simple yet highly accurate method for approximately calculating spectrum-averaged beta energies and beta spectra for radioactive nuclei is presented. This method should prove useful for users who wish to obtain accurate answers without complicated calculations of Fermi functions, complex gamma functions, and time-consuming numerical integrations as required by the more exact theoretical expressions. Therefore, this method should be a good time-saving alternative for investigators who need to make calculations involving large numbers of nuclei (e.g., fission products) as well as for occasional users interested in restricted number of nuclides. The average beta-energy values calculated by this method differ from those calculated by ''exact'' methods by no more than 1 percent for nuclides with atomic numbers in the 20 to 100 range and which emit betas of energies up to approximately 8 MeV. These include all fission products and the actinides. The beta-energy spectra calculated by the present method are also of the same quality

18. Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting {X(t,  t≥0} is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process with state space S=(-∞,∞. Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.

19. Averaging in the presence of sliding errors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yost, G.P.

1991-08-01

In many cases the precision with which an experiment can measure a physical quantity depends on the value of that quantity. Not having access to the true value, experimental groups are forced to assign their errors based on their own measured value. Procedures which attempt to derive an improved estimate of the true value by a suitable average of such measurements usually weight each experiment's measurement according to the reported variance. However, one is in a position to derive improved error estimates for each experiment from the average itself, provided an approximate idea of the functional dependence of the error on the central value is known. Failing to do so can lead to substantial biases. Techniques which avoid these biases without loss of precision are proposed and their performance is analyzed with examples. These techniques are quite general and can bring about an improvement even when the behavior of the errors is not well understood. Perhaps the most important application of the technique is in fitting curves to histograms

Science.gov (United States)

Dalton, Russell W.

2009-01-01

This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

1. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

Science.gov (United States)

O'Connor, Rollanda E.

2018-01-01

The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

Science.gov (United States)

2012-01-01

The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

Science.gov (United States)

Suk, Namhee

2017-01-01

Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

Science.gov (United States)

Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

2012-01-01

This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

5. Analysis of EFL Students' Ability in Reading Vocabulary of Synonyms and Antonyms

OpenAIRE

Vina Fathira

2017-01-01

Reading is an important thing for academic level. Every student must have many vocabularies to encourage her/his reading skill. The aim of this research is to analyze the students' understanding of reading vocabularies of synonyms and antonyms in the higher education level. Synonyms and antonyms are two important things should be mastered to get better reading comprehension. The method used in this research was quantitative with survey design. The population same as the sample of this researc...

6. Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)

2017-02-15

Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.

7. Relationship between Vocabulary Size and Reading Comprehension Levels of Malaysian Tertiary Students

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Angelina Wan Lin Tan

2018-01-01

8. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

2017-01-01

Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...

9. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joshua Snell

10. The Implementation of Kagan’s Cooperative (Co-Op Technique to Improve Reading Comprehension of Junior High Students

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Farid Helmi Setyawan

2017-04-01

Full Text Available Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate how Co-op technique can be implemented to improve reading comprehension of the eighth grade students of MTsN Ngawi who faced the problems in reading. The students did not comprehend the text and the score was low. The average score of reading test in preliminary study was 67 where as the average score of student’ success based on the minimum standard of students’ score is seventy (70. The design of this study was classroom action research. The technique applied in the research was Co-op technique. The result showed that the students reading average score significantly improved. In two cycle study, in the first test the students reading average score was 69.54, in the second test the students reading score was 76.15. It could be concluded that predetermined criteria of success had been achieved.

11. High average power linear induction accelerator development

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1987-07-01

There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs

12. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

Science.gov (United States)

Caponi, Sandra

2013-01-01

Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.

13. [Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge].

Science.gov (United States)

Caponi, Sandra

2013-01-01

Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.

14. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

Science.gov (United States)

2011-02-01

We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

15. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel, G.H.

1983-01-01

The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: α = initial photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; α/sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m 0 c 2 ; β = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV

16. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jinyan Chen

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

17. Reynolds averaged simulation of unsteady separated flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Iaccarino, G.; Ooi, A.; Durbin, P.A.; Behnia, M.

2003-01-01

The accuracy of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models in predicting complex flows with separation is examined. The unsteady flow around square cylinder and over a wall-mounted cube are simulated and compared with experimental data. For the cube case, none of the previously published numerical predictions obtained by steady-state RANS produced a good match with experimental data. However, evidence exists that coherent vortex shedding occurs in this flow. Its presence demands unsteady RANS computation because the flow is not statistically stationary. The present study demonstrates that unsteady RANS does indeed predict periodic shedding, and leads to much better concurrence with available experimental data than has been achieved with steady computation

18. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel, G.H.

1983-01-01

The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

19. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

Science.gov (United States)

Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken

2013-05-07

Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure.

20. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Van Den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

2014-01-01

Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in

1. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Feng

2010-01-01

This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

Science.gov (United States)

... people with DRD have normal or above-average intelligence. DRD may appear with other problems. These can ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

Science.gov (United States)

Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

2013-06-01

4. Priming effect on word reading and recall

OpenAIRE

Faria, Isabel Hub; Luegi, Paula

2008-01-01

This study focuses on priming as a function of exposure to bimodal stimuli of European Portuguese screen centred single words and isolated pictures inserted at the screen’s right upper corner, with four kinds of word-picture relation. The eye movements of 18 Portuguese native university students were registered while reading four sets of ten word-picture pairs, and their respective oral recall lists of words or pictures were kept. The results reveal a higher phonological primin...

5. 〈Articles〉The Utility of Reading Strategies and Its Connection to Reading Self-Efficacy

OpenAIRE

Lance, Burrows

2016-01-01

[Abstract] Self-efficacy is the expectation that one can successfully complete a particular task within a specific domain.　Although it has been used to predict human behavior in several different contexts, e.g., educational psychology and medicine, it has not been widely utilized in second language research.　There has been some promising research that has shown preliminarily that reading strategy intervention may help promote higher levels of reading self-efficacy.　But the studies that have b...

6. A Nordic comparison of national objectives for reading instruction and teachers' responses about actual reading practice

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Mejding, Jan

2014-01-01

and Sweden do. The Nordic teachers in general appear to prioritise advanced comprehension activities to a lesser extent than teachers in the English-speaking countries do. Furthermore, 138 Northern Lights on TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 Danish teachers put the least emphasis on formative assessments compared...... texts a higher priority than literary texts – and the opposite is apparent for Danish teachers. The Finnish and Norwegian teachers prioritise activities that enhance students’ oral reading fluency, which is important for reading comprehension development, to a greater extent than teachers in Denmark...

7. Maximizing Reading Narrative Text Ability by Probing Prompting Learning Technique

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wiwied Pratiwi

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know whether Probing Prompting Learning Technique can be used to get the maximum effect of students’ reading narrative ability in teaching and learning process. This research was applied collaborative action reEsearch, this research was done in two cycle. The subject of this research was 23 students at tenth grade of SMA Kartikatama Metro. The result of the research showed that the Probing Prompting Learning Technique is useful and effective to help students get maximum effect of their reading. Based on the results of the questionnaire obtained an average percentage of 95%, it indicated that application of Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching l reading was appropriately applied. In short that students’ responses toward Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching reading was positive. In conclusion, Probing Prompting Learning Technique can get maximum effect of students’ reading ability. In relation to the result of the reserach, some suggestion are offered to english teacher, that  the use of Probing Prompting learning Technique in teaching reading will get the maximum effect of students’ reading abilty.

8. Stochastic Optimal Prediction with Application to Averaged Euler Equations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bell, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chorin, Alexandre J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Crutchfield, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

2017-04-24

Optimal prediction (OP) methods compensate for a lack of resolution in the numerical solution of complex problems through the use of an invariant measure as a prior measure in the Bayesian sense. In first-order OP, unresolved information is approximated by its conditional expectation with respect to the invariant measure. In higher-order OP, unresolved information is approximated by a stochastic estimator, leading to a system of random or stochastic differential equations. We explain the ideas through a simple example, and then apply them to the solution of Averaged Euler equations in two space dimensions.

9. Glycogen with short average chain length enhances bacterial durability

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Liang; Wise, Michael J.

2011-09-01

Glycogen is conventionally viewed as an energy reserve that can be rapidly mobilized for ATP production in higher organisms. However, several studies have noted that glycogen with short average chain length in some bacteria is degraded very slowly. In addition, slow utilization of glycogen is correlated with bacterial viability, that is, the slower the glycogen breakdown rate, the longer the bacterial survival time in the external environment under starvation conditions. We call that a durable energy storage mechanism (DESM). In this review, evidence from microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology will be assembled to support the hypothesis of glycogen as a durable energy storage compound. One method for testing the DESM hypothesis is proposed.

10. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

CERN Document Server

Shinn, Michelle D

2005-01-01

The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg... 11. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force Science.gov (United States) Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor) 2001-01-01 A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed. 12. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks Science.gov (United States) Dimakis, Alexandros D. G.; Sarwate, Anand D.; Wainwright, Martin J. Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of$n$and$\\sqrt{n}$respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy$\\epsilon$using$O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log n}} \\log \\epsilon^{-1})$radio transmissions, which yields a$\\sqrt{\\frac{n}{\\log n}}\$ factor improvement over standard gossip algorithms. We illustrate these theoretical results with experimental comparisons between our algorithm and standard methods as applied to various classes of random fields.

13. High-average-power solid state lasers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summers, M.A.

1989-01-01

In 1987, a broad-based, aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at developing the technologies necessary to make possible the use of solid state lasers that are capable of delivering medium- to high-average power in new and demanding applications. Efforts were focused along the following major lines: development of laser and nonlinear optical materials, and of coatings for parasitic suppression and evanescent wave control; development of computational design tools; verification of computational models on thoroughly instrumented test beds; and applications of selected aspects of this technology to specific missions. In the laser materials areas, efforts were directed towards producing strong, low-loss laser glasses and large, high quality garnet crystals. The crystal program consisted of computational and experimental efforts aimed at understanding the physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry of large garnet crystal growth. The laser experimental efforts were directed at understanding thermally induced wave front aberrations in zig-zag slabs, understanding fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and optical interactions in gas-cooled slabs, and conducting critical test-bed experiments with various electro-optic switch geometries. 113 refs., 99 figs., 18 tabs

14. The concept of average LET values determination

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Makarewicz, M.

1981-01-01

The concept of average LET (linear energy transfer) values determination, i.e. ordinary moments of LET in absorbed dose distribution vs. LET of ionizing radiation of any kind and any spectrum (even the unknown ones) has been presented. The method is based on measurement of ionization current with several values of voltage supplying an ionization chamber operating in conditions of columnar recombination of ions or ion recombination in clusters while the chamber is placed in the radiation field at the point of interest. By fitting a suitable algebraic expression to the measured current values one can obtain coefficients of the expression which can be interpreted as values of LET moments. One of the advantages of the method is its experimental and computational simplicity. It has been shown that for numerical estimation of certain effects dependent on LET of radiation it is not necessary to know the dose distribution but only a number of parameters of the distribution, i.e. the LET moments. (author)

15. On spectral averages in nuclear spectroscopy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Verbaarschot, J.J.M.

1982-01-01

In nuclear spectroscopy one tries to obtain a description of systems of bound nucleons. By means of theoretical models one attemps to reproduce the eigenenergies and the corresponding wave functions which then enable the computation of, for example, the electromagnetic moments and the transition amplitudes. Statistical spectroscopy can be used for studying nuclear systems in large model spaces. In this thesis, methods are developed and applied which enable the determination of quantities in a finite part of the Hilbert space, which is defined by specific quantum values. In the case of averages in a space defined by a partition of the nucleons over the single-particle orbits, the propagation coefficients reduce to Legendre interpolation polynomials. In chapter 1 these polynomials are derived with the help of a generating function and a generalization of Wick's theorem. One can then deduce the centroid and the variance of the eigenvalue distribution in a straightforward way. The results are used to calculate the systematic energy difference between states of even and odd parity for nuclei in the mass region A=10-40. In chapter 2 an efficient method for transforming fixed angular momentum projection traces into fixed angular momentum for the configuration space traces is developed. In chapter 3 it is shown that the secular behaviour can be represented by a Gaussian function of the energies. (Auth.)

Science.gov (United States)

Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

1995-08-01

Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Reading the Single- and Interactive-Mind

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Yi-Wen; Zheng, Yu-Wei; Lin, Chong-De; Wu, Jie; Shen, De-Li

2011-01-01

Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one-person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory of mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity, and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC) over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700- to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal–central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind. PMID:21845178

18. Electrophysiological correlates of reading the single- and interactive-mind

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yi-Wen eWang

2011-07-01

Full Text Available Understanding minds is the cognitive basis of successful social interaction. In everyday life, human mental activity often happens at the moment of social interaction among two or multiple persons instead of only one person. Understanding the interactive mind of two- or multi-person is more complex and higher than understanding the single-person mind in the hierarchical structure of theory-of-mind. Understanding the interactive mind maybe differentiate from understanding the single mind. In order to examine the dissociative electrophysiological correlates of reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind, the 64 channels event-related potentials (ERP were recorded while 16 normal adults were observing three kinds of Chinese idioms depicted physical scenes, one-person with mental activity and two- or multi-person with mental interaction. After the equivalent N400, in the 500- to 700-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of late positive component (LPC over frontal for reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind were significantly more positive than for physical representation, while there was no difference between the former two. In the 700-to 800-ms epoch, the mean amplitudes of LPC over frontal-central for reading the interactive mind were more positive than for reading the single mind and physical representation, while there was no difference between the latter two. The present study provides electrophysiological signature of the dissociations between reading the single mind and reading the interactive mind.

19. The Effect of Three Kinds of Reading Strategies on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension and Gender Difference Using Think-aloud Protocol

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ali Fathi Karizak

2016-09-01

Science.gov (United States)

Curtis, Mary E.; Longo, Ann Marie

Boys Town cares for boys and girls (average age 15 years) who are socially and emotionally at risk because of problems such as chronic neglect or abuse, broken homes, and school failure. The majority are behaviorally disordered and emotionally impaired. Within a week of coming to Boys Town, students take the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading Test.…

1. Technological Transformations of Reading Culture

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p....... 17), but with the electronic book, the materiality of reading becomes more ambiguous and malleable as the book as technology is being radically reconstructed. The purpose of this paper is to explore these changes through an investigation into the technology relations (Ihde, 1990) in fiction reading...

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Isabel Martins

2006-08-01

Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.

3. Does the accuracy of single reading with CAD (computer-aided detection) compare with that of double reading?: A review of the literature

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bennett, R.L.; Blanks, R.G.; Moss, S.M.

2006-01-01

4. Reading Habits of Third-Year Medical Students during an Integrated Endocrinology Course.

Science.gov (United States)

Friedberg, Mark; Mahanaimi, David; Lev-Zion, Rafael; Sidi, Aviel; Glick, Shimon

1998-01-01

Independent reading by medical students beyond formal classroom activities is considered central to medical education. This study examines self-directed study among third-year students in a six-year medical program. Students averaged 151 minutes daily on independent study using lecture notes, textbooks, and reading articles. Suggests ways to…

Science.gov (United States)

Taylor, Zachary W.

2017-01-01

A recent Educational Testing Services report (2016) found that international graduate students with a TOEFL score of 80--the minimum average TOEFL score for graduate admission in the United States--usually possess reading subscores of 20, equating to a 12th-grade reading comprehension level. However, one public flagship university's international…

6. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

2014-01-01

The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2…

7. Cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading comprehension in children with intellectual disabilities.

Science.gov (United States)

van Wingerden, Evelien; Segers, Eliane; van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-11-01

8. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

Science.gov (United States)

Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2014-01-01

Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

9. Applications of ordered weighted averaging (OWA operators in environmental problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Carlos Llopis-Albert

2017-04-01

Full Text Available This paper presents an application of a prioritized weighted aggregation operator based on ordered weighted averaging (OWA to deal with stakeholders' constructive participation in water resources projects. They have different degree of acceptance or preference regarding the measures and policies to be carried out, which lead to different environmental and socio-economic outcomes, and hence, to different levels of stakeholders’ satisfaction. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology establishes a prioritization relationship upon the stakeholders, which preferences are aggregated by means of weights depending on the satisfaction of the higher priority policy maker. The methodology has been successfully applied to a Public Participation Project (PPP in watershed management, thus obtaining efficient environmental measures in conflict resolution problems under actors’ preference uncertainties.

10. Physiological patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared with patterns while reading Sanskrit and a modern language.

Science.gov (United States)

Travis, F; Olson, T; Egenes, T; Gupta, H K

2001-07-01

11. Reading assessment and training program

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lewis, C.L.

1991-01-01

12. [Reading ability of junior high school students in relation to self-evaluation and depression].

Science.gov (United States)

Yamashita, Toshiya; Hayashi, Takashi

2012-01-01

13. Neurally dissociable cognitive components of reading deficits in subacute stroke.

Science.gov (United States)

Boukrina, Olga; Barrett, A M; Alexander, Edward J; Yao, Bing; Graves, William W

2015-01-01

According to cognitive models of reading, words are processed by interacting orthographic (spelling), phonological (sound), and semantic (meaning) information. Despite extensive study of the neural basis of reading in healthy participants, little group data exist on patients with reading deficits from focal brain damage pointing to critical neural systems for reading. Here, we report on one such study. We have performed neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging on 11 patients with left-hemisphere stroke (picture or word choices to a target based on meaning), phonology (matching word choices to a target based on rhyming), and orthography (a two-alternative forced choice of the most plausible non-word). They also read aloud pseudowords and words with high or low levels of usage frequency, imageability, and spelling-sound consistency. As predicted by the cognitive model, when averaged across patients, the influence of semantics was most salient for low-frequency, low-consistency words, when phonological decoding is especially difficult. Qualitative subtraction analyses revealed lesion sites specific to phonological processing. These areas were consistent with those shown previously to activate for phonology in healthy participants, including supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, middle temporal, inferior frontal gyri, and underlying white matter. Notable divergence between this analysis and previous functional imaging is the association of lesions in the mid-fusiform gyrus and anterior temporal lobe with phonological reading deficits. This study represents progress toward identifying brain lesion-deficit relationships in the cognitive components of reading. Such correspondences are expected to help not only better understand the neural mechanisms of reading, but may also help tailor reading therapy to individual neurocognitive deficit profiles.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Young-Suk Grace

2015-01-01

Science.gov (United States)

Perfetti, Charles A; Tan, Li-Hai

2013-02-01

Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

16. Promoting reading and good reading culture through the use of ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

This paper is the findings from existing literature on the mechanics of using book talks and story books to inculcate reading and the steps to develop good reading culture in children. This work is an ongoing action research work in selected private and public schools in Lagos Mainland. It has so far been established that the ...

Science.gov (United States)

Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension…

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

白晴雪

2016-01-01

It has been found that motivation is very important to children's reading competence. This paper intended to study intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find their relationship with children's reading competence. In order to do so, previous investigations about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were critically reviewed, and their results were discussed in this paper.

Science.gov (United States)

Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

2016-01-01

This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

Science.gov (United States)

Salyer, David

2015-01-01

Online reading requires traditional and new comprehension skills and strategies, and these skills and strategies will have to be taught and supported, especially for young beginning readers. But how do elementary teachers go about doing this? Much of the research regarding teaching and supporting online reading comprehension has focused on older…

1. Effects of a virtual platform in reading comprehension and vocabulary: An alternative to improve reading abilities in Elementary school

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cecilia Thorne

2013-06-01

Full Text Available Given, on the one hand, the poor results obtained by Peruvian children in the national and international reading assessments. And on the other hand, the increased investment intechnology for schools in the country, this study aimed to develop and test an online tool to improve reading comprehension. In order to do this, the reading comprehension strategies and vocabulary activities from the research-based digital environment ICON were adapted to design the platform LEO. A total of 88 fifth graders from urban middle-to-low-income private schools from Lima participated in this quasi-experimental study, which involved acontrol group and a treatment group that participated in a 12-week teacher-mediated digital intervention. All participants were administered reading and vocabulary assessments pre and post intervention. Results revealed that students who participated in the intervention achieved higher comprehension scores for narrative texts and higher vocabulary scores than those of the control group.

2. The effect of consanguineous marriage on reading disability in the Arab community.

Science.gov (United States)

Abu-Rabia, Salim; Maroun, Lateefeh

2005-02-01

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rahmi Akkılık

2013-11-01

Full Text Available Derived from the project with the same name, the work was published into a book by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Directorate General of Libraries and Publications, the project coordinator. Goal of the project is defined as follows: "specifying the solutions to problems faced directly or indirectly in accessing information, making suggestions to related corporations and persons, determining the perception of libraries in the society, raising the quality of services provided at public libraries and children's libraries affiliated with the Ministry, diversifying these libraries and designating the road map for the future." Carried out with the "method of face-to-face surveys" with 6.212 people in 26 cities, the research revealed the society's habits of reading and library usage.

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

1989-01-01

The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

Science.gov (United States)

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

6. Average spectral efficiency analysis of FSO links over turbulence channel with adaptive transmissions and aperture averaging

Science.gov (United States)

Aarthi, G.; Ramachandra Reddy, G.

2018-03-01

In our paper, the impact of adaptive transmission schemes: (i) optimal rate adaptation (ORA) and (ii) channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) on the average spectral efficiency (ASE) are explored for free-space optical (FSO) communications with On-Off Keying (OOK), Polarization shift keying (POLSK), and Coherent optical wireless communication (Coherent OWC) systems under different turbulence regimes. Further to enhance the ASE we have incorporated aperture averaging effects along with the above adaptive schemes. The results indicate that ORA adaptation scheme has the advantage of improving the ASE performance compared with CIFR under moderate and strong turbulence regime. The coherent OWC system with ORA excels the other modulation schemes and could achieve ASE performance of 49.8 bits/s/Hz at the average transmitted optical power of 6 dBm under strong turbulence. By adding aperture averaging effect we could achieve an ASE of 50.5 bits/s/Hz under the same conditions. This makes ORA with Coherent OWC modulation as a favorable candidate for improving the ASE of the FSO communication system.

7. Scale-invariant Green-Kubo relation for time-averaged diffusivity

Science.gov (United States)

Meyer, Philipp; Barkai, Eli; Kantz, Holger

2017-12-01

In recent years it was shown both theoretically and experimentally that in certain systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion the time- and ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacement are remarkably different. The ensemble-averaged diffusivity is obtained from a scaling Green-Kubo relation, which connects the scale-invariant nonstationary velocity correlation function with the transport coefficient. Here we obtain the relation between time-averaged diffusivity, usually recorded in single-particle tracking experiments, and the underlying scale-invariant velocity correlation function. The time-averaged mean-squared displacement is given by 〈δ2¯〉 ˜2 DνtβΔν -β , where t is the total measurement time and Δ is the lag time. Here ν is the anomalous diffusion exponent obtained from ensemble-averaged measurements 〈x2〉 ˜tν , while β ≥-1 marks the growth or decline of the kinetic energy 〈v2〉 ˜tβ . Thus, we establish a connection between exponents that can be read off the asymptotic properties of the velocity correlation function and similarly for the transport constant Dν. We demonstrate our results with nonstationary scale-invariant stochastic and deterministic models, thereby highlighting that systems with equivalent behavior in the ensemble average can differ strongly in their time average. If the averaged kinetic energy is finite, β =0 , the time scaling of 〈δ2¯〉 and 〈x2〉 are identical; however, the time-averaged transport coefficient Dν is not identical to the corresponding ensemble-averaged diffusion constant.

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shanahan, Madeleine; Herrington, Anthony; Herrington, Jan

2010-01-01

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.a [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)

2010-11-15

10. The Effect of Teaching Strategies and Curiosity on Students' Achievement in Reading Comprehension

Science.gov (United States)

Gurning, Busmin; Siregar, Aguslani

2017-01-01

The objectives of this study were to find out whether 1) students' achievement in reading comprehension taught by using INSERT strategy was higher than those taught by using SQ3R strategy, 2) Students' achievement in reading comprehension having high curiosity was higher than those having low curiosity, 3) there was an interaction between teaching…

11. Executive dysfunction among children with reading comprehension deficits.

Science.gov (United States)

Locascio, Gianna; Mahone, E Mark; Eason, Sarah H; Cutting, Laurie E

2010-01-01

Emerging research supports the contribution of executive function (EF) to reading comprehension; however, a unique pattern has not been established for children who demonstrate comprehension difficulties despite average word recognition ability (specific reading comprehension deficit; S-RCD). To identify particular EF components on which children with S-RCD struggle, a range of EF skills was compared among 86 children, ages 10 to 14, grouped by word reading and comprehension abilities: 24 average readers, 44 with word recognition deficits (WRD), and 18 S-RCD. An exploratory principal components analysis of EF tests identified three latent factors, used in subsequent group comparisons: Planning/ Spatial Working Memory, Verbal Working Memory, and Response Inhibition. The WRD group exhibited deficits (relative to controls) on Verbal Working Memory and Inhibition factors; S-RCD children performed more poorly than controls on the Planning factor. Further analyses suggested the WRD group's poor performance on EF factors was a by-product of core deficits linked to WRD (after controlling for phonological processing, this group no longer showed EF deficits). In contrast, the S-RCD group's poor performance on the planning component remained significant after controlling for phonological processing. Findings suggest reading comprehension difficulties are linked to executive dysfunction; in particular, poor strategic planning/organizing may lead to reading comprehension problems.

12. Cognitive Training and Reading Remediation

Science.gov (United States)

Mahapatra, Shamita

2015-01-01

Reading difficulties are experienced by children either because they fail to decode the words and thus are unable to comprehend the text or simply fail to comprehend the text even if they are able to decode the words and read them out. Failure in word decoding results from a failure in phonological coding of written information, whereas, reading…

13. Individualizing Teaching in Beginning Reading

Science.gov (United States)

McDonald Connor, Carol

2014-01-01

The best way to teach children how to read has been debated for more than a century. Accumulating research now shows that there is no one best way to teach reading. The effect of various types of instruction depends on the constellation of skills learners bring to the classroom. In this article, we discuss the idea of…

14. The Neurobiological Basis of Reading.

Science.gov (United States)

Joseph, Jane; Noble, Kimberly; Eden, Guinevere

2001-01-01

This paper reviews studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults to study the reading process and notes that general networks of regions seem to be uniquely associated with different components of the reading process. Findings are evaluated in light of technical and experimental limitations and…

15. Dyslexia and Severe Reading Disability.

Science.gov (United States)

Ngandu, Kathleen M.

This handbook contains advice for the teacher in diagnosing dyslexia and developing an individualized program for overcoming severe reading problems. Observable characteristics of dyslexia are listed as an aid to the teacher's diagnosis, but it is emphasized that cooperation between the teacher and a reading specialist is of great importance in…

16. How my brain stopped reading

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beier, Sofie

2012-01-01

Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing re...

17. Empathy, Reading, and Gender Relationships

Science.gov (United States)

McCreary, John J.

2017-01-01

For this study, empathy was defined as not only understanding and sharing another's mental state, but also responding from a perspective more closely resembling the observed rather than the observer. Based on evidence suggesting relationships between reading and empathy, between empathy and gender, and between reading and gender, the current study…

18. Reading Prosody in Spanish Dyslexics

Science.gov (United States)

Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

2016-01-01

Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic…

19. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

Science.gov (United States)

Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

2014-01-01

Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

20. Schemata as a Reading Strategy.

Science.gov (United States)

Mustapha, Zaliha

Reading is a multileveled, interactive, and hypothesis-generating process in which readers construct a meaningful representation of text by using their knowledge of the world and of language. If reading involves grasping the significance of an input depending on the reader's mental cognitive-perceptual situation, then there is a form of background…

1. The Joy of Reading Groups

Science.gov (United States)

Southwood, Sue

2012-01-01

Reading groups or book clubs have become increasingly popular in recent years, with many libraries, bookshops and workplaces hosting meetings, while a wealth of support is available online. They provide a chance to read, share opinions, chat and have fun--each one will be unique in how it works. Discussing books can help to reinforce, change or…

Science.gov (United States)

Bettmann, Otto

2000-01-01

Presents a collection of quotes by famous people about reading for enjoyment and personal development. The collection was assembled from a lifetime of fond association with books and reading by the rare-book librarian at the State Library in Berlin, who after Hitler's rise, relocated to the United States and founded the Bettmann Archive in New…

3. READ – developing literacy together

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

2015-01-01

-home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...

4. Teaching Literature and Reading Performances

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

2011-01-01

the reading of literature is respectively supported and hindered in literature lessons in upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate the relation between the teacher's conception of learning and knowledge within the subject combined with the student's conception of learning and of reading...

5. A Study of Boys' Reading.

Science.gov (United States)

Telford, Lesley

1999-01-01

Examined how reading attitudes of Year 6 boys in British primary schools were influenced by gender issues, peers, and peer group culture. Found that confidence and experience shown in private reading was at odds with boys' public attitudes in discussion with peers. Suggests that siblings and adults might provide more positive role models for…

Science.gov (United States)

Morrice, E; Johnson, A P; Marinier, J-A; Wittich, W

2017-06-01

7. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

Science.gov (United States)

Scholastic Inc., 2015

2015-01-01

This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Desy Olivia Riani

2013-01-01

Full Text Available This collaborative action research is aimed to find out whether or not the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR improves students' reading comprehension and also to identify students' attitude towards the implementation of CSR. CSR is reading strategy that employs four strategies namely Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist and Wrap Up during students’ cooperative learning. A class of eleventh grade students of a public senior high school in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia is participated as the participant of the study. The required data were collected through the use of questionnaire, observation checklist, and reading test. The data from the questionnaire indicated that 82% students had positive attitude toward the implementation of CSR. They feel that CSR improves their motivation in learning English and CSR brings more fun to the process of learning. Moreover, it was found from observation data that the students were actively participated during CSR implementation and they were motivated when comprehending a text by means CSR strategy. Finally, the study proved that CSR improved students’ reading comprehension. Students’ mean score of reading test in the beginning of the study was 67, meanwhile, after applying CSR as reading strategy, their mean scores improved to 88.

9. To quantum averages through asymptotic expansion of classical averages on infinite-dimensional space

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khrennikov, Andrei

2007-01-01

We study asymptotic expansions of Gaussian integrals of analytic functionals on infinite-dimensional spaces (Hilbert and nuclear Frechet). We obtain an asymptotic equality coupling the Gaussian integral and the trace of the composition of scaling of the covariation operator of a Gaussian measure and the second (Frechet) derivative of a functional. In this way we couple classical average (given by an infinite-dimensional Gaussian integral) and quantum average (given by the von Neumann trace formula). We can interpret this mathematical construction as a procedure of 'dequantization' of quantum mechanics. We represent quantum mechanics as an asymptotic projection of classical statistical mechanics with infinite-dimensional phase space. This space can be represented as the space of classical fields, so quantum mechanics is represented as a projection of 'prequantum classical statistical field theory'

10. Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong

2015-03-01

Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.

11. Evaluation of the efficacy of the guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma with reference CT films for improving the proficiency of radiologists

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2013-01-15

12. Evaluation of the efficacy of the guideline on reading CT images of malignant pleural mesothelioma with reference CT films for improving the proficiency of radiologists

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhou, Huashi; Tamura, Taro; Kusaka, Yukinori; Suganuma, Narufumi; Subhannachart, Ponglada; Vijitsanguan, Chomphunut; Noisiri, Weeraya; Hering, Kurt G.; Akira, Masanori; Itoh, Harumi

2013-01-01

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ana María Montes-Salas

2014-07-01

Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

14. Reading comprehension of deaf students in regular education.

Science.gov (United States)

Luccas, Marcia Regina Zemella; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

2012-01-01

To evaluate and compare the reading comprehension of deaf students included in regular classrooms of public schools with and without specialized educational support. Observational analytic study with 35 students with sensorineural hearing loss, with and without educational support. All subjects were assessed with the Word Reading Competence Test (WRCT), the Picture-Print Matching Test by Choice (PPMT-C), and the Sentence Reading Comprehension Test (SRCT). In the tests regarding comprehension of words (WRCT and PPMT-C), the results showed no difference in the performance of deaf students who attend and do not attend educational support. Regarding reading comprehension of sentences, the application of the SRCT also did not show differences between the groups of deaf students. A significant correlation was found between age and grade, indicating that the older the students and the higher their educational level, the better their performance in reading sentences. The results indicate that deaf students, regardless of attending educational support, read words better than sentences. There is no difference in reading comprehension between deaf students who receive and do not receive specialized pedagogical monitoring.

15. Toward an ERP-driven diagnostic approach for reading impairments.

Science.gov (United States)

Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

2011-01-01

This preliminary study attempted to use Event Related Brain Potentials (ERPs) to identify different causes for slow reading performance. At least two unique brain activity patterns were found for below average readers. Based on visual inspection of the N170 ERP component elicited by words in a lexical decision task, participants were either classified as N170-normal or N170-absent. Although both groups showed very dissimilar brain activity patterns, they did not differ in any reading or cognitive measures. Differences in brain activity were discussed as indicators for disturbances at specific stages of word processing, which should lead to individually adjusted intervention approaches.

OpenAIRE

Logar, Renata

2013-01-01

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

1975-01-01

The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

18. FMLRC: Hybrid long read error correction using an FM-index.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Jeremy R; Holt, James; McMillan, Leonard; Jones, Corbin D

2018-02-09

Science.gov (United States)

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1997

1997-01-01

Presents eight reviews of current books, covering issues of particular interest to black educators and historians. Topics considered include slavery, college admissions and affirmative action, the marginalization of black scientists, black politics, bigotry, and higher education. (SLD)

20. Fourteen Autumns: A Reading Teacher Teaches Writing.

Science.gov (United States)

Wilson, Jo-Anne R.

1984-01-01

An elementary school reading teacher describes how she restructured her teaching methods by encouraging children to read and write as part of an integrated process, rather than teaching reading alone as a set of fragmented steps. (GC)

1. Nonlinearity management in higher dimensions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kevrekidis, P G; Pelinovsky, D E; Stefanov, A

2006-01-01

In the present paper, we revisit nonlinearity management of the time-periodic nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the related averaging procedure. By means of rigorous estimates, we show that the averaged nonlinear Schroedinger equation does not blow up in the higher dimensional case so long as the corresponding solution remains smooth. In particular, we show that the H 1 norm remains bounded, in contrast with the usual blow-up mechanism for the focusing Schroedinger equation. This conclusion agrees with earlier works in the case of strong nonlinearity management but contradicts those in the case of weak nonlinearity management. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the divergence of the averaging procedure in the limit of weak nonlinearity management

Science.gov (United States)

Charumanee, Nisakorn

2014-01-01

Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

Science.gov (United States)

Fink, Katherine T.; Devine, Thomas G.

1993-01-01

4. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

Science.gov (United States)

Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

2014-01-01

This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

5. Relationship between oculomotor scanning determined by the DEM test and a contextual reading test in schoolchildren with reading difficulties.

Science.gov (United States)

Palomo-Alvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C

2009-09-01

6. Increased Stroop interference with better second-language reading skill.

Science.gov (United States)

Braet, Wouter; Noppe, Nele; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans

2011-03-01

Skilled readers demonstrate remarkable efficiency in processing written words, unlike beginning readers for whom reading occurs more serially and places higher demands on visual attention. In the present study, we used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the relationship between reading skill and automaticity, in individuals learning a second language with a different orthographic system. Prior studies using this paradigm have presented a mixed picture, finding a positive, a negative, or no relationship between the size of Stroop interference and reading skills. Our results show that Stroop interference in the second language was positively related to reading skill (when controlled for interference in the first language). Furthermore, interference was positively related to objective but not subjective indices of the amount of exposure to the second language. We suggest that the lack of consistency in the results of earlier studies may be due, at least in part, to these studies looking at Stroop interference in isolation, rather than comparing interference between languages.

7. Improved Cognitive Development in Preterm Infants with Shared Book Reading.

Science.gov (United States)

Braid, Susan; Bernstein, Jenny

2015-01-01

To examine the effect of shared book reading on the cognitive development of children born preterm and to determine what factors influence shared book reading in this population. Secondary analysis using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a large, nationally representative survey of children born in the United States in 2001. One thousand four hundred singleton preterm infants (22-36 weeks gestation). Cognitive development measured using the Bayley Mental Scale score from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Research Edition. Adjusting for neonatal, maternal, and socioeconomic characteristics, reading aloud more than two times a week is associated with higher cognitive development scores in two-year-old children born preterm (p book reading holds potential as an early developmental intervention for this population.

8. Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Evan Ortlieb

2013-07-01

Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QARâs "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesopâs fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

Science.gov (United States)

Manning, Maryann; Manning, Gary

1994-01-01

Presents elementary school teachers with 13 ideas on how to achieve a balanced "diet" in their primary and intermediate reading and writing programs using 5 different genres--artistic, personal, narrative, expository, and procedural. (BB)

11. The average crossing number of equilateral random polygons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diao, Y; Dobay, A; Kusner, R B; Millett, K; Stasiak, A

2003-01-01

In this paper, we study the average crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons. We show that the mean average crossing number ACN of all equilateral random walks of length n is of the form (3/16)n ln n + O(n). A similar result holds for equilateral random polygons. These results are confirmed by our numerical studies. Furthermore, our numerical studies indicate that when random polygons of length n are divided into individual knot types, the for each knot type K can be described by a function of the form = a(n-n 0 )ln(n-n 0 ) + b(n-n 0 ) + c where a, b and c are constants depending on K and n 0 is the minimal number of segments required to form K. The profiles diverge from each other, with more complex knots showing higher than less complex knots. Moreover, the profiles intersect with the profile of all closed walks. These points of intersection define the equilibrium length of K, i.e., the chain length n e (K) at which a statistical ensemble of configurations with given knot type K-upon cutting, equilibration and reclosure to a new knot type K'-does not show a tendency to increase or decrease . This concept of equilibrium length seems to be universal, and applies also to other length-dependent observables for random knots, such as the mean radius of gyration g >

12. Reading motivation in elementary school students

OpenAIRE

Sonja Pečjak; Nataša Bucik

2005-01-01

Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived r...

13. The association between arithmetic and reading performance in school: A meta-analytic study.

Science.gov (United States)

Singer, Vivian; Strasser, Kathernie

2017-12-01

Many studies of school achievement find a significant association between reading and arithmetic achievement. The magnitude of the association varies widely across the studies, but the sources of this variation have not been identified. The purpose of this paper is to examine the magnitude and determinants of the relation between arithmetic and reading performance during elementary and middle school years. We meta-analyzed 210 correlations between math and reading measures, coming from 68 independent samples (the overall sample size was 58923 participants). The meta-analysis yielded an average correlation of 0.55 between math and reading measures. Among the moderators tested, only transparency of orthography and use of timed or untimed tests were significant in explaining the size of the correlation, with the largest correlations observed between timed measures of arithmetic and reading and between math and reading in opaque orthographies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

14. The Relationship of Error Rate and Comprehension in Second and Third Grade Oral Reading Fluency.

Science.gov (United States)

Abbott, Mary; Wills, Howard; Miller, Angela; Kaufman, Journ

2012-01-01

15. Cryptographic Aspects of Quantum Reading

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gaetana Spedalieri

2015-04-01

Full Text Available Besides achieving secure communication between two spatially-separated parties,another important issue in modern cryptography is related to secure communication intime, i.e., the possibility to confidentially store information on a memory for later retrieval.Here we explore this possibility in the setting of quantum reading, which exploits quantumentanglement to efficiently read data from a memory whereas classical strategies (e.g., basedon coherent states or their mixtures cannot retrieve any information. From this point ofview, the technique of quantum reading can provide a new form of technological security fordata storage.

16. "I Don't Know What It Is to Be Able to Read": How Students with Dyslexia Experience Their Reading Impairment

Science.gov (United States)

Wennas Brante, Eva

2013-01-01

Better understanding of the diverse reading abilities of people with dyslexia is necessary for the design of more effective learning situations, which are vital both to students with dyslexia and to their teachers. Seven individuals with dyslexia currently or formerly in higher education were interviewed about their reading experiences to learn…

17. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

Science.gov (United States)

Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

2015-01-01

18. The effects of average revenue regulation on electricity transmission investment and pricing

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Matsukawa, Isamu

2008-01-01

This paper investigates the long-run effects of average revenue regulation on an electricity transmission monopolist who applies a two-part tariff comprising a variable congestion price and a non-negative fixed access fee. A binding constraint on the monopolist's expected average revenue lowers the access fee, promotes transmission investment, and improves consumer surplus. In a case of any linear or log-linear electricity demand function with a positive probability that no congestion occurs, average revenue regulation is allocatively more efficient than a Coasian two-part tariff if the level of capacity under average revenue regulation is higher than that under a Coasian two-part tariff. (author)

19. “Simpson’s paradox” as a manifestation of the properties of weighted average (part 2)

OpenAIRE

Zhekov, Encho

2012-01-01

The article proves that the so-called “Simpson's paradox” is a special case of manifestation of the properties of weighted average. In this case always comes to comparing two weighted averages, where the average of the larger variables is less than that of the smaller. The article demonstrates one method for analyzing the relative change of magnitudes of the type: k S = Σ x iy i i=1 who gives answer to question: what is the reason, the weighted average of few variables with higher values, to ...

20. “Simpson’s paradox” as a manifestation of the properties of weighted average (part 1)

OpenAIRE

Zhekov, Encho

2012-01-01

The article proves that the so-called “Simpson's paradox” is a special case of manifestation of the properties of weighted average. In this case always comes to comparing two weighted averages, where the average of the larger variables is less than that of the smaller. The article demonstrates one method for analyzing the relative change of magnitudes of the type: S = Σ ki=1x iy i who gives answer to question: what is the reason, the weighted average of few variables with higher values, to be...

1. Exploring Engagement in Shared Reading Activities Between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Caregivers.

Science.gov (United States)

Fleury, Veronica P; Hugh, Maria L

2018-06-05

Reading aloud to children is a valued practice to promote emergent literacy and language skills that form the foundation for future reading success. We conducted a descriptive study of shared book reading practices between caregivers and their children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 17) and caregivers and their typically developing children (n = 20) to identify factors that can promote or inhibit children's engagement in reading. Caregivers and their children read nine books (familiar, non-fiction, fiction). Children with ASD demonstrated lower levels of passive engagement (looking at the book) and higher levels of non-engaged behavior compared to typically developing children. Caregiver reading quality and book type contributed to joint engagement during reading. Implications of these findings for intervention development are discussed.

2. Exploring the association between visual perception abilities and reading of musical notation.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Horng-Yih

2012-06-01

In the reading of music, the acquisition of pitch information depends primarily upon the spatial position of notes as well as upon an individual's spatial processing ability. This study investigated the relationship between the ability to read single notes and visual-spatial ability. Participants with high and low single-note reading abilities were differentiated based upon differences in musical notation-reading abilities and their spatial processing; object recognition abilities were then assessed. It was found that the group with lower note-reading abilities made more errors than did the group with a higher note-reading abilities in the mental rotation task. In contrast, there was no apparent significant difference between the two groups in the object recognition task. These results suggest that note-reading may be related to visual spatial processing abilities, and not to an individual's ability with object recognition.

3. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the average...

4. Average and local structure of α-CuI by configurational averaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mohn, Chris E; Stoelen, Svein

2007-01-01

Configurational Boltzmann averaging together with density functional theory are used to study in detail the average and local structure of the superionic α-CuI. We find that the coppers are spread out with peaks in the atom-density at the tetrahedral sites of the fcc sublattice of iodines. We calculate Cu-Cu, Cu-I and I-I pair radial distribution functions, the distribution of coordination numbers and the distribution of Cu-I-Cu, I-Cu-I and Cu-Cu-Cu bond-angles. The partial pair distribution functions are in good agreement with experimental neutron diffraction-reverse Monte Carlo, extended x-ray absorption fine structure and ab initio molecular dynamics results. In particular, our results confirm the presence of a prominent peak at around 2.7 A in the Cu-Cu pair distribution function as well as a broader, less intense peak at roughly 4.3 A. We find highly flexible bonds and a range of coordination numbers for both iodines and coppers. This structural flexibility is of key importance in order to understand the exceptional conductivity of coppers in α-CuI; the iodines can easily respond to changes in the local environment as the coppers diffuse, and a myriad of different diffusion-pathways is expected due to the large variation in the local motifs

Science.gov (United States)

Share, David L; Bar-On, Amalia

2017-07-01

6. ReadDepth: a parallel R package for detecting copy number alterations from short sequencing reads.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Christopher A Miller

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Copy number alterations are important contributors to many genetic diseases, including cancer. We present the readDepth package for R, which can detect these aberrations by measuring the depth of coverage obtained by massively parallel sequencing of the genome. In addition to achieving higher accuracy than existing packages, our tool runs much faster by utilizing multi-core architectures to parallelize the processing of these large data sets. In contrast to other published methods, readDepth does not require the sequencing of a reference sample, and uses a robust statistical model that accounts for overdispersed data. It includes a method for effectively increasing the resolution obtained from low-coverage experiments by utilizing breakpoint information from paired end sequencing to do positional refinement. We also demonstrate a method for inferring copy number using reads generated by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, thus enabling integrative study of epigenomic and copy number alterations. Finally, we apply this tool to two genomes, showing that it performs well on genomes sequenced to both low and high coverage. The readDepth package runs on Linux and MacOSX, is released under the Apache 2.0 license, and is available at http://code.google.com/p/readdepth/.

7. Construction, integration, and mind wandering in reading.

Science.gov (United States)

Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

2013-03-01

8. Effects of Spectral Overlays on Reading Performance of Brazilian Elementary School Children.

Science.gov (United States)

Garcia, Ana Carla Oliveira; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria; Vilhena, Douglas de Araújo

2018-03-20

9. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vuksanović Jasmina

2008-01-01

Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

10. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

Data.gov (United States)

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

11. Neuropsychological and cognitive processes in reading

CERN Document Server

Pirozzolo, Francis J

2013-01-01

Science.gov (United States)

Lucas, John A.

1979-01-01

The components of a complete and effective marketing plan for higher education institutions are summarized. It is suggested that a marketing plan embrace all elements of the total marketing concept, and include curriculum evaluation, a retention program, and a scheme for evaluating the strategy's effectiveness. A bibliography is included.…

13. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

Science.gov (United States)

Yong, Keir X X; Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Leff, Alexander P; Crutch, Sebastian J

2015-07-28

14. Facilitating text reading in posterior cortical atrophy

Science.gov (United States)

Rajdev, Kishan; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Leff, Alexander P.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

2015-01-01

15. Reading and Writing from Multiple Source Documents in History: Effects of Strategy Instruction with Low to Average High School Writers

Science.gov (United States)

De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark K.

2010-01-01

This study examined the effects of historical reasoning strategy instruction on 11th-grade students. Students learned historical inquiry strategies using 20th Century American history topics ranging from the Spanish-American war to the Gulf of Tonkin incident. In addition, students learned a pre-writing strategy for composing argumentative essays…

16. An investigation of Chinese university EFL learner’s foreign language reading anxiety, reading strategy use and reading comprehension performance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhongshe Lu

2015-01-01

17. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

Science.gov (United States)

Akkakoson, Songyut

2013-01-01

This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

18. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

Science.gov (United States)

Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.

2017-05-01

Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.

19. Correlation between Grade Point Averages and Student Evaluation of Teaching Scores: Taking a Closer Look

Science.gov (United States)

Griffin, Tyler J.; Hilton, John, III.; Plummer, Kenneth; Barret, Devynne

2014-01-01

One of the most contentious potential sources of bias is whether instructors who give higher grades receive higher ratings from students. We examined the grade point averages (GPAs) and student ratings across 2073 general education religion courses at a large private university. A moderate correlation was found between GPAs and student evaluations…

20. READING HABITS AND PREFERENCES OF EFL POST GRADUATES: A CASE STUDY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Noorizah Mohd. Noor

2011-07-01