WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-temperature liquid-metal technology

  1. Liquid Metal Engineering and Technology. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings of the fourth international conference on liquid metal engineering and technology volume 1, are devided into 3 sections bearing on: - Apparatus and components for liquid metal (29 papers) - Liquid metal leaks, fires and fumes (10 papers) - Cleaning, decontamination, waste disposal (14 papers) [fr

  2. Progress of liquid metal technology and application in energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji; Kamei, Mitsuru; Nei, Hiromichi.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid metals are excellent energy transport media, and recently remarkable development has been observed in the technology of handling sodium and the machinery and equipment. In nuclear fusion, the development of the use of lithium as the coolant is advanced. For space technology, attention has been paid from the early stage to various liquid metals. For general industries, liquid metals have been used for high temperature heat pipes and the utilization of solar heat, and mercury vapor turbines were manufactured for trial. Besides, attention is paid anew to liquid metal MHD electric power generation. The development of the NaS batteries for electric cars and electric power storage and the interchange of liquid metal technology with the fields of iron and steel, metallurgy and so on advance. It is expected that liquid metal technology bears future advanced energy engineering while deepening the interchange with other advanced fields also in order to reactivate atomic energy technology. Liquid metals have the features of high electric and thermal conductivities, chemical activity and opaque property as metals, and fluidity and relatively high boiling point and melting point as liquids. FBRs, fusion reactors and the power sources for space use are described. (K.I.)

  3. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1990-10-01

    The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs

  4. Liquid metal technology in fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre Cabezas, M. de la; Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.

    1985-01-01

    Lithium (or Li-Pb) is one of the several possible coolants being considered for the blanket of magnetic toroidal fusion reactor, not only because of its good thermal and neutron properties, but also because the tritium required to fuel the reactor can be produced by neutron reactions in the lithium. In this paper two main technology tasks to be proposed in our fusion programme have been identified: 1) the development of impurity monitoring devices for use in lithium and Li-Pb environments; 2) effects of Li and Li-Pb environments on the low cycle fatigue properties of different steels. (author)

  5. Pumping liquid metal at high temperatures up to 1,673 kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, C.; Budenstein, D.; Bagepalli, M.; England, D.; Deangelis, F.; Wilk, G.; Jarrett, C.; Kelsall, C.; Hirschey, J.; Wen, H.; Chavan, A.; Gilleland, B.; Yuan, C.; Chueh, W. C.; Sandhage, K. H.; Kawajiri, Y.; Henry, A.

    2017-10-01

    Heat is fundamental to power generation and many industrial processes, and is most useful at high temperatures because it can be converted more efficiently to other types of energy. However, efficient transportation, storage and conversion of heat at extreme temperatures (more than about 1,300 kelvin) is impractical for many applications. Liquid metals can be very effective media for transferring heat at high temperatures, but liquid-metal pumping has been limited by the corrosion of metal infrastructures. Here we demonstrate a ceramic, mechanical pump that can be used to continuously circulate liquid tin at temperatures of around 1,473-1,673 kelvin. Our approach to liquid-metal pumping is enabled by the use of ceramics for the mechanical and sealing components, but owing to the brittle nature of ceramics their use requires careful engineering. Our set-up enables effective heat transfer using a liquid at previously unattainable temperatures, and could be used for thermal storage and transport, electric power production, and chemical or materials processing.

  6. Faraday forcing of high-temperature levitated liquid metal drops for the measurement of surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Nevin; Ward, Kevin; Matsumoto, Satoshi; SanSoucie, Michael; Narayanan, Ranga

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a method for the measurement of surface tension using continuous periodic forcing is presented. To reduce gravitational effects, samples are electrostatically levitated prior to forcing. The method, called Faraday forcing, is particularly well suited for fluids that require high temperature measurements such as liquid metals where conventional surface tension measurement methods are not possible. It offers distinct advantages over the conventional pulse-decay analysis method when the sample viscosity is high or the levitation feedback control system is noisy. In the current method, levitated drops are continuously translated about a mean position at a small, constant forcing amplitude over a range of frequencies. At a particular frequency in this range, the drop suddenly enters a state of resonance, which is confirmed by large executions of prolate/oblate deformations about the mean spherical shape. The arrival at this resonant condition is a signature that the parametric forcing frequency is equal to the drop's natural frequency, the latter being a known function of surface tension. A description of the experimental procedure is presented. A proof of concept is given using pure Zr and a Ti 39.5 Zr 39.5 Ni 21 alloy as examples. The results compare favorably with accepted literature values obtained using the pulse-decay method.

  7. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR coolant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, H. Y.; Choi, S. K.; Hwang, J. s.; Lee, Y. B.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, M. J.; Lee, S. D.; Kang, Y. H.; Maeng, Y. Y.; Kim, T. R.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. J.; Cha, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Oh, S. K.; Park, C. G.; Hong, S. H.; Lee, K. H.; Chun, M. H.; Moon, H. T.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, D. N.

    1997-07-15

    Following studies have been performed during last three years as the 1.2 phase study of the mid and long term nuclear technology development plan. First, the small scale experiments using the sodium have been performed such as the basic turbulent mixing experiment which is related to the design of a compact reactor, the flow reversal characteristics experiment by natural circulation which is necessary for the analysis of local flow reversal when the electromagnetic pump is installed, the feasibility test of the decay heat removal by wall cooling and the operation of electromagnetic pump. Second, the technology of operation mechanism of sodium facility is developed and the technical analysis and fundamental experiments of sodium measuring technology has been performed such as differential pressure measuring experiment, local flow rate measuring experimenter, sodium void fraction measuring experiment, under sodium facility, the free surface movement experiment and the side orifice pressure drop experiment. A new bounded convection scheme was introduced to the ELBO3D thermo-hydraulic computer code designed for analysis of experimental result. A three dimensional computer code was developed for the analysis of free surface movement and the analysis model of transmission of sodium void fraction was developed. Fourth, the small scale key components are developed. The submersible-in-pool type electromagnetic pump which can be used as primary pump in the liquid metal reactor is developed. The SASS which uses the Curie-point electromagnet and the mock-up of Pantograph type IVTM were manufactured and their feasibility was evaluated. Fifth, the high temperature characteristics experiment of stainless steel which is used as a major material for liquid metal reactor and the material characteristics experiment of magnet coil were performed. (author). 126 refs., 98 tabs., 296 figs.

  8. Conductor of high electrical current at high temperature in oxygen and liquid metal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, IV, Adam Clayton; Pati, Soobhankar; Derezinski, Stephen Joseph; Lau, Garrett; Pal, Uday B.; Guan, Xiaofei; Gopalan, Srikanth

    2016-01-12

    In one aspect, the present invention is directed to apparatuses for and methods of conducting electrical current in an oxygen and liquid metal environment. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for production of metals from their oxides comprising providing a cathode in electrical contact with a molten electrolyte, providing a liquid metal anode separated from the cathode and the molten electrolyte by a solid oxygen ion conducting membrane, providing a current collector at the anode, and establishing a potential between the cathode and the anode.

  9. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  10. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants Refs, figs, tabs

  11. Status of liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    During the period 1985-1998, there have been substantial advances in fast reactor technology development. Chief among these has been the demonstration of reliable operation by several prototypes and experimental reactors, the reliable operation of fuel at high burnup. At the IAEA meetings on liquid metal cooled fast reactor technology (LMFR), it became evident that there have been significant technological advances as well as changes in the economic and regulatory environment since 1985. Therefore the International working group on Fast Reactors has recommended the preparation of a new status report on fast reactors. The present report intends to provide comprehensive and detailed information on LMFR technology. The focus is on practical issues that are useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors, on the following topics: experience in construction and operation, reactor physics and safety, sore structural material and fuel technology, fast reactor engineering and activities in progress on LMFR plants

  12. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  13. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.; Matthews, R.B.

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  15. Recent Advancements in Liquid Metal Flexible Printed Electronics: Properties, Technologies, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on typical properties, technologies, and applications of liquid metal based flexible printed electronics. The core manufacturing material—room-temperature liquid metal, currently mainly represented by gallium and its alloys with the properties of excellent resistivity, enormous bendability, low adhesion, and large surface tension, was focused on in particular. In addition, a series of recently developed printing technologies spanning from personal electronic circuit printing (direct painting or writing, mechanical system printing, mask layer based printing, high-resolution nanoimprinting, etc. to 3D room temperature liquid metal printing is comprehensively reviewed. Applications of these planar or three-dimensional printing technologies and the related liquid metal alloy inks in making flexible electronics, such as electronical components, health care sensors, and other functional devices were discussed. The significantly different adhesions of liquid metal inks on various substrates under different oxidation degrees, weakness of circuits, difficulty of fabricating high-accuracy devices, and low rate of good product—all of which are challenges faced by current liquid metal flexible printed electronics—are discussed. Prospects for liquid metal flexible printed electronics to develop ending user electronics and more extensive applications in the future are given.

  16. Technology which led to the westinghouse inherently safe liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Coffield, R.D.; Doncals, R.A.; Kalinowski, J.E.; Markley, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor programs resulted in an understanding of liquid metal reactor behavior that is being used to design inherent safety capability into liquid metal reactors. Technological advances give the same beneficial operating characteristics of conventional liquid metal reactors, however, the addition of inherently safe design features precludes the initiation of hypothetical core disruptive accidents. These innovative features permit inherent safety capability to be demonstrated with more than adequate margins. Also, the variety of inherent safety features provides the designers with options in selecting inherent design features for a specific reactor application

  17. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR design technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Y I; Kim, Y G; Kim, E K; Song, H; Chung, H T; Sim, Y S; Min, B T; Kim, Y S; Wi, M H; Yoo, B; Lee, J H; Lee, H Y; Kim, J B; Koo, G H; Hahn, D H; Na, B C; Hwang, W; Nam, C; Ryu, W S; Lim, G S; Kim, D H; Kim, J D; Gil, C S

    1997-07-01

    This project was performed in five parts, the scope and contents of which are as follows: The nuclear data processing system was established and the KFS group constant library was improved and verified. Basic computation system was constructed by either developing or adding its function. Input/output (I/O) interface processing was developed to establish an integrated calculation system for LMR core nuclear rand thermal-hydraulic design and analysis. An experimental data analysis was performed to validate the constructed core neutronic calculation system. Using the established core calculation system and design technology, preliminary core design and performance analysis on the domestic LMR core design concept were carried out. To develop the basic technology of the LMR system analysis, LMR system behavior characteristics evaluation, thermal -fluid system analysis in the reactor pool, preliminary overall plant analysis and computer codes development have been performed. A porous model and simple one-dimensional model have been evaluated for the reactor pool analysis. The evaluation of the residual heat removal system on different design concepts has been also conducted. For the development of high temperature structural analysis, the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses were performed using finite element program with user subroutine that has been developed with an implementation of the Chaboche constitutive model for inelastic analysis capability, and the evaluation of creep-fatigue and ratcheting behavior of high temperature structure was carried out using this program. for development of the seismic isolation system and to predict the shear behavior for the laminated rubber bearing were established. And the behavior tests of isolation bearing and rubber specimens were carried out, and the seismic response tests for the isolation model structure were performed using the 30 ton shaking table. (author). 369 refs., 119 tabs., 320 figs.

  18. Liquid metal reactor development. Development of LMR design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Y. I.; Kim, Y. G.; Kim, E. K.; Song, H.; Chung, H. T.; Sim, Y. S.; Min, B. T.; Kim, Y. S.; Wi, M. H.; Yoo, B.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Kim, J. B.; Koo, G. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Na, B. C.; Hwang, W.; Nam, C.; Ryu, W. S.; Lim, G. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, J. D.; Gil, C. S.

    1997-07-01

    This project was performed in five parts, the scope and contents of which are as follows: The nuclear data processing system was established and the KFS group constant library was improved and verified. Basic computation system was constructed by either developing or adding its function. Input/output (I/O) interface processing was developed to establish an integrated calculation system for LMR core nuclear rand thermal-hydraulic design and analysis. An experimental data analysis was performed to validate the constructed core neutronic calculation system. Using the established core calculation system and design technology, preliminary core design and performance analysis on the domestic LMR core design concept were carried out. To develop the basic technology of the LMR system analysis, LMR system behavior characteristics evaluation, thermal -fluid system analysis in the reactor pool, preliminary overall plant analysis and computer codes development have been performed. A porous model and simple one-dimensional model have been evaluated for the reactor pool analysis. The evaluation of the residual heat removal system on different design concepts has been also conducted. For the development of high temperature structural analysis, the heat transfer and thermal stress analyses were performed using finite element program with user subroutine that has been developed with an implementation of the Chaboche constitutive model for inelastic analysis capability, and the evaluation of creep-fatigue and ratcheting behavior of high temperature structure was carried out using this program. for development of the seismic isolation system and to predict the shear behavior for the laminated rubber bearing were established. And the behavior tests of isolation bearing and rubber specimens were carried out, and the seismic response tests for the isolation model structure were performed using the 30 ton shaking table. (author). 369 refs., 119 tabs., 320 figs

  19. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    were developed. Since He cooling technology with such a high temperature and pressure conditions (500 .deg. C and 8 MPa) has been developed in the Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) field. Since pressure drop by MHD effect is one of most important problem in liquid type TBM, this problem was evaluated with the CFX code and its EM module, which was newly adopted. In order to validate this module, a benchmarking problem was selected and the input data for the KO HCML TBM was prepared. In order to develop the Li technology, the test loop was designed schematically and design parameters were obtained. Main components such as EM pump and sump tank were designed specifically and fabricated.

  20. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y.

    2008-03-01

    were developed. Since He cooling technology with such a high temperature and pressure conditions (500 .deg. C and 8 MPa) has been developed in the Gas Cooled Reactor (GCR) field. Since pressure drop by MHD effect is one of most important problem in liquid type TBM, this problem was evaluated with the CFX code and its EM module, which was newly adopted. In order to validate this module, a benchmarking problem was selected and the input data for the KO HCML TBM was prepared. In order to develop the Li technology, the test loop was designed schematically and design parameters were obtained. Main components such as EM pump and sump tank were designed specifically and fabricated

  1. Component and Technology Development for Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The following report details the significant developments to Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technologies made throughout the course of this funding. This report will begin with an overview of the sodium loop and the improvements made over the course of this research to make it a more advanced and capable facility. These improvements have much to do with oxygen control and diagnostics. Thus a detailed report of advancements with respect to the cold trap, plugging meter, vanadium equilibration loop, and electrochemical oxygen sensor is included. Further analysis of the university’s moving magnet pump was performed and included in a section of this report. A continuous electrical resistance based level sensor was built and tested in the sodium with favorable results. Materials testing was done on diffusion bonded samples of metal and the results are presented here as well. A significant portion of this work went into the development of optical fiber temperature sensors which could be deployed in an SFR environment. Thus, a section of this report presents the work done to develop an encapsulation method for these fibers inside of a stainless steel capillary tube. High temperature testing was then done on the optical fiber ex situ in a furnace. Thermal response time was also explored with the optical fiber temperature sensors. Finally these optical fibers were deployed successfully in a sodium environment for data acquisition. As a test of the sodium deployable optical fiber temperature sensors they were installed in a sub-loop of the sodium facility which was constructed to promote the thermal striping effect in sodium. The optical fibers performed exceptionally well, yielding unprecedented 2 dimensional temperature profiles with good temporal resolution. Finally, this thermal striping loop was used to perform cross correlation velocimetry successfully over a wide range of flow rates.

  2. Technology development for high temperature logging tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Coquat, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A set of prototype, high temperature logging tools (temperature, pressure and flow) were tested successfully to temperatures up to 275/sup 0/C in a Union geothermal well during November 1978 as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program. This program is being conducted by Sandia Laboratories for the Department of Energy's Division of Geothermal Energy. The progress and plans of this industry based program to develop and apply the high temperature instrumentation technology needed to make reliable geothermal borehole measurements are described. Specifically, this program is upgrading existing sondes for improved high temperature performance, as well as applying new materials (elastomers, polymers, metals and ceramics) and developing component technology such as high temperature cables, cableheads and electronics to make borehole measurements such as formation temperature, flow rate, high resolution pressure and fracture mapping. In order to satisfy critical existing needs, the near term goal is for operation up to 275/sup 0/C and 7000 psi by the end of FY80. The long term goal is for operation up to 350/sup 0/C and 20,000 psi by the end of FY84.

  3. Heavy liquid metal technologies at KArlsruhe Lead LAboratory KALLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Mueller, G.; Konys, J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research cover: lead-bismuth technologies; corrosion mechanism and corrosion protection; thermal hydraulics; kinetics of oxygen control systems. Detailed experimental results are presented

  4. Development of Very High Temperature Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.

    2009-04-01

    For an efficient production of nuclear hydrogen, the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature and the interfacing system for the hydrogen production are required. We have developed various evaluation technologies for the performance and safety of VHTR through the accomplishment of this project. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been performed such as core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, applicability of cooled-vessel, intermediate loop system and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC and the analysis of the risk/performance-informed method, VHTR safety evaluation has been also performed. In addition, various design analysis codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, air-ingress accident analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen explosion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  5. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species

  6. Use of liquid metals in nuclear and thermonuclear engineering, and in other innovative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Arnol'dov, M. N.; Efanov, A. D.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kozlov, F. A.; Loginov, N. I.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    By now, a good deal of experience has been gained with using liquid metals as coolants in nuclear power installations; extensive knowledge has been gained about the physical, thermophysical, and physicochemical properties of these coolants; and the scientific principles and a set of methods and means for handling liquid metals as coolants for nuclear power installations have been elaborated. Prototype and commercialgrade sodium-cooled NPP power units have been developed, including the BOR-60, BN-350, and BN-600 power units (the Soviet Union); the Rapsodie, Phenix, and Superphenix power units (France), the EBR-II power unit (the United States); and the PFR power unit (the United Kingdom). In Russia, dedicated nuclear power installations have been constructed, including those with a lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear submarines and with sodium-potassium alloy for spacecraft (the Buk and Topol installations), which have no analogs around the world. Liquid metals (primarily lithium and its alloy with lead) hold promise for use in thermonuclear power engineering, where they can serve not only as a coolant, but also as tritium-producing medium. In this article, the physicochemical properties of liquid metal coolants, as well as practical experience gained from using them in nuclear and thermonuclear power engineering and in innovative technologies are considered, and the lines of further research works are formulated. New results obtained from investigations carried out on the Pb-Bi and Pb for the SVBR and BREST fast-neutron reactors (referred to henceforth as fast reactors) and for controlled accelerator systems are described.

  7. Technology development program for safe shipment of spent fuel from liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, J.M.; Humphreys, J.R.

    1975-10-01

    A comprehensive plan to develop shipping cask technology is described. Technical programs in the disciplines of heat transfer, structures and containment, spent fuel characterization, hot laboratory verification, shielding, and hazards analysis are discussed. Both short- and long-term goals in each discipline are delineated and how the disciplines interrelate is shown. The technologies developed will be used in the design, fabrication, and testing of truck-mounted and rail-car casks. These casks will be used for safely transporting short-cooled, high-burnup Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel from reactors to reprocessing plants

  8. Computational study of heat transfer from the inner surface of a circular tube to force high temperature liquid metal flow in laminar and transition regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2018-03-01

    transfer. The general correlation in the laminar and turbulent regions for a high temperature liquid metal was identified for the circular tube with a hydraulic diameter.

  9. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-03-27

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  10. Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Raptis, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This current report is a summary of information obtained in the 'Information Capture' task of the U.S. DOE-funded 'Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project.' The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.

  11. Analysis of actual status of works on technology of heavy liquid metal coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynov, P.N.; Askhadullin, R.Sh.; Orlov, Yu.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Principle duties in heavy liquid metal coolant technology (HLMC) are provision of the purity of coolant and surfaces of circulation loop for maintenance of design thermohydraulic characteristics, prevention of structural materials corrosion and erosion during long service life and present-day safety precautions on different stages of reactor facility operation. For this reason, current HLMC (Pb-Bi, Pb) technology must include coolant pre-operation and charging; monitoring and regulating of coolant oxygen potential; hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation loop from lead oxides-based slags; coolant filtration; reactor cover gas purification from coolant aerosols. The current topical problem is personnel training on the questions of HLMC technology [ru

  12. High Temperature Particle Filtration Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    High temperature filtration can serve to improve the economic, environmental, and energy performance of chemical processes. This project was designed to evaluate the stability of filtration materials in the environments of the production of dimethyldichlorosilane (DDS). In cooperation with Dow Corning, chemical environments for the fluidized bed reactor where silicon is converted to DDS and the incinerator where vents are cornbusted were characterized. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) an exposure system was developed that could simulate these two environments. Filter samples obtained from third parties were exposed to the environments for periods up to 1000 hours. Mechanical properties before and after exposure were determined by burst-testing rings of filter material. The results indicated that several types of filter materials would likely perform well in the fluid bed environment, and two materials would be good candidates for the incinerator environment

  13. Innovative and basic researches for high temperature technologies at HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1995-01-01

    The HTTR is the first HTGR which is under construction at JAERI. The objectives of the HTTR are to establish basic technologies for HTGRs, to upgrade technologies for HTGRs and to conduct innovative and basic researches for high temperature technologies. The first two are concerned with HTGR developments. The last one is not necessarily for HTGR developments, but for future innovative researches which are expected to be applied to various technologies. (author)

  14. Problems of hydrogen - water vapor - inert gas mixture use in heavy liquid metal coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, V.V.; Martynov, P.N.; Gulevskij, V.A.; Teplyakov, Yu.A.; Fomin, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The reasons of slag deposit formation in circulation circuits with heavy liquid metal coolants, which can cause reactor core blockage, are considered. To prevent formation of deposits hydrogen purification of coolant and surfaces of circulation circuit is used. It consists in introduction of gaseous mixtures hydrogen - water vapor - rare gas (argon or helium) directly into coolant flow. The principle scheme of hydrogen purification and the processes occurring during it are under consideration. Measures which make it completely impossible to overlap of the flow cross section of reactor core, steam generators, pumps and other equipment by lead oxides in reactor facilities with heavy liquid metal coolants are listed [ru

  15. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  16. Status of high-temperature heat-pipe technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of heat pipes to nuclear reactor space power systems. Characteristics of the device that favor such an application are described and recent results of current technology development programs are presented. Research areas that will need to be addressed in demonstrating that adequate lifetimes can be achieved with evaporation/condensation cycles operating at high temperatures in a reactor environment are also discussed

  17. Technological improvements to high temperature thermocouples for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Leveque, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    The specific operating conditions of thermocouples in nuclear reactors have provided an incentive for further advances in high temperature thermocouple applications and performance. This work covers the manufacture and improvement of existing alloys, the technology of clad thermocouples, calibration drift during heat treatment, resistance to thermal shock and the compatibility of insulating materials with thermo-electric alloys. The results lead to specifying improved operating conditions for thermocouples in nuclear reactor media (pressurized water, sodium, uranium oxide) [fr

  18. High temperature structure design for FBRs and analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Koji

    1986-01-01

    In the case of FBRs, the operation temperature exceeds 500 deg C, therefore, the design taking the inelastic characteristics of structural materials, such as plasticity and creep, into account is required, and the high grade and detailed evaluation of design is demanded. This new high temperature structure design technology has been advanced in respective countries taking up experimental, prototype and demonstration reactors as the targets. The development of FBRs in Japan was begun with the experimental reactor 'Joyo' which has been operated since 1977, and now, the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe is under construction, which is expected to attain the criticality in 1992. In order to realize FBRs which can compete with LWRs through the construction of a demonstration FBR, the construction of large scale plants and the heightening of the economy and reliability are necessary. The features and the role of FBR structural design, the method of high temperature structure design and the trend of its standardization, the trend of the structural analysis technology for FBRs such as inelastic analysis, buckling analysis and fluid and structure coupled vibration analysis, the present status of structural analysis programs, and the subjects for the future of high temperature structure design are explained. (Kako, I.)

  19. Structural analysis technology for high-temperature design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Results from an ongoing program devoted to the development of verified high-temperature structural design technology applicable to nuclear reactor systems are described. The major aspects addressed by the program are (1) deformation behavior; (2) failure associated with creep rupture, brittle fracture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interactions, and crack propagation; and (3) the establishment of appropriate design criteria. This paper discusses information developed in the deformation behavior category. The material considered is type 304 stainless steel, and the temperatures range to 1100 0 F (593 0 C). In essence, the paper considers the ingredients necessary for predicting relatively high-temperature inelastic deformation behavior of engineering structures under time-varying temperature and load conditions and gives some examples. These examples illustrate the utility and acceptability of the computational methods identified and developed for prediting essential features of complex inelastic behaviors. Conditions and responses that can be encountered under nuclear reactor service conditions and invoked in the examples. (Auth.)

  20. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  1. Review of liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.S.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of space-power related liquid metal heat pipe work at Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Heat pipe development at Los Alamos has been on-going since 1963. Heat pipes were initially developed for thermionic nuclear-electrical power production in space. Since then Los Alamos has developed liquid metal heat pipes for numerous applications related to high temperature systems in both the space and terrestrial environments. Some of these applications include thermionic electrical generators, thermoelectric energy conversion (both in-core and direct radiation), thermal energy storage, hypersonic vehicle leading edge cooling, and heat pipe vapor laser cells. Some of the work performed at Los Alamos has been documented in internal reports that are often little-known. A representative description and summary of progress in space-related liquid metal heat pipe technology is provided followed by a reference section citing sources where these works may be found. 53 refs

  2. Proceedings of the international workshop on the technology and thermal hydraulics of heavy liquid metals (Hg, Pb, Bi, and their eutectics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    The International Workshop on the Technology and Thermal Hydraulics of Heavy Liquid Metals (Schruns Workshop) was organized to assess the R ampersand D and technology problems associated with designing and building a heavy liquid metal target for a spallation neutron source. The European scientific community is completing a feasibility study for a future, accelerator-based, pulsed spallation neutron source that would deliver a beam power of 5 megawatts (MW) to a target. They have concluded that a liquid metal target is preferable to conventional solid targets for handling the extreme radiation environments, high heat loads, and pulsed power. Similarly, the ORNL has been funded by the DOE to design a high-power, pulsed spallation neutron source that would begin operation at about 1 MW but that could be upgraded to significantly higher powers in the future. Again, the most feasible target design appears to be a liquid metal target. Since the expertise needed to consider these problems resides in a number of disparate disciplines not normally covered by existing conferences, this workshop was organized to bring a small number of scientists and engineers together to assess the opportunities for building such a target. The objectives and goals of the Schruns Workshop were to: review and share existing information on the science and technology of heavy liquid metal systems. Evaluate the opportunities and limitations of materials compatibility, thermal hydraulics and heat transfer, chemical reactions, corrosion, radiation effects, liquid-gas mixtures, systems designs, and circuit components for a heavy liquid metal target. Establish the critical R ampersand D and technology that is necessary to construct a liquid metal target. Explore opportunities for cooperative R ampersand D among members of the international community that could expedite results, and share expertise and resources. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and

  3. Proceedings of the international workshop on the technology and thermal hydraulics of heavy liquid metals (Hg, Pb, Bi, and their eutectics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, B.R.; Bauer, G.S. [comp.

    1996-06-01

    The International Workshop on the Technology and Thermal Hydraulics of Heavy Liquid Metals (Schruns Workshop) was organized to assess the R&D and technology problems associated with designing and building a heavy liquid metal target for a spallation neutron source. The European scientific community is completing a feasibility study for a future, accelerator-based, pulsed spallation neutron source that would deliver a beam power of 5 megawatts (MW) to a target. They have concluded that a liquid metal target is preferable to conventional solid targets for handling the extreme radiation environments, high heat loads, and pulsed power. Similarly, the ORNL has been funded by the DOE to design a high-power, pulsed spallation neutron source that would begin operation at about 1 MW but that could be upgraded to significantly higher powers in the future. Again, the most feasible target design appears to be a liquid metal target. Since the expertise needed to consider these problems resides in a number of disparate disciplines not normally covered by existing conferences, this workshop was organized to bring a small number of scientists and engineers together to assess the opportunities for building such a target. The objectives and goals of the Schruns Workshop were to: review and share existing information on the science and technology of heavy liquid metal systems. Evaluate the opportunities and limitations of materials compatibility, thermal hydraulics and heat transfer, chemical reactions, corrosion, radiation effects, liquid-gas mixtures, systems designs, and circuit components for a heavy liquid metal target. Establish the critical R & D and technology that is necessary to construct a liquid metal target. Explore opportunities for cooperative R & D among members of the international community that could expedite results, and share expertise and resources. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  5. Development of Very High Temperature Reactor Design Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, J. M.; Kim, K. S.

    2007-05-01

    To develop design technologies for the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature for an efficient hydrogen production, key studies were performed, which include evaluation technology for the performance and safety of VHTR, and development of design and analysis codes. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been carried out for core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, cooled-vessel adopting internal flow path through the graphite structure, compact heat exchanger with periodic channel configuration, intermediate loop system, risk/performance-informed method, and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC, safety evaluation of both VHTR and RCCS has been also performed. In addition, prototype codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, air-ingress accident analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen explosion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  6. Development of very high temperature reactor design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jae; Noh, Jan Man

    2012-04-01

    or an efficient production of nuclear hydrogen, the VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor) of 950 .deg. C outlet temperature and the interfacing system for the hydrogen production are required. We have developed various evaluation technologies for the performance and safety of VHTR through the accomplishment of this project. First, to evaluate the performance of VHTR, a series of analyses has been performed such as core characteristics at 950 .deg. C, applicability of cooled-vessel, intermediate loop system and high temperature structural integrity. Through the analyses of major accidents such as HPCC and LPCC and the analysis of the risk/performance-informed method, VHTR safety evaluation has been also performed. In addition, various design analysis codes have been developed for a nuclear design, system loop design, system performance analysis, fission product/tritium transport analysis, core thermo-fluid analysis, system layout analysis, graphite structure seismic analysis and hydrogen exposion analysis, and they are being verified and validated through a lot of international collaborations

  7. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  8. Advances in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Fuel Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    This publication reports on the results of a coordinated research project on advances in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel technology and describes the findings of research activities on coated particle developments. These comprise two specific benchmark exercises with the application of HTGR fuel performance and fission product release codes, which helped compare the quality and validity of the computer models against experimental data. The project participants also examined techniques for fuel characterization and advanced quality assessment/quality control. The key exercise included a round-robin experimental study on the measurements of fuel kernel and particle coating properties of recent Korean, South African and US coated particle productions applying the respective qualification measures of each participating Member State. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the project and underlines the added value to contemporary knowledge on HTGR fuel.

  9. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  10. Liquid metal cold trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundal, R.

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal is described. A hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly

  11. Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High-Temperature Distributed Engine Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    long lasting, high temperature modules is to use high temperature electronics on ceramic modules. The electronic components are “ brazed ” onto the...Copyright © 2012 by ISA Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High - Temperature Distributed Engine Controls Alireza Behbahani 1...with regards to high temperature capability. The Government and Industry Distributed Engine Controls Working Group (DECWG) [5] has been established

  12. Hydrodynamic problems of heavy liquid metal coolants technology in loop-type and mono-block-type reactor installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Yuri I.; Efanov, Alexander D.; Martynov, Pyotr N.; Gulevsky, Valery A.; Papovyants, Albert K.; Levchenko, Yuri D.; Ulyanov, Vladimir V.

    2007-01-01

    In the report, the influence of hydrodynamics of the loop with heavy liquid metal coolants (Pb and Pb-Bi) on the realization methods and efficiency of the coolant technology for the reactor installations of loop, improved loop and mono-block type of design has been studied. The last two types of installations, as a rule, are characterized by the following features: availability of loop sections with low hydraulic head and low coolant velocities, large squares of coolant free surfaces; absence of stop and regulating valve, auxiliary pumps on the coolant pumping-over lines. Because of the different hydrodynamic conditions in the installation types, the tasks of the coolant technology have specific solutions. The description of the following procedures of coolant technology is given in the report: purification by hydrogen (purification using gas mixture containing hydrogen), regulation of dissolved oxygen concentration in coolant, coolant filtrating, control of dissolved oxygen concentration in coolant. It is shown that change of the loop design made with economic purpose and for improvement of the installation safety cause additional requirements to the procedures and apparatuses of the coolant technology realization

  13. Protective coatings for high temperature alloys state of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goward, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings used on nickel- and cobalt-base superalloy blades and vanes in gas turbine engines typify the state of coating technology for high temperature alloys. Coatings formed by interdiffusion of aluminum with the alloys to form layers consisting mainly of intermetallic compounds, such as NiAl and CoAl, were the first systems used for protection of gas turbine airfoils. The protectivity of these systems is derived from the formation of protective alumina scales. In a general way, coating degradation occurs by cyclic oxidation, molten salt hot corrosion and, at higher temperatures, interdiffusion with the substrate. Thermal fatigue properties are governed by the brittle-ductile transition behavior of the intermetallic compounds NiAl and CoAl. Both positive and negative effects occur, depending on the shapes of thermal strain-temperature curves for particular applications. Significant increases in hot corrosion and oxidation resistance have been obtained by the incorporation of noble metals, such as platinum, in aluminide coatings. The so-called MCrAlY overlay coatings, based on nickel, cobalt, iron and combinations thereof with chromium, aluminum and yttrium can be formulated over a wide range of compositions nominally independent of those of substrate alloys. Improved oxidation resistance and, in part, hot corrosion resistance is derived from yttrium which enhances protective oxide adherence. Mechanical properties, principally ductility, and therefore thermal fatigue resistance, can be adjusted to the requirements of specific applications. Incremental improvements in performance of the MCrAlY coatings are expected as research programs define degradation mechanisms in greater detail and more complex compositions are devised. More basic evaluations of mixed metal-ceramic insulative coatings have been initiated to determine if these systems are capable of effecting further increases in airfoil durability

  14. An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's program for liquid metal reactor seismic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetter, R.I.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the development of seismic design technology in support of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR's). This has been accomplished through 1) major projects such as the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), 2) base technology programs and 3) support to the design development of innovative LMR's, SAFR and PRISM. These developments have come in the areas of ground motion definition, soil-structure interaction, seismic isolation, fluid-structure interaction and structural analysis methods and criteria for equipment and components such as piping, reactor core and vessels. The initial developments in seismic design technology by DOE and others were directed toward ensuring that the plant, equipment and components had sufficient seismic resistance to ensure availability after an Operations Basis Earthquake (OBE) and to survive a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). During this period, the emphasis on conservative design had significant cost impacts. The current focus is directed toward a better understanding of seismic design margins and the development of methods to reduce seismic loads on plant and equipment and to enhance siting flexibility. From this perspective, the DOE is currently reassessing the needs and priorities for future seismic technology development. Coordination with University research programs and ongoing seismic technology development sponsored by other governmental agencies and institutions is an integral part of this planning process. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current status of DOE's seismic technology program for LMR's and to provide an overview of future areas of interest. (author). 7 refs

  15. Liquid metal steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.

    1975-01-01

    A liquid metal heated steam generator is described which in the event of a tube failure quickly exhausts out of the steam generator the products of the reaction between the water and the liquid metal. The steam is generated in a plurality of bayonet tubes which are heated by liquid metal flowing over them between an inner cylinder and an outer cylinder. The inner cylinder extends above the level of liquid metal but below the main tube sheet. A central pipe extends down into the inner cylinder with a centrifugal separator between it and the inner cylinder at its lower end and an involute deflector plate above the separator so that the products of a reaction between the liquid metal and the water will be deflected downwardly by the deflector plate and through the separator so that the liquid metal will flow outwardly and away from the central pipe through which the steam and gaseous reaction products are exhausted. (U.S.)

  16. Liquid Metal Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series...

  17. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  18. Liquid metal monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Roach, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal monitor of the by-pass plugging meter kind described in British Patent 1,308,466, is further provided with a pump arranged to oppose flow through a by-pass thereby to provide a constant pressure difference across an orifice and improve the sensitivity of the instrument. The monitor estimates the impurity content in a liquid metal stream. (author)

  19. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig

  20. Investigation of corrosion, water reaction, polonium evaporation and bismuth resource in liquid metal lead-bismuth technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideki; Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitano, Teruaki [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    Lead-bismuth is the first candidate material for liquid metal target find coolant of fueled blanket system in accelerator-driven system (ADS) studied at JAERI. Advantages of the lead-bismuth utilization are non-active material, very low capture cross section, low melting point of 125degC and high boiling point of 1670degC, and beside coolant void reactivity become negative. But problems are due to the high corrosivity to most of the structural materials and the corrosive data are scarcity. In this report, corrosivity, reaction with water, thermal-hydraulics, chemical toxicity etc. are studied by investigating some facilities utilized and researched really for lead or lead-bismuth. And, furthermore, polonium evaporation rate and bismuth resource are investigated. Main results obtained are as follows: (1) In a refinery, there are enough employment experience for liquid Pb-Bi in period of about 17 years and not corrosion for the thermal conductive materials (1Cr-0.5Mo steel) used under the condition of natural convection with temperature around 400degC. (2) In Russia, extensive experience in the use as Russian submarines and in R and D during about 50 years are available. And as a result, it will be able to lead approximately zero corrosion for Cr-Si materials by adjusting oxygen film with oxygen concentration control between 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -5}% mass. However, the corrosion data are not enough systematically collected involving them in radiation dose field. (3) In liquid-dropping experiment, it is shown that interaction between water and high temperature liquid Pb-Bi is reduced steeply with rising of atmosphere pressure. But, in order to design the second circuit removal model of ADS, the interaction should be evaluated by water continuous injection experiment. (4) Polonium forms PbPo in Pb-Bi, and the evaporation rate become less three factor than that of Po, and furthermore, the rate decreases in the atmosphere. The effects of Po on employee and environment

  1. Casting technology for ODS steels - dispersion of nanoparticles in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M.; Grants, I.; Kaldre, I.; Bojarevics, A.; Gerbeth, G.

    2017-07-01

    Dispersion of particles to produce metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) can be achieved by means of ultrasonic vibration of the melt using ultrasound transducers. However, a direct transfer of this method to produce steel composites is not feasible because of the much higher working temperature. Therefore, an inductive technology for contactless treatment by acoustic cavitation was developed. This report describes the samples produced to assess the feasibility of the proposed method for nano-particle separation in steel. Stainless steel samples with inclusions of TiB2, TiO2, Y2O3, CeO2, Al2O3 and TiN have been created and analyzed. Additional experiments have been performed using light metals with an increased value of the steady magnetic field using a superconducting magnet with a field strength of up to 5 T.

  2. Development of High Temperature Superconducting Josephson Junction Device Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    The DuPont program was successful in generating useful knowledge about thallium cuprate materials, photoresist reflow processing, and radiant heater technology though it did not lead to a new junction technology...

  3. Applications of high-temperature superconductors in power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, John R

    2003-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) in the late 1980s, many materials and families of materials have been discovered that exhibit superconductivity at temperatures well above 20 K. Of these, several families of HTSs have been developed for use in electrical power applications. Demonstration of devices such as motors, generators, transmission lines, transformers, fault-current limiters, and flywheels in which HTSs and bulk HTSs have been used has proceeded to ever larger scales. First-generation wire, made from bismuth-based copper oxides, was used in many demonstrations. The rapid development of second-generation wire, made by depositing thin films of yttrium-based copper oxide on metallic substrates, is expected to further accelerate commercial applications. Bulk HTSs, in which large single-grain crystals are used as basic magnetic components, have also been developed and have potential for electrical power applications

  4. Performance of digital integrated circuit technologies at very high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prince, J.L.; Draper, B.L.; Rapp, E.A.; Kromberg, J.N.; Fitch, L.T.

    1980-01-01

    Results of investigations of the performance and reliability of digital bipolar and CMOS integrated circuits over the 25 to 340/sup 0/C range are reported. Included in these results are both parametric variation information and analysis of the functional failure mechanisms. Although most of the work was done using commercially available circuits (TTL and CMOS) and test chips from commercially compatible processes, some results of experimental simulations of dielectrically isolated CMOS are also discussed. It was found that commercial Schottky clamped TTL, and dielectrically isolated, low power Schottky-clamped TTL, functioned to junction temperatures in excess of 325/sup 0/C. Standard gold doped TTL functioned only to 250/sup 0/C, while commercial, isolated I/sup 2/L functioned to the range 250/sup 0/C to 275/sup 0/C. Commercial junction isolated CMOS, buffered and unbuffered, functioned to the range 280/sup 0/C to 310/sup 0/C/sup +/, depending on the manufacturer. Experimental simulations of simple dielectrically isolated CMOS integrated circuits, fabricated with heavier doping levels than normal, functioned to temperatures in excess of 340/sup 0/C. High temperature life testing of experimental, silicone-encapsulated simple TTL and CMOS integrated circuits have shown no obvious life limiting problems to date. No barrier to reliable functionality of TTL bipolar or CMOS integrated ciruits at temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C has been found.

  5. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  6. Engineering: Liquid metal pumped at a record temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinou, Konstantina

    2017-10-01

    Although liquid metals are effective fluids for heat transfer, pumping them at high temperatures is limited by their corrosiveness to solid metals. A clever pump design addresses this challenge using only ceramics. See Article p.199

  7. High Temperature Memories in SiC Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Working On Venus (WOV) project. The aim of the project is to design electronics in silicon carbide (SiC) that can withstand the extreme surface environmen  of Venus. This thesis investigates some possible computer memory technologies that could survive on the surface of Venus. A memory must be able to function at 460 °C and after a total radiation dose of at least 200 Gy (SiC). This thesis is a literature survey. The thesis covers several Random-Access Memory (RAM) ...

  8. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  9. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  10. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  11. Experimental study of liquid-metal target designs of accelerating-controlled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmonov, Mikhail; Makhov, Kirill; Novozhilova, Olga; Meluzov, A.G.; Beznosov, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Models of a liquid-metal target of an accelerator-controlled system have been experimentally studied at the Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University to develop an optimal design of the flow part of the target. The main explored variants of liquid-metal targets are: Design with a diaphragm (firm-and-impervious plug) mounted on the pipe tap of particle transport from the accelerator cavity to the working cavity of the liquid-metal target. Design without a diaphragm on the pipe tab of particle transport from the accelerator. The study was carried out in a high-temperature liquid-metal test bench under the conditions close to full-scale ones: the temperature of the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy was 260degC - 400degC, the coolant mass flow was 5-80 t/h, and the rarefaction in the gas cavity was 10 5 Pa, the coefficient of geometric similarity equal to 1. The experimental studies of hydrodynamic characteristics of flow parts in the designs of targets under full-scale conditions indicated high efficiency of a target in triggering, operating, and deactivating modes. Research and technology instructions for designs of the flow part of the liquid-metal target, the target design as a whole, and the target circuit of accelerator-controlled systems were formulated as a result of the studies. (author)

  12. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  13. Liquid metal purification device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takao; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns a liquid metal purification device for removing and purifying impuries in liquid metal sodium used as coolants of an FBR type reactor. A vessel having a group of pipes made of hydrogen permeable metal at the inside thereof is disposed to the inlet pipeline of a cold trap. The group of hydrogen permeable metal pipes is connected to an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump, so that the inside of the pipes is exhausted. Liquid metal sodium branched from the main pipeline of a coolant system passes through the outer side of the group of the hydrogen permeable metal pipes. In this cae, hydrogen contained as impurities in the liquid metal sodium diffuses and permeates the hydrogen permeation metal pipes and enters into the pipe group and is discharged out of the system by the vacuum pump. This can mitigate the hydrogen removing burden of the cold trap, to extend the device life time. (I.N.)

  14. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  15. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed

  16. Development of operation and maintenance technology for HTGRs by using HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Atsushi, E-mail: shimizu.atsushi35@jaea.go.jp [HTTR Operation Section, Department of HTTR, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kawamoto, Taiki [HTTR Operation Section, Department of HTTR, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Tochio, Daisuke [HTTR Reactor Engineering Section, Department of HTTR, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Honma, Fumitaka; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saikusa, Akio [HTTR Operation Section, Department of HTTR, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Takada, Shoji [HTTR Reactor Engineering Section, Department of HTTR, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Shinozaki, Masayuki [HTTR Operation Section, Department of HTTR, Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    To establish the technical basis of HTGR (High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor), the long term high temperature operation using HTTR was carried out in the high temperature test operation mode during 50-day since January till March, 2010. It is necessary to establish the technical basis of operation and maintenance by demonstrating the stability of plant during long-term operation and the reliability of components and facilities special to HTGRs, in order to attain the stable supply of the high temperature heat to the planned heat utilization system of HTTR. Test data obtained in the operation were evaluated for the technical issues which were extracted before the operation. As the results, it was confirmed that the temperatures and flow rate of primary and secondary coolant were well controlled within sufficiently small deviation against the disturbance by the atmospheric temperature variation in daily. Stability and reliability of the components and facility special to HTGRs was demonstrated through the long term high temperature operation by evaluating the heat transfer performance of high temperature components, the stability performance of pressure control to compensate helium gas leak, the reliability of the dynamic components such as helium gas circulators, the performance of heat-up protection of radiation shielding. Through the long term high temperature operation of HTTR, the technical basis for the operation and maintenance technology of HTGRs was established.

  17. Development of operation and maintenance technology for HTGRs by using HTTR (High Temperature engineering Test Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Atsushi; Kawamoto, Taiki; Tochio, Daisuke; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Honma, Fumitaka; Furusawa, Takayuki; Saikusa, Akio; Takada, Shoji; Shinozaki, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    To establish the technical basis of HTGR (High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor), the long term high temperature operation using HTTR was carried out in the high temperature test operation mode during 50-day since January till March, 2010. It is necessary to establish the technical basis of operation and maintenance by demonstrating the stability of plant during long-term operation and the reliability of components and facilities special to HTGRs, in order to attain the stable supply of the high temperature heat to the planned heat utilization system of HTTR. Test data obtained in the operation were evaluated for the technical issues which were extracted before the operation. As the results, it was confirmed that the temperatures and flow rate of primary and secondary coolant were well controlled within sufficiently small deviation against the disturbance by the atmospheric temperature variation in daily. Stability and reliability of the components and facility special to HTGRs was demonstrated through the long term high temperature operation by evaluating the heat transfer performance of high temperature components, the stability performance of pressure control to compensate helium gas leak, the reliability of the dynamic components such as helium gas circulators, the performance of heat-up protection of radiation shielding. Through the long term high temperature operation of HTTR, the technical basis for the operation and maintenance technology of HTGRs was established

  18. Experimental testing facilities for ultrasonic measurements in heavy liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nicolescu, D.; Nitu, A.

    2016-01-01

    The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM), like lead or its alloy, Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), makes them attractive as coolant candidates in advanced nuclear systems. The opaqueness, that is common to all liquid metals, disables all optical methods. For this reason ultrasound waves are used in different applications in heavy liquid metal technology, for example for flow and velocity measurements and for inspection techniques. The practical use of ultrasound in heavy liquid metals still needs to be demonstrated by experiments. This goal requires heavy liquid metal technology facility especially adapted to this task. In this paper is presented an experimental testing facility for investigations of Heavy Liquid Metals acoustic properties, designed and constructed in RATEN ICN. (authors)

  19. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladiev, I.T.; Dzhamardzhashvili, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of electrical energy by direct conversion from thermal or electrical energy and notably to liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic convertors. The convertor described in this invention can be successfully used as a source of electrical energy for space vessels, for underwater vessels, for aeronautics and for the generation of electrical energy in thermal or atomic power plants. This liquid metal convertor consists of a heat source, a two phase nozzle, a separator, a steam diffuser and a condenser. These elements are connected together hydraulically in series. The condenser is connected hydraulically to a heat source, a liquid diffuser and a magnetohydrodynamic generator. These elements are interconnected hydraulically to the separator and heat source [fr

  20. Research program of the high temperature engineering test reactor for upgrading the HTGR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Takeda, Takeshi; Saikusa, Akio; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    1997-07-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet power of 30 MW and outlet coolant temperature of 950degC, and its first criticality will be attained at the end of 1997. In the HTTR, researches establishing and upgrading the technology basis necessary for an HTGR and innovative basic researches for a high temperature engineering will be conducted. A research program of the HTTR for upgrading the technology basis for the HTGR was determined considering realization of future generation commercial HTGRs. This paper describes a research program of the HTTR. (author)

  1. Clad buffer rod sensors for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    1999-01-01

    Clad buffer rods, consisting of a core and a cladding, have been developed for ultrasonic monitoring of liquid metal processing. The cores of these rods are made of low ultrasonic-loss materials and the claddings are fabricated by thermal spray techniques. The clad geometry ensures proper ultrasonic guidance. The lengths of these rods ranges from tens of centimeters to 1m. On-line ultrasonic level measurements in liquid metals such as magnesium at 700 deg C and aluminum at 960 deg C are presented to demonstrate their operation at high temperature and their high ultrasonic performance. A spherical concave lens is machined at the rod end for improving the spatial resolution. High quality ultrasonic images have been obtained in the liquid zinc at 600 deg C. High spatial resolution is needed for the detection of inclusions in liquid metals during processing. We also show that the elastic properties such as density, longitudinal and shear wave velocities of liquid metals can be measured using a transducer which generates and receives both longitudinal and shear waves and is mounted at the end of a clad buffer rod. (author)

  2. Advanced technologies related to a high temperature superconductor for small laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Yanagi, Nagato

    2006-01-01

    Advanced technologies related to a high temperature superconductor materials and small refrigerator are reviewed. Mini-RT/RT-1 is designed and constructed as a plasma examination device. The element technology of low temperature apparatus, the results of performance tests and application examples are explained. The superconductors such as Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212) for the low temperature phase, Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 (Bi-2223) for the high temperature phase, and YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (YBCO or Y123) are described. Advanced 4K-Giford-Mcmahon (GM) refrigerator on the market put superconductor coil made of low temperature superconductor metals to practical use and extends its application field. Small laboratory is able to experiment on the high temperature superconductor materials. (S.Y.)

  3. High temperature superconductors as a technological discontinuity in the power cable industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beales, T.P.; McCormack, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The advent of superconductivity above 77 K represents to the power cable industry a technological discontinuity analogous to that seen in the copper telecommunications industry by the arrival of optical fibres. This phenomenon is discussed along with technical criteria and performance targets needed for high temperature superconducting wire to have an economic impact in transmission cables

  4. High temperature superconductors as a technological discontinuity in the power cable industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beales, T.P.; McCormack, J.S. [BICC Cables Ltd., Hebburn (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The advent of superconductivity above 77 K represents to the power cable industry a technological discontinuity analogous to that seen in the copper telecommunications industry by the arrival of optical fibres. This phenomenon is discussed along with technical criteria and performance targets needed for high temperature superconducting wire to have an economic impact in transmission cables.

  5. Assessment of the high temperature fission chamber technology for the French fast reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammes, C.; Filliatre, P.; Geslot, B.; Domenech, T.; Normand, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA (France)

    2011-07-01

    High temperature fission chambers are key instruments for the control and protection of the sodium-cooled fast reactor. First, the developments of those neutron detectors, which are carried out either in France or abroad are reviewed. Second, the French realizations are assessed with the use of the technology readiness levels in order to identify tracks of improvement. (authors)

  6. Performance evaluation of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in high temperature waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at high temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The high temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  7. Development of coating technology for nuclear fuel by self-propagating high temperature synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, Bong G.; Lee, Y. W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the preparation of silicon carbide and graphite layers on a nuclear fuel from silane and propane gases by a conventional chemical vapor deposition and combustion synthesis technologies. The direct reaction between silicon and pyrolytic carbon in a high temperature releases sufficient amount of energy to make a synthesis self-sustaining under the preheating of about 1200 deg C. During this high temperature process, lamellar structure with isotropic carbon synthesis. A full characterization of phase composition and final morphology of the coated layers by X-ray diffraction, SEM and AES is presented. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  8. Characterization of liquid metal reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, H. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The objectives of this report were to assess the material requirements for LMR environment, to select the optimum candidates for KALIMER components, to characterize the performance for establishing a database of the structural materials for KALIMER, and to develop the basic material technologies for the localization of the advanced materials. Stainless steel ingots were melted by VIM and hot-rolled to plate with the thickness of 15mm. The plate was solution-treated for 1 hr at 1100 deg C and then water-quenched. Specimens were taken parallel to the rolling direction of the plate. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed on the high temperature mechanical properties of 316MRP (Liquid Metal Reactor, Primary candidate material) stainless steels with the different nitrogen content from 0.04 to 0.15% and with the different phosphorus content from 0.002 to 0.02%. Heat treatment was performed to investigate the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Mo steels for LMR heat transfer tube materials and core materials. The Cr-Mo steels were normalized at the temperatures between 900 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1hrs and tempered at the temperatures between 500 deg C and 800 deg C for 2hrs. Conventional optical and electron micrographic studies were carried out to investigate the martensite lath structure, carbide indentification and carbide shape. Vickers microhardness was measured at room temperature using 10g load. Tensile properties were tested at high temperature. Charpy V-notch impact tests were also carried out at temperature between -120 deg C and +180 deg C. (author). 72 refs., 28 tabs., 244 figs

  9. MHTGR [Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor] technology development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Neylan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the approach used to define the technology program needed to support design and licensing of a Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The MHTGR design depends heavily on data and information developed during the past 25 years to support large HTGR (LHTGR) designs. The technology program focuses on MHTGR-specific operating and accident conditions, and on validation of models and assumptions developed using LHTGR data. The technology program is briefly outlined, and a schedule is presented for completion of technology work which is consistent with completion of a Final Safety Summary Analysis Report (FSSAR) by 1992

  10. Container for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yoshihito; Imazu, Takayuki; Ueda, Sabuo; Ueya, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange a vapor trapping member of a specific structure at the inlet part of a cylindrical gap formed by the inner peripheral surface of the circular opening of a container and the outer peripheral surface of a rotary plug thereby to prevent ingress of vapor in the upper part of the cylindrical gap for a long period of time. Constitution: A sealing material receiving tray is fitted to the container side of the inlet part of a cylindrical gap, and a partition plate is fitted to the rotary plug side. The tray is filled with a sealing material consisting of a large number of steel balls, mesh wire gages and the like, and the partition plate is placed in the tray thereby to carry out sealing of the container. Liquid metal vapor evaporating from the liquid level of the liquid metal adheres to the sealing material to fill the gap, and therefore ingress of vapor to the upper part of the cylindrical gap is prevented, and there is no possibility of causing seal cutting due to the use for a long period. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Liquid metal mist cooling and MHD Ericsson cycle for fusion energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of liquid metal mist coolant and a liquid metal MHD (LMMHD) energy conversion system (ECS) based on the Ericsson cycle is being proposed for high temperature fusion reactors. It is shown that the two technologies are highly matchable, both thermodynamically and physically. Thermodynamically, the author enables delivering the fusion energy to the cycle with probably the highest practical average temperature commensurate with a given maximum reactor design constraint. Physically, the mist cooling and LMMHD ECSs can be coupled directly, thus eliminating the need for primary heat exchangers and reheaters. The net result is expected to be a high efficiency, simple and reliable heat transport and ECS. It is concluded that the proposed match could increase the economic viability of fusion reactors, so that a thorough study of the two complementary technologies is recommended. 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. The Preliminary Study of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurfarhana Ayuni Joha; Izhar Abu Hussin; Ridzuan Abdul Mutalib

    2015-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have attracted worldwide interest because of their high outlet temperatures, which allow them to be used for applications beyond electricity generation. HTGRs have been built and operated since as far back as the 1970s. Experimental and demonstration reactors of this type have operated in China, Great Britain, Germany, Japan, and the United States of America. This paper is written to share the valuable knowledge and information of HTGRs technology as a mean to enrich peoples understanding of the technology. This paper will present the technological features of HTGRs that allow for a modular design with inherently safe characteristics. (author)

  13. High-Temperature Adhesives for Thermally Stable Aero-Assist Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth; Ou, Runqing

    2013-01-01

    Aero-assist technologies are used to control the velocity of exploration vehicles (EVs) when entering Earth or other planetary atmospheres. Since entry of EVs in planetary atmospheres results in significant heating, thermally stable aero-assist technologies are required to avoid the high heating rates while maintaining low mass. Polymer adhesives are used in aero-assist structures because of the need for high flexibility and good bonding between layers of polymer films or fabrics. However, current polymer adhesives cannot withstand temperatures above 400 C. This innovation utilizes nanotechnology capabilities to address this need, leading to the development of high-temperature adhesives that exhibit high thermal conductivity in addition to increased thermal decomposition temperature. Enhanced thermal conductivity will help to dissipate heat quickly and effectively to avoid temperature rising to harmful levels. This, together with increased thermal decomposition temperature, will enable the adhesives to sustain transient high-temperature conditions.

  14. Liquid metal MHD generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satyamurthy, P.; Dixit, N.S.; Venkataramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid Metal MHD (LMMHD) Generator Systems are becoming increasingly important in space and terrestrial applications due to their compactness and versatility. This report gives the current status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar collectors, fast breeder reactors, low grade heat sources and conventional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in the temperatures range of 100degC-2000degC have been examined. The report also discusses the present understanding of various loss mechanisms inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these losses. A small mercury-air LMMHD experimental facility being set up in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals for future development of this new technology is also presented in this report. (author)

  15. Water tube liquid metal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.E.

    1981-01-01

    An improved heat exchanger for use in liquid metal cooled nuclear power reactors is described in which the heat is transferred between the flow of liquid metal which is to be cooled and a forced flow of liquid which is wholly or partly evaporated. (U.K.)

  16. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, K.M.

    1980-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described, wherein coolant is arranged to be flowed upwardly through a fuel assembly and having one or more baffles located above the coolant exit of the fuel assembly, the baffles being arranged so as to convert the upwardly directed motion of liquid metal coolant leaving the fuel assembly into a substantially horizontal motion. (author)

  17. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharwall Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX. Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 °C, high-pressure (7 MPa helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF4 flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa, at a temperature of ∼450 °C. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  18. Experimental facility for development of high-temperature reactor technology: instrumentation needs and challenges - 15066

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwall, P.; O'Brien, J.E.; Yoon, S.J.; Sun, X.

    2015-01-01

    A high-temperature, multi-fluid, multi-loop test facility is under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for support of thermal hydraulic, materials, and system integration research for high-temperature reactors. The experimental facility includes a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The 3 loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuits heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions. Each loop will also include an interchangeable high-temperature test section that can be customized to address specific research issues associated with each working fluid. This paper also discusses needs and challenges associated with advanced instrumentation for the multi-loop facility, which could be further applied to advanced high-temperature reactors. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integrated System Test (ARTIST) facility. A preliminary design configuration of the ARTIST facility will be presented with the required design and operating characteristics of the various components. The initial configuration will include a high-temperature (750 C. degrees), high-pressure (7 MPa) helium loop thermally integrated with a molten fluoride salt (KF-ZrF 4 ) flow loop operating at low pressure (0.2 MPa), at a temperature of ∼ 450 C. degrees. The salt loop will be thermally integrated with the steam/water loop operating at PWR conditions. Experiment design challenges include identifying suitable materials and components that will withstand the required loop operating conditions. The instrumentation needs to be highly accurate (negligible drift) in measuring operational data for extended periods of times, as data collected will be

  19. Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank

  20. Key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design - the US perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to review the key technological issues in LMFBR high-temperature structural design, particularly as they relate to cost reduction; and (2) to provide an overview of activities sponsored by the US Department of Energy to resolve the issues and to establish stable, standardized, and defensible structural design methods and criteria. Specific areas of discussion include: weldments, structural validation tests, simplified design analysis procedures, design procedures for piping, validation of the methodology for notch-like geometries, improved life assessment procedures, thermal striping, extension of the methodology to new materials, and ASME high-temperature Code reform needs. The perceived problems and needs in each area are discussed, and the current status of related US activities is given

  1. Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor Technology Development and Demonstration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL; Robb, Kevin R [ORNL; Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs) are an emerging reactor class with potentially advantageous performance characteristics, and fully passive safety. This roadmap describes the principal remaining FHR technology challenges and the development path needed to address the challenges. This roadmap also provides an integrated overview of the current status of the broad set of technologies necessary to design, evaluate, license, construct, operate, and maintain FHRs. First-generation FHRs will not require any technology breakthroughs, but do require significant concept development, system integration, and technology maturation. FHRs are currently entering early phase engineering development. As such, this roadmap is not as technically detailed or specific as would be the case for a more mature reactor class. The higher cost of fuel and coolant, the lack of an approved licensing framework, the lack of qualified, salt-compatible structural materials, and the potential for tritium release into the environment are the most obvious issues that remain to be resolved.

  2. Advanced liquid metal reactor plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.; Zizzo, D.; Carroll, D.

    1993-01-01

    The modular Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) power plant is controlled by an advanced state-of-the-art control system designed to facilitate plant operation, optimize availability, and protect plant investment. The control system features a high degree of automatic control and extensive amount of on-line diagnostics and operator aids. It can be built with today's control technology, and has the flexibility of adding new features that benefit plant operation and reduce O ampersand M costs as the technology matures

  3. Development of high temperature molten salt transport technology for pyrometallurgical reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Takatoshi; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology is currently being focused in many countries for closing actinide fuel cycle because of its favorable economic potential and an intrinsic proliferation-resistant feature due to the inherent difficulty of extracting weapons-usable plutonium. The feasibility of pyrometallurgical reprocessing has been demonstrated through many laboratory scale experiments. Hence the development of the engineering technology necessary for pyrometallurgical reprocessing is a key issue for industrial realization. The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt and liquid cadmium is crucial for pyrometallurgical processing; however, there have been very few transport studies on high-temperature fluids. In this study, a salt transport test rig was installed in an argon glove box with the aim of developing technologies for transporting molten salt at approximately 773 K. The gravitation transport of the molten salt at approximately 773 K could be well controlled at a velocity from 0.1 to 1.2 m/s by adjusting the valve. Consequently, the flow in the molten salt can be controlled from laminar flow to turbulent flow. It was demonstrated that; using a centrifugal pump, molten salt at approximately 773 K could be transported at a controlled rate from 2.5 to 8 dm 3 /min against a 1 m head. (author)

  4. Reliable and repeatable bonding technology for high temperature automotive power modules for electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Won; Shiozaki, Koji; Glover, Michael D; Mantooth, H Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the feasibility of highly reliable and repeatable copper–tin transient liquid phase (Cu–Sn TLP) bonding as applied to die attachment in high temperature operational power modules. Electrified vehicles are attracting particular interest as eco-friendly vehicles, but their power modules are challenged because of increasing power densities which lead to high temperatures. Such high temperature operation addresses the importance of advanced bonding technology that is highly reliable (for high temperature operation) and repeatable (for fabrication of advanced structures). Cu–Sn TLP bonding is employed herein because of its high remelting temperature and desirable thermal and electrical conductivities. The bonding starts with a stack of Cu–Sn–Cu metal layers that eventually transforms to Cu–Sn alloys. As the alloys have melting temperatures (Cu 3 Sn: > 600 °C, Cu 6 Sn 5 : > 400 °C) significantly higher than the process temperature, the process can be repeated without damaging previously bonded layers. A Cu–Sn TLP bonding process was developed using thin Sn metal sheets inserted between copper layers on silicon die and direct bonded copper substrates, emulating the process used to construct automotive power modules. Bond quality is characterized using (1) proof-of-concept fabrication, (2) material identification using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis, and (3) optical analysis using optical microscopy and scanning acoustic microscope. The feasibility of multiple-sided Cu–Sn TLP bonding is demonstrated by the absence of bondline damage in multiple test samples fabricated with double- or four-sided bonding using the TLP bonding process. (paper)

  5. High temperature heat exchanger application in power engineering and energy-technological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpilrain, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The possibilities for intensification of various processes in metallurgy and chemical technology, the prospects for enhancing power plant efficiency are often linked with temperature increase of reagents, heat carriers and working fluids. In some cases elevated temperatures give the opportunity to use new and principally different technologies, enhance capacities of power production units and technological apparatuses, improve their economical performance. The variety of problems where high temperature heat exchangers are or can be used are extremely wide. It is therefore impossible to overview all of them in one lecture. Therefore the author tries to consider only some examples which are typical and gives an impression of what kind of problems arise in these cases

  6. Actively convected liquid metal divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi

    2014-01-01

    The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)

  7. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  8. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  9. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  10. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy - Technology Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; McKellar, M.G.; Harvego, E.A.; Sohal, M.S.; Condie, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  11. 7th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology: The modular HTR is advancing towards reality. Papers and Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    HTR2014 aimed at providing an international platform for researchers, engineers and industrial professionals to share their innovative ideas, valuable experience and recent progresses on high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) and its application technologies.

  12. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    ) spallation target at PSI (Switzerland), where CEA Saclay is already involved in the development of neutron flux detectors, namely microscopic fission chambers. In addition, in this context other potential applications are: Spallation Neutron Source (USA), European Spallation Source (EU), hybrid reactors for nuclear waste transmutation, EURISOL Radioactive Ion Beam facility (EU), all of them based on liquid metal target technologies. The above scientific project involves 3 countries, namely France, Lithuania and Russia, and is realized in the frame of the ECO-NET program, financed in part by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (authors)

  13. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  14. Assessment and status report High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor gas-turbine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to present a brief summary assessment of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor - Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) technology. The focal point for the study was a potential 2000 MW(t)/800 MW(e) HTGR-GT commercial plant. Principal findings of the study were that: the HTGR-GT is feasible, but with significantly greater development risk than the HTGR-SC (Steam Cycle). At the level of performance corresponding to the reference design, no incremental economic incentive can be identified for the HTGR-GT to offset the increased development costs and risk relative to the HTGR-SC. The relative economics of the HTGR-GT and HTGR-SC are not significantly impacted by dry cooling considerations. While reduced cycel complexity may ultimately result in a reliability advantage for the HTGR-GT, the value of that potential advantage was not quantified

  15. FLIT: Flowing LIquid metal Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolemen, Egemen; Majeski, Richard; Maingi, Rajesh; Hvasta, Michael

    2017-10-01

    The design and construction of FLIT, Flowing LIquid Torus, at PPPL is presented. FLIT focuses on a liquid metal divertor system suitable for implementation and testing in present-day fusion systems, such as NSTX-U. It is designed as a proof-of-concept fast-flowing liquid metal divertor that can handle heat flux of 10 MW/m2 without an additional cooling system. The 72 cm wide by 107 cm tall torus system consisting of 12 rectangular coils that give 1 Tesla magnetic field in the center and it can operate for greater than 10 seconds at this field. Initially, 30 gallons Galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) will be recirculated using 6 jxB pumps and flow velocities of up to 10 m/s will be achieved on the fully annular divertor plate. FLIT is designed as a flexible machine that will allow experimental testing of various liquid metal injection techniques, study of flow instabilities, and their control in order to prove the feasibility of liquid metal divertor concept for fusion reactors. FLIT: Flowing LIquid metal Torus. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, ΔT, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to ∼550 degrees C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to ∼650 degrees C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above ∼600 degrees C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150 degrees C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material

  17. Pair potentials in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, T.E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument which justifies the use of a pair potential to describe the structure-dependent term in the energy of liquid metals is briefly reviewed. Because there is an additional term in the energy which depends upon volume rather than structure, and because the pair potential itself is volume-dependent, the relationship between pair potential and observable properties such as pressure, bulk modulus and pair distribution function is more complicated for liquid metals than it is for molecular liquids. Perhaps for this reason, the agreement between pair potentials inferred from observable properties and pair potentials calculated by means of pseudo-potential theory is still far from complete. The pair potential concept is applicable only to simple liquid metals, in which the electron-ion interaction is weak. No attempt is made to discuss liquid transition and rare-earth metals, which are not simple in this sense. (author)

  18. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  19. Forces in Liquid Metal Contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duggen, Lars; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review of the ...... of the necessary theory and find numerically the forces to be in the 100μN range for liquid metals as mercury and liquid Gallium suspended between electrodes of 20μm radius.......Using rather well known theory about capillary bridges between two electrodes we calculate the tensile force that can be applied to liquid metal contacts in the micrometer regime. Assuming circular symmetry, full wetting of the electrodes, and neglecting gravity, we present a brief review...

  20. Liquid metal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Man; Kim, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Shi Hwan; Choi, Yeong Myeong; Sho, Dong Seop; Kim, Yeong In; Park, Joo Hwan; Kim, Yeong Kyoon; Song, Hoon; Kim, Yeong In; Cho, Chang Yeon; Cho, Seok Hong; Lee, Dong Jin; Kim, Jong Sook; Jeon, Hyeong Ryeon; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Deok In; Lee, Ui Jin; Kil, Chung Seop; Choi, Yeong Rok; Moon, Kap Seok; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Seo, Uk Hwan; Lee, Jae Han; Park, Yeon Pyo; Nam, Ho Yoon; Kim, Yong Ik; Min, Byeong Tae; Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Yoo Kon; Lee, Yong Beom; Hwang, Jong Seon; An, Do Hui; Kang, Hui Seok; Choi, Byeong Hae; Kang, Yeong Hwan; Ryoo, Uh Seok; Joo, Ki Nam; Kim, Dae Hwan; Ji, Shee Hwan; Park, Deok Keun; Kim, Seong Soo; Maeng, Wan Yeong; Park, Shee Jin; Kim, Yeong Seok; Jang, Moon Hui; Hong, Joon Hwa; Han, Jeong Ho; No, Kyee Ho; Park, Ji Yeon; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Lee, Deok Hyeon; Jeong, Chung Hwan; Cho, Shee Hyeon; Kim, Dong Hwa; Seong, Ki Ung; Lee, Ki Yeong; Kim, Ui Kwang; Hong, Sang Hee

    1993-05-01

    On this year the study was performed in two parts : The establishment of LMR development plan, and the development of LMR coolant technology 1. The establishment of LMR technologies, the domestic political and technical environment, economics and technical maturity were duly considered for comparative analysis. In this year technologies specific to LMRs and technologies common to both PWRs and LMRs were identified to understand the inter-relationships between those two categorized technologies. Including those two categories, an overall LMR technology tree was drawn up taking into consideration technologies and tasks necessary to the pool type design of the primary and secondary cooling systems. And technology options that should be thoroughly evaluated their comparative feasibilities and applicabilities in trade-off study were derived as a preliminary procedure for the selection of the reactor type. 2. The development of LMR coolant technology. Many relevant basic technologies should be developed for LMR to have the inherent safety characteristics and to be economical. Since the sodium(Na) being used as the coolant in LMR has several thermo-hydraulic characteristics differing from water, the sodium handling technique which provides the maximum utilization of the thermo-hydraulic merits of the sodium and the protection measures against its defects is one of the most important technologies for the development of LMR. In the present study many problems associated with the establishment of the technology for measuring and controlling the impurity in the Na-facility have been investigated. The conceptual design of the purity control system in the Na-facility and related purity control system have been also made. The test-run of the Na-loop facility constructed last year has been performed, which provided the technology necessary for operation and repair of the Na-facility

  1. Liquid metal reactor core material HT9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1998-03-01

    A state-of-the art is surveyed on the liquid metal reactor core materials HT9. The purpose of this report is to give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is planned for the year of 2010. In-core stability of cladding materials is important to the extension of fuel burnup. Austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) has been used as core material in the early LMR due to the good mechanical properties at high temperatures, but it has been found to show a poor swelling resistance. So many efforts have been made to solve this problem that HT9 have been developed. HT9 is 12Cr-1MoVW steel. The microstructure of HT9 consisted of tempered martensite with dispersed carbide. HT9 has superior irradiation swelling resistance as other BCC metals, and good sodium compatibility. HT9 has also a good irradiation creep properties below 500 dg C, but irradiation creep properties are degraded above 500 dg C. Researches are currently in progress to modify the HT9 in order to improve the irradiation creep properties above 500 dg C. New design studies for decreasing the core temperature below 500 dg C are needed to use HT9 as a core material. On the contrary, decrease of the thermal efficiency may occur due to lower-down of the operation temperature. (author). 51 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs

  2. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  3. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, Joel; Jarriand, Paul.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns a fast neutron nuclear reactor cooled by a liquid metal driven through by a primary pump of the vertical drive shaft type fitted at its lower end with a blade wheel. To each pump is associated an exchanger, annular in shape, fitted with a central bore through which passes the vertical drive shaft of the pump, its wheel being mounted under the exchanger. A collector placed under the wheel comprises an open upward suction bell for the liquid metal. A hydrostatic bearing is located above the wheel to guide the drive shaft and a non detachable diffuser into which at least one delivery pipe gives, envelopes the wheel [fr

  4. Some Issues in Liquid Metals Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Caturla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ten articles [1–10] included in this Special Issue on “Liquid Metals” do not intend to comprehensively cover this extensive field, but, rather, to highlight recent discoveries that have greatly broadened the scope of technological applications of these materials. Improvements in understanding the physics of liquid metals are, to a large extent, due to the powerful theoretical tools in the hands of scientists, either semi-empirical [1,5,6] or ab initio (molecular dynamics, see [7]. Surface tension and wetting at metal/ceramic interfaces is an everlasting field of fundamental research with important technological implications. The review of [2] is broad enough, as the work carried out at Grenoble covers almost all interesting matters in the field. Some issues of interest in geophysics and astrophysics are discussed in [3]. The recently discovered liquid–liquid transition in several metals is dealt with in [4]. The fifth contribution [5] discusses the role of icosahedral superclusters in crystallization. In [6], thermodynamic calculations are carried out to identify the regions of the ternary phase diagram of Al-Cu-Y, where the formation of amorphous alloys is most probable. Experimental data and ab initio calculations are presented in [7] to show that an optimal microstructure is obtained if Mg is added to the Al-Si melt before than the modifier AlP alloy. Shock-induced melting of metals by means of laser driven compression is discussed in [8]. With respect to recent discoveries, one of the most outstanding developments is that of gallium alloys that are liquid at room temperature [9], and that, due to the oxide layer that readily cover their surface, maintain some “stiffness”. This has opened the possibility of 3D printing with liquid metals. The last article in this Special Issue [10] describes nano-liquid metals, a suspension of liquid metal and its alloy containing nanometer-sized particles. A room-temperature nano-liquid metal

  5. Compact, Lightweight Electromagnetic Pump for Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Palzin, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A proposed direct-current electromagnetic pump for circulating a molten alkali metal alloy would be smaller and lighter and would demand less input power, relative to currently available pumps of this type. (Molten alkali metals are used as heat-transfer fluids in high-temperature stages of some nuclear reactors.) The principle of operation of this or any such pump involves exploitation of the electrical conductivity of the molten metal: An electric current is made to pass through the liquid metal along an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the flow channel, and a magnetic field perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis and the electric current is superimposed on the flowchannel region containing the electric current. The interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field produces the pumping force along the longitudinal axis. The advantages of the proposed pump over other such pumps would accrue from design features that address overlapping thermal and magnetic issues.

  6. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; McGreevy, Timothy E [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of

  7. Technology Development Roadmap for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor Secondary Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. McCllar; A. Siahpush; D. Clark; M. Patterson; J. Collins

    2012-09-01

    This Technology Development Roadmap (TDRM) presents the path forward for deploying large-scale molten salt secondary heat exchangers (MS-SHX) and recognizing the benefits of using molten salt as the heat transport medium for advanced high temperature reactors (AHTR). This TDRM will aid in the development and selection of the required heat exchanger for: power production (the first anticipated process heat application), hydrogen production, steam methane reforming, methanol to gasoline production, or ammonia production. This TDRM (a) establishes the current state of molten salt SHX technology readiness, (b) defines a path forward that systematically and effectively tests this technology to overcome areas of uncertainty, (c) demonstrates the achievement of an appropriate level of maturity prior to construction and plant operation, and (d) identifies issues and prioritizes future work for maturing the state of SHX technology. This study discusses the results of a preliminary design analysis of the SHX and explains the evaluation and selection methodology. An important engineering challenge will be to prevent the molten salt from freezing during normal and off-normal operations because of its high melting temperature (390°C for KF ZrF4). The efficient transfer of energy for industrial applications depends on the ability to incorporate cost-effective heat exchangers between the nuclear heat transport system and industrial process heat transport system. The need for efficiency, compactness, and safety challenge the capabilities of existing heat exchanger technology. The description of potential heat exchanger configurations or designs (such as printed circuit, spiral or helical coiled, ceramic, plate and fin, and plate type) were covered in an earlier report (Sabharwall et al. 2011). Significant future work, much of which is suggested in this report, is needed before the benefits and full potential of the AHTR can be realized. The execution of this TDRM will focuses

  8. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of constructing the diagrid used to support fuel assemblies of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, is described. The functions of fuel assembly support and coolant plenum are performed by discrete components of the diagrid each of which can serve the function of the other in the event of failure of one of the components. (U.K.)

  9. Liquid metal thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottowski-Duemenil, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This textbook is a report of the 26 years activity of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG). It summarizes the state of the art of liquid metal thermo-hydraulics achieved through the collaboration of scientists concerned with the development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The first chapter entitled ''Liquid Metal Boiling Behaviour'', presents the background and boiling mechanisms. This section gives the reader a brief but thorough survey on the superheat phenomena in liquid metals. The second chapter of the text, ''A Review of Single and Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Studies and Application to Flow Stability Analysis of Boiling Liquid Metal Systems'' summarizes the difficulty of pressure drop simulation of boiling sodium in core bundles. The third chapter ''Liquid Metal Dry-Out Data for Flow in Tubes and Bundles'' describes the conditions of critical heat flux which limits the coolability of the reactor core. The fourth chapter dealing with the LMFBR specific topic of ''Natural Convection Cooling of Liquid Metal Systems''. This chapter gives a review of both plant experiments and out-of-pile experiments and shows the advances in the development of computing power over the past decade of mathematical modelling ''Subassembly Blockages Suties'' are discussed in chapter five. Chapter six is entitled ''A Review of the Methods and Codes Available for the Calculation on Thermal-Hydraulics in Rod-Cluster and other Geometries, Steady state and Transient Boiling Flow Regimes, and the Validation achieves''. Codes available for the calculation of thermal-hydraulics in rod-clusters and other geometries are reviewed. Chapter seven, ''Comparative Studies of Thermohydraulic Computer Code Simulations of Sodium Boiling under Loss of Flow Conditions'', represents one of the key activities of the LMBWG. Several benchmark exercises were performed with the aim of transient sodium boiling simulation in single channels and bundle blockages under steady state conditions and loss of

  10. Effectiveness of mouse minute virus inactivation by high temperature short time treatment technology: a statistical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Quesada, Guillermo Miro; Chen, Dayue

    2011-11-01

    Viral contamination of mammalian cell cultures in GMP manufacturing facility represents a serious safety threat to biopharmaceutical industry. Such adverse events usually require facility shutdown for cleaning/decontamination, and thus result in significant loss of production and/or delay of product development. High temperature short time (HTST) treatment of culture media has been considered as an effective method to protect GMP facilities from viral contaminations. Log reduction factor (LRF) has been commonly used to measure the effectiveness of HTST treatment for viral inactivation. However, in order to prevent viral contaminations, HTST treatment must inactivate all infectious viruses (100%) in the medium batch since a single virus is sufficient to cause contamination. Therefore, LRF may not be the most appropriate indicator for measuring the effectiveness of HTST in preventing viral contaminations. We report here the use of the probability to achieve complete (100%) virus inactivation to assess the effectiveness of HTST treatment. By using mouse minute virus (MMV) as a model virus, we have demonstrated that the effectiveness of HTST treatment highly depends upon the level of viral contaminants in addition to treatment temperature and duration. We believe that the statistical method described in this report can provide more accurate information about the power and potential limitation of technologies such as HTST in our shared quest to mitigate the risk of viral contamination in manufacturing facilities. Copyright © 2011 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High-flux/high-temperature solar thermal conversion: technology development and advanced applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar Thermal Power Plants have generated in the last 10 years a dynamic market for renewable energy industry and a pro-active networking within R&D community worldwide. By end 2015, there are about 5 GW installed in the world, most of them still concentrated in only two countries, Spain and the US, though a rapid process of globalization is taking place in the last few years and now ambitious market deployment is starting in countries like South Africa, Chile, Saudi Arabia, India, United Arab Emirates or Morocco. Prices for electricity produced by today's plants fill the range from 12 to 16 c€/kWh and they are capital intensive with investments above 4000 €/kW, depending on the number of hours of thermal storage. The urgent need to speed up the learning curve, by moving forward to LCOE below 10 c€/kWh and the promotion of sun-to-fuel applications, is driving the R&D programmes. Both, industry and R&D community are accelerating the transformation by approaching high-flux/high-temperature technologies and promoting the integration with high-efficiency conversion systems.

  12. The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Arnold, W.H.; Griffith, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The US Liquid Metal Reactor Development Program has been restructured to take advantage of the opportunity today to carry out R and D on truly advanced reactor technology. The program gives particular emphasis to improvements to reactor safety. The new directions are based on the technology of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Much of the basis for superior safety performance using IFR technology has been experimentally verified and aggressive programs continue in EBR-II and TREAT. Progress has been made in demonstrating both the metallic fuel and the new electrochemical processes of the IFR. The FFTF facility is converting to metallic fuel; however, FFTF also maintains a considerable US program in oxide fuels. In addition, generic programs are continuing in steam generator testing, materials development, and, with international cooperation, aqueous reprocessing. Design studies are carried out in conjunction with the IFR technology development program. In summary, the US maintains an active development program in Liquid Metal Reactor technology, and new directions in reactor safety are central to the program

  13. Liquid metal cooling concepts in solar power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, P.B.; Mangus, J.D.; Whitlow, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties and proven technology of a liquid sodium heat transport system provide numerous advantages and benefits for application in a central receiver solar thermal power plant concept. The major advantages of utilizing liquid sodium are: attainment of high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, reduced relative costs, and achievement of these goals by the mid-1980's through the utilization of proven liquid metal technology developed in the power industry, without the need for extensive development programs. The utilization of liquid sodium reduces the complexity of the design of these systems, thus providing confidence in system reliability. The implementation of the proven technology in liquid metal systems also provides assurance of reliability. In addition, the ease of transition from liquid metal breeder reactor systems to solar application provides immediate availability of this technology

  14. High temperature gas cooled reactor technology development. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The successful introduction of an advanced nuclear power plant programme depends on many key elements. It must be economically competitive with alternative sources of energy, its technical development must assure operational dependability, the support of society requires that it be safe and environmentally acceptable, and it must meet the regulatory standards developed for its use and application. These factors interrelate with each other, and the ability to satisfy the established goals and criteria of all of these requirements is mandatory if a country or a specific industry is to proceed with a new, advanced nuclear power system. It was with the focus on commercializing the high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that the IAEA's International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors recommended this Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on HTGR Technology Development. Over the past few years, many Member States have instituted a re-examination of their nuclear power policies and programmes. It has become evident that the only realistic way to introduce an advanced nuclear power programme in today's world is through international co-operation between countries. The sharing of expertise and technical facilities for the common development of the HTGR is the goal of the Member States comprising the IAEA's International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This meeting brought together key representatives and experts on the HTGR from the national organizations and industries of ten countries and the European Commission. The state electric utility of South Africa, Eskom, hosted this TCM in Johannesburg, from 13 to 15 November 1996. This TCM provided the opportunity to review the status of HTGR design and development activities, and especially to identify international co-operation which could be utilized to bring about the commercialization of the HTGR

  15. Current status and future development of modular high temperature gas cooled reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This report includes an examination of the international activities with regard to the development of the modular HTGR coupled to a gas turbine. The most significant of these gas turbine programmes include the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) being designed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels plc. (BNFL) of the United Kingdom, and the gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) by a consortium of General Atomics of the United States of America, MINATOM of the Russian Federation, Framatome of France and Fuji Electric of Japan. Details of the design, economics and plans for these plants are provided in Chapters 3 and 4, respectively. Test reactors to evaluate the safety and general performance of the HTGR and to support research and development activities including electricity generation via the gas turbine and validation of high temperature process heat applications are being commissioned in Japan and China. Construction of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) at its Oarai Research Establishment has been completed with the plant currently in the low power physics testing phase of commissioning. Construction of the high temperature reactor (HTR-10) by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) in Beijing, China, is nearly complete with initial criticality expected in 2000. Chapter 5 provides a discussion of purpose, status and testing programmes for these two plants. In addition to the activities related to the above mentioned plants, Member States of the IWGGCR continue to support research associated with HTGR safety and performance as well as development of alternative designs for commercial applications. These activities are being addressed by national energy institutes and, in some projects, private industry, within China, France, Germany, Indonesia, Japan, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, South Africa, United Kingdom and the USA. Chapter 6 includes details

  16. Liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuchkov, I.I.; Filonov, V.S.; Zaitsev, B.I.; Artemiev, L.N.; Rakhimov, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled reactor is described comprising two rotatable plugs, one of them, having at least one hole, being arranged internally of the other, a recharging mechanism with a guide tube adapted to be moved through the hole of the first plug by means of a drive, and a device for detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements, the recharging mechanism tube serving as a sampler

  17. JETC (Japanese Technology Evaluation Center) Panel Report on High Temperature Superconductivity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Duane; Gamota, George

    1989-01-01

    The Japanese regard success in R and D in high temperature superconductivity as an important national objective. The results of a detailed evaluation of the current state of Japanese high temperature superconductivity development are provided. The analysis was performed by a panel of technical experts drawn from U.S. industry and academia, and is based on reviews of the relevant literature and visits to Japanese government, academic and industrial laboratories. Detailed appraisals are presented on the following: Basic research; superconducting materials; large scale applications; processing of superconducting materials; superconducting electronics and thin films. In all cases, comparisons are made with the corresponding state-of-the-art in the United States.

  18. Low NOx combustion technologies for high-temperature natural gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamme, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Because of the high process temperature which is required for some processes like glass melting and the high temperature to which the combustion air is preheated, NOx emission are extremely high. Even at these high temperatures, NOx emissions could be reduced drastically by using advanced combustion techniques such as staged combustion or flame-less oxidation, as experimental work has shown. In the case of oxy-fuel combustion, the NOx emission are also very high if conventional burners are used. The new combustion techniques achieve similar NOx reductions. (author)

  19. Thermal decomposition of polystyrene in the high temperature fabrication technology of hollow microspheres. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorogotovtsev, V.M.; Akunets, A.A.; Merkuliev, Y.A.; Turivnoy, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The degree and nature of polymer degradation that occurs in the high temperature microshell formation process developed at the Lebedev Physical Institute has been examined experimentally. We find that significant mass degradation occurs during the final stages of shell formation. This manifests itself both in terms of mass loss and molecular weight degradation as measured by gel permeation chromatography. This decrease in the molecular weight may be in part responsible for the relatively fragile nature of the shells produced by this high temperature process. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. High-temperature industrial process heat: technology assessment and introduction rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-03

    Three specific topics of interest to DOE are addressed: to establish the significance and identify the role of high-temperature process heat in the nation's energy economy; to identify the role of solar thermal power in these high-temperature industrial applications in terms of possible markets and economic potential; and to recommend programmatic approaches for these solar thermal high-temperature process heat activities, including proposed content for initial Request for Proposals (RFPs) to accomplish such activities. The scope of the work required to accomplish these three purposes included the following: review of US industrial energy requirements, survey of current DOE low-temperature Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Program, examination of high-temperature solar thermal electric systems already developed or under development by DOE and industry, and coordination with the high-energy user segments of industry (i.e., cement, chemical and petroleum) to find additional markets for some or all of the systems or components being developed in the DOE solar thermal electric program. Statistical data are presented identifying energy allocations to process heat and defining DOE's involvement. Three current fossil fuel process heat system examples are provided and the corresponding solar potential is identified.

  1. Technology development for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Turner, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    In the USA the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor is in an advanced stage of design. The related HTGR program areas, the approaches to these programs along with sample results and a description of how these data are used are highlighted in the paper. (author). Figs and tabs

  2. Recent UK research and the development of high temperature design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.T.; Tomkins, B.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper outlines recent research and development activities on high temperature design methods and criteria for high temperature components as utilized by liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. (orig.)

  3. Progress in liquid metal fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 28th meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The key objectives and activities of Member State liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) programmes are: Demonstration of effective designs; demonstration of system safety; demonstration of economic competitiveness with other power generation systems. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) at its 1995 meeting observed that while some countries (as a result of static or falling power demand) are reducing the research and development programmes or delaying the commercial deployment of fast reactors, other countries are planning to introduce these reactors and are embarking on their own development programmes. In these circumstances the international exchange of information and experience is of increasing importance. These proceedings contain updated information from long standing members of the IWGFR and new information on the status of LMFR research and development from new members of the Group: Brazil, China, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Progress in liquid metal fast reactor technology. Proceedings of the 28th meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The key objectives and activities of Member State liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) programmes are: Demonstration of effective designs; demonstration of system safety; demonstration of economic competitiveness with other power generation systems. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) at its 1995 meeting observed that while some countries (as a result of static or falling power demand) are reducing the research and development programmes or delaying the commercial deployment of fast reactors, other countries are planning to introduce these reactors and are embarking on their own development programmes. In these circumstances the international exchange of information and experience is of increasing importance. These proceedings contain updated information from long standing members of the IWGFR and new information on the status of LMFR research and development from new members of the Group: Brazil, China, Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Korea. Refs, figs, tabs.

  5. Technology assessment HTR. Part 3. Economics of new concept of the modular High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.

    1996-06-01

    In this study the economic feasibility of new concepts of the High Temperature Reactor were investigated. These new concepts are characterized as inherently safe. The different concepts were used as industrial heat/power reactors and compared with a gas fired Steam and Gas turbine installation. The best economic advantages are offered by a HTR with a Thorium/Uranium cycle as compared with a gas fired steam- and gas turbine. 6 figs, 9 tabs, 21 refs

  6. Liquid metals replace water steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, V

    1976-12-01

    The techniques are described of power generation with regard to their effectiveness which depends on the efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into electric energy. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion of energy is based on the use of induced electromotive force which results from the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. The use of liquid metal as the working medium makes it possible to increase the initial temperature of the magnetohydrodynamic cycle to the limit of the highest technically attainable temperatures. The total efficiency of energy conversion in magnetohydrodynamic converters is 2 to 6%.

  7. Liquid metals replace water steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques are described of power generation with regard to their effectiveness which depends on the efficiency of the conversion of thermal energy into electric energy. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion of energy is based on the use of induced electromotive force which results from the movement of the conductor in the magnetic field. The use of liquid metal as the working medium makes it possible to increase the initial temperature of the magnetohydrodynamic cycle to the limit of the highest technically attainable temperatures. The total efficiency of energy conversion in magnetohydrodynamic converters is 2 to 6%. (J.B.)

  8. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  9. Advanced Packaging Technology Used in Fabricating a High-Temperature Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, Glenn M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new aircraft engines requires the measurement of pressures in hot areas such as the combustor and the final stages of the compressor. The needs of the aircraft engine industry are not fully met by commercially available high-temperature pressure sensors, which are fabricated using silicon. Kulite Semiconductor Products and the NASA Glenn Research Center have been working together to develop silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors for use at high temperatures. At temperatures above 850 F, silicon begins to lose its nearly ideal elastic properties, so the output of a silicon pressure sensor will drift. SiC, however, maintains its nearly ideal mechanical properties to extremely high temperatures. Given a suitable sensor material, a key to the development of a practical high-temperature pressure sensor is the package. A SiC pressure sensor capable of operating at 930 F was fabricated using a newly developed package. The durability of this sensor was demonstrated in an on-engine test. The SiC pressure sensor uses a SiC diaphragm, which is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching. SiC strain gauges on the surface of the diaphragm sense the pressure difference across the diaphragm. Conventionally, the SiC chip is mounted to the package with the strain gauges outward, which exposes the sensitive metal contacts on the chip to the hostile measurement environment. In the new Kulite leadless package, the SiC chip is flipped over so that the metal contacts are protected from oxidation by a hermetic seal around the perimeter of the chip. In the leadless package, a conductive glass provides the electrical connection between the pins of the package and the chip, which eliminates the fragile gold wires used previously. The durability of the leadless SiC pressure sensor was demonstrated when two 930 F sensors were tested in the combustor of a Pratt & Whitney PW4000 series engine. Since the gas temperatures in these locations reach 1200 to 1300 F, the sensors were

  10. Multipurpose sampler device for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    A device for collecting samples or examining a flow of liquid metal is provided for use with such as a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The sampler device includes a casing surrounded by an external heater for establishing an upper isothermal zone and a lower zone for heating the entering liquid metal. One of various inserts is suspended into the isothermal zone where it is surrounded by a shroud tube for directing liquid-metal flow from the heating zone into the top of the insert. Discharge flow from the insert gravitates through a helically wound tube in heat exchange contact with entering liquid-metal flow within the heating zone. The inserts comprise an overflow cup with upper and lower freeze seals, a filter for removing particulate matter, and a fixture for maintaining various sample materials in equilibrium with liquid-metal flow. (U.S.)

  11. Liquid metals fire control engineering handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballif, J.L.

    1979-02-01

    This handbook reviews the basic requirements of the use of liquid metals with emphasis on sodium which has the greatest current usage. It delineates the concepts necessary to design facilities both radioactive and nonradioactive for use with liquid metals. It further reviews the state-of-the-art in fire extinguishers and leak detection equipment and comments on their application and sensitivity. It also provides details on some engineering features of value to the designer of liquid metal facilities

  12. Testing of Commercial Milk Production Technology Using A Combination of High Temperature Short Time and Pulsed Electric Field

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi A; Widjanarko SB; Kusnadi J

    2016-01-01

    The development of milk processing technology has grown excessively, and it contains advantage and disadvantage. This study used mixed between PEF (Pulsed Electric Field) and High Temperature Short Time (HTST) to produce milk processed product which is effective and efficient in killing milk microorganism without changing its color, scent, and nutrient content of processed product, therefore producing commercial sterile milk product in accord with milk Indonesian National Standard (SNI). The ...

  13. Sodium immersible high temperature microphone design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Janicek, J.J.

    1975-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a rugged high-temperature (HT) microphone for use as a sodium-immersed acoustic monitor in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs). Microphones of this design have been extensively tested in room temperature water, in air up to 1200 0 F, and in sodium up to 1200 0 F. They have been successfully installed and employed as acoustic monitors in several operating liquid metal systems. The design, construction sequence, calibration, and testing of these microphones are described. 6 references. (U.S.)

  14. Technique for detecting liquid metal leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    In a system employing flowing liquid metal as a heat transfer medium in contact with tubular members containing a working fluid, i.e., steam, liquid metal leaks through the wall of the tubular member are detected by dislodging the liquid metal compounds forming in the tubular member at the leak locations and subsequently transporting the dislodged compound in the form of an aerosol to a detector responsive to the liquid metal compound. In the application to a sodium cooled tubular member, the detector would consist of a sodium responsive device, such as a sodium ion detector

  15. An assessment of thermal spray coating technologies for high temperature corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Heimgartner, P.; Gustafsson, S.; Irons, G.; Miller, R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of thermally sprayed coatings in combating high temperature corrosion continues to grow in the major industries of chemical, waste incineration, power generation and pulp and paper. This has been driven partially by the development of corrosion resistant alloys, improved knowledge and quality in the thermal spray industry and continued innovation in thermal spray equipment. There exists today an extensive range of thermal spray process options, often with the same alloy solution. In demanding corrosion applications it is not sufficient to just specify alloy and coating method. For the production of reliable coatings the whole coating production envelope needs to be considered, including alloy selection, spray parameters, surface preparation, base metal properties, heat input etc. Combustion, arc-wire, plasma, HVOF and spray+fuse techniques are reviewed and compared in terms of their strengths and limitations to provide cost-effective solutions for high temperature corrosion protection. Arc wire spraying, HP/HVOF and spray+fuse are emerging as the most promising techniques to optimise both coating properties and economic/practical aspects. (orig.)

  16. Basic study on high temperature gas cooled reactor technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, W. J.; Lee, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The annual production of hydrogen in the world is about 500 billion m 3 . Currently hydrogen is consumed mainly in chemical industries. However hydrogen has huge potential to be consumed in transportation sector in coming decades. Assuming that 10% of fossil energy in transportation sector is substituted by hydrogen in 2020, the hydrogen in the sector will exceed current hydrogen consumption by more than 2.5 times. Currently hydrogen is mainly produced by steam reforming of natural gas. Steam reforming process is chiefest way to produce hydrogen for mass production. In the future, hydrogen has to be produced in a way to minimize CO2 emission during its production process as well as to satisfy economic competition. One of the alternatives to produce hydrogen under such criteria is using heat source of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor represents one type of the next generation of nuclear reactors for safe and reliable operation as well as for efficient and economic generation of energy

  17. A review of helium gas turbine technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min

    2007-01-01

    Current High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are based on a closed brayton cycle with helium gas as the working fluid. Thermodynamic performance of the axial-flow helium gas turbines is of critical concern as it considerably affects the overall cycle efficiency. Helium gas turbines pose some design challenges compared to steam or air turbomachinery because of the physical properties of helium and the uniqueness of the operating conditions at high pressure with low pressure ratio. This report present a review of the helium Brayton cycle experiences in Germany and in Japan. The design and availability of helium gas turbines for HTGR are also presented in this study. We have developed a new throughflow calculation code to calculate the design-point performance of helium gas turbines. Use of the method has been illustrated by applying it to the GTHTR300 reference

  18. Technology assessment HTR. Part 4. Power upscaling of High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heek, A.I.

    1996-06-01

    Designs of nuclear reactors can be classified in evolutionary, revolutionary and innovative designs. An innovative design is the High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Introduction of innovative reactors has not been successful until now. Globally, three requirements for this reactors for successful market introduction can be identified: (1) Societal support for nuclear energy, or if separable, for this reactor type, should be repaired; (2) After market introduction the innovative plant must be able to operate economically competitive; and (3) The costs of market introduction of an innovative reactor design must be limited. Until now all reactor designs classified as innovative have not yet been realized. High temperature reactors exist in many different designs. Common features are: helium coolant, graphite moderator and coated particle fuel. The combination of these creates the potential to fulfill the first requirement (public support), and similarly a hurdle to the second requirement (economical operation). All three problems existing in the eyes of the public are addressed, while a high degree of transparency is reached, making the design understandable also by others than nuclear experts. A consequence of designing according to the social support requirement is a limitation of the unit power level. The usual method to make nuclear power plants economically competitive, i.e. just raising the power level (economy of scale) could not be applied anymore. Therefore other means of cost decreasing had to be used: modularization and simplification. These ideas are explained. Since all existing HTRs are currently out of operation, additional experience from two small HTRs under construction at this moment in the Far East will be essential. In the history of HTR designs, an evolutionary path can be identified. The early designs had a philosophy of safety and economics very similar to those of LWR. Modularization was introduced to attain economic viability and the design was

  19. 3-D printing of liquid metals for stretchable and flexible conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trlica, Chris; Parekh, Dishit Paresh; Panich, Lazar; Ladd, Collin; Dickey, Michael D.

    2014-06-01

    3-D printing is an emerging technology that has been used primarily on small scales for rapid prototyping, but which could also herald a wider movement towards decentralized, highly customizable manufacturing. Polymers are the most common materials to be 3-D printed today, but there is great demand for a way to easily print metals. Existing techniques for 3-D printing metals tend to be expensive and energy-intensive, and usually require high temperatures or pressures, making them incompatible with polymers, organics, soft materials, and biological materials. Here, we describe room temperature liquid metals as complements to polymers for 3-D printing applications. These metals enable the fabrication of soft, flexible, and stretchable devices. We survey potential room temperature liquid metal candidates and describe the benefits of gallium and its alloys for these purposes. We demonstrate the direct printing of a liquid gallium alloy in both 2-D and 3-D and highlight the structures and shapes that can be fabricated using these processes.

  20. High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy Technology for Inlet Flow Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recent advances in propulsion, aerodynamic, and noise technologies have led to a revived interest in supersonic cruise aircraft; however, achieving economic...

  1. Specificity in liquid metal induced embrittlement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing features of liquid metal induced embrittlement (LMIE) is the observation that some liquid metal-solid metal couples are susceptible to embrittlement, while others appear to be immune. This is referred to as the specificity...

  2. Liquid metals: fundamentals and applications in chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeneke, T; Khoshmanesh, K; Mahmood, N; de Castro, I A; Esrafilzadeh, D; Barrow, S J; Dickey, M D; Kalantar-Zadeh, K

    2018-04-03

    Post-transition elements, together with zinc-group metals and their alloys belong to an emerging class of materials with fascinating characteristics originating from their simultaneous metallic and liquid natures. These metals and alloys are characterised by having low melting points (i.e. between room temperature and 300 °C), making their liquid state accessible to practical applications in various fields of physical chemistry and synthesis. These materials can offer extraordinary capabilities in the synthesis of new materials, catalysis and can also enable novel applications including microfluidics, flexible electronics and drug delivery. However, surprisingly liquid metals have been somewhat neglected by the wider research community. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals underlying liquid metal research, including liquid metal synthesis, surface functionalisation and liquid metal enabled chemistry. Furthermore, we discuss phenomena that warrant further investigations in relevant fields and outline how liquid metals can contribute to exciting future applications.

  3. Acoustical study of electro- and thermal conductivity of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekuchev, V.V.; Rygalov, L.N.; Ivanova, I.V.; Barashkov, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    One established a link between electrical, elastic and structural properties of electronic smelts. One calculated polyterms of resistance and thermal conductivity of liquid metals (Be, Cd, U, V, Mo, Cr, rare-earth metals) on the basis of data covering both melting and boiling points. For some metals the values were obtained for the first time. To analyze kinetic properties of metals under high temperatures one should apply complex many-particles model representations and efficient computing equipment. It is pointed out that essential problems blocking efforts to tackle the mentioned task result in necessity to find simple though approximate models describing satisfactorily properties of metals [ru

  4. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-01-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer

  5. Liquid metal-based reconfigurable and stretchable photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Yoo, Jun Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Conventional ultraviolet (UV) lithography typically uses a photomask made of a fused silica plate covered with a layer of UV opaque material such as chromium. The photomask has passive binary patterns of UV opaque and UV transparent regions and the pattern is unalterable. We report a novel real-time dynamically reconfigurable photomask technology using a liquid metal (as a UV opaque material) filled in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, as a UV transparent material) microfluidic channels. We found that the gallium-based liquid metal (e.g. Galinstan ® ) is opaque in broad spectrum of light in the wavelength from 325 nm to 850 nm while the PDMS is highly transparent in this wide range of spectrum. We made both bright field and dark field microfluidic photomasks and transferred various patterns onto a positive photoresist. A 7-segment display microfluidic channel photomask was also fabricated and decimal numerals (from ‘0’ to ‘9’) were patterned with one photomask by dynamically reconfiguring decimal numeral shapes with on-demand injection and withdrawal of the liquid metal in specific segment microfluidic channels in the photomask. In addition, utilizing mechanical flexibility of the PDMS and the liquid metal, reconfiguration of the patterns in a microfluidic photomask under stretching was successfully tested. (paper)

  6. High Temperature Syngas Cleanup Technology Scale-up and Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Ben [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Turk, Brian [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Denton, David [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gupta, Raghubir [Research Triangle Inst. (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Gasification is a technology for clean energy conversion of diverse feedstocks into a wide variety of useful products such as chemicals, fertilizers, fuels, electric power, and hydrogen. Existing technologies can be employed to clean the syngas from gasification processes to meet the demands of such applications, but they are expensive to build and operate and consume a significant fraction of overall parasitic energy requirements, thus lowering overall process efficiency. RTI International has developed a warm syngas desulfurization process (WDP) utilizing a transport-bed reactor design and a proprietary attrition-resistant, high-capacity solid sorbent with excellent performance replicated at lab, bench, and pilot scales. Results indicated that WDP technology can improve both efficiency and cost of gasification plants. The WDP technology achieved ~99.9% removal of total sulfur (as either H2S or COS) from coal-derived syngas at temperatures as high as 600°C and over a wide range of pressures (20-80 bar, pressure independent performance) and sulfur concentrations. Based on the success of these tests, RTI negotiated a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy for precommercial testing of this technology at Tampa Electric Company’s Polk Power Station IGCC facility in Tampa, Florida. The project scope also included a sweet water-gas-shift process for hydrogen enrichment and an activated amine process for 90+% total carbon capture. Because the activated amine process provides some additional non-selective sulfur removal, the integration of these processes was expected to reduce overall sulfur in the syngas to sub-ppmv concentrations, suitable for most syngas applications. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical risks associated with the scale up and integration of the WDP and carbon dioxide capture technologies, enabling subsequent commercial-scale demonstration. The warm syngas cleanup pre-commercial test unit

  7. Turbulent magnetohydrodynamics in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berhanu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In electrically conducting fluids, the electromagnetic field is coupled with the fluid motion by induction effects. We studied different magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, using two experiments involving turbulent flows of liquid metal. The first mid-sized uses gallium. The second, using sodium, is conducted within the VKS (Von Karman Sodium) collaboration. It has led to the observation of the dynamo effect, namely converting a part of the kinetic energy of the fluid into magnetic energy. We have shown that, depending on forcing conditions, a statistically stationary dynamo, or dynamical regimes of magnetic field can be generated. In particular, polarity reversals similar to those of Earth's magnetic field were observed. Meanwhile, experiment with Gallium has been developed to study the effects of electromagnetic induction by turbulent flows in a more homogeneous and isotropic configuration than in the VKS experiment. Using data from these two experiments, we studied the advection of magnetic field by a turbulent flow and the induced fluctuations. The development of probes measuring electrical potential difference allowed us to further highlight the magnetic braking of a turbulent flow of Gallium by Lorentz force. This mechanism is involved in the saturation of the dynamo instability. (author) [fr

  8. Liquid metal corrosion considerations in alloy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; DeVan, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid metal corrosion can be an important consideration in developing alloys for fusion and fast breeder reactors and other applications. Because of the many different forms of liquid metal corrosion (dissolution, alloying, carbon transfer, etc.), alloy optimization based on corrosion resistance depends on a number of factors such as the application temperatures, the particular liquid metal, and the level and nature of impurities in the liquid and solid metals. The present paper reviews the various forms of corrosion by lithium, lead, and sodium and indicates how such corrosion reactions can influence the alloy development process

  9. MHD power conversion employing liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, J.W.M.A.; Massee, P.

    1969-02-01

    The work performed in the field of MHD generation of electricity by means of liquid metals is described. It is shown that the study of two-phase flows is essential in this topic of research; two-phase flows are therefore described. Two types of generators which can be utilized with liquid metals have been studied. The results of this study are described. A short survey of the prospects of other liquid metal systems which emerge from a study of the literature is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning possibilities for further investigation

  10. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity.

  11. SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP). Volume 8: Aerothermodynamics Automation and Robotics (A/R) systems sensors, high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Viewgraphs of briefings presented at the SSTAC/ARTS review of the draft Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) on aerothermodynamics, automation and robotics systems, sensors, and high-temperature superconductivity are included. Topics covered include: aerothermodynamics; aerobraking; aeroassist flight experiment; entry technology for probes and penetrators; automation and robotics; artificial intelligence; NASA telerobotics program; planetary rover program; science sensor technology; direct detector; submillimeter sensors; laser sensors; passive microwave sensing; active microwave sensing; sensor electronics; sensor optics; coolers and cryogenics; and high temperature superconductivity

  12. Development status on hydrogen production technology using high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at JAEA, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku; Ogawa, Masuro; Hino, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which is graphite-moderated and helium-cooled, is attractive due to its unique capability of producing high temperature helium gas and its fully inherent reactor safety. In particular, hydrogen production using the nuclear heat from HTGR (up to 900 deg. C) offers one of the most promising technological solutions to curb the rising level of CO 2 emission and resulting risk of climate change. The interests in HTGR as an advanced nuclear power source for the next generation reactor, therefore, continue to rise. This is represented by the Japanese HTTR (High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) Project and the Chinese HTR-10 Project, followed by the international Generation IV development program, US nuclear hydrogen initiative program, EU innovative HTR technology development program, etc. To enhance nuclear energy application to heat process industries, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has continued extensive efforts for development of hydrogen production system using the nuclear heat from HTGR in the framework of the HTTR Project. The HTTR Project has the objectives of establishing both HTGR technology and heat utilization technology. Using the HTTR constructed at the Oarai Research and Development Center of JAEA, reactor performance and safety demonstration tests have been conducted as planned. The reactor outlet temperature of 950 deg. C was successfully achieved in April 2004. For hydrogen production as heat utilization technology, R and D on thermo-chemical water splitting by the 'Iodine-Sulfur process' (IS process) has been conducted step by step. Proof of the basic IS process was made in 1997 on a lab-scale of hydrogen production of 1 L/h. In 2004, one-week continuous operation of the IS process was successfully demonstrated using a bench-scale apparatus with hydrogen production rate of 31 L/h. Further test using a pilot scale facility with greater hydrogen production rate of 10 - 30 m 3 /h is planned as

  13. Improvement to liquid metal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns the coolant pumps of nuclear reactors. It resolves the problems of structures which have to withstand high temperatures, the difficulties in keeping the multiple bearings of the shaft aligned, the excessive fluid flows, the risks of scoring and seizing-up by self welding, the need for narrow machining tolerances and the difficulties of access for inspection and repairs [fr

  14. The SAFR liquid metal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumeister, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) modular reactor concept is being developed by the team of Rockwell International, Combustion Engineering, and Bechtel under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program. The SAFR plant would provide a viable alternate to light water reactors, especially for applications favoring small incremental capacity additions. SAFR is also a logical step to facilitate the later transition to LMFBRs. The SAFR plant concept employs multiple 350-MWe LMR Power Pak modules. Each Power Pak is a standardized, shop-fabricated unit that can be barge-shipped to the plant site for installation. The 350-MWe size allows SAFR to capitalize on all the inherent safety features provided by small reactors and factory fabrication, while still preserving some economy of scale. Shop fabrication minimizes nuclear-grade field fabrication and minimizes the overall plant construction schedule and capital cost. Each Power Pak consists of one reactor assembly and associated heat transfer equipment coupled to a single turbine generator. The reactor core employs mixed uranium-plutonium zirconium alloy metal fuel. The metal-alloy fuel (which has been used in EBR-II) has cost, safety, and safeguard advantages. The intrinsic properties of the sodium coolant (e.g., high boiling point, low vapor pressure, and strong natural convection), blended together with the pool-type LMR concept and the metal fuel, result in an inherently safe plant. Passive inherent features provide both public safety and plant investment protection. Refueling is carried out annually on each Power Pak, replacing one-fourth of the core over a 6-day refueling outage. A colocated pyroprocessing fuel cycle facility can be accommodated at the site such that no off-site shipments are required. (J.P.N.)

  15. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraviev, E.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m 2 , and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed

  16. Mechanisms of liquid-metal embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of the embrittlement of metals and alloys during deformation in contact with liquid metals are discussed. With 20Kh13 steel in a Pb-Sn melt and polycrystalline Al in the presence of various mercury solutions a.s examples, considered are the three main processes - adsorption, corrosion (dissolution), formation of new phases which cause the disintegration of materials under the action of liquid-metallic media. Presented are data on plastic ductile and strength properties of the above materials in the presence of liquid-metallic media. A model is described that takes into account the effect of the medium upon the plastic deformation and the part the medium plays in liquid-metallic embrittlement

  17. Evolution of the liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the integral fat reactor (IFR) concept. A key feature of the IFR concept is the metallic fuel, the original choice in liquid metal reactor development. An IFR development program is detailed by the authors

  18. Equipment for liquid metal pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment is proposed for measuring liquid metal pressure in piping or a tank. An auxiliary piping is connected to the piping or tank at the measuring point. The auxiliary piping transports liquid metal to a container by means of an electromagnetic pump. The piping also houses an electromagnetic flow ratemeter connected to an electric comparator. The comparator and the electromagnetic pump are connected to the pump output generator. (Z.M.)

  19. Overview of liquid-metal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    The basic features of the two-phase liquid-metal MHD energy conversion under development at Argonne National Laboratory are presented. The results of system studies on the Rankine-cycle and the open-cycle coal-fired cycle options are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD experimental facilities are described in addition to the system's major components, the generator, mixer and nozzle-separator-diffuser

  20. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof

  1. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi. No liquid metal pump with these capabilities was available commercially when this project was started, so it was necessary to develop a suitable pump in house

  2. Inducer pumps for liquid metal reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    Pumps proposed for liquid metal reactor plants typically use centrifugal impellers as the rotating element and are required to maintain a relatively low speed to keep the suction specific speed low enough to operate at the available net positive suction head (HPSH) and to avoid cavitation damage. These low speeds of operation require that the pump diameter increase and/or multiple stages be used to achieve the design head. This frequently results in a large, heavy, complex pump design. In addition, the low speed results in a larger drive motor size so that the resultant penalty to the plant designer is multiplied. The heavier pump can also result in further complications as, e.g., the difficulty in maintaining the first critical speed sufficiently above the pump operating range to provide margin for rotor dynamic stability. To overcome some of these disadvantages, it was proposed the use of inducer pumps for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plants. This paper discusses some of the advantages of the inducer pump and the development history of designing and testing these pumps both in water and sodium. The inducer pump is seen to be a sound concept with a strong technology base derived from the aerospace and ship propulsion industries. The superior suction performance capability of the inducer offers significant system design advantages, primarily a smaller, lighter weight, less complex pump design with resulting saving in cost. Extensive testing of these pumps has been conducted in both sodium and water to demonstrate the long-life capability with no cavitation damage occurring in those designs based on Rockwell's current design criteria. These tests have utilized multiple inspection and measurement approaches to accurately assess and identify any potential for cavitation damage, and these approaches have all concluded that no damage is occurring. Therefore, it is concluded that inducer pumps can be safely designed for long life operation in sodium with

  3. Summary of Structural Concept Development and High Temperature Structural Integrity Evaluation Technology for a Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hyeong Yeon (and others)

    2008-04-15

    The economic improvement is a hot issue as one of Gen IV nuclear plant goals. It requires many researches and development works to meet the goal by securing the same level of plant safety. One of the key research items is the increase of the plant capacity with the minimum number of components and loops. Through the successful conceptual design experience for the KALIMER-600, the structural design study for a 1200MWe large capacity of sodium-cooled fast reactor has been performed to achieve the above plant size effects. The component number and reactor structural sizing were determined based on the core and fluid system design information. Several researches were performed to reduce the construction cost of NSSS in structural point of view, for example, a simplified component arrangement, concept proposals of integrated components, a high temperature LBB application technology, and an innovative in-service inspection (ISI) tool, and a computer program development of the ASME-NH design procedure of the class 1 structure and component under high temperature over 500 .deg. C. The IHTS piping arrangement was also proposed to minimize the length through the properly locating the SG and pump by 126m. Further studies of these concepts are required to confirm on the fabricability and the structural integrity for the operating and design loads. The proposed concepts will be optimized to a unified conceptual design through several trade-off studies.

  4. A Brief Description of High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell’s Operation, Materials, Design, Fabrication Technologies and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Irshad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world needs highly efficient systems that can fulfill the growing demand for energy. One of the promising solutions is the fuel cell. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is considered by many developed countries as an alternative solution of energy in near future. A lot of efforts have been made during last decade to make it commercial by reducing its cost and increasing its durability. Different materials, designs and fabrication technologies have been developed and tested to make it more cost effective and stable. This article is focused on the advancements made in the field of high temperature SOFC. High temperature SOFC does not need any precious catalyst for its operation, unlike in other types of fuel cell. Different conventional and innovative materials have been discussed along with properties and effects on the performance of SOFC’s components (electrolyte anode, cathode, interconnect and sealing materials. Advancements made in the field of cell and stack design are also explored along with hurdles coming in their fabrication and performance. This article also gives an overview of methods required for the fabrication of different components of SOFC. The flexibility of SOFC in terms fuel has also been discussed. Performance of the SOFC with varying combination of electrolyte, anode, cathode and fuel is also described in this article.

  5. A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Goodjohn, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although this concept is still in the preconceptual design stage, emphasis is being placed on establishing an inherently safe or benign concept which, when engineered, will have acceptable capital cost and power generation economics. The proposed new HTGR concept has a variety of applications, including electrical power generation, cogeneration, and high-temperature process heat. This paper discusses the simplest application, i.e., a steam Rankine cycle electrical power generating version. The gas-cooled modular reactor concepts presented are based on a graphite moderated prismatic core of low-power density (i.e., 4.1 W/cm 3 ) with a thermal rating of 250 MW(t). With the potential for inherently safe characteristics, a new small reactor could be sited close to industrial and urban areas to provide electrical power and thermal heating needs (i.e., district and space heating). Incorporating a multiplicity of small modular units to provide a larger power output is also discussed. The potential for a small, inherently safe HTGR reactor concept is highlighted

  6. High temperature materials and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-temperature materials in current and future applications, including silicone materials for handling hot foods and metal alloys for developing high-speed aircraft and spacecraft systems, has generated a growing interest in high-temperature technologies. High Temperature Materials and Mechanisms explores a broad range of issues related to high-temperature materials and mechanisms that operate in harsh conditions. While some applications involve the use of materials at high temperatures, others require materials processed at high temperatures for use at room temperature. High-temperature materials must also be resistant to related causes of damage, such as oxidation and corrosion, which are accelerated with increased temperatures. This book examines high-temperature materials and mechanisms from many angles. It covers the topics of processes, materials characterization methods, and the nondestructive evaluation and health monitoring of high-temperature materials and structures. It describes the ...

  7. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Farnum, E.H.; Natesan, K.; Vitkovski, I.V.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed

  8. Development of advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel. Reduction of coating failure fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Tobita, Tsutomu; Yoshimuta, Sigeharu; Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Tomimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Oda, Takafumi

    1998-11-01

    The advanced fabrication technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel has been developed to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel particles, which leads to an improvement of the reactor safety. The present report reviews the results of the relevant work. The mechanisms of the coating failure of the fuel particles during coating and compaction processes of the fuel fabrication were studied to determine a way to reduce the coating failure fraction of the fuel. The coating process was improved by optimizing the mode of the particle fluidization and by developing the process without unloading and loading of the particles at intermediate coating process. The compaction process was improved by optimizing the combination of the pressing temperature and the pressing speed of the overcoated particles. Through these modifications of the fabrication process, the quality of the fuel was improved outstandingly. (author)

  9. Fracture mechanical evaluation of high temperature structure and creep-fatigue defect assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Gyu; Kim, Jong Bum; Lee, Jae Han

    2004-02-01

    This study proposed the evaluation procedure of high temperature structures from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics on the cylindrical structure applicable to the KALIMER, which is developed by KAERI. For the evaluation of structural integrity, linear and non-linear fracture mechanics parameters were analyzed. Parameters used in creep defect growth applicable to high temperature structure of liquid metal reactor and the evaluation codes with these parameters were analyzed. The evaluation methods of defect initiation and defect growth which were established in R5/R6 code(UK), JNC method (Japan) and RCC-MR A16(France) code were analyzed respectively. The evaluation procedure of leak before break applicable to KALIMER was preliminarily developed and proposed. As an application example of defect growth, the creep-fatigue defect growth on circumferential throughwall defect in high temperature cylindrical structure was evaluated by RCC-MR A16 and this application technology was established.

  10. Manipulation of Biomolecule-Modified Liquid-Metal Blobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Miyako, Eijiro

    2017-10-23

    Soft and deformable liquid metals (LMs) are building components in various systems related to uncertain and dynamic task environments. Herein we describe the development of a biomolecule-triggered external-manipulation method involving LM conjugates for the construction of future innovative soft robotics operating in physiological environments. Functional soft hybrids composed of a liquid-metal droplet, a thiolated ligand, and proteins were synthesized for the expression of diverse macroscopic commands, such as attachment to cells, binary fusion, and self-propelled movement through molecular recognition and enzymatic reactions. Our technology could be used to create new state-of-the-art soft robots for chemical and biomedical engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Applications of a high temperature sessile drop device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, B; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C [Vienna University of Technology, Insitute of Solid State Physics E-138, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Worbs, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Bereich Materialforschung, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: bernhard.schwarz@ifp.tuwien.ac.at

    2008-03-01

    The wettability of a liquid metal on a solid surface is of great technological interest for the industry (soldering, brazing, infiltration) as well as for fundamental research (diffusion, chemical reaction, intermetallic phases). The characterization of wetting is done by measuring the contact angle at the triple line of the liquid on the solid. A High Temperature Sessile Drop Device (HTSDD) was constructed and several applications were tested: (i) a wettability study of a copper-based brazing alloy (Cu-ABA) on TiN{sub x} coatings with different stoichiometries. The data derived from the HTSDD show that the reduction of the nitrogen content in the TiN coating reduces the time for reaching the final contact angle. Also for substoichiometric TiC a similar behaviour is predicted in literature. (ii) The liquid surface energy of molten metals can be estimated from the curvature of flattened droplets due to the influence of gravity. Two models were used for the calculation of the liquid surface energy of different liquid metals. (iii) From the droplet radius vs. time curves it is possible to distinguish between two different reactive wetting regimes - the diffusion and the reaction controlled reactive wetting. The beginning of this research topic will be discussed.

  12. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  13. Detection of gas entrainment into liquid metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, T., E-mail: t.vogt@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Boden, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Andruszkiewicz, A. [Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Technology (Poland); Eckert, K. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present liquid metal experiments dedicated to gas entrainment on the free surface. • Ultrasonic and X-ray attenuation techniques have been used to study the mechanisms of gas entrainment. • A comparison between bubbly flow in water and GaInSn showed substantial differences. • Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation. - Abstract: Entrainment of cover gas into the liquid metal coolant is one of the principal safety issues in the design of innovative liquid metal-cooled fast reactors. We present generic experimental studies of this phenomenon in low-melting metals. Ultrasonic and X-ray diagnostic tools were considered for a visualization of gas entrainment at the free surface of the melt. Laboratory experiments were conducted using the eutectic alloy GaInSn, which is liquid at room temperature. Vortex-activated entrainment of air at the free surface of a rotating flow was revealed by ultrasonic techniques. X-ray radioscopy was used to visualize the behavior of argon bubbles inside a slit geometry. The measurements reveal distinct differences between water and GaInSn, especially with respect to the process of bubble formation and the coalescence and breakup of bubbles. Our results emphasize the importance of liquid metal experiments which are able to provide a suitable data base for numerical code validation.

  14. Liquid metal flow measurement by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Ono, A.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    Visualization of a liquid metal flow and image processing methods to measure the vector field are carried out by real-time neutron radiography. The JRR-3M real-time thermal neutron radiography facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Lead-bismuth eutectic was used as a working fluid. Particles made from a gold-cadmium intermetallic compound (AuCd 3 ) were used as the tracer for the visualization. The flow vector field was obtained by image processing methods. It was shown that the liquid metal flow vector field was obtainable by real-time neutron radiography when the attenuation of neutron rays due to the liquid metal was less than l/e and the particle size of the tracer was larger than one image element size digitized for the image processing. (orig.)

  15. Liquid metal MHD research and development in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branover, H.

    1993-01-01

    The study of liquid metal MHD in Israel commenced in 1973. Initially it was concentrated mainly on laminar flows influenced by external magnetic fields. In 1978 a liquid metal MHD energy conversion program was started. This program was developed at the Center for MHD Studies at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, with the participation of specialists from the Technion, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Atomic Energy Commission, and others. The program was sponsored initially by the Israel Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, and later by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Since 1980, Solmecs, a private commercial company has become a major factor in the development of liquid metal MHD in Israel. From the very beginning the program was based on broad international cooperation. A number of overseas institutions and individuals became participants in the program. Through extensive research and evaluation of a number of concepts of liquid metal MHD power generation systems, It was established that the most promising concept, demanding a relatively short period of development, is the gravitational system using heavy metals (lead, lead alloys) as the magneto-hydrodynamic fluid and steam or gases as thermodynamic fluids. This concept was chosen for further development and industrial application, and the program related to such systems was named the Etgar Program. The main directions of research and development activities have been defined as follows: investigations of physical phenomena, development of universal numerical code for parametric studies, optimization and design of the system, material studies, development of engineering components, building and testing of integrated small-scale Etgar type systems, economic evaluation of the system and comparison with conventional technologies, development of moderate scale industrial demonstration plant. At this time 6 items have been fully implemented and activities on the last item were started. (author)

  16. Liquid metal blanket module testing and design for ITER/TIBER II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Cha, Y.; Finn, P.A.; Majumdar, S.; Picologlou, B.; Stevens, H.; Turner, L.

    1988-05-01

    A major goal for ITER is the testing of nuclear components to demonstrate the integrated performance of the most attractive concepts that can lead to a commercial fusion reactor. As part of the ITER/TIBER II study, the test program and design of test models were examined for a number of blanket concepts. The work at Argonne National Laboratory focused on self-cooled liquid metal blankets. A test program for liquid metal blankets was developed based upon the ITER/TIBER II operating schedule and the specific data needs to resolve the key issues for liquid metals. Testing can begin early in reactor operation with liquid metal MHD tests to confirm predictive capability. Combined heat transfer/MHD tests can be performed during initial plasma operation. After acceptable heat transfer performance is verified, tests to determine the integrated high temperature performance in a neutron environment can begin. During the high availability phase operation, long term performance and reliability tests will be performed. It is envisioned that a companion test program will be conducted outside ITER to determine behavior under severe accident conditions and upper performance limits. A detailed design of a liquid metal test module and auxiliary equipment was also developed. The module followed the design of the TPSS blanket. Detailed analysis of the heat transfer and tritium systems were performed, and the overall layout of the systems was determined. In general, the blanket module appears to be capable of addressing most of the testing needs. 8 refs., 27 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies supported on a diagrid and submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant within a containment vessel, the diagrid being of triple component construction and formed of a short cylindrical plenum mounted on a conical undershell and loosely embraced by a fuel store carrier. The plenum merely distributes coolant through the fuel assemblies, the load of the assemblies being carried by the undershell by means of struts which penetrate the plenum. The reactor core, fuel store carrier and undershell provide secondary containment for the plenum. (UK)

  18. Liquid metal fast reactor transient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, C.; Purvis, E. III

    2000-01-01

    An examination has been made of how the currently available computing capabilities could be used to reduce Liquid Metal Fast Reactor design, manufacturing, and construction cost. While the examination focused on computer analyses some other promising means to reduce costs were also examined. (author)

  19. Improvements in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1980-01-01

    A concrete containment vault for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is described which is lined with thermal insulation to protect the vault against heat radiated from the reactor during normal operation of the reactor but whose efficiency of heat insulation is reduced in an emergency to enable excessive heat from the reactor to be dissipated through the vault. (UK)

  20. Stretchable and Soft Electronics using Liquid Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity. Liquid metals have been used for stretchable wires and interconnects, reconfigurable antennas, soft sensors, self-healing circuits, and conformal electrodes. In contrast to Hg, liquid metals based on gallium have low toxicity and essentially no vapor pressure and are therefore considered safe to handle. Whereas most liquids bead up to minimize surface energy, the presence of a surface oxide on these metals makes it possible to pattern them into useful shapes using a variety of techniques, including fluidic injection and 3D printing. In addition to forming excellent conductors, these metals can be used actively to form memory devices, sensors, and diodes that are completely built from soft materials. The properties of these materials, their applications within soft and stretchable electronics, and future opportunities and challenges are considered. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Liquid metals. Coexistence line, critical parameters, compressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    Formulae to calculate four characteristic parameters of liquid metals (density, compressibility, critical temperature and individual parameter) according to four initial data are obtained: two values of vapor density and two values of vapor pressure. Comparison between experimental and calculation results are presented for liquid Cs, Na, Li, K, Rb

  2. PFR liquid metals disposal at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    When the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay was shut down in 1994, the UKAEA commissioned a series of studies to determine the least cost, lowest risk option for dealing with the liquid metal coolants, i.e. the sodium from the primary and secondary circuits and the NaK from the decay heat removal system. The studies concluded that leaving the liquid metals in situ was not a viable option. Removing the liquid metals had three options, provision of long term external storage facilities, re-use in other projects or treatment for final disposal. The UKAEA invited companies to bid for the challenging task of disposing of more than 1500 t of liquid metals. In 1995 UKAEA awarded NNC Ltd. one of the largest decommissioning projects ever to be let competitively in the UK. During the first year of the contract, the challenges have focused on solving design problems and a number of innovative solutions have been developed by NNC and its subcontractors. From January 1997 the focus has moved to construction on site at Dounreay, and the manufacturing and installation of the mechanical components of the plant

  3. Improvements in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the design of the thermally insulating material used to shield the concrete containment walls in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors are described in detail. The insulating material is composed of two layers and is placed between the primary vessel (usually steel) and the steel lined concrete containment vault. The outer layer, which clads the inner wall surface of the vault, is generally impervious to liquid metal coolant whilst the inner layer is pervious to the coolant. In normal operation, both layers protect the concrete from heat radiated from the reactor. In the event of a breach of the containment vessel, the resulting leakage of liquid metal coolant permeates the inner layer of insulating material, provides a means of heat transfer by conduction and hence reduces the overall insulating properties of the two layers. The outer layer continues to protect the wall surface of the vault from substantial direct contact with the liquid metal. Thus the two apparently conflicting requirements of good thermal insulation during normal operation and of heat transfer during loss of coolant accidents are satisfied by this novel design. Suggestions are given for possible materials for use as the insulating layers. (U.K.)

  4. Preparation of Al-Ti-B grain refiner by SHS technology[Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V.I.; Wanqi, J.I.E.; Kandalova, E.G.; Makarenko, A.G.; Yong, L.

    2000-02-01

    Since the discovery of the grain refinement effect of aluminum by titanium, especially with the existence of B or C in 1950, grain refiners are widely accepted in industry for microstructure control of aluminum alloys. Research on this topic is to obtain the highest grain refinement efficiency with the lowest possible addition of master alloy. It is widely accepted that the morphology and size of TiAl{sub 3} particles, which are known as heterogeneous nucleation centers, are important factors deterring the grain refinement efficiency. Fine TiAl{sub 3} particles are favorable. The grain refinement process shows a heredity phenomenon, which means that structural information from initial materials transfers through a melt to the final product. It is important to find the connection between microstructural parameters of the master alloy and the final product. To improve the quality of Al-Ti-B master alloys for the use as a grain refiner, a new method based on SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) technology has been developed in Samara State Technical University to produce the master alloys. SHS, as a new method for preparation of materials, was first utilized by Merzhanov in 1967. This method uses the energy from highly exothermic reactions to sustain the chemical reaction in a combustion wave. The advantages of SHS include simplicity, low energy requirement, and higher product purity. Because SHS reactions can take place between elemental reactants, it is easy to control product composition. The purposes of this investigation were to fabricate an SHS Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy, to analyze its structure and to test its grain refining performance.

  5. Compact device to heat up a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Pelloux, L.

    1981-01-01

    Device for heating a liquid metal, sodium for instance, this device being in one piece and capable of being introduced in one go into the tank containing the liquid metal and comprising heating rods and an electromagnetic pump [fr

  6. Regulation of liquid metal coolant flow rate in experimental loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Laptev, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility to use the VRT-2, RPA-T and R 133 analog temperature regulators for the automated regulation of liquid metal flow rate in the experimental loops for investigations on sodium and sodium-potassium alloy technology is considered. The RPA-T device is shown to be the most convenient one; it is characterized by the following parameters: measuring modulus transfer coefficient is 500; the range of regulating modulus proportionality factor variation - 0.3 - 50; the range of the regulating modulus intergrating time constant variation - 5 - 500 s

  7. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  8. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1991-12-01

    The proceedings contain 16 contributions to the following topics: 1. Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; 2. Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environment under Off-Normal Conditions; 3. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; and 4. Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium. (MM)

  9. A low cost liquid metal reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Anderson, C.A.; Mangus, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A new, compact Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) plant arrangement designed by Westinghouse, featuring factory-fabricated modules and an integrated fuel cycle facility, has made it possible to project a commercially competitive LMR plant for the near future. This innovative liquid metal-cooled plant design will allow a combination of capital, fuel, operation and maintenance costs that could be lower than today's fossil-fueled or light water reactor plant costs, and incorporate features which enhance public safety even beyond current high standards. Following early core loadings, the plant feeds only on depleted uranium. No shipment of fuel is required. And the plant can be tailored to produce enough plutonium to meet its need or to provide fuel for other nuclear plants

  10. Development of Korea advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Future nuclear power plants should not only have the features of improved safety and economic competitiveness but also provide a means to resolve spent fuel storage problems by minimizing volume of high level wastes. It is widely believed that liquid metal reactors (LMRs) have the highest potential of meeting these requirements. In this context, the LMR development program was launched as a national long-term R and D program in 1992, with a target to introduce a commercial LMR around 2030. Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER), a 150 MWe pool-type sodium cooled prototype reactor, is currently under the conceptual design study with the target schedule to complete its construction by the mid-2010s. This paper summarizes the KALIMER development program and major technical features of the reactor system. (author)

  11. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Breeder fuel sub-assemblies with electromagnetic brakes and fluidic valves for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors are described. The electromagnetic brakes are of relatively small proportions and the valves are of the controlled vortex type. The outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies are maintained by these means substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (UK)

  12. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel sub-assemblies for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are described which each incorporate a fluid flow control valve for regulating the rate of flow through the sub-assembly. These small electro-magnetic valves seek to maintain the outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (U.K.)

  13. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor wherein the core, intermediate heat exchangers and liquid metal pumps are immersed in a pool of coolant such as Na, the intermediate heat exchangers are suspended from the roof, and ducting is provided in the form of a core tank or shroud interconnected with 'pods' housing the intermediate exchangers for directing coolant from the core over the heat exchanger tubes and thence back to the main pool of liquid metal. Seals are provided between the intermediate heat exchanger shells and the walls of their 'pods' to prevent liquid metal flow by-passing the heat exchanger tube bundles. As the heat exchangers must be withdrawable for servicing, and because linear differential thermal expansion of the heat exchanger and its 'pod' must be accommodated the seals hitherto have been of the sliding kind, generally known as 'piston ring type seals'. These present several disadvantages; for example sealing is not absolute, and the metal to metal seal gives rise to wear and fretting by rubbing and vibration. This could lead to seizure or jamming by the deposition of impurities in the coolant. Another difficulty arises in the need to accommodate lateral thermal expansion of the ducting, including the core tank and 'pods'. Hitherto some expansion has been allowed for by the use of expansible bellow pairs in the interconnections, or alternatively by allowing local deformations of the core tank 'pods'. Such bellows must be very flexible and hence constitute a weak section of the ducting, and local deformations give rise to high stress levels that could lead to premature failure. The arrangement described seeks to overcome these difficulties by use of a gas pocket trapping means to effect a seal against vertical liquid flow between the heat exchanger shell and the wall of the heat exchanger housing. Full details of the arrangement are described. (U.K.)

  14. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  15. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  16. Materials requirements for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Horton, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials requirements for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are quite varied with requisite applications ranging from ex-reactor components such as piping, pumps, steam generators and heat exchangers to in-reactor components such as heavy section reactor vessels, core structurals, fuel pin cladding and subassembly flow ducts. Requirements for ex-reactor component materials include: good high temperature tensile, creep and fatigue properties; compatibility with high temperature flowing sodium; resistance to wear, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation; and good weldability. Requirements for in-reactor components include most of those cited above for ex-reactor components as supplemented by the following: resistance to radiation embrittlement, swelling and radiation enhanced creep; good neutronics; compatibility with fuel and fission product materials; and resistance to mass transfer via flowing sodium. Extensive programs are currently in place in a number of national laboratories and industrial contractors to address the materials requirements for LMFBRs. These programs are focused on meeting the near term requirements of early LMFBRs such as the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor as well as the longer term requirements of larger near-commercial and fully-commercial reactors

  17. Influence of surface effects on subsecond processes in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, V.S.; Khishchenko, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: We discuss a problem of experimental-data interpretation during subsecond measurements of thermophysical properties of matter at high temperatures and pressures. Peculiarity of these measurements is optical opaqueness of matter under interesting conditions (T∼1 eV, ρ∼10 4 kg m -3 ), so only at assuming of bulk specimen uniformity one can obtain a temperature dependencies of the specific properties of matter. Changing circuit current and changing sample geometry we can avoid a development of hydromagnetic instability and decrease a nonuniform heating due to skin effect. As temperature of wire surface reaches the boiling temperature under normal pressure so part of internal energy is lost because of evaporation and surface radiation at high temperature. So one can register a surface temperature and ascribe it to the whole sample bulk. Computer simulation of wire explosion taking into account surface radiation losses was carried out. Typical phase tracks for matter were obtained in both case as in consideration of radiation losses as without it. Comparison of the results with data concerning to isobaric-expansion experiments and semi-empirical multi-phase equation of state were carried out. It was proposed uniformity criterion for investigation of thermophysical properties of liquid metal by subsecond wire explosion. (author)

  18. High temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  19. Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch

    2017-07-01

    Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.

  20. High temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Paranthaman, Parans

    2010-01-01

    This essential reference provides the most comprehensive presentation of the state of the art in the field of high temperature superconductors. This growing field of research and applications is currently being supported by numerous governmental and industrial initiatives in the United States, Asia and Europe to overcome grid energy distribution issues. The technology is particularly intended for densely populated areas. It is now being commercialized for power-delivery devices, such as power transmission lines and cables, motors and generators. Applications in electric utilities include current limiters, long transmission lines and energy-storage devices that will help industries avoid dips in electric power.

  1. Manufacturing a Long-Period Grating with Periodic Thermal Diffusion Technology on High-NA Fiber and Its Application as a High-Temperature Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Dai, Bin; Xing, Yingbin; Yang, Luyun; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan; Peng, Jingang

    2018-05-08

    We demonstrated a kind of long-period fiber grating (LPFG), which is manufactured with a thermal diffusion treatment. The LPFG was inscribed on an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture (UHNA) fiber, highly doped with Ge and P, which was able to easily diffuse at high temperatures within a few seconds. We analyzed how the elements diffused at a high temperature over 1300 °C in the UHNA fiber. Then we developed a periodically heated technology with a CO₂ laser, which was able to cause the diffusion of the elements to constitute the modulations of an LPFG. With this technology, there is little damage to the outer structure of the fiber, which is different from the traditional LPFG, as it is periodically tapered. Since the LPFG itself was manufactured under high temperature, it can withstand higher temperatures than traditional LPFGs. Furthermore, the LPFG presents a higher sensitivity to high temperature due to the large amount of Ge doping, which is approximately 100 pm/°C. In addition, the LPFG shows insensitivity to the changing of the environment’s refractive index and strain.

  2. Design rules for high temperature plant - the implications of recent research in relation to current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    An historical summary is presented of design rules for high temperature plant, leading to the rules applicable to high temperature reactors, particularly the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Special attention is given to creep rupture properties of ferritic and austenitic materials used for the construction of components such as boilers and pressure vessels. (author)

  3. High temperature turbine technology program. Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Work performed on the High Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Phase II - Technology Test and Support Studies during the period from January 1, 1979 through December 31, 1979 is summarized. Objectives of the program elements as well as technical progress and problems encountered during this Phase II annual reporting period are presented. Progress on design, fabrication and checkout of test facilities and test rigs is described. LP turbine cascade tests were concluded. 350 hours of testing were conducted on the LP rig engine first with clean distillate fuel and then with fly ash particulates injected into the hot gas stream. Design and fabrication of the turbine spool technology rig components are described. TSTR 60/sup 0/ sector combustor rig fabrication and testing are reviewed. Progress in the design and fabrication of TSTR cascade rig components for operation on both distillate fuel and low Btu gas is described. The new coal-derived gaseous fuel synthesizing facility is reviewed. Results and future plans for the supporting metallurgical programs are discussed.

  4. Design methods for high temperature power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper - reviews of design methods and design criteria currently in use for both nuclear and fossil fuelled power plant; examples chosen are (a) BS 1113, representative of design codes employed for power station boiler plant; (b) ASME Code Case N47, which is being developed for high temperature nuclear reactors, especially the liquid metal fast breeder reactor); design codes for power station boilers; Code Case N47 (design in the absence of thermal shock and thermal fatigue; design against cyclic loading at high temperature; further research in support of high temperature design methods and criteria for LMFBRs); concluding remarks. (U.K.)

  5. Challenges Related to the Use of Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants in Advanced Reactors. Report of the collaborative project COOL of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-05-01

    The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) was launched in 2000, based on a resolution by the IAEA General Conference (GC(44)/RES/21). INPRO aims at helping to ensure that nuclear energy is available in the twenty-first century in a sustainable manner, and seeks to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to jointly consider actions to achieve desired innovations. INPRO is taking care of the specific needs of developing countries. One of the aims of INPRO is to develop options for enhanced sustainability through promotion of technical and institutional innovations in nuclear energy technology through collaborative projects among IAEA Member States. Collaboration among INPRO members is fostered on selected innovative nuclear technologies to bridge technology gaps. Collaborative projects have been selected so that they complement other national and international R and D activities. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL on Investigation of Technological Challenges Related to the Removal of Heat by Liquid Metal and Molten Salt Coolants from Reactor Cores Operating at High Temperatures investigated the technological challenges of cooling reactor cores that operate at high temperatures in advanced fast reactors, high temperature reactors and accelerator driven systems by using liquid metals and molten salts as coolants. The project was initiated in 2008 and was led by India; experts from Brazil, China, Germany, India, Italy and the Republic of Korea participated and provided chapters of this report. The INPRO Collaborative Project COOL addressed the following fields of research regarding liquid metal and molten salt coolants: (i) survey of thermophysical properties; (ii) experimental investigations and computational fluid dynamics studies on thermohydraulics, specifically pressure drop and heat transfer under different operating conditions; (iii) monitoring and control of coolant

  6. First Studies for the Development of Computational Tools for the Design of Liquid Metal Electromagnetic Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Maidana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquid alloy systems have a high degree of thermal conductivity, far superior to ordinary nonmetallic liquids and inherent high densities and electrical conductivities. This results in the use of these materials for specific heat conducting and dissipation applications for the nuclear and space sectors. Uniquely, they can be used to conduct heat and electricity between nonmetallic and metallic surfaces. The motion of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields generally induces electric currents, which, while interacting with the magnetic field, produce electromagnetic forces. Electromagnetic pumps exploit the fact that liquid metals are conducting fluids capable of carrying currents, which is a source of electromagnetic fields useful for pumping and diagnostics. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena and the determination of its geometry and electrical configuration, gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics problems. The development of tools to model, characterize, design, and build liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for space, nuclear, and industrial applications are of primordial importance and represent a cross-cutting technology that can provide unique design and development capabilities as well as a better understanding of the physics behind the magneto-hydrodynamics of liquid metals. First studies for the development of computational tools for the design of liquid metal electromagnetic pumps are discussed.

  7. First studies for the development of computational tools for the design of liquid metal electromagnetic pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidana, Carlos O.; Nieminen, Juha E. [Maidana Research, Grandville (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Liquid alloy systems have a high degree of thermal conductivity, far superior to ordinary nonmetallic liquids and inherent high densities and electrical conductivities. This results in the use of these materials for specific heat conducting and dissipation applications for the nuclear and space sectors. Uniquely, they can be used to conduct heat and electricity between nonmetallic and metallic surfaces. The motion of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields generally induces electric currents, which, while interacting with the magnetic field, produce electromagnetic forces. Electromagnetic pumps exploit the fact that liquid metals are conducting fluids capable of carrying currents, which is a source of electromagnetic fields useful for pumping and diagnostics. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena and the determination of its geometry and electrical configuration, gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics problems. The development of tools to model, characterize, design, and build liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for space, nuclear, and industrial applications are of primordial importance and represent a cross-cutting technology that can provide unique design and development capabilities as well as a better understanding of the physics behind the magneto-hydrodynamics of liquid metals. First studies for the development of computational tools for the design of liquid metal electromagnetic pumps are discussed.

  8. Research and development of a high-temperature helium-leak detection system (joint research). Part 1 survey on leakage events and current leak detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR), the detection of leakage of helium at an early stage is very important for the safety and stability of operations. Since helium is a colourless gas, it is generally difficult to identify the location and the amount of leakage when very little leakage has occurred. The purpose of this R and D is to develop a helium leak detection system for the high temperature environment appropriate to the HTGR. As the first step in the development, this paper describes the result of surveying leakage events at nuclear facilities inside and outside Japan and current gas leakage detection technology to adapt optical-fibre detection technology to HTGRs. (author)

  9. Potential of multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor (MPFR) as a hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Ninokata, H.; Netchaev, A.; Sawada, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the only effective alternative energy source to fossil fuels in the next century. Therefore future nuclear power plants should satisfy the following three requirements: i) multiple energy conversion capability with high temperature not only for electricity generation but also for hydrogen production, ii) extended siting capability so as to eliminate on-site refuelling, and iii) passive safety features. An aim of this paper is to describe the basic concept of the multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor system (MPFR). The MPFR introduces the U-Pu-X (X: Mn, Fe, Co) liquid metallic alloy with Ta and Ta/TaC structural materials, and satisfies all of the conditions listed above based on the following characteristics of the liquid metallic fuel: high temperature operation between 650 deg C (sodium-cooled system) and 1 200 deg C (lead-cooled system), a core lifetime of 15-30 years without radiation damage of fuel materials, and enhanced passive safety by the thermal expansion of liquid fuel and the avoidance of re-criticality due to local core fuel dispersion at fuel failure events. (authors)

  10. Austenitic stainless steel alloys with high nickel contents in high temperature liquid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konvicka, H.R.; Schwarz, N.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Ni base alloys (nickel content: from 15 to 70 wt%, Chromium content: 15 wt%, iron: balance) together with stainless steel (W.Nr. 1.4981) have been exposed to flowing liquid sodium at 730 0 C in four intervals up to a cumulative exposure time of 1500 hours. Weight change data and the results of post-exposition microcharacterization of specimens are reported. The corrosion rates increase with increasing nickel content and tend to become constant after longer exposure times for each alloy. The corrosion rate of stainless steel is considerably reduced due to the presence of the base alloys. Different kinetics of nickel poor (up to 35% nickel) and nickel rich (> 50% nickel) alloys and nickel transport from nickel rich to nickel poor material is observed. (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamic characterization of liquid metals at high temperature by isobaric expansion measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gathers, G.R.; Shaner, J.W.; Hodgson, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of isobaric expansion measurements for platinum are presented, including simultaneous values for enthalpy, specific volume, temperature and electrical resistivity in tabular form as well as numerical fits up to 7500 K. The specific heat for the liquid is C/sub p/ = 5.85 +- 0.30 R and is essentially constant up to 7500 K. The bulk thermal expansion coefficient increases from approx. 7.5 x 10 -5 K -1 at melt to approx. 1.03 x 10 -4 K -1 at 7500 K. The heat of fusion observed is Δh = 0.14 +- 0.03 MJ/kg and the melting point slope with pressure is estimated to be dT/sub m//dp =31 +- 10 K/GPa. The estimated critical parameters are T/sub c/ = 9285 K, P/sub c/ = 0.9492 GPa, v/sub c/ = 2.120 x 10 -4 m 3 /kg, and z/sub c/ = 0.5085. Preliminary results of a new sound velocity technique are discussed for lead. This technique will allow determination of specific heat c/sub v/, isothermal compressibility K/sub T/ and the constant temperature volume derivatives of entropy and internal energy, as well as the Gruneisen parameter γ/sub G/

  12. Design analysis of liquid metal pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    Design guidelines pertinent to liquid metal pipe supports are presented. The numerous complex conditions affecting the support stiffness and strength are addressed in detail. Topics covered include modeling of supports for natural frequency and stiffness calculations, support hardware components, formulas for deflection due to torsion, plate bending, and out-of-plane flexibility. A sample analysis and a discussion on stress analysis of supports are included. Also presented are recommendations for design improvements for increasing the stiffness of pipe supports and which were utilized in the FFTF system

  13. Developing remote techniques for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenemore, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Three devices have been designed in Britain to meet the need for special remote equipment and techniques required to inspect the reactor vessel and internals of liquid metal reactors. The ''Links Manipulator Under-Sodium Viewing System'' - a device to be used for the surveillance of reactor internals, which are submerged in sodium. An ''Automatic Guided Vehicle'' - a free roving vehicle to be used to survey the externals of the reactor vessel. The ''Snake Manipulator'' - an articulated arm used to gain access to restricted areas. (author)

  14. Liquid-metal aspects of HYLIFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hoffman, N.J.; McDowell, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter is a reactor concept for an inertial fusion electric power plant. In this concept, flowing molten lithium protects the structures of the fusion chamber from the deleterious effects of deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions and converts the pulsed fusion energy into steay thermal power. Lithium is circulated as the primary coolant to transfer heat to an intermediate sodium loop which drives a superheated steam cycle. Lithium is also the source of the tritium fuel which is recovered via a molten-salt extraction process. The liquid-metal aspects of the HYLIFE plant with particular emphasis on the lithium systems

  15. Liquid metal degassing in electromagnetic mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakhomov, A I; EHL' -FAVAKHRI, KAMAL' -ABD-RABU MOKHAMED [LENINGRADSKIJ POLITEKHNICHESKIJ INST. (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Experimental results for laboratory and industrial conditions are presented showing the favourable effect of electromagnetic mixing on hot metal degassing process. It has been found that the intensity and duration of the mixing process increase with the degree of iron and steel degassing. Initiation of cavitation phenomena during hot metal electromagnetic mixing is intensified because of the presence of alien inclusions in the metal reducing the tensile strength of the liquid metal. This is the most substantial factor contributing to the gas content in the process of electromagnetic mixing.

  16. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.; Allbeson, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    In a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor with a nuclear fuel assembly in a coolant-containing primary vessel housed within a concrete containment vault, there is thermal insulation to protect the concrete, the insulation being disposed between vessel and concrete and being hung from metal structure secured to and projecting from the concrete, the insulation consisting of a plurality of adjoining units each unit incorporating a pack of thermal insulating material and defining a contained void co-extensive with said pack and situated between pack and concrete, the void of each unit being connected to the voids of adjoining units so as to form continuous ducting for a fluid coolant. (author)

  17. Sorption of radiostrontium from liquid metallic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhujkov, B.L.; Kokhnyuk, V.M.; Vincent, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the radiostrontium (in particular, 82 Sr) sorption from the liquid metallic Rb in various inorganic sorbents (both metals and oxides). One studied the temperature dependence and the dynamics of the adsorption and put forward an interpretation of the observed mechanisms. The elaborated approach enables to extract 82 Sr efficiently from the Rb targets upon their irradiation by the accelerated protons. One studies various procedures and the applicability of the process to ensure elaboration of a new highly efficient process to produce 82 Sr, in particular, with the targets of the circulating Rb [ru

  18. US/DOE Man-Machine Integration program for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Zmura, A.P.; Seeman, S.E.

    1985-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Man-Machine Integration program was started in 1980 as an addition to the existing Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor safety base technology program. The overall goal of the DOE program is to enhance the operational safety of liquid metal reactors by optimum integration of humans and machines in the overall reactor plant system and by application of the principles of human-factors engineering to the design of equipment, subsystems, facilities, operational aids, procedures and environments. In the four years since its inception the program has concentrated on understanding the control process for Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs) and on applying advanced computer concepts to this process. This paper describes the products that have been developed in this program, present computer-related programs, and plans for the future

  19. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  20. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  1. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  2. Oscillatory Convection in Rotating Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Vincent; Grannan, Alex; Aurnou, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments in a aspect ratio Γ = 2 cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr = 0 . 023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number varies from E = 4 ×10-5 to 4 ×10-6 and the Rayleigh number varies from Ra = 3 ×105 to 2 ×107 . Using heat transfer and temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes develop, coexisting with the inertial oscillatory modes in the bulk. When the strength of the buoyancy increases further, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr = 1 planetary and stellar dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, convection driven dynamo action in low Pr fluids can differ substantively than that occurring in typical Pr = 1 numerical models. Our results also suggest that low wavenumber, wall modes may be dynamically and observationally important in liquid metal dynamo systems. We thank the NSF Geophysics Program for support of this project.

  3. Chemistry of liquid metal coolants and sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, T.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid sodium is the coolant of choice for the current generation fast breeder reactors. When sodium contains low levels of dissolved non-metallic impurities, it is highly compatible with structural steels. When the dissolved oxygen level is high, corrosion and mass transfer in sodium-steel circuits are enhanced and this involves formation of NaxMyOz type of species (M = alloying components in steels). Experience has shown that this enhancement of corrosion in a sodium circuit with all austenitic steel structural materials would not be encountered if oxygen level in sodium is below ~ 5ppm. For understanding this observation, a complete knowledge on the phase diagrams of Na-M-O systems and the thermochemical data of all relevant NaxMyOz compounds is essential. This presentation would highlight the work carried out at IGCAR on the chemistry of liquid sodium and heavy liquid metal coolants. Work carried out on various sensors for their use in these liquid metal circuits would be described and their current status would be discussed

  4. In situ observation · analytical technologies of high temperature superconductor for fusion reactor at ultra low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimoto, Takayoshi; Sun, Wei; Fukutomi, Katsuo; Togano, Kazumasa; Saito, Tetsuya; Hiraga, Kenji; Takeda, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    An image installation program of SPARK station 20 was accomplished. It can induce continuously 2.1 MB TEM image at 5 sheet/sec until 160 sheets. An image processing (shift addition) program was developed at first in the world. The program can overlap many sheet of TEM images by shifting them to the correct position. Other image processing programs such as flatfielding and reducing noise processing were developed. High temperature lattice fringe image of superconductive oxide Bi2223 in the drift chamber can be observed at low temperature by using the above image processing programs. New type laser device for filament radiation which consists of argon ion laser was developed as the first step of development of high brightness electron gun. Bi2212 single crystal was determined by the large angle convergent beam electron diffraction. The results showed the crystal structure belonged to Bbmb. (S.Y.)

  5. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation

    OpenAIRE

    King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, . Most analog models of planetary dynamos, however, use moderate fluids, and the systematic influence of reducing is not well understood. We perform rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium over a range of nondimensional bu...

  6. Supersymmetry at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Kaku, M.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the properties of Green's functions in a spontaneously broken supersymmetric model at high temperatures. We show that, even at high temperatures, we do not get restoration of supersymmetry, at least in the one-loop approximation

  7. Investigational study of the CO2 balance in high temperature CO2 separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of technologies of high temperature separation/recovery/reutilization of CO2. In the study, data collection, arrangement and comparison were made of various separation technologies such as the membrane method, absorption method, adsorption method, and cryogenic separation method. With the LNG-fired power generation as an example, the adaptable environment and effectivity were made clear by making models by a process simulator, ASPEN PLUS. Moreover, using this simulator, effects of replacing the conventional steam reforming of hydrocarbon with the CO2 reforming were made clear with the methanol synthesis as an example. As to the rock fixation treatment of high temperature CO2, collection/arrangement were made of the data on the fixation treatment of the CO2 separated at high temperature into basic rocks such as peridotite and serpentinite in order to clarify the adaptable environment and effectivity of the treatment. Besides, a potentiality of the fixation to concrete waste was made clear. 57 refs., 57 figs., 93 tabs.

  8. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H U [ed.

    1991-12-15

    The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Specialists Meeting on Properties of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment was held during June 18 to June 20, 1991, at the Nuclear Research Centre (Kernforschungszentrum) in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Specialists Meeting was divided into five technical sessions which addressed topics as follows: Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environments under Off-Normal Conditions;Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium; and Conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.G.; Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800 degree F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection

  10. Liquid-metal-gas heat exchanger for HTGR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of a liquid metal heat exchanger (HE) for a helium-cooled high temperature reactor. A tube-type heat exchanger is considered as well as two direct exchangers: a bubble-type heat exchanger and a heat exchanger according to the spray principle. Experiments are made in order to determine the gas content of bubble-type heat exchangers, the dependence of the droplet diameter on the nozzle diameter, the falling speed of the droplets, the velocity of the liquid jet, and the temperature variation of liquid jets. The computer codes developed for HE calculation are structured so that they may be used for gas/liquid HE, too. Each type of HE that is dealt with is designed by accousting for a technical and an economic assessment. The liquid-lead jet spray is preferred to all other types because of its small space occupied and its simple design. It shall be used in near future in the HTR by the name of lead/helium HE. (GL) [de

  11. Preliminary Conceptual Design and Development of Core Technology of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kang, H. S.; Gil, C. S. and others

    2006-05-15

    For the nuclear hydrogen production system, the VHTR technology and the IS cycle technology are being developed. A comparative evaluation on the block type reactor and the pebble type reactor is performed to decide a proper nuclear hydrogen production reactor. 100MWt prismatic type reactor is tentatively decided and its safety characteristics are roughly investigated. Computation codes of nuclear design, thermo-fluid design, safety-performance analysis are developed and verified. Also, the development of a risk informed design technology is started. Experiments for metallic materials and graphites are carried out for the selection of materials of VHTR components. Diverse materials for process heat exchanger are studied in various corrosive environments. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating technology is developed and fuel manufacturing technology is basically established. Computer program is developed to evaluate the performance of coated particle fuels.

  12. Preliminary Conceptual Design and Development of Core Technology of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Kang, H. S.; Gil, C. S. and others

    2006-05-01

    For the nuclear hydrogen production system, the VHTR technology and the IS cycle technology are being developed. A comparative evaluation on the block type reactor and the pebble type reactor is performed to decide a proper nuclear hydrogen production reactor. 100MWt prismatic type reactor is tentatively decided and its safety characteristics are roughly investigated. Computation codes of nuclear design, thermo-fluid design, safety-performance analysis are developed and verified. Also, the development of a risk informed design technology is started. Experiments for metallic materials and graphites are carried out for the selection of materials of VHTR components. Diverse materials for process heat exchanger are studied in various corrosive environments. Pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating technology is developed and fuel manufacturing technology is basically established. Computer program is developed to evaluate the performance of coated particle fuels

  13. Some problems in the magnetohydrodynamics of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffatt, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    When electric currents are caused to flow in an electrically conducting fluid, either by the external application of time-periodic magnetic fields or by the application of large electric potential gradients at the boundary, the associated Lorentz force is in general rotational and a fluid motion, which may be laminar or turbulent, is in general established. Three prototype problems, on which some progress has been made over the last decade, are reviewed: (i) the problem of the generation of rotation in a liquid metal by the application of a rotating magnetic field; (ii) the generation of cellular motion by the application of an alternating field of fixed direction; and (iii) the problem of the generation of fluid motion by the injection of steady current at a point electrode on the fluid boundary. All three problems are of importance in molten metal technology. (author)

  14. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  15. Radionuclide trap for liquid metal cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1978-10-01

    At liquid metal cooled reactor operating temperatures, radioactive corrosion product transport and deposition in the primary system will be sufficiently high to limit access time for maintenance of system components. A radionuclide trap has been developed to aid in controlling radioactivity transport. This is a device which is located above the reactor core and which acts as a getter, physically immobilizing radioactive corrosion products, particularly 54 Mn. Nickel is the getter material used. It is most effective at temperatures above 450 0 C and effectiveness increases with increasing temperature. Prototype traps have been tested in sodium loops for 40,000 hours at reactor primary temperatures and sodium velocities. Several possible in-reactor trap sites were considered but a location within the top of each driver assembly was chosen as the most convenient and effective. In this position the trap is changed each time fuel is changed

  16. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; Thatcher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor in which the fuel assembly has an inner zone comprised mainly of fissile material and a surrounding outer zone comprised mainly of breeder material. According to the invention the sub-assemblies in the outer zone include electro-magnetic braking devices (magnets, pole pieces and armature) for regulating the flow of coolant through the sub-assemblies. The magnetic fields of the electro-magnetic breaking devices are temperature sensitive so that as the power output of the breeder sub-assemblies increases the electro-magnetic resistance to coolant flow is reduced thereby maintaining the temperature of the coolant outlets from the sub-assemblies substantially constant. (UK)

  17. Equilibrium of current driven rotating liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Zakharov, S.V.; Zakharov, V.S.; Livadny, A.O.; Serebrennikov, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    In view of great importance of magneto-rotational instability (MRI) as a fundamental mechanism for angular momentum transfer in magnetized stellar accretion disks, several research centers are involved in experimental study of MRI under laboratory conditions. The idea of the experiment is to investigate the rotation dynamics of well conducting liquid (liquid metal) between two cylinders in axial magnetic field. In this Letter, an experimental scheme with immovable cylinders and fluid rotation driven by radial current is considered. The analytical solution of a stationary flow was found taking into account the external current. Results of axially symmetric numerical simulations of current driven fluid dynamics in experimental setup geometry are presented. The analytical solution and numerical simulations show that the current driven fluid rotation in axial magnetic field provides the axially homogeneous velocity profile suitable for MRI study in classical statement

  18. Generation of electricity using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    With liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics, a column of molten lead is passed through a magnetic field, thereby generating a voltage potential according to Faraday's law. The molten lead is propelled through a closed loop by steam from water injected just above where the lead is heated at the bottom of the loop. This water in turn boils explosively, propelling the lead upward through the loop and past the point where the steam escapes through a separator. Electricity can be generated more efficiently from steam with LMMHD than with conventional turbines. With the DC current generated by LMMHD, industriell cogeneration is seen as the most likely application, where the byproduct steam still has enough pressure to also power other steam-driven machinery. Furthermore, the byproduct steam is essentially lead-free since the operating temperature of the LMMHD generator is well below the temperature where lead could dissolve into the steam. (orig.) [de

  19. Flow balancing in liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillack, M.S.; Morley, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-uniform flow distribution between parallel channels is one of the most serious concerns for self-cooled liquid metal blankets with electrically insulated walls. We show that uncertainties in flow distribution can be dramatically reduced by relatively simple design modifications. Several design features which impose flow uniformity by electrically coupling parallel channels are surveyed. Basic mechanisms for ''flow balancing'' are described, and a particular self-regulating concept using discrete passive electrodes is proposed for the US ITER advanced blanket concept. Scoping calculations suggest that this simple technique can be very powerful in equalizing the flow, even with massive insulator failures in individual channels. More detailed analyses and experimental verification will be required to demonstrate this concept for ITER. (orig.)

  20. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor base-technology program. Progress report, January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coobs, J.H.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-11-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: PCRV development, studies on structural materials, fission product technology studies, kernel migration and irradiated fuel chemistry, coolant chemistry (steam-graphite reactions), fuel qualification, and characterization and standardization of graphite

  1. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor base-technology program. Progress report, January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coobs, J.H.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-11-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: PCRV development, studies on structural materials, fission product technology studies, kernel migration and irradiated fuel chemistry, coolant chemistry (steam-graphite reactions), fuel qualification, and characterization and standardization of graphite.

  2. Liquid metals as electrodes in polymer light emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, G.G.; Gommans, H.H.P.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that liquid metals can be used as cathodes in light emitting diodes (pLEDs). The main difference between the use of liquid cathodes and evaporated cathodes is the sharpness of the metal–polymer interface. Liquid metal cathodes result in significantly sharper metal–organic interfaces

  3. Ionic imbalance induced self-propulsion of liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavabeti, Ali; Daeneke, Torben; Chrimes, Adam F.; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Zhen Ou, Jian; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2016-08-01

    Components with self-propelling abilities are important building blocks of small autonomous systems and the characteristics of liquid metals are capable of fulfilling self-propulsion criteria. To date, there has been no exploration regarding the effect of electrolyte ionic content surrounding a liquid metal for symmetry breaking that generates motion. Here we show the controlled actuation of liquid metal droplets using only the ionic properties of the aqueous electrolyte. We demonstrate that pH or ionic concentration gradients across a liquid metal droplet induce both deformation and surface Marangoni flow. We show that the Lippmann dominated deformation results in maximum velocity for the self-propulsion of liquid metal droplets and illustrate several key applications, which take advantage of such electrolyte-induced motion. With this finding, it is possible to conceive the propulsion of small entities that are constructed and controlled entirely with fluids, progressing towards more advanced soft systems.

  4. Method of charging instruments into liquid metal coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the thermal shock of a reactor charging machine when charging the machine into liquid metal coolant after the machine is preheated in cover gas. Method: When a reactor fueling machine reaches at the lowermost portion the position immediately above liquid metal coolant surface level, the machine is stopped moving down. The reactor fueling machine is heated at the lowermost portion by thermal radiation from the surface of the liquid metal coolant. After the machine is thus preheated in cover gas, it is again steadily moved down by a winch and charged into the liquid metal coolant. Therefore, the thermal shock of the machine becomes low when charging the machine into the liquid metal coolant to eliminate the damage and deformation at the machine. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Microstructured liquid metal electron and ion sources (MILMES/MILMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterauer, J [Technische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Institut fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Elektronik

    1997-12-31

    Ion or electron beams can be emitted from liquid metal wetted needles, or from capillaries or slits into which the liquid metal is allowed to flow. Large-area liquid metal field emission sources have been proposed recently, using either two-dimensional, regular arrays of cones or capillaries, or even a substrate with an intrinsically microstructured surface covered by a liquid metal film. This latter concept has been realized in a pilot experiment by in situ wicking and wetting of a porous sintered metal disc. Microstructured liquid metal ion or electron sources are capable of operating in a pulsed mode at a current level which is orders of magnitude above that for steady-state operation. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs.

  6. Archive-cup insert for liquid-metal sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Kolba, V.M.; Filewicz, E.C.; Holmes, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    An insert for collecting liquid-metal samples within a vertical casing including an elongated housing with an upper and a lower overflow seal of annular shape is described. The lower seal includes a centrally located pedestal on which a sample cup is disposed. Liquid metal enters the annulus of the upper seal and overflows into the cup which fills and overflows into the lower seal. Liquid-metal overflow from the lower seal is discharged from the insert. On cooling, the liquid metal trapped within the seals solidifies to hermetically isolate the metal sample within the cup. The device is particularly applicable for use with sampling systems on liquid metal-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  7. Fluxless Bonding Processes Using Silver-Indium System for High Temperature Electronics and Silver Flip-Chip Interconnect Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Yun

    successful bonding. In this section, we further studied the Ag-In bonding and solid-state bonding for different bonded pairs and flip-chip application. For the silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) pair, Al has been used as the material for interconnect pads on the ICs. However, its high CTE (23 x 10-6/°C) and non-solderable property limit its applications in electronic products. To overcome these problems, a fluxless Ag-In bonding was developed. Al was deposited Cr/Cu layer on the surface by E-beam evaporator to make it solderable. 15 um of Ag and 8 um of In were sequentially plated on the Al substrates and 15 um of Ag was on Si chips with Cr/Au coating layer. The bonding was performed at 180 °C in 0.1 torr vacuum. The joint consists of Ag/(Ag)/Ag2In/(Ag)/Ag. The joint can achieve a solidus temperature of beyond 600 °C. From shear test results, the shear strengths far exceed the requirement in MIL-STD-883H. Al is not considered as a favorable substrate material because it is not solderable and has a high CTE. The new method presented in this thesis seems to have surmounted these two challenges. Since Ag2In is weak inside the joint in Ag-In system, an annealed process was used to convert the joints into Ag solid solution (Ag) to increase the joint strength and ductility. Two copper (Cu) substrates were bonded at 180 °C without flux. Bonding samples were annealed at 200 °C for 1,000 hours (first design) and at 250 °C for 350 hours (second design), respectively. Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis results indicate that the joint of the first design is an alloy of mostly (Ag) with micron-size Ag2In and Ag3In regions, and that of second design has converted to a single (Ag) phase. Shear test results show that the breaking forces far exceed the requirement in MIL-STD-883H. The joint solidus temperatures are 600 °C and 800 °C for the first and second designs, respectively. The research results have shown that high-strength and high temperature

  8. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, Lars; Nauber, Richard; Burger, Markus; Czarske, Jürgen; Räbiger, Dirk; Franke, Sven; Eckert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies. (paper)

  9. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Nauber, Richard; Burger, Markus; Räbiger, Dirk; Franke, Sven; Eckert, Sven; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies.

  10. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M A; Khodak, A; Kaita, R

    2013-01-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m −2 , no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh–Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments. (paper)

  11. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Khodak, A.; Kaita, R.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments.

  12. Hydrodynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant processes and filtering apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert K Papovyants; Yuri I Orlov; Pyotr N Martynov; Yuri D Boltoev

    2005-01-01

    to S ≤ 0,2 d p . It is demonstrated that the filtration efficiency can be significantly influenced by the properties of the capillary-porous structure of the filter material: the fiber diameter, type of braiding providing the availability of stagnant zones, porosity and wetting angle. With some simplifying prerequisites, the evaluation of the dynamics of the sedimentation growth on the porous partition has been performed as a function of time. Analysis of the conditions of the hydrodynamic separation of filter entrained particles (d p ≅ 2 μm) by the coolant flow revealed that to realize this process, it is necessary that the wall flow velocity be about V = 0,2 m/s. The object of investigations was a broad class of filter materials, including metallo-ceramics, metallic grids, carbon cloth, glass-fibers, needle-pierced cloth made of metallic fibers, grainy materials (made of aluminium oxides). By the complex of technical characteristics, with the thermal stability, cleaning efficiency (fineness), impurity retention capacity and hydraulic resistance considered, the multi-layer siliceous textured cloth (SiO 2 >95%, t 400 deg. C) and needle-pierced cloth made of 40 μm-d. metallic fibers (X18H10T steel, t ≤ 400-550 deg. C) are recommended for HLMC cleaning. The routine monitoring of the filter operation is implemented based on its resistance and the reduction of the flow rate through the filter, induced by its clogging by impurities, the clogging being dependent on the concentration of suspensions in coolant. The investigations as conducted made it possible to construct high temperature filter specimens, including those for an output capacity of 900 m 3 /h, in reference to operation and maintenance conditions of heavy liquid metal cooled nuclear power installations. (authors)

  13. Study on liquid-metal MHD power generation system with two-phase natural circulation. Applicability to fast reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaki

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility study of the liquid-metal MHD power generation system combined with the high-density two-phase natural circulation has been performed for the applicability to the simple, autonomic energy conversion system of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. The present system has many promising aspects not only in the energy conversion process, but also in safety and economical improvements of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. For example, the high cycle efficiency can be expected because of the similarity of the present cycle to the Ericsson cycle. Sodium-Water Interaction problem can be excluded by proper combination of the working fluids. As the economical feature, the present system is so simple that the liquid-metal main circular pump, the steam turbine generator, and even the steam generator can be excluded if the thermodynamic working fluid is injected directly into the high temperature liquid metal MHD working fluid. In addition, the present system has the potential to be applied to various heat sources including solar energy because of the high flexibility of the operation temperature. In the present paper, as the first step of the feasibility study, the cycle analyses were performed to examine the effects of the main system parameters on the fundamental characteristics of the system. It is found that the cycle efficiency of the present system is enough competitive with that of the conventional steam turbine system. It is, however, found that the cycle efficiency depends strongly on the gas-liquid slip ratio in the two-phase flow channel. As the conclusions, it is recommended to perform experimental study to obtain the fundamental data, such as the gas-liquid slip ratio in the high-density liquid-metal two-phase natural circulation. (author)

  14. Surface studies of liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasz, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metals and alloys have been proposed for use in nuclear fusion reactors to serve as replaceable plasma-facing surfaces that remove particles and heat from reacting plasmas. Several materials are being considered for this purpose including lithium, gallium, and tin as well as some of the alloys made from these elements. In order to better understand the properties of liquid surfaces, the technique of low-energy ion scattering was used to examine the surface composition of several of these materials in vacuum as a function of temperature. Oxygen is found to rapidly segregate to the surface of several metallic liquids. The segregation process can be interpreted using a simple thermodynamic model based on Gibbs theory. In the case of an alloy of Sn and Li, Li also segregates to the liquid surface. This provides a means to produce a surface enriched in Li, which is more plasma compatible than Sn, without the need to handle large quantities of liquid Li. (author)

  15. Dynamic stabilization of imploding liquid metal liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki; Fujiie, Yoichi

    1979-01-01

    The rotational stabilization has been proposed against the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the imploding liquid metal liner. In this paper, the discussion is made on the possibility of the dynamic stabilization by applying the oscillating azimuthal magnetic field in addition to the axial field. In contrast to the rotational stabilization, the required (field) energy for this stabilization is also used for the liner driving or the plasma confinement. In the analysis, the liner subjected to the acceleration is assumed to be infinitely long, at rest and have the situation at the start of the implosion or turnaround. At turnaround, the existence of the plasma is taken into account. The perturbed motion of the liner is discussed with a linear stability analysis. Results are as follows: (1) The dynamic stabilization at the start of the implosion is possible if the distance from the conducting wall to the liner outer surface is comparable with or less than the liner thickness. (2) At turnaround, the stability is improved with decreasing the ratio of the plasma radius to that of the liner inner surface however the kink mode (m = 1) cannot be suppressed. (author)

  16. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.; Gegenheimer, M.

    1984-11-01

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.) [de

  17. Liquid metal coolant flow rate regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkovskij, I.V.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Smirnov, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Some aspects of fast reactor and experimental bench operation related to liquid metal flow rate regulation are considered. Requirements to the devices for the flow rate regulation are formulated. A new type of these devices namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) throttles is described. Structural peculiarities of MHD throttles of different types are described as well. It is noted that the MHD throttles with a screw channel have the best energy mass indices. On the basis of the comparison of the MHD throttles with mechanical valves it is concluded that the MHD throttles described are useful for regulating the flow rates of any working media. Smoothness and accuracy of the flow rate regulation by the throttles are determined by the electric control circuit and may be practically anyone. The total coefficient of hydraulic losses in the throttle channel in the absence of a magnetic field is ten and more times lesser than in completely open mechanical valve. Electromagnetic time constant of the MHD throttles does not exceed several tenths of a second [ru

  18. Production of Liquid Metal Spheres by Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G. Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a molding technique for producing spheres composed of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn with diameters ranging from hundreds of microns to a couple millimeters. The technique starts by spreading EGaIn across an elastomeric sheet featuring cylindrical reservoirs defined by replica molding. The metal flows into these features during spreading. The spontaneous formation of a thin oxide layer on the liquid metal keeps the metal flush inside these reservoirs. Subsequent exposure to acid removes the oxide and causes the metal to bead up into a sphere with a size dictated by the volume of the reservoirs. This technique allows for the production and patterning of droplets with a wide range of volumes, from tens of nanoliters up to a few microliters. EGaIn spheres can be embedded or encased subsequently in polymer matrices using this technique. These spheres may be useful as solder bumps, electrodes, thermal contacts or components in microfluidic devices (valves, switches, pumps. The ease of parallel-processing and the ability to control the location of the droplets during their formation distinguishes this technique.

  19. Turbulent temperature fluctuations in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawn, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    Examination of experimental data for the spectral distribution of velocity (u and v) and temperature (theta) fluctuations in the fully turbulent region of heated pipe-flow has suggested a schematic representation which incorporates the essential features. Evidence is cited to suggest that the -vtheta correlation coefficient maintains higher values that the uv coefficient at wave-numbers in the inertial subrange. The theory of Batchelor, Howells and Townsend, and limited evidence from experiments in mercury, then suggests the form of the theta 2 spectra and -vtheta cross-spectra in liquid metals. From this information, a limiting Peclet number is deduced, above which the correlation coefficient of v and theta should be a fairly weak function of Pe alone. An attempt to check this inference from published data for the RMS level of temperature fluctuations, and for the turbulent Prandtl number, proves inconclusive, because many of the correlation coefficients so estimated have values greater than unity. It is concluded that all these results for theta tilde must therefore be in error. However, since there is no evidence of very low correlation coefficients, they almost certainly lie in the range 0.5 multiply/divide 2 over a large proportion of the radius. Thus theta tilde can be estimated for any fluid in which the fluctuations are induced by uniform heating, at least to within a factor of 2, using the analysis presented. (author)

  20. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Jerry D [Reactor Systems Development and Technology, Office of Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Horton, Kenneth E [Division of International Programs, Office of Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  1. Status of liquid metal reactor development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, Jerry D.; Horton, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear power research and development program continues to focus on advanced large and mid-size light water reactors, advanced liquid metal fast reactors, and modular high temperature gas cooled reactors. This paper discusses the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor program, which is composed of a small, passively safe fast reactor coupled with a metal fuel cycle that incorporates actinide recycle, and an emerging effort to process LWR spent fuel for LMR fissile material, and to enhance the LWR waste management. The liquid metal reactor concept has a sound technology base, with some three decades of research and development both in this and other countries. An existing network of government and industry research facilities and engineering test centers in the United States is currently providing test capabilities and the technical expertise required to conduct an aggressive advanced reactor development program. Notable among the research facilities is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-Il (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Idaho and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. Subsequent to the DOE directive to shut down the Fast Flux Test Facility in early 1990, significant effort was placed in finding international financial support for this reactor. This initiative was not successful. Therefore, although there may be a potential future mission for the FFTF, the Secretary of Energy announced on March 13, 1992 that the FFTF will be put in a standby condition starting April 1, 1992. Current U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) activity is focused on providing a reactor and fuel cycle system with improved safety margins, better economics, and an attractive waste management (actinide recycle) option. Special attention is being directed to passive safety features, large design margins, modular plant construction, standardized plant design leading to simplified licensing and shorter construction schedules, factory fabrication

  2. Diverse transformations of liquid metals between different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-10

    Transformation from a film into a sphere, rapid merging of separate objects, controlled self-rotation, and planar locomotion are the very unusual phenomena observed in liquid metals under application of an electric field to a liquid metal immersed in or sprayed with water. A mechanism for these effects is suggested and potential applications - for example the recovery of liquid metal previously injected into the body for therapeutic purposes - are outlined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Dynamic interactions of Leidenfrost droplets on liquid metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yujie; Liu, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Leidenfrost dynamic interaction effects of the isopentane droplets on the surface of heated liquid metal were disclosed. Unlike conventional rigid metal, such conductive and deformable liquid metal surface enables the levitating droplets to demonstrate rather abundant and complex dynamics. The Leidenfrost droplets at different diameters present diverse morphologies and behaviors like rotation and oscillation. Depending on the distance between the evaporating droplets, they attract and repulse each other through the curved surfaces beneath them and their vapor flows. With high boiling point up to 2000 °C, liquid metal offers a unique platform for testing the evaporating properties of a wide variety of liquid even solid.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic instability of a cylindrical liquid-metal brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.H.; Wilhelm, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of a homopolar generator brush, consisting of a liquid-metal-filled cavity between rotating (rotor) and fixed (stator) cylinder electrodes, is analyzed in the presence of radial current transport and an axial homogeneous magnetic field. Within the frame of linear magnetohydrodynamics, it is shown that the liquid-metal flow in the brush is always unstable if the brush transports current. In the absence of current flow (infinite load) the axial magnetic field stabilizes the liquid-metal flow in the brush if the magnetic energy density is larger than a certain fraction of the energy density of the rotating fluid

  5. The coalescence of heterogeneous liquid metal on nano substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Li, Yifan; Zhou, Xuyan; Li, Tao; Li, Hui

    2017-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to study the asymmetric coalescence of heterogeneous liquid metal on graphene. Simulation results show that the anomalies in the drop coalescence is mainly caused by the wettability of heterogeneous liquid metal. The silver atoms incline to distribute on the outer layer of the gold and copper droplets, revealing that the structure is determined by the interaction between different metal atoms. The coalescence and fusion of heterogeneous liquid metal drop can be predicted by comparing the wettability and the atomic mass of metallic liquid drops, which has important implications in the industrial application such as ink-jet printing and metallurgy.

  6. Investigation of the influence on residual stresses of porosity in high temperature ZrO2 coatings on Ag tape for magnet technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arman, Yusuf; Aktas, Mehmet; Celik, Erdal; Mutlu, Ibrahim H.; Sayman, Onur

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports on the effect on residual stresses of porosity in high temperature ZrO 2 coatings on Ag tape for magnet technologies. ZrO 2 coatings were fabricated on Ag tape substrate using a reel-to-reel sol-gel system. The microstructural evolution of high temperature ZrO 2 coatings was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM observations revealed that ZrO 2 coatings with crack had some porosity and mosaic structure. Stress analysis was carried out on ZrO 2 coatings with porosity on Ag tape substrates under cryogenic conditions by using classical lamination theory (CLT) for elastic solution and finite element method (FEM) for elasto-plastic solution in the temperature range of 0 o C to -223 o C in liquid helium media. Because of the static equilibrium, tensile force is applied to the Ag substrate, by ZrO 2 coating. The stress component (σ x ) values change rapidly at coating-substrate interface owing to the different moduli of elasticity and thermal expansion coefficient. In spite of the thickness of Ag substrate, the stress components vary from tensile to compressive. In addition, along the thickness of ZrO 2 coating and Ag substrate system, the stress distribution changes linearly. FEM results demonstrate that the failure does not occur in ZrO 2 coating for all porosities due to its high yield strength

  7. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  8. High temperature refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator is described which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle the working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot

  9. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  10. Turbulent convection in liquid metal with and without rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eric M; Aurnou, Jonathan M

    2013-04-23

    The magnetic fields of Earth and other planets are generated by turbulent, rotating convection in liquid metal. Liquid metals are peculiar in that they diffuse heat more readily than momentum, quantified by their small Prandtl numbers, Pr rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection experiments in the liquid metal gallium (Pr = 0.025) over a range of nondimensional buoyancy forcing (Ra) and rotation periods (E). Our primary diagnostic is the efficiency of convective heat transfer (Nu). In general, we find that the convective behavior of liquid metal differs substantially from that of moderate Pr fluids, such as water. In particular, a transition between rotationally constrained and weakly rotating turbulent states is identified, and this transition differs substantially from that observed in moderate Pr fluids. This difference, we hypothesize, may explain the different classes of magnetic fields observed on the Gas and Ice Giant planets, whose dynamo regions consist of Pr 1 fluids, respectively.

  11. Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

  12. Blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor with liquid- metal cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, I.K.; Fedorovich, E.P.; Paramonov, P.M.; Zhokhov, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Blanket design of a hybrid thermopuclear reactor with a liquid metal coolant is described. To decrease MHD-resistance for uranium zone fuel elements a cylindrical shape is suggested and movement of liquid-metal coolant in fuel element packets is presumed to be in perpendicular to the magnetic field and fuel element axes direction. The first wall is cooled by water, blanket-by lithium-lead alloy

  13. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  14. Liquid metal actuation by electrical control of interfacial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Dickey, Michael D., E-mail: michael-dickey@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    By combining metallic electrical conductivity with low viscosity, liquid metals and liquid metal alloys offer new and exciting opportunities to serve as reconfigurable components of electronic, microfluidic, and electromagnetic devices. Here, we review the physics and applications of techniques that utilize voltage to manipulate the interfacial tension of liquid metals; such techniques include electrocapillarity, continuous electrowetting, electrowetting-on-dielectric, and electrochemistry. These techniques lower the interfacial tension between liquid metals and a surrounding electrolyte by driving charged species (or in the case of electrochemistry, chemical species) to the interface. The techniques are useful for manipulating and actuating liquid metals at sub-mm length scales where interfacial forces dominate. We focus on metals and alloys that are liquid near or below room temperature (mercury, gallium, and gallium-based alloys). The review includes discussion of mercury—despite its toxicity—because it has been utilized in numerous applications and it offers a way of introducing several phenomena without the complications associated with the oxide layer that forms on gallium and its alloys. The review focuses on the advantages, applications, opportunities, challenges, and limitations of utilizing voltage to control interfacial tension as a method to manipulate liquid metals.

  15. Thermal management of Li-ion battery with liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao-Hu; Tan, Si-Cong; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid metal is used for power battery pack thermal management. • Better cooling performance and more uniform module temperature is obtained. • Less power consumption is needed. • The proposed liquid metal cooling system is robust and can cope with stressful conditions. - Abstract: Thermal management especially cooling of electric vehicles (EVs) battery pack is of great significance for guaranteeing the performance of the cells as well as safety and high-efficiency working of the EVs. Liquid cooling is a powerful way to keep the battery temperature in a proper range. However, the efficiency of conventional liquid cooling is still limited due to the inherently low thermal conductivity of the coolant which is usually water or aqueous ethanol. In this paper, a new kind of coolant, liquid metal, is proposed to be used for the thermal management of the battery pack. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate the cooling capability, pump power consumption and module temperature uniformity of the liquid metal cooling system, in comparison with that of water cooling. The results show that under the same flow conditions, a lower and more uniform module temperature can be obtained and less pump power consumption are needed in the liquid metal cooling system. In addition, liquid metal has an excellent cooling capability coping with stressful conditions, such as high power draw, defects in cells, and high ambient temperature. This makes it a promising coolant for the thermal management of high driving force EVs and quick charge batteries.

  16. Exploring liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) concepts-Liquid metal film flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, M.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.; Morley, N.B.; Ni, M.; Miraghaie, R.; Burris, J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of fast moving liquid metal streams or 'liquid walls' as a plasma contact surface is a very attractive option and has been looked upon with considerable interest over the past several years, both by the plasma physics and fusion engineering programs. Flowing liquid walls provide an ever replenishing contact surface to the plasma, leading to very effective particle pumping and surface heat flux removal. A key feasibility issue for flowing liquid metal plasma facing component (PFC) systems, pertains to their magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) behavior under the spatially varying magnetic field environment, typical of a fusion device. MHD forces hinder the development of a smooth and controllable liquid metal flow needed for PFC applications. The present study builds up on the ongoing research effort at UCLA, directed towards providing qualitative and quantitative data on liquid metal free surface flow behavior under fusion relevant magnetic fields

  17. Conceptual design of the liquid metal laboratory of the TECHNOFUSION facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abánades, A.; García, A.; Casal, N.; Perlado, J.M.; Ibarra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Conceptual design of a liquid Li facility. ► Components and cost estimation. ► Liquid metal laboratory into TEHNOFUSION proposal. - Abstract: The application of liquid metal technology in fusion devices requires R and D related to many phenomena: interaction between liquid metals and structural material as corrosion, erosion and passivation techniques; magneto-hydrodynamics; free surface fluid-dynamics and any other physical aspect that will be needed for their safe reliable operation. In particular, there is a significant shortage of experimental facilities dedicated to the development of the lithium technology. In the framework of the TECHNOFUSION project, an experimental laboratory devoted to the lithium technology development is proposed, in order to shed some light in the path to IFMIF and the design of chamber's first wall and divertors. The conceptual design foresee a development in two stages, the first one consisting on a material testing loop. The second stage proposes the construction of a mock-up of the IFMIF target that will allow to assess the behaviour of a free-surface lithium target under vacuum conditions. In this paper, such conceptual design is addressed.

  18. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors of the 'pool' kind. In this type of reactor the irradiated fuel is lowered into a transfer rotor for removal to storage facilities, this rotor normally having provision for the temporary storage of 20 irradiated fuel assemblies, each within a stainless steel bucket. For insertion or withdrawal of a fuel assembly the rotor is rotated to bring the fuel assembly to a loading or discharging station. The irradiated fuel assembly is withdrawn from the rotor within its bucket and the total weight is approximately 1000 kg, which is lifted about 27 m. In the event of malfunction the combination falls back into the rotor with considerable force. In order to prevent damage to the rotor fracture pins are provided, and to prevent damage to the reactor vessel and other parts of the reactor structure deformable energy absorbing devices are provided. After a malfunction the fractured pins and the energy absorbing devices must be replaced by remote control means operated from outside the reactor vault - a complex operation. The object of the arrangement described is to provide improved energy absorbing means for fuel assemblies falling into a fuel transfer rotor. The fuel assemblies are supported in the rotor by elastic means during transfer to storage and a hydraulic dash pot is provided in at least one position below the rotor for absorbing the energy of a falling fuel assembly. It is preferable to provide dash pots immediately below a receiving station for irradiated fuel assemblies and immediately below a discharge station. Each bucket is carried in a container that is elastically supported in the transfer rotor on a helical coil compression spring, so that, in the event of a malfunction the container and bucket are returned to their normal operating position after the force of the falling load has been absorbed by the dash pot. The transfer rotor may also be provided with recoil springs to absorb the recoil energy

  19. Steam water cycle chemistry of liquid metal cooled innovative nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurmanov, Victor; Lemekhov, Vadim; Smykov, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    The Federal Target Program (FTP) of Russian Federation 'Nuclear Energy Technologies of the New Generation for 2010-2015 and for Perspective up to 2020' is aimed at development of advanced nuclear energy technologies on the basis of closed fuel cycle with fast reactors. There are advanced fast reactor technologies of the 4. generation with liquid metal cooled reactors. Development stages of maturity of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia includes experimental reactors BR-5/10 (1958-2002) and BOR-60 (since 1969), nuclear power plants (NPPs) with BN-350 (1972-1999), BN-600 (since 1980), BN-800 (under construction), BN-1200 (under development). Further stage of development of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia is commercialization. Lead-bismuth eutectic fast reactor technology has been proven at industrial scale for nuclear submarines in former Soviet Union. Lead based technology is currently under development and need for experimental justification. Current status and prospects of State Corporation 'Rosatom' participation in GIF activities was clarified at the 31. Meeting of Policy Group of the International Forum 'Generation-IV', Moscow, May 12-13, 2011. In June, 2010, 'Rosatom' joined the Sodium Fast Reactor Arrangement as an authorized representative of the Russian Government. It was also announced the intention of 'Rosatom' to sign the Memorandum on Lead Fast Reactor based on Russia's experience with lead-bismuth and lead cooled fast reactors. In accordance with the above FTP some innovative liquid metal cooled reactors of different design are under development in Russia. Gidropress, well known as WER designer, develops innovative lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactor SVBR-100. NIKIET develops innovative lead cooled reactor BRESTOD-300. Some other nuclear scientific centres are also involved in this activity, e.g. Research and Development Institute for Power Engineering (RDIPE). Optimum

  20. Evaluating advanced LMR [liquid metal reactor] reactivity feedbacks using SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of the PRISM and SAFR Liquid Metal Reactors with SSC are discussed from a safety and licensing perspective. The PRISM and SAFR reactors with metal fuel are designed for inherent shutdown responses to loss-of-flow and loss-of-heat-sink events. The demonstration of this technology was performed by EBR-II during experiments in April 1986 by ANL (Planchon, et al.). Response to postulated TOPs (control rod withdrawal) are made acceptable largely by reducing reactivity swings, and therefore minimizing the size of possible ractivity insertions. Analyses by DOE and the contractors GE, RI, and ANL take credit for several reactivity feedback mechanisms during transient calculations. These feedbacks include Doppler, sodium density, and thermal expansion of the grid plates, the load pads, the fuel (axial) and the control rod which are now factored into the BNL SSC analyses. The bowing feedback mechanism is not presently modeled in the SSC due to its complexity and subsequent large uncertainty. The analysis is conservative by not taking credit for this negative feedback mechanism. Comparisons of BNL predictions with DOE contractors are provided

  1. High temperature niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Niobium alloys are currently being used in various high temperature applications such as rocket propulsion, turbine engines and lighting systems. This paper presents an overview of the various commercial niobium alloys, including basic manufacturing processes, properties and applications. Current activities for new applications include powder metallurgy, coating development and fabrication of advanced porous structures for lithium cooled heat pipes

  2. High Temperature Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elder, Rachael; Cumming, Denis; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide, or co-electrolysis of carbon dioxide and steam, has a great potential for carbon dioxide utilisation. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC), operating between 500 and 900. °C, is used to reduce carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide. If steam is also i...

  3. High-temperature flaw assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, M.B.; Takahashi, Y.; Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Described is the background work performed jointly by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in Japan and Nuclear Electric plc in the United Kingdom with the purpose of developing a high-temperature flaw assessment procedure for reactor components. Existing creep-fatigue crack-growth models are reviewed, and the most promising methods are identified. Sources of material data are outlined, and results of the fundamental deformation and crack-growth tests are discussed. Results of subcritical crack-growth exploratory tests, creep-fatigue crack-growth tests under repeated thermal transient conditions, and exploratory failure tests are presented and contrasted with the analytical modeling. Crack-growth assessment methods are presented and applied to a typical liquid-metal reactor component. The research activities presented herein served as a foundation for the Flaw Assessment Guide for High-Temperature Reactor Components Subjected to Creep-Fatigue Loading published separately. 30 refs., 108 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Advanced High-Temperature Reactor for Production of Electricity and Hydrogen: Molten-Salt-Coolant, Graphite-Coated-Particle-Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is to provide the very high temperatures necessary to enable low-cost (1) efficient thermochemical production of hydrogen and (2) efficient production of electricity. The proposed AHTR uses coated-particle graphite fuel similar to the fuel used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs), such as the General Atomics gas turbine-modular helium reactor (GT-MHR). However, unlike the MHTGRs, the AHTR uses a molten salt coolant with a pool configuration, similar to that of the PRISM liquid metal reactor. A multi-reheat helium Brayton (gas-turbine) cycle, with efficiencies >50%, is used to produce electricity. This approach (1) minimizes requirements for new technology development and (2) results in an advanced reactor concept that operates at essentially ambient pressures and at very high temperatures. The low-pressure molten-salt coolant, with its high heat capacity and natural circulation heat transfer capability, creates the potential for (1) exceptionally robust safety (including passive decay-heat removal) and (2) allows scaling to large reactor sizes [∼1000 Mw(e)] with passive safety systems to provide the potential for improved economics

  5. On the capillary restriction in start-up regimes of liquid metal evaporation from capillary-porous surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosvetov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Evaporation of liquid metals from capillary-porous structures is one of the most effective methods of surface cooling, to which essential heat quantity is delivered at high temperatures. The paper deals with heat flux limitation, caused by incapability of core capillary forces to overcome pressure differential in heat carrier circulation shape in such evaporation regimes, when average length of free path of vapour molecule exceeds core cell size. Suggested are theoretical correlations for determination of critical heat flux density and temperature of liquid surface in starting regimes of liquid metal evaporation from rectangular slots and compound cores with screens made of foil with round perforations. The catculative and experimental values of critical heat flux density in starting regimes of sodium evaporation from rectangular slots satisfactorily agree with each other

  6. Review of the critical heat flux correlations for liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Han, H. D.; Chang, W. P.; Kwon, Y. M.

    1999-09-01

    The CHF phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal reactor (LMR). Especially in the LWR application, many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed over the past three decades. Most of the existing CHF correlations have been developed for light water reactor core applications. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture of boiling pattern. This can be attributed to the consequence that special CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. Numerous liquid metal boiling heat transfer and two-phase flow studies have put emphasis on development of models and understanding of the mechanism for improving the CHF predictions. Thus far, no overall analytical solution method has been obtained and the reliable prediction method has remained empirical. The principal objectives of the present report are to review the state of the art in connection with liquid metal critical heat flux under low pressure and low flow conditions and to discuss the basic mechanisms. (author)

  7. Emergency cooling system for a liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Ryoichi; Fujiwara, Toshikatsu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To suitably cool liquid metal as coolant in emergency in a liquid metal cooled reactor by providing a detector for the pressure loss of the liquid metal passing through a cooling device in a loop in which the liquid metal is flowed and communicating the detector with a coolant flow regulator. Constitution: A nuclear reactor is stopped in nuclear reaction by control element or the like in emergency. If decay heat is continuously generated for a while and secondary coolant is insufficiently cooled with water or steam flowed through a steam and water loop, a cooler is started. That is, low temperature air is supplied by a blower through an inlet damper to the cooler to cool the secondary coolant flowed into the cooler through a bypass pipe so as to finally safely stop an entire plant. Since the liquid metal is altered in its physical properties by the temperature at this time, it is detected to regulate the opening of the valve of the damper according to the detected value. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Investigating liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel by fracture toughness tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersoy, Feyzan, E-mail: fersoy@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052, Ghent (Belgium); Gavrilov, Serguei [SCK-CEN (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre), Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Verbeken, Kim [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University (UGent), Technologiepark 903, B-9052, Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Heavy liquid metals such as lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) are chosen as the coolant to innovative Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors where ferritic/martensitic T91 steel is a candidate material for high temperature applications. It is known that LBE has a degrading effect on the mechanical properties of this steel. This degrading effect, which is known as liquid metal embrittlement (LME), has been screened by several tests such as tensile and small punch tests, and was most severe in the temperature range from 300 °C to 425 °C. To meet the design needs, mechanical properties such as fracture toughness should be addressed by corresponding tests. For this reason liquid-metal embrittlement of T91 steel was investigated by fracture toughness tests at 350 °C. Tests were conducted in Ar-5%H{sub 2} and LBE under the same experimental conditions Tests in Ar-5%H{sub 2} were used as reference. The basic procedure in the ASTM E 1820 standard was followed to perform tests and the normalization data reduction (NDR) method was used for the analysis. Comparison of the tests demonstrated that the elastic–plastic fracture toughness (J{sub 1C}) of the material was reduced by a factor in LBE and the fracture mode changed from ductile to quasi-cleavage. It was also shown that the pre-cracking environment played an important role in observing LME of the material since it impacts the contact conditions between LBE and steel at the crack tip. It was demonstrated that when specimens were pre-cracked in air and tested in LBE, wetting of the crack surface by LBE could not be achieved. When specimens were pre-cracked in LBE though, they showed a significant reduction in fracture toughness.

  9. High-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1987-07-01

    After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Experimental research and development of main circulation pump bearings in reactor plants using heavy liquid-metal coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zudin, A.; Beznosov, A.; Chernysh, A.; Prikazchikov, G.

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, specialists in Russia are engaged in designing the BREST-OD-300 fast neutron lead-coolant reactor plant. There is currently no experience in designing and operating axial pumps of lead-coolant reactor plants, including one of their major units – bearing unit. Selection and substantiation of operating and structural parameters of plain friction bearings used in main circulation pumps of reactor plants running on heavy liquid-metal coolants are important tasks that are solved at the NNSTU. Development of a feasible procedure for designing bearings and its components operating within the structure of the main circulation pump of a reactor plant running on a heavy liquid-metal coolant as well as guidelines for an optimized structural scheme of such bearings set a goal of performing a range of theoretically-calculated and experimental works. The report contains testing data of a hydrostatic bearing with reciprocal fricative choking tested on the NNSTU FT-4 bench running on a lead coolant within the range of 420-500degC. There have been presented a scheme of a bench for testing a contact friction bearing on a high-temperature coolant and the results of investigation tests of bearings of such type at T = 450 ÷ 500degC. Material of the bearing sleeve is steel 08X18H10T, and a possibility is provided with regard to installation of the bearing sleeves and shaft made of non-metal materials (ceramic materials, silicified graphite, etc.). The presented testing data of plain friction bearings operating in a high-temperature heavy liquid-metal coolant will serve as a ground for making an alternative choice of a plain friction bearing for the main circulation pump of a reactor plant running on a heavy liquid-metal coolant. (author)

  11. Development of the prediction technology of cable disconnection of in-core neutron detector for the future high-temperature gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yosuke; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Taiki; Suzuki, Hisashi; Shinohara, Masanori; Honda, Yuki; Katsuyama, Kozo; Takada, Shoji; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance technologies for the reactor system have been developed by using the high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). One of the important purposes of development is to accumulate the experiences and data to satisfy the availability of operation up to 90% by shortening the duration of the periodical maintenance for the future HTGRs by shifting from the time-based maintenance to condition-based maintenance. The technical issue of the maintenance of in-core neutron detector, wide range monitor (WRM), is to predict the malfunction caused by cable disconnection to plan the replacement schedule. This is because that it is difficult to observe directly inside of the WRM in detail. The electrical inspection method was proposed to detect and predict the cable disconnection of the WRM by remote monitoring from outside of the reactor by using the time domain reflectometry and so on. The disconnection position, which was specified by the electrical method, was identified by non-destructive and destructive inspection. The accumulated data is expected to be contributed for advanced maintenance of future HTGRs. (author)

  12. A large economic liquid metal reactor for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, E.

    1985-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated its ability to build and operate small and medium sized liquid metal reactors and continues to operate the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate long life fuel designs. Similar-sized liquid metal reactors in Europe have been followed by a step-up to the 1200 MWe capacity of the Superphenix plant. To permit the United States to make a similar step-up in capacity, a 1320 MWe liquid metal reactor plant has been designed with the main emphasis on minimizing the specific capital cost in order to be competitive with light water reactor plant and fossil plant alternatives. The design is based on a four parallel heat transport loops arrangement and complies with current regulatory requirements. The primary heat transport loops are now being integrated into the reactor vessel to achieve further reduction in the capital cost

  13. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  14. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced

  15. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongseob Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm to 6.4 cm.

  16. Liquid metal flow control by DC electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo Madeira; Braz Filho, Francisco Antonio; Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso

    2006-01-01

    The cooling system of high-density thermal power requires fluids of high thermal conductivity, such as liquid metals. Electromagnetic pumps can be used to liquid metal fluid flow control in cooling circuits. The operation of electromagnetic pumps used to flow control is based on Lorentz force. This force can be achieved by magnetic field and electric current interaction, controlled by external independent power supplies. This work presents the electromagnetic pump operational principles, the IEAv development scheme and the BEMC-1 simulation code. The theoretical results of BEMC-1 simulation are compared to electromagnetic pump operation experimental data, validating the BEMC-1 code. This code is used to evaluate the DC electromagnetic pump performance applied to Mercury flow control and others liquid metal such as Sodium, Lead and Bismuth, used in nuclear fast reactors. (author)

  17. Technology assessment HTR. Part 6. The radiological risks associated with the thorium-fuelled High Temperature Reactor. A comparative risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.; Van Hienen, J.F.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the results of task B.3 of the 'Technology Assessment of the High Temperature Reactor' project. The objective of task B.3 was to evaluate the radiological risks to the general public associated with the sustainable HTGR cycle. Since the technologies to be used at several stages of this fuel cycle are still in the design phase and since a detailed specification of this fuel cycle has not yet been developed, the emphasis was on obtaining a global impression of the risk associated with a generic thorium-based HTGR fuel cycle. This impression was obtained by performing a comparative risk analysis on the basis of data given in the literature. As reference for the comparison a generic uranium fuel led LWR cycle was used. The structure of the report is as follows. In Chapter 2 the general methodology for assessing the radiological risks associated with nuclear installations is described. An overview is given of the measures commonly used to quantify these risks. In Chapter 3 an overview is given of the different stages of the reference uranium fuel led LWR cycle and the thorium fuel led HTGR cycle. In Chapter 4 a stage-by-stage analysis is given of the radiological risks associated with the two fuel cycles. Finally, in Chapter 5 an evaluation is made of the radiological risks associated with the LWR and HTGR cycles and with thorium and uranium fuels. In Appendix A the production and releases of 14 C for LWR and HTGR fuel cycle facilities is considered in detail. 11 figs., 10 tabs., 10 refs

  18. High Temperature Electrostrictive Ceramics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop high temperature electrostrictors from bismuth-based ferroelectrics. These materials will exhibit high strain and low loss in...

  19. Novel High Temperature Strain Gauge, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced high-temperature sensor technology and bonding methods are of great interests in designing and developing advanced future aircraft. Current state-of-the-art...

  20. Development of oxygen sensors for use in liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Ejenstam, Jesper; Szakalos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    For generation IV reactor concepts, based on liquid metal cooling, there is a need for robust oxygen sensors which can be used in the core of the reactor since corrosion can only be kept sufficiently low by controlling the dissolved oxygen content in the liquid metal. A robust, ceramic membrane type sensor has been developed at IFE/Halden (Norway) and tested in an autoclave system at KTH (Sweden). The sensor has been tested in lead-bismuth at 550 deg. C and performed well. (authors)

  1. Development of oxygen sensors for use in liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden, (Norway); Ejenstam, Jesper; Szakalos, Peter [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    For generation IV reactor concepts, based on liquid metal cooling, there is a need for robust oxygen sensors which can be used in the core of the reactor since corrosion can only be kept sufficiently low by controlling the dissolved oxygen content in the liquid metal. A robust, ceramic membrane type sensor has been developed at IFE/Halden (Norway) and tested in an autoclave system at KTH (Sweden). The sensor has been tested in lead-bismuth at 550 deg. C and performed well. (authors)

  2. Single-magnet rotary flowmeter for liquid metals

    OpenAIRE

    Priede, Jānis; Buchenau, Dominique; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory of single-magnet flowmeter for liquid metals and compare it with experimental results. The flowmeter consists of a freely rotating permanent magnet, which is magnetized perpendicularly to the axle it is mounted on. When such a magnet is placed close to a tube carrying liquid metal flow, it rotates so that the driving torque due to the eddy currents induced by the flow is balanced by the braking torque induced by the rotation itself. The equilibrium rotation rate, which var...

  3. Performance and safety design of the advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Magee, P.M.; Boardman, C.E.; Gyorey, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program led by General Electric is developing, under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, a conceptual design for an advanced sodium-cooled liquid metal reactor plant. This design is intended to improve the already excellent level of plant safety achieved by the nuclear power industry while at the same time providing significant reductions in plant construction and operating costs. In this paper, the plant design and performance are reviewed, with emphasis on the ALMR's unique passive design safety features and its capability to utilize as fuel the actinides in LWR spent fuel

  4. Advance High Temperature Inspection Capabilities for Small Modular Reactors: Part 1 - Ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Bowler, John R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-08-30

    The project objective was to investigate the development non-destructive evaluation techniques for advanced small modular reactors (aSMR), where the research sought to provide key enabling inspection technologies needed to support the design and maintenance of reactor component performance. The project tasks for the development of inspection techniques to be applied to small modular reactor are being addressed through two related activities. The first is focused on high temperature ultrasonic transducers development (this report Part 1) and the second is focused on an advanced eddy current inspection capability (Part 2). For both inspection techniques the primary aim is to develop in-service inspection techniques that can be carried out under standby condition in a fast reactor at a temperature of approximately 250°C in the presence of liquid sodium. The piezoelectric material and the bonding between layers have been recognized as key factors fundamental for development of robust ultrasonic transducers. Dielectric constant characterization of bismuth scantanate-lead titanate ((1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3) (BS-PT) has shown a high Curie temperature in excess of 450°C , suitable for hot stand-by inspection in liquid metal reactors. High temperature pulse-echo contact measurements have been performed with BS-PT bonded to 12.5 mm thick 1018-low carbon steel plate from 20C up to 260 C. High temperature air-backed immersion transducers have been developed with BS-PT, high temperature epoxy and quarter wavlength nickel plate, needed for wetting ability in liquid sodium. Ultrasonic immersion measurements have been performed in water up to 92C and in silicone oil up to 140C. Physics based models have been validated with room temperature experimental data with benchmark artifical defects.

  5. Liquid metal cooled reactors: Experience in design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    on key fast reactor technology aspects in an integrative sense useful to engineers, scientists, managers, university students and professors. This publication has been prepared to contribute toward the IAEA activity to preserve the knowledge gained in the liquid metal cooled fast reactor (LMFR) technology development. This technology development and experience include aspects addressing not only experimental and demonstration reactors, but also all activities from reactor construction to decommissioning. This publication provides a survey of worldwide experience gained over the past five decades in LMFR development, design, operation and decommissioning, which has been accumulated through the IAEA programmes carried out within the framework of the TWG-FR and the Agency's INIS and NKMS

  6. American superconductor technology to help CERN to explore the mysteries of matter company's high temperature superconductor wire to be used in CERN's Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    American Superconductor Corporation has been selected by CERN, to provide 14,000 meters of high temperature superconductor (HTS) wire for current lead devices that will be used in CERN's Large Hadron Collider (1 page).

  7. High temperature radioisotope capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    A high temperature radioisotope capsule made up of three concentric cylinders, with the isotope fuel located within the innermost cylinder is described. The innermost cylinder has hemispherical ends and is constructed of a tantalum alloy. The intermediate cylinder is made of a molybdenum alloy and is capable of withstanding the pressure generated by the alpha particle decay of the fuel. The outer cylinder is made of a platinum alloy of high resistance to corrosion. A gas separates the innermost cylinder from the intermediate cylinder and the intermediate cylinder from the outer cylinder

  8. High temperature reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, C.D.; Beno, M.F.; Mulac, W.A.; Bartels, D.

    1985-01-01

    During the last year the dependence of the apparent rate of OD + CO on water pressure was measured at 305, 570, 865 and 1223 K. An explanation was found and tested for the H 2 O dependence of the apparent rate of OH(OD) + CO at high temperatures. The isotope effect for OH(D) with CO was determined over the temperature range 330 K to 1225 K. The reason for the water dependence of the rate of OH(OD) + CO near room temperatures has been investigated but no clear explanation has been found. 1 figure

  9. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada V6T 1W5)

    2006-10-06

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H{sub 2}/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100{sup o}C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for {approx}90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation. (author)

  10. Advanced High Temperature Reactor Systems and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Peretz, Fred J [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a design concept for a large-output [3400 MW(t)] fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. The AHTR's large thermal output enables direct comparison of its performance and requirements with other high output reactor concepts. As high-temperature plants, FHRs can support either high-efficiency electricity generation or industrial process heat production. The AHTR analysis presented in this report is limited to the electricity generation mission. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to be low-cost electricity producers while maintaining full passive safety. However, no FHR has been built, and no FHR design has reached the stage of maturity where realistic economic analysis can be performed. The system design effort described in this report represents early steps along the design path toward being able to predict the cost and performance characteristics of the AHTR as well as toward being able to identify the technology developments necessary to build an FHR power plant. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated particle fuel and graphite components. Light water reactors (LWRs) show the potentials of transparent, high-heat capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. Modern coal-fired power plants provide design experience

  11. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  12. Liquid metal batteries - materials selection and fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, T.; Bund, A.; El-Mofid, W.; Horstmann, G. M.; Lalau, C.-C.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Starace, M.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.

    2017-07-01

    Liquid metal batteries are possible candidates for massive and economically feasible large-scale stationary storage and as such could be key components of future energy systems based mainly or exclusively on intermittent renewable electricity sources. The completely liquid interior of liquid metal batteries and the high current densities give rise to a multitude of fluid flow phenomena that will primarily influence the operation of future large cells, but might be important for today’s smaller cells as well. The paper at hand starts with a discussion of the relative merits of using molten salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes for liquid metal cells and touches the choice of electrode materials. This excursus into electrochemistry is followed by an overview of investigations on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries, namely the Tayler instability and electromagnetically excited gravity waves. A section on electro-vortex flows complements the discussion of flow phenomena. Focus of the flow related investigations lies on the integrity of the electrolyte layer and related critical parameters.

  13. Corrosion by liquid metals - Application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavielle, Lisette.

    1978-10-01

    In this bibliographic review on the corrosion by liquid metals, the first part is devoted to the theoretical aspects of the problem and the second part concerns the corrosion of steels by liquid sodium, as example. Obvious the numerous works now published, the mechanisms are still leaving bad known [fr

  14. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  15. Liquid Metal Oscillation and Arc Behaviour during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudodibroto, B.Y.B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to obtain insight into the oscillation behaviour of the liquid metal and the arc behaviour during GMA welding. Observations of the weld pool and the arc were undertaken by visual means using a high-speed video and by analysis of the voltage. To deal with the complex

  16. High temperature structural silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi 2 -based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi 2 single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi 2 possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi 2 -Si 3 N 4 composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi 2 -based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing

  17. High temperature materials characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A lab facility for measuring elastic moduli up to 1700 C was constructed and delivered. It was shown that the ultrasonic method can be used to determine elastic constants of materials from room temperature to their melting points. The ease in coupling high frequency acoustic energy is still a difficult task. Even now, new coupling materials and higher power ultrasonic pulsers are being suggested. The surface was only scratched in terms of showing the full capabilities of either technique used, especially since there is such a large learning curve in developing proper methodologies to take measurements into the high temperature region. The laser acoustic system does not seem to have sufficient precision at this time to replace the normal buffer rod methodology.

  18. High temperature metallic recuperator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M. E.; Solmon, N. G.; Smeltzer, C. E.

    1981-06-01

    An industrial 4.5 MM Btu/hr axial counterflow recuperator, fabricated to deliver 1600 F combustion air, was designed to handle rapid cyclic loading, a long life, acceptable costs, and a low maintenance requirement. A cost benefit anlysis of a high temperature waste heat recovery system utilizing the recurperator and components capable of 1600 F combustion air preheat shows that this system would have a payback period of less than two years. Fifteen companies and industrial associations were interviewed and expressed great interest in recuperation in large energy consuming industries. Determination of long term environmental effects on candidate recuperator tubing alloys was completed. Alloys found to be acceptable in the 2200 F flue gas environment of a steel billet reheat furnace, were identified.

  19. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  20. The Oscillatory Nature of Rotating Convection in Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurnou, J. M.; Bertin, V. L.; Grannan, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is assumed to be generated by fluid motions in its liquid metal core. In this fluid, the heat diffuses significantly more than momentum and thus, the ratio of these two diffusivities, the Prandtl number Pr=ν/Κ, is well below unity. The convective flow dynamics of liquid metal is very different from Pr ≈ 1 fluids like water and those used in current dynamo simulations. In order to characterize rapidly rotating thermal convection in low Pr number fluids, we have performed laboratory experiments in a cylinder using liquid gallium (Pr ≈ 0.023) as the working fluid. The Ekman number, which characterizes the effect of rotation, varies from E = 4 10-5 to 4 10-6 and the dimensionless buoyancy forcing (Rayleigh number, Ra) varies from Ra =3 105 to 2 107. Using heat transfer measurements (Nusselt number, Nu) as well as temperature measurements within the fluid, we characterize the different styles of low Pr rotating convective flow. The convection threshold is first overcome in the form of a container scale inertial oscillatory mode. At stronger forcing, wall-localized modes are identified for the first time in liquid metal laboratory experiments. These wall modes coexist with the bulk inertial oscillatory modes. When the strengh of the buoyancy increases, the bulk flow becomes turbulent while the wall modes remain. Our results imply that rotating convective flows in liquid metals do not develop in the form of quasi-steady columns, as in Pr ≈ 1 dynamo models, but in the form of oscillatory motions. Therefore, the flows that drive thermally-driven dynamo action in low Pr geophysical and astrophysical fluids can differ substantively than those occuring in current-day Pr ≈ 1 numerical models. In addition, our results suggest that relatively low wavenumber, wall-attached modes may be dynamically important in rapidly-rotating convection in liquid metals.

  1. Brazing, high temperature brazing and diffusion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Brazing and high temperature brazing is a major joining technology within the economically important fields of energy technology, aerospace and automotive engineering, that play a leading role for technical development everywhere in the world. Moreover diffusion welding has gained a strong position especially in advanced technologies due to its specific advantages. Topics of the conference are: 1. high-temperature brazing in application; 2. basis of brazing technology; 3. brazing of light metals; 4. nondestructive testing; 5. diffusion welding; 6. brazing of hard metals and other hard materials; and 7. ceramic-metal brazing. 28 of 20 lectures and 20 posters were recorded separately for the database ENERGY. (orig./MM) [de

  2. FY 1999 Report on research and development project. Research and development of high-temperature air combustion technology; 1999 nendo koon kuki nensho seigyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The high-temperature air combustion technology recently developed greatly advances combustion technology. The technology, when applied to the other areas, may expand its applicable areas and contribute to environmental preservation, e.g., abatement of CO2 emissions. This is the motivation for promotion of this project. The combustion technology, developed by improving functions of industrial furnaces, cannot be directly applied to the other combustion heaters. This project is aimed at extraction of the problems involved, finding out the solutions, and thereby smoothly transferring the technology to commercialization. This project covers boilers firing finely pulverized coal, waste incineration processes and high-temperature chemical reaction processes, to which the new technology is applied. It is also aimed at establishment of advanced combustion control basic technology, required when the high-temperature air combustion technology is applied to these processes. In addition to application R and D efforts for each area, the basic phenomena characteristic of each combustion heater type are elucidated using microgravity and the like, to support the application R and D efforts from the basic side. This project also surveys reduction of environmental pollutants, e.g., NOx and dioxins. This report presents the results obtained in the first year. (NEDO)

  3. Problems and prospects connected with development of high-temperature filtration technology at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelik, S. V.; Pavlov, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Results of work on restoring the service properties of filtering material used in the high-temperature reactor coolant purification system of a VVER-1000 reactor are presented. A quantitative assessment is given to the effect from subjecting a high-temperature sorbent to backwashing operations carried out with the use of regular capacities available in the design process circuit in the first years of operation of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant. Approaches to optimizing this process are suggested. A conceptual idea about comprehensively solving the problem of achieving more efficient and safe operation of the high-temperature active water treatment system (AWT-1) on a nuclear power industry-wide scale is outlined.

  4. High temperature alloys and ceramic heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masaharu

    1984-04-01

    From the standpoint of energy saving, the future operating temperatures of process heat and gas turbine plants will become higher. For this purpose, ceramics is the most promissing candidate material in strength for application to high-temperature heat exchangers. This report deals with a servey of characteristics of several high-temperature metallic materials and ceramics as temperature-resistant materials; including a servey of the state-of-the-art of ceramic heat exchanger technologies developed outside of Japan, and a study of their application to the intermediate heat exchanger of VHTR (a very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor). (author)

  5. A Personal Desktop Liquid-Metal Printer as a Pervasive Electronics Manufacturing Tool for Society in the Near Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a dream in the electronics industry to be able to write out electronics directly, as simply as printing a picture onto paper with an office printer. The first-ever prototype of a liquid-metal printer has been invented and demonstrated by our lab, bringing this goal a key step closer. As part of a continuous endeavor, this work is dedicated to significantly extending such technology to the consumer level by making a very practical desktop liquid-metal printer for society in the near future. Through the industrial design and technical optimization of a series of key technical issues such as working reliability, printing resolution, automatic control, human-machine interface design, software, hardware, and integration between software and hardware, a high-quality personal desktop liquid-metal printer that is ready for mass production in industry was fabricated. Its basic features and important technical mechanisms are explained in this paper, along with demonstrations of several possible consumer end-uses for making functional devices such as light-emitting diode (LED displays. This liquid-metal printer is an automatic, easy-to-use, and low-cost personal electronics manufacturing tool with many possible applications. This paper discusses important roles that the new machine may play for a group of emerging needs. The prospective future of this cutting-edge technology is outlined, along with a comparative interpretation of several historical printing methods. This desktop liquid-metal printer is expected to become a basic electronics manufacturing tool for a wide variety of emerging practices in the academic realm, in industry, and in education as well as for individual end-users in the near future.

  6. Steam generation device with heat exchange between a liquid metal coolant and the feedwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaval, C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant, the liquid metal being sodium. The steam generation device is described in detail, it allows to get an upper liquid metal level without turbulence and an easier passage for the shock wave towards the steam generator up to the liquid metal level without being laterally reflected back to the intermediate heat exchangers [fr

  7. Gas-cooled reactor programs: high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented concerning HTGR chemistry; fueled graphite development; irradiation services for General Atomic Company; prestressed concrete pressure vessel development; HTGR structural materials; graphite development; high-temperature reactor physics studies; shielding studies; component flow test loop studies; core support performance test; and application and project assessments.

  8. Gas-cooled reactor programs: high-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology development program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Information is presented concerning HTGR chemistry; fueled graphite development; irradiation services for General Atomic Company; prestressed concrete pressure vessel development; HTGR structural materials; graphite development; high-temperature reactor physics studies; shielding studies; component flow test loop studies; core support performance test; and application and project assessments

  9. Water storage of liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general overview of a concept proposed for receiving and storing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel. This work was done as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The CFRP has as its major objective the development of technology for reprocessing advanced nuclear reactor fuels. The program plans that research and development will be carried through to a sufficient scale, using irradiated spent fuel under plant operating conditions, to establish a basis for confident projection of reprocessing capability to support a breeder industry

  10. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  11. An overview of FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] contributions to Liquid Metal Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1990-11-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility has provided a very useful framework for testing the advances in Liquid Metal Reactor Safety Technology. During the licensing phase, the switch from a nonmechanistic bounding technique to the mechanistic approach was developed and implemented. During the operational phase, the consideration of new tests and core configurations led to use of the anticipated-transients-without-scram approach for beyond design basis events and the move towards passive safety. The future role of the Fast Flux Test Facility may involve additional passive safety and waste transmutation tests. 26 refs

  12. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  13. High-temperature uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments reveal that the mechanism responsible for the superconducting properties of cuprate materials is even more mysterious than we thought. Two decades ago, Georg Bednorz and Alex Mueller of IBM's research laboratory in Zurich rocked the world of physics when they discovered a material that lost all resistance to electrical current at the record temperature of 36 K. Until then, superconductivity was thought to be a strictly low-temperature phenomenon that required costly refrigeration. Moreover, the IBM discovery - for which Bednorz and Mueller were awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize for Physics - was made in a ceramic copper-oxide material that nobody expected to be particularly special. Proposed applications for these 'cuprates' abounded. High-temperature superconductivity, particularly if it could be extended to room temperature, offered the promise of levitating trains, ultra-efficient power cables, and even supercomputers based on superconducting quantum interference devices. But these applications have been slow to materialize. Moreover, almost 20 years on, the physics behind this strange state of matter remains a mystery. (U.K.)

  14. The United States fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The United States is pursuing the development of fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) through the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). FHRs, by definition, feature low-pressure liquid fluoride salt cooling, coated-particle fuel, a high-temperature power cycle, and fully passive decay heat rejection. FHRs, in principle, have the potential to economically generate large amounts of electricity while maintaining full passive safety. FHRs, however, remain a longer-term power production option. A principal development focus is, thus, on shortening, to the extent possible, the overall development time by focusing initial efforts on the longest lead-time issues. While FHRs represent a distinct reactor class, they inherit desirable attributes from other thermal power plants whose characteristics can be studied to provide general guidance on plant configuration, anticipated performance, and costs. Molten salt reactors provide experience on the materials, procedures, and components necessary to use liquid fluoride salts. Liquid-metal reactors provide design experience on using low-pressure liquid coolants, passive decay heat removal, and hot refueling. High-temperature gas-cooled reactors provide experience with coated-particle fuel and graphite components. Light-water reactors show the potential of transparent, high-heat-capacity coolants with low chemical reactivity. The FHR development efforts include both reactor concept and technology developments and are being broadly pursued. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides technical leadership to the effort and is performing concept development on both a large base-load-type FHR as well as a small modular reactor (SMR) in addition to performing a broad scope of technology developments. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is providing coated-particle fuel irradiation testing as well as developing high-temperature steam generator technology. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT

  15. Sloshing behaviors in liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Young Sun; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han

    1998-04-01

    It is very difficult to predict sloshing response in the LMFBR which contains many internal components, since the sloshing response of a coolant depends not only upon the frequency contents of input ground motion, but also upon the configuration of reactor vessel and internal components, arrangement of internal components, and excitation direction of ground motion. Therefore, clear understanding of sloshing in the reactor vessel and development of proper technologies to predict sloshing response are necessary to establish the safety of the LMFBR against earthquake. The purpose of this report is to review sloshing behaviors in the LMFBR for the clear understanding of sloshing characteristics and to propose some interesting topics to be studied in future. (author). 34 refs., 12 tabs., 50 figs

  16. High temperature pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenslade, J.G. [Colt Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada). Pipelines Dept.; Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Dyck, D.W. [Stress Tech Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is impractical to transport bitumen and heavy oil by pipelines at ambient temperature unless diluents are added to reduce the viscosity. A diluted bitumen pipeline is commonly referred to as a dilbit pipeline. The diluent routinely used is natural gas condensate. Since natural gas condensate is limited in supply, it must be recovered and reused at high cost. This paper presented an alternative to the use of diluent to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen. The following two basic design issues for a hot bitumen (hotbit) pipeline were presented: (1) modelling the restart problem, and, (2) establishing the maximum practical operating temperature. The transient behaviour during restart of a high temperature pipeline carrying viscous fluids was modelled using the concept of flow capacity. Although the design conditions were hypothetical, they could be encountered in the Athabasca oilsands. It was shown that environmental disturbances occur when the fluid is cooled during shut down because the ground temperature near the pipeline rises. This can change growing conditions, even near deeply buried insulated pipelines. Axial thermal loads also constrain the design and operation of a buried pipeline as higher operating temperatures are considered. As such, strain based design provides the opportunity to design for higher operating temperature than allowable stress based design methods. Expansion loops can partially relieve the thermal stress at a given temperature. As the design temperature increase, there is a point at which above grade pipelines become attractive options, although the materials and welding procedures must be suitable for low temperature service. 3 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  17. Basic thermo-fluid dynamic problems in high temperature heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEligot, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors consider high temperature heat exchangers to be ones where the heat transfer coefficients cannot be predicted confidently by classical analyses for pure forced convection with constant fluid properties. Alternatively, one could consider heat exchangers operating above some arbitrary temperature, say 1000F or 600C perhaps, to be at high temperature conditions. In that case, most common working fluids will be superheated vapors or gases. While some liquid metal heat exchangers are designed to operate in this range, the heat transfer coefficients of liquid metals are usually sufficiently high that the dominant thermal resistance would be due to the second fluid. This paper concentrates on convective heat transfer with gases. Typical applications include modular gas cooled nuclear reactors, proposed nuclear propulsion systems and space power plants, and superheaters in Rankine steam cycles

  18. The high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, U.

    1991-01-01

    The book deals with the development of the German high-temperature reactor (pebble-bed), the design of a prototype plant and its (at least provisional) shut-down in 1989. While there is a lot of material on the HTR's competitor, the fast breeder, literature is very incomplete on HTRs. The author describes HTR's history as a development which was characterised by structural divergencies but not effectively steered and monitored. There was no project-oriented 'community' such as there was for the fast breeder. Also, the new technology was difficult to control there were situations where no one quite knew what was going on. The technical conditions however were not taken as facts but as a basis for interpretation, wishes and reservations. The HTR gives an opportunity to consider the conditions under which large technical projects can be carried out today. (orig.) [de

  19. Liquid-metal dip seal with pneumatic spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved liquid-metal dip seal for sealing the annulus between rotating plugs in the reactor vessel head of a liquid-metal fast-breeder nuclear reactor has two legs of differing widths communicating under a seal blade; the wide leg is also in communication with cover gas of the reactor and the narrow leg is also in communication with an isolated plug annulus above the seal. The annulus contains inert gas which acts as a pneumatic spring. Upon increasing cover gas pressure which depresses the level in the wide leg and greatly increases the level in the narrow leg, the pneumatic spring is compressed, and resists further level changes, thus preventing radioactive cover gas from bubbling through the seal

  20. The concepts of liquid metal of IV generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnier, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of liquid metals, due to their large spectrum, show important possibility of sustainable development: two concepts of liquid metal (Sodium and Lead) were engaged in the frame of the IV generation. The reactors with sodium benefit from considerable background of experience and of important work on projects to aim at the price diminution and the increase of safety (EFR, JSFR). The commitment of Japan as a leader of this concept and the support by France allow to contemplate an industrial deployment from 2015. The lead reactors offer some advantages in the domain of safety but otherwise require a highly important research and development binded to the control of the corrosion, the perspective of deployment of this concept are more hypothetical

  1. Topology-generating interfacial pattern formation during liquid metal dealloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geslin, Pierre-Antoine; McCue, Ian; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah; Karma, Alain

    2015-11-19

    Liquid metal dealloying has emerged as a novel technique to produce topologically complex nanoporous and nanocomposite structures with ultra-high interfacial area and other unique properties relevant for diverse material applications. This process is empirically known to require the selective dissolution of one element of a multicomponent solid alloy into a liquid metal to obtain desirable structures. However, how structures form is not known. Here we demonstrate, using mesoscale phase-field modelling and experiments, that nano/microstructural pattern formation during dealloying results from the interplay of (i) interfacial spinodal decomposition, forming compositional domain structures enriched in the immiscible element, and (ii) diffusion-coupled growth of the enriched solid phase and the liquid phase into the alloy. We highlight how those two basic mechanisms interact to yield a rich variety of topologically disconnected and connected structures. Moreover, we deduce scaling laws governing microstructural length scales and dealloying kinetics.

  2. High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyuki

    1988-01-01

    A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)

  3. A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field

  4. Nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals by electromagnetically induced acoustic cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldre, Imants; Bojarevičs, Andris; Grants, Ilmārs; Beinerts, Toms; Kalvāns, Matīss; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of magnetically induced cavitation applied for the purpose of nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals. The oscillating magnetic force due to the azimuthal induction currents and the axial magnetic field excites power ultrasound in the sample. If the fields are sufficiently high then it is possible to achieve the acoustic cavitation threshold in liquid metals. Cavitation bubble collapses are known to create microscale jets with a potential to break nanoparticle agglomerates and disperse them. The samples are solidified under the contactless ultrasonic treatment and later analyzed by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It is observed that SiC nanoparticles are dispersed in an aluminum magnesium alloy, whereas in tin the same particles remain agglomerated in micron-sized clusters despite a more intense cavitation.

  5. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  6. Advances in high temperature chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Leroy

    1969-01-01

    Advances in High Temperature Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in the knowledge of the high temperature behavior of materials and the complex and unfamiliar characteristics of matter at high temperature. The book discusses the dissociation energies and free energy functions of gaseous monoxides; the matrix-isolation technique applied to high temperature molecules; and the main features, the techniques for the production, detection, and diagnosis, and the applications of molecular beams in high temperatures. The text also describes the chemical research in streaming thermal plasmas, as w

  7. Modern high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Wu Chu

    1988-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of superconductivity in 1911, its unusual scientific challenge and great technological potential have been recognized. For the past three-quarters of a century, superconductivity has done well on the science front. This is because sueprconductivity is interesting not only just in its own right but also in its ability to act as a probe to many exciting nonsuperconducting phenomena. For instance, it has continued to provide bases for vigorous activities in condensed matter science. Among the more recent examples are heavy-fermion systems and organic superconductors. During this same period of time, superconductivity has also performed admirably in the applied area. Many ideas have been conceived and tested, making use of the unique characteristics of superconductivity - zero resistivity, quantum interference phenomena, and the Meissner effect. In fact, it was not until late January 1987 that it became possible to achieve superconductivity with the mere use of liquid nitrogen - which is plentiful, cheap, efficient, and easy to handle - following the discovery of supercondictivity above 90 K in Y-Ba-Cu-O, the first genuine quaternary superconductor. Superconductivity above 90 K poses scientific and technological challenges not previously encountered: no existing theories can adequately describe superconductivity above 40 K and no known techniques can economically process the materials for full-scale applications. In this paper, therefore, the author recalls a few events leading to the discovery of the new class of quaternary compounds with a superconducting transition temperature T c in the 90 K range, describes the current experimental status of high-temperature superconductivity and, finally, discusses the prospect of very-high-temperature superconductivity, i.e., with a T c substantially higher than 100 K. 97 refs., 7 figs

  8. Sensor for thickness measurement of a liquid metal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.

    1984-04-01

    Description, calibration and measuring method of a sensor for the measure of thin liquid metal depths in a temperature range of 0-500 0 C and for shift frequencies from 0 to 100 Hz; these sensors are based on the principle of induction-coil impedance variation, as a function of the thickness of an electrical conductor matter placed in the coil magnetic field [fr

  9. Passive safety and the advanced liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Liquid Metal Reactors being developed today in the USA are designed to make maximum use of passive safety features. Much of the LMR safety work at Argonne National Laboratory is concerned with demonstrating, both theoretically and experimentally, the effectiveness of the passive safety features. The characteristics that contribute to passive safety are discussed, with particular emphasis on decay heat removal systems, together with examples of Argonne's theoretical and experimental programs in this area

  10. Rapid-action valve especially for liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velek, V.; Cejka, J.; Jakl, J.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid-action large-diameter valve and control fitting was designed for cooling circuits of nuclear power plants with fast liquid metal cooled reactors, namely sodium cooled. The design meets the requirements for axial symmetry about the flow axis and secures the equilibrium of hydraulic and hydrodynamic forces observing the uniformity of the thickness of the fitting walls which is a pre-requisite for good resistance to thermal shock. (F.M.)

  11. Liquid metal current collector applications and material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.; Stevens, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this paper has been to summarize briefly the material considerations involved in the development of liquid metal current collectors for homopolar machinery applications. A significant amount of data in this regard has been obtained over the last several years by individual researchers for NaK exposure conditions. However, NaK material compatibility data over the entire time and temperature range of interest is highly desirable. At DTNSRDC, a 300 kW superconducting homopolar motor and generator are under test, both utilizing free surface tongue-and-groove current collectors with NaK as the working fluid. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of other aspects of machine design, the intention is to use these machines as vehicles for testing of the several liquid metal current collector concepts which are considered worthwhile candidates for incorporation in future full-scale machines. It is likely that the optimal collector approach for a large low speed motor may be quite different from that for a smaller high speed generator, possibly involving the use of different liquid metals

  12. Prediction of liquid metal alloy radiant properties from measurements of the Hall coefficient and the direct current resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Qiu, T.

    1995-04-01

    The thermal radiative properties of high temperature solid and liquid metal alloys are particularly useful to research and development efforts in laser cladding and machining, electron beam welding and laser isotope separation. However the cost, complexity, and difficulty of measuring these properties have forced the use of crude estimates from the Hagen-Rubens relation, the Drude relations, or extrapolation from low temperature or otherwise flawed data (e.g., oxidized). The authors have found in this work that published values for the Hall coefficient and the electrical resistivity of liquid metal alloys can provide useful estimates of the reflectance and emittance of some groups of binary liquid metal and high temperature solid alloys. The estimation method computes the Drude free electron parameters, and thence the optical constants and the radiant properties from the dependence of the Hall coefficient and direct current resistivity on alloy composition (the Hall coefficient gives the free electron density and the resistivity gives the average time between collisions). They find that predictions of the radiant properties of molten cerium-copper alloy, which use the measured variations in the Hall coefficient and resistivity (both highly nonlinear) as a function of alloy fraction (rather than linear combinations of the values of the pure elements) yield a good comparison to published measurements of the variation of the normal spectral emittance (a different but also nonlinear function) of cerium-copper alloy at the single wavelength available for comparison, 0.645 μm. The success of the approach in the visible range is particularly notable because one expects a Drude based approach to improve with increasing wavelength from the visible into the infrared. Details of the estimation method, the comparison between the calculation and the measured emittance, and a discussion of what groups of elements may also provide agreement is given

  13. Conference on heat mass transfer and properties of liquid metals TF-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efanov, A.D.; Kozlov, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of the conference TF-2002 devoted to the combined approach to problems of harnessing liquid metals as coolants for NPU are presented. The conference takes place in Obninsk, 29 - 31 October, 2002. Papers of the conference involve items on thermal hydraulics, mass transfer and safety of NPU with liquid metal coolants, structure, physical and chemical properties of liquid metal and liquid metal solutions, decommissioning of units and ecology, application of liquid metals divorced with NPU. Most of the papers of the conference are devoted to the investigation into lead and lead-bismuth coolants [ru

  14. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbaud, F.; Desgranges, Clara; Martinelli, Laure; Rouillard, Fabien; Duhamel, Cecile; Marchetti, Loic; Perrin, Stephane; Molins, Regine; Chevalier, S.; Heintz, O.; David, N.; Fiorani, J.M.; Vilasi, M.; Wouters, Y.; Galerie, A.; Mangelinck, D.; Viguier, B.; Monceau, D.; Soustelle, M.; Pijolat, M.; Favergeon, J.; Brancherie, D.; Moulin, G.; Dawi, K.; Wolski, K.; Barnier, V.; Rebillat, F.; Lavigne, O.; Brossard, J.M.; Ropital, F.; Mougin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  15. Natural convection and boiling heat transfer of a liquid metal in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1983-02-01

    A liquid metal is often assumed as a coolant and a breeding material of a Tokamak fusion reactor. However, many problems on the thermo-hydraulics of a liquid metal in a magnetic field are still remained to be studied. In the present report, natural convection and boiling of a liquid metal in a strong magnetic field are studied to examine a fundamental feasibility of a fusion reactor cooled by a liquid metal. In the experimental study of the natural convection, the circulation of a liquid metal was found to be surpressed even by a magnetic field parallel to the gravity. A numerical study has confirmed the conclusion drawn by the experiment. In the study of boiling heat transfer, stable boiling of a liquid metal has been found also in a strong magnetic field. The burnout heat flux hardly affected by the magnetic field. These indicate a fundamental feasibility of the liquid-metal cooling for a Tokamak fusion reactor. (author)

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Liquid Metal MHD Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D. G.; Cerini, D. J.; Hays, L. G.; Weinberg, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1966-11-15

    Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation for space is studied. Closed- loop circulation of liquid metal without moving mechanical parts, and generation of electric power from the circulating metal, have been investigated analytically and experimentally, and the attainable cycle efficiencies have been calculated. Recent literature has pointed out the possibility of efficient a.c. generators with liquid metal as the working fluid, and this type of generator is under study. Analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 65% are attainable in a travelling-wave induction generator at the available liquid metal velocities of 100-200 m/sec, provided the generator has a length/gap ratio of no more than 50 for low friction loss, has an electrical length of no more than three wavelengths for low winding loss, and has end-effect compensation for cancelling finite-length effects in the power-generating region. The analysis leading to these conclusions is presented. The type of end-effect correction being studied is the ''compensating-pole'' technique in which an oscillating magnetic field is applied to the fluid entering and leaving the generator to make the flux linkages within the generator the same as those in a rotating or ''infinite'' generator. An experimental one-wavelength generator employing compensating poles has been fabricated, and empty-channel magnetic field measurements have been completed in preparation for tests with NaK. Two types of field measurements were made: d.c. measurements to determine the field profile as a function of phase angle and a.c. measurements to investigate the synchronization of the compensating poles with the travelling wave. The d.c. results showed that the flux linkages in the power generating region can be held close to those in a rotating machine, and the a.c. results showed that the compensating poles can be accurately synchronized with the travelling wave through transformer coupling. The component efficiencies from the

  17. Liquid metal fires. A review of work status in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Hargreaves, K.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid metal coolants (Na and NaK) are used for the transfer of heat in LMFBR circuits. Their high chemical reactivity and the high circuit operating temperatures mean that any leakage of coolant to the atmosphere can result in spontaneous combustion. Additionally spilled coolant may contact and react with structural materials such as concrete. These sodium fires and reactions with concrete are exothermic, and the fires in particular are characterised by significant evolution of heat and release of combustion product aerosols in high concentrations. A major sodium fire places special demands on the integrity of reactor secondary containment structures and may require special measures to control the release of chemically toxic (and possibly radioactive) aerosols to the environment. Precautions must also be taken to minimise damage to equipment, especially safety-related items. Work under way in laboratories in a number of countries is aimed at resolving these issues. These studies comprise investigations of the combustion mechanisms of sodium in both liquid and vapour states, and of the reactions of sodium with structural materials at high temperature. Extensive studies are also under way on the chemical and physical nature and on the behaviour of airborne reaction products released from fires. Data from these studies are used as an input to codes developed to model conditions resulting from sodium fires and thus to provide a basis for the design of containment structures and air clean-up equipment requirements. A knowledge of liquid metal combustion mechanisms is also a necessary adjunct to the development of fire prevention and fire-fighting systems. In the UK fire studies are conducted by CEGB (Berkeley Laboratories), NNC and the UKAEA, and this paper reviews the status of work carried out

  18. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production

  19. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Jiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented.

  20. Reprocessing technology of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Broothaerts, J.; Heylen, P.R.; Eschrich, H.; Geel, J. van

    1974-11-01

    All the important aspects of LMFBR fuel reprocessing are critically reviewed in this report. Storage and transportation techniques using sodium, inert gas, lead, molten salts and organic coolants are comparatively discussed in connection with cooling time and de-activation techniques. Decladding and fuel disaggregation of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel are reviewed according to the present state of R and D in the main nuclear powers. Strong emphasis is put on on voloxidation, mechanical pulverization and molten salt disaggregation in connection with volatilization of gaseous fission products. Release of fission gases and the resulting off-gas treatment are discussed in connection with cooling time, burn up and dissagregation techniques. The review is limited to tritium, iodine xenon-krypton and radioactive airborne particulates. Dissolution, solvent extraction and plutonium purification problems specifically connected to LMFBR fuel are reviewed with emphasis on the differences between LWR and fast fuel reprocessing. Finally the categories of wastes produced by reprocessing are analysed according to their origin in the plant and their alpha emitters content. The suitable waste treatment techniques are discussed in connection with the nature of the wastes and the ultimate disposal technique. (author)

  1. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  2. FY1998 research report on the R and D on high- temperature CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies; 1998 nendo nisanka tanso koon bunri kaishu sairiyo gijutsu kekyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project aims to develop high-temperature (over 300 degrees C) CO{sub 2} separation, recovery and recycling technologies. For separation membranes, control technology of micro-pore structure using templates, and that of a permeation gas affinity by metal ion exchange and metallic element addition to separation membrane textures were developed. The result gave the guide to control, design and evaluation of permeation and separation properties. The prototype module was prepared, and improvement of joining technology and evaluation of material fatigue property were also carried out. As for optimization of the developed system and research on its marketability, study was mainly made on the ripple effect of inorganic membranes. The current state and trend of technologies were studied also for power plants. In the concept design of the module, further study was made on high-temperature sealing technology and inorganic membrane technology for H{sub 2} gas separation. Use of CO{sub 2} gas separation technology for steelmaking process was newly studied. The ripple effect was studied for future important fields. (NEDO)

  3. Investigations and researches on CO2 balance in a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation technology; Nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With an objective to select a promising process by comparing application environments and effectiveness of a high-temperature carbon dioxide separation, recovery and re-utilization technology with other methods, investigations were performed on reducible amount of carbon dioxide discharge by using material balance and system introduction. A large number of chemical and physical technologies are being developed for the separation and refining methods. This paper discusses the technologies for their application to iron and steel making, oil refining, and petrochemical industries, the so-called heavy and large product industries. As a possibility of utilizing the high-temperature separated CO2 in iron and steel making, an investigation was given on the direct iron ore smelting reduction process. It would be unreasonable to use CO2 in oil refining as a substitute to air to regenerate a catalytic decomposition and reformation catalyst because of decline in the catalytic activity. A discussion was given on a case to replace steam with CO2 in steam reformation and pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. The discussion requires the objective to be focused on such items as C/H ratio at a reformer outlet and relationship of balance in decomposition products. The C1 chemical and others were reviewed to search possibilities for their use as raw materials of chemicals used in chemical industries. Possibilities were discussed to fix high-temperature CO2 into peridotite and serpentine. 42 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. High Temperature Superconductor Resonator Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) infrared detectors were studied for years but never matured sufficiently for infusion into instruments. Several recent...

  5. Application of High Temperature Superconductors to Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2000-01-01

    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, a large effort has been made by the scientific community to investigate this field towards a possible application of the new oxide superconductors to different devices like SMES, magnetic bearings, flywheels energy storage, magnetic shielding, transmission cables, fault current limiters, etc. However, all present day large scale applications using superconductivity in accelerator technology are based on conventional materials operating at liquid helium temperatures. Poor mechanical properties, low critical current density and sensitivity to the magnetic field at high temperature are the key parameters whose improvement is essential for a large scale application of high temperature superconductors to such devices. Current leads, used for transferring currents from the power converters, working at room temperature, into the liquid helium environment, where the magnets are operating, represent an immediate application of the emerging technology of high t...

  6. Development of a risk-based inservice inspection program for a liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Buschman, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    The emerging application of risk-based assessment technology to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants holds considerable promise for improving efficiency and reducing operating costs. EBR-II is liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor which operated for thirty years before shutting down in September 1994 due to program termination. Prior to the shutdown of EBR-II, an in-service inspection (ISI) program was developed that exploited certain advantages of the liquid-metal reactor design, e.g., demonstrated passive response to plant upset events, low pressure primary coolant and compatibility of the coolant and reactor materials. Many of the systems cannot be inspected due to inaccessibility of the components. However, application of a risk-based approach provided the basis for reducing or eliminating inspections in some areas that would otherwise be required. Development and implementation of the risk-based ISI program was interrupted by the DOE-mandated shutdown of EBR-II, so the potential benefits of this approach in terms of reduced O and M costs have yet to be realized. Through the development of this program, however it is clear that there is potential for substantial cost-savings while improving the risk-profile of the facility through this approach

  7. European liquid metal thermal-hydraulics R and D: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Batta, A.; Bandini, G.; Van Tichelen, K.; Gerschenfeld, A.; Cheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    A large role is attributed in the future within the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP) and especially the underlying European Sustainable Nuclear Industry Initiative (ESNII) to the application of fast reactors for sustainable nuclear energy production. Specifically, fast reactors are considered attractive because of their possibility to use natural resources efficiently and to reduce the volume and lifetime of nuclear waste. Currently four demonstration projects have a promising outlook in Europe, i.e. the ASTRID project in France, the MYRRHA project in Belgium, the ALFRED project developed in Europe and to be built in Romania, and the ELECTRA project in Sweden. Sodium and lead(-alloys) are envisaged as coolants for these reactors. Obviously, in the development of these reactors, thermal-hydraulics is recognized as a key challenge with emphasis on safety issues. This paper will discuss the present development status of liquid metal cooled reactor thermal-hydraulics as an outcome of the European 7. framework programme THINS (Thermal-Hydraulics for Innovative Nuclear Systems) project. The main project results with respect to liquid metal cooled reactors will be summarized, i.e. turbulence heat transfer model development, fuel assembly analysis, pool thermal-hydraulics, system behaviour, multi-phase physics, and multiscale thermal-hydraulics simulation. In conclusion, the main challenges for future developments will be indicated. Emphasis will be put on the important experimental and numerical challenges. (authors)

  8. Optical Fiber Chemical Sensor with Sol-Gel Derived Refractive Material as Transducer for High Temperature Gas Sensing in Clean Coal Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiquan Tao

    2006-12-31

    The chemistry of sol-gel derived silica and refractive metal oxide has been systematically studied. Sol-gel processes have been developed for preparing porous silica and semiconductor metal oxide materials. Micelle/reversed micelle techniques have been developed for preparing nanometer sized semiconductor metal oxides and noble metal particles. Techniques for doping metal ions, metal oxides and nanosized metal particles into porous sol-gel material have also been developed. Optical properties of sol-gel derived materials in ambient and high temperature gases have been studied by using fiber optic spectroscopic techniques, such as fiber optic ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrometry, fiber optic near infrared absorption spectrometry and fiber optic fluorescence spectrometry. Fiber optic spectrometric techniques have been developed for investigating the optical properties of these sol-gel derived materials prepared as porous optical fibers or as coatings on the surface of silica optical fibers. Optical and electron microscopic techniques have been used to observe the microstructure, such as pore size, pore shape, sensing agent distribution, of sol-gel derived material, as well as the size and morphology of nanometer metal particle doped in sol-gel derived porous silica, the nature of coating of sol-gel derived materials on silica optical fiber surface. In addition, the chemical reactions of metal ion, nanostructured semiconductor metal oxides and nanometer sized metal particles with gas components at room temperature and high temperatures have also been investigated with fiber optic spectrometric methods. Three classes of fiber optic sensors have been developed based on the thorough investigation of sol-gel chemistry and sol-gel derived materials. The first group of fiber optic sensors uses porous silica optical fibers doped with metal ions or metal oxide as transducers for sensing trace NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S in high temperature gas samples. The second group of

  9. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  10. Patterned Liquid Metal Contacts for Printed Carbon Nanotube Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joseph B; Mondal, Kunal; Neumann, Taylor V; Cardenas, Jorge A; Wang, Justin; Parekh, Dishit P; Lin, Yiliang; Ballentine, Peter; Dickey, Michael D; Franklin, Aaron D

    2018-05-14

    Flexible and stretchable electronics are poised to enable many applications that cannot be realized with traditional, rigid devices. One of the most promising options for low-cost stretchable transistors are printed carbon nanotubes (CNTs). However, a major limiting factor in stretchable CNT devices is the lack of a stable and versatile contact material that forms both the interconnects and contact electrodes. In this work, we introduce the use of eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn) liquid metal for electrical contacts to printed CNT channels. We analyze thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated using two different liquid metal deposition techniques-vacuum-filling polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel structures and direct-writing liquid metals on the CNTs. The highest performing CNT-TFT was realized using vacuum-filled microchannel deposition with an in situ annealing temperature of 150 °C. This device exhibited an on/off ratio of more than 10 4 and on-currents as high as 150 μA/mm-metrics that are on par with other printed CNT-TFTs. Additionally, we observed that at room temperature the contact resistances of the vacuum-filled microchannel structures were 50% lower than those of the direct-write structures, likely due to the poor adhesion between the materials observed during the direct-writing process. The insights gained in this study show that stretchable electronics can be realized using low-cost and solely solution processing techniques. Furthermore, we demonstrate methods that can be used to electrically characterize semiconducting materials as transistors without requiring elevated temperatures or cleanroom processes.

  11. High temperature applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The meeting was organized to review industry/user needs designs, status of technology and the associated economics for high temperature applications. It was attended by approximately 100 participants from nine countries. The participants presented 17 papers. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Nuclear quadrupole relaxation and viscosity in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmacher, W.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the nuclear quadrupole relaxation rate due to the molecular motions in liquid metals is related to the shear and bulk viscosity and hence to the absorption coefficient of ultrasound. Application of the 'extended liquid phonon' model of Ortoleva and Nelkin - which is the third of a series of continued-fraction-approximations for the van Hove neutron scattering function - gives a relation to the self diffusion constant. The predictions of the theory concerning the temperature dependence are compared with quadrupole relaxation measurements of Riegel et al. and Kerlin et al. in liquid gallium. Agreement is found only with the data of Riegel et al. (orig.) [de

  13. Fuel rod for liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinz, P.

    1976-01-01

    In fuel rods for nuclear reactors with liquid-metal cooling (sodium), with stainless steel tubes with a nitrated surface as canning, superheating or boiling delay should be avoided. The inner wall of the can is provided along its total length with a helical fin of stainless steel wire (diameter 0.05 to 0.5 mm) to be wetted by hot sodium. This fin is mounted under prestressing and has a distance in winding of 1/10 of the wire diameter. (UWI) [de

  14. Ion beam exposure apparatus using a liquid metal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.

    1982-01-01

    A field effect liquid metal ion source is described. The current-voltage characteristics, the angular intensity distribution and the total energy distribution were measured for gallium, gold and lead sources. The results are presented and the effect of space charge on the emission current is discussed. Optimum working conditions for the use of the ion sources in probe formation are derived. On the basis of the experimental results, an apparatus operating at 50 kV or less was designed. Details of the design, which includes a triode ion gun and an einzel lens, are given together with preliminary results of pattern delineation with the apparatus. (Auth.)

  15. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Perujo, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union (EU) concerning the development of liquid metal breeder blankets for DEMO. After several years of studies on breeding blankets, two blanket concepts are presently considered, both using the eutectic Pb-17Li: the dual-coolant concept and the water-cooled concept. The analysis of such concepts has permitted to identify the experimental areas where further data are required. Tritium control and MHD-issues are, at present, the activities on which is devoted the greatest effort within the EU. (authors). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 39 refs

  16. Addressing safety issues in a hybrid liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedyan, D.; Ehvart, Eh.

    1988-01-01

    Hybrid design of a fast reactor with a liquid-metal coolant, combining the advantages of traditional loop (prevailing in the USA) and integral (prevailing in Europe) arrangements is described. Just as a loop reactor the hybrid one has separate arrangement of the core and the equipment of the primary circuit heat exchange. At the same time similar to the reactor with integral arrangement, the option considered has no complex pipeline system. This reduces sharply the possibility of sodium leakages which cause fires and personnel irradiation

  17. Numerical issues for liquid-metal boiling transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The large liquid-to-vapor density ratio of a boiling liquid-metal leads to a very abrupt change of the two-phase mixture density at the inception of boiling. Unfortunately, the strong dependence of mixture density on pressure leads to a key numerical issue that adversely affects the behavior of numerical solutions. The difficulties can be reduced by using techniques that acknowledge this functional behavior at the start of boiling. Some of the methods used include a spatially averaged density function, mathematical smoothing, and under relaxation. Nonequilibrium two-fluid models also seem to offer aid in obtaining reliable numerical solutions. (author)

  18. Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Priede, Jānis; Avalos-Zúñiga, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm~34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the ri...

  19. A homopolar disc dynamo experiment with liquid metal contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos-Zúñiga, R. A.; Priede, J.; Bello-Morales, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present experimental results of a homopolar disc dynamo constructed at CICATA-Quer\\'etaro in Mexico. The device consists of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil which is placed above a fast-spinning metal disc and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Theoretically, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm~45, which corresponds to a critical rotation rate of about 10 Hz. We measured the magnetic field above the di...

  20. Simplified analysis of trasients in pool type liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor will require a great effort of development in several technical disciplines. One of them is the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor and of the heat and fluid transport components inside the reactor vessel. A simplified model to calculate the maximum sodium temperatures is presented in this paper. This model can be used to optimize the layout of components inside the reactor vessel and was easily programmed in a small computer. Illustrative calculations of two transients of a typical hot pool type fast reactor are presented and compared with the results of other researchers. (author) [pt

  1. Development of inelastic design method for liquid metal reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Take, Kohji; Kaguchi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yoshio; Uno, Tetsuro.

    1991-01-01

    Effective utilization of inelastic analysis in structural design assessment is expected to play an important role for avoiding too conservative design of liquid metal reactor plants. Studies have been conducted by the authors to develop a guideline for application of detailed inelastic analysis in design assessment. Both fundamental material characteristics tests and structural failure tests were conducted. Fundamental investigations were made on inelastic analysis method and creep-fatigue life prediction method based on the results of material characteristics tests. It was demonstrated through structural failure tests that the design method constructed based on these fundamental investigations can predict failure lives in structures subjected to cyclic thermal loadings with sufficient accuracy. (author)

  2. Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

    2001-01-01

    Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed

  3. Safety characteristics of the US advanced liquid metal reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design employs innovative, passive features to provide an unprecedented level of public safety and the ability to demonstrate this safety to the public. The key features employed in the core design to produce the desired passive safety characteristics are: a small core with a tight restraint system, the use of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel, control rod withdrawal limiters, and gas expansion modules. In addition, the reactor vessel and closure are designed to have the capability to withstand, with large margins, the maximum possible core disruptive accident without breach and radiological release. (author)

  4. Hydrogen permeation resistant layers for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Reviewing the literature in the tritium diffusion field one can readily see a wide divergence in results for both the response of permeation rate to pressure, and the effect of oxide layers on total permeation rates. The basic mechanism of protective oxide layers is discussed. Two coatings which are less hydrogen permeable than the best naturally occurring oxide are described. The work described is part of an HEDL-ANL cooperative research program on Tritium Permeation in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. This includes permeation work on hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with the hydrogen-deuterium research leading to the developments presented

  5. Many-Body Potentials For Binary Immiscible liquid Metal Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaguelle, H.

    2004-01-01

    The modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) type many- body potentials have been constructed for three binary liquid immiscible alloy systems: Al-Pb, Ag-Ni, Ag- Cu. The MAEAM potential functions are fitted to both solid and liquid state properties for only liquid pure metals which consist the immiscible alloy. In order to test the reliability of the constructed MAEAM effective potentials, partial structure factors and pair distribution functions of these binary liquid metal alloys have been calculated using the thermodynamically self-consistent variational modified hypernetted chain (VMHNC) theory of liquids. A good agreement with the available experimental data for structure has

  6. High temperature heat pipe experiments in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshun, K.; Merrigan, M.A.; Sena, J.T.; Critchley, E.

    1993-01-01

    Although high temperature, liquid metal heat pipe radiators have become a standard component on most high power space power system designs, there is no experimental data on the operation of these heat pipes in a zero gravity or micro-gravity environment. Experiments to benchmark the transient and steady state performance of prototypical heat pipe space radiator elements are in preparation for testing in low earth orbit. It is anticipated that these heat pipes will be tested aborad the Space Shuttle in 1995. Three heat pipes will be tested in a cargo bay Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The heat pipes are SST/potassium, each with a different wick structure; homogeneous, arterial, and annular gap, the heat pipes have been designed, fabricated, and ground tested. In this paper, the heat pipe designs are specified, and transient and steady-state ground test data are presented

  7. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradera, J., E-mail: jfradera@ubu.es; Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es

    2013-12-15

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in, e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAM® CFD tool for 0D–3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of nano bubbles on hydrogen isotopes inventory at different temperatures as well as the inventory evolution during a He nucleation event. In addition, 1D and 2D axisymmetric cases are exposed showing the effect of a He dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope permeation through a lithium lead eutectic alloy and the effect of vortical structures on hydrogen isotope transport at a backward facing step. Exposed results give a valuable insight on current nuclear technology regarding the importance of controlling hydrogen isotope transport and its interactions with nucleation event through gas absorption processes.

  8. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the

  9. Fundamental study on cavitation erosion in liquid metal. Effect of liquid parameter on cavitation erosion in liquid metals (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Kurachi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Fumitaka; Watashi, Katsumi; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Yada, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Cavitation erosion, which possibly occurs on the surfaces of fluid machineries and components contacting flowing liquid and causes sponge-like damage on the material surface, is important problem, since it may become the cause of performance deduction, life shortening, noise, vibration of mechanical components and moreover failure of machine. Research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal is very important to confirm the safety of fast breeder reactor using sodium coolant and to avoid serious damage of the target vessel of spallation neutron source containing liquid-mercury. But the research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal has been hardly performed because of its specially in comparison with that in water. In this study, a cavitation erosion test apparatus was developed to carry out the erosion tests in low-temperature liquid metals. Cavitation erosion tests were carried out in liquid lead-bismuth alloy and in deionized water. We discuss the effect of liquid parameters and temperature effects on the erosion rate. We reach to the following conclusions. The erosion rate was evaluated in terms of a relative temperature which was defind as the percentage between freezing and boiling points. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate is 10 times in lead-bismuth alloy, and 2 to 5 times in sodium, compared with that in deionized water. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate can be evaluated in terms of the following parameter. 1 / (1/ρ L /C L +1/ρ S C S )√ρ L . Where ρ is the material density and c is the velocity of sound, L and S denote liquid and solid. In the relative temperature between 14 and 30degC, the temperature dependence on the erosion rate is due to the increase in vapor pressure. (author)

  10. Mechanical properties of LMR structural materials at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. W.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Austenitic stainless is used for the structural material of liquid metal reactor (LMR) because of good mechanical properties at high temperature. Stainless steel having more resistant to temperature by adding minor element has been developing for operating the LMR at higher temperature. Of many elements, nitrogen is a prospective element to modify type 316L(N) stainless steel because nitrogen is the most effective element for solid solution and because nitrogen retards the precipitation of carbide at grain boundary. Ti, Nb, and V are added to improve creep properties by stabilizing the carbides through forming MC carbide. Testing techniques of tensile, fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue at high temperature are difficult. Moreover, testing times for creep and creep-fatigue tests are very long up to several tens of thousands hours because creep and creep-fatigue phenomena are time-dependent damage mechanism. So, it is hard to acquire the material data for designing LMR systems during a limited time. In addition, the integrity of LMR structural materials at the end of LMR life has to be predicted from the laboratory data tested during the short term because there is no data tested during 40 years. Therefore, the effect of elements on mechanical properties at high temperature was reviewed in this study and many methods to predict the long-term behaviors of structural materials by simulated modelling equation is shown in this report. (author). 32 refs., 9 tabs., 38 figs

  11. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs

  12. An innovative liquid metal design with worldwide application potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States nuclear program has been faced with major political, economic and technical challenges in recent years. One US program element, the Liquid Metal Reactor, has addressed these challenges in a systematic, focused manner. The result is an innovative modular design incorporating safety features that utilize inherent characteristics. This Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is based on the PRISM concept, originated by the General Electric Company in 1981. This design should also be attractive in other developed countries that have deployed, and/or are deploying, nuclear power. The design's safety features can achieve neutronic shutdown and decay heat removal without relying on operator action or engineered active safety features. The ALMR utilizes many innovations including: a passive reactor vessel air cooling system for decay heat removal; the use of a sealed reactor assembly; seismic isolation; electromagnetic primary pumps; and an in-vessel fuel transfer machine. The US ALMR design incorporates a metal fuel core as its reference, however, the required safety performance can also be achieved with an oxide core having similar safety features. This flexibility is particularly important when addressing world wide ALMR applications. The reference ALMR reactor module, of which there are nine in a typical 1395 MW e plant, has a -6 meter by -20 meter vessel and a 471 MW thermal output, with a reactor outlet temperature of 485 degrees C and an overall conversion efficiency of 33%. This plant uses a saturated steam cycle and a non-safety grade secondary sodium system

  13. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  14. Liquid metal-to-gas leak-detection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlin, E.; Witherspoon, J.E.; Johnson, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    It is desirable for liquid-metal-cooled reactors that small liquid metal-to-gas leaks be reliably detected. Testing has been performed on a number of detection systems to evaluate their sensitivity, response time, and performance characteristics. This testing has been scheduled in three phases. The first phase was aimed at screening out the least suitable detectors and optimizing the performance of the most promising. In the second phase, candidates were tested in a 1500 ft 3 walk-in type enclosure in which leaks were simulated on 24-in. and 3-in. piping. In the third phase of testing, selected type detectors were tested in the 1500-ft 3 enclosure with Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) pipe insulation configurations and detector tubing configuration with cell gas recirculation simulated. Endurance testing of detection equipment was also performed as part of this effort. Test results have been shown that aerosol-type detectors will reliably detect leaks as small as a few grams per hour when sampling pipe insulation annuli

  15. Liquid metal coolant disposal from UKAEA reactors at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the United Kingdom's Fast Reactor Development programme two reactors were built and operated at Dounreay in the North of Scotland. DFR (Dounreay Fast Reactor) was operated from 1959-1977 and PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor) was operated from 1974-1994. Both reactors are currently undergoing Stage 1 Decommissioning and are installing plant to dispose of the bulk coolant (DFR ∼ 60 tonne; PFR ∼ 1500 tonne). The coolant (NaK) remaining at DFR is mainly in the primary circuit which contains in excess of 500 TBq of Cs137. Disposal of 40 tonnes of secondary coolant has already been carried out. The paper will describe the processes used to dispose of this secondary circuit coolant and how it is intended the remaining primary circuit coolant will be handled. The programme to process the primary coolant will also be described which involves the conversion of the liquid metal to caustic and its decontamination. No PFR coolant Na has been disposed off to date. The paper will describe the current decommissioning programme activities relating to liquid metal disposal and treatment describing the materials to be disposed of and the issue of decontamination of the effluents. (author)

  16. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  17. Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.C.; Rosenblatt, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (largely because of advances in laser and detector technology) is assuming a rapidly expanding role in many areas of research. This paper reviews the contribution of Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry including molecular spectroscopy on static systems and gas diagnostic measurements on reactive systems. An important aspect of high temperature chemistry has been the identification and study of the new, and often unusual, gaseous molecules which form at high temperatures. Particularly important is the investigation of vibrational-rotational energy levels and electronic states which determine thermodynamic properties and describe chemical bonding. Some advantages and disadvantages of high temperature Raman spectrosocpy for molecular studies on static systems are compared: (1) Raman vs infrared; (2) gas-phase vs condensed in matries; and (3) atmospheric pressure Raman vs low pressure techniques, including mass spectroscopy, matrix isolation, and molecular beams. Raman studies on molecular properties of gases, melts, and surfaces are presented with emphasis on work not covered in previous reviews of high temperature and matrix isolation Raman spectroscopy

  18. Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.C.; Rosenblatt, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy (largely because of advances in laser and detector technology) is assuming a rapidly expanding role in many areas of research. This paper reviews the contribution of Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry including molecular spectroscopy on static systems and gas diagnostic measurements on reactive systems. An important aspect of high temperature chemistry has been the identification and study of the new, and often unusual, gaseous molecules which form at high temperatures. Particularly important is the investigation of vibrational-rotational energy levels and electronic states which determine thermodynamic properties and describe chemical bonding. Some advantages and disadvantages of high temperature Raman spectrosocpy for molecular studies on static systems are compared: (1) Raman vs infrared; (2) gas-phase vs condensed in matrices; and (3) atmospheric pressure Raman vs low pressure techniques, including mass spectroscopy, matrix isolation, and molecular beams. Raman studies on molecular properties of gases, melts, and surfaces are presented with emphasis on work not covered in previous reviews of high temperature and matrix isolation Raman spectroscopy

  19. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-21

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.

  20. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions

  1. Development of Fluid and I and C Systems Design Technology for LMR - Development of mechanical structure design technology for LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Hueong Yeon and others

    2005-03-01

    The key research items during the fiscal years of Phase 3 of the mechanical design technology development for liquid metal reactor are described. The objective of this project is to develop the design technology for the mechanical system of 600MWe, pool type liquid metal reactor with sodium coolant, and the structural integrity evaluation technology for mechanical system of the reactor system, structures and equipments. In the design technology development for mechanical structures, the reactor internal structures, reactor head and piping system, reactor containment structures have been studied, and new structural concepts compatible with the new reactor have been proposed. The thermal protection devices of reactor vessel and the refueling system have been conceptually established and the feasibility study for 3-D seismic isolation of reactor building was performed. The structural damage detection technology for reactor internal structures has been studied and its application has been confirmed. In the structural integrity evaluation technology development, the sensitivities of material constants for inelastic analysis codes have been studied and the applicabilities of the developed codes are enhanced. The high temperature creep-fatigue structural behavior test has been conducted so that high temperature structural damage test and evaluation technology were ensured at first in domestic. The high temperature seismic buckling analysis method to evaluate the buckling of thin reactor shell structure under the transient thermal load was established. In addition, the core seismic response analysis code reflected the fluid effect of core was developed and its accuracy was confirmed with a scale-down model test

  2. Research and survey report of FY 1997 on the CO2 balance for high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (nisanka tanso koon bunri gijutsu ni okeru CO2 balance ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the application condition and effectiveness of high-temperature CO2 fixation and utilization technology. To evaluate the present process, it was compared with others, such as separation using a polymer membrane, physico-chemical absorption process, adsorption process, hydrogen contact reduction process, and biological fixation. The development trends of absorption, membrane, adsorption, and cryogenic separation were investigated. The questionnaire was carried out about the separation technologies which are in the stage of performance test using actual gas, to arrange and compare the data and information. The current trends of chemical and biological CO2 fixation and utilization technology were also investigated for arranging the subjects. High-temperature CO2 disposal by the carbonation in concrete waste has been studied, to clarify its application conditions and effectiveness. In order to compare the separation technologies, treatment processes of CO2 in the exhaust gas from boilers of LNG power generation and coal fired power generation were simulated. These processes were simulated by ASPEN PLUS for the modeling. Trends of application of ASPEN PLUS and collection of information were surveyed by participating in the ASPEN WORLD. 103 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of liquid metal protection of a limiter/divertor in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.; Smith, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The liquid metal protection concept is proposed mainly to prolong the lifetime of a divertor or a limiter in a fusion reactor. This attractive idea for protection requires studying a wide range of problems associated with the use of liquid-metals in fusion reactors. In this work the protection by liquid-metals has concentrated on predictions of the loss rate of the film to the plasma, the operating surface temperatures required for the film, and the potential tritium inventory requirement. The effect of plasma disruptions on the liquid metal film is also evaluated. Other problems such as liquid metal compatibility with structural materials, magnetic field effects, and the effect of liquid metal contamination on plasma performance are discussed. Three candidate liquid-metals are evaluated, i.e., lithium, gallium, and tin. A wide range of reactor operating conditions valid for both near term machines (INTOR and ITER) and for the next generation commercial reactors (TPSS) are considered. This study has indicated that the evaporation rate for candidate liquid metals can be kept below the sputtering range for reasonable operating temperatures and plasma edge conditions. At higher temperatures, evaporation dominates the losses. Impurity transport calculations indicate that impurities from the plate should not reach the main plasma. One or two millimeters of liquid films can protect the structure from severe plasma disruptions. Depending on the design of the liquid metal protection system, the tritium inventory in the liquid film is predicted to be on the order of a few grams. 16 refs., 5 figs

  4. Apparatus for sealing a rotatable shield plug in a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing a rotatable shield plug in a nuclear reactor having liquid metal coolant is described. The apparatus includes a dip -ring seal adapted to provide a fluid barrier between the liquid metal and the atmosphere and to permit rotation of the shield plug. The apparatus also includes a static seal for the rotatable shield plug located between the dip-ring seal and the liquid metal. The static seal isolates the dip-ring seal from the liquid metal vapor during operation at power and can be disengaged for rotation of the shield plug

  5. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate.

  6. Conceptual design strategy for liquid-metal-wall inertial-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    The liquid-metal-wall chamber has emerged as an attractive reactor concept for inertial fusion energy conversion. The principal feature of this concept is a thick, free-flowing blanket of liquid metal used to protect the structure of the reactor. The development and design of liquid-metal-wall chambers over the past decade provides a basis for formulating a conceptual design strategy for such chambers. Both the attractive and unattractive features of a LMW chamber are enumerated, and a design strategy is formulated which accommodates the engineering constraints while minimizing the liquid-metal flow rate

  7. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.

    2016-01-01

    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  8. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  9. Gas-cooled reactor programs. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor base-technology program progress report for July 1, 1975--December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Kasten, P.R.

    1977-11-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: prestressed concrete pressure vessel development, structural materials, fission product technology, kernel migration and irradiated fuel chemistry, coolant chemistry (steam-graphite reactions), fuel qualification, and characterization and standardization of graphite

  10. Intermetallic and electrical insulator coatings on high-temperature alloys in liquid-lithium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion-reactor blanket, applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural wall, and Be-V intermetallic coatings for first-wall components that face the plasma. Vanadium and V-base alloys are leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Various intermetallic films were produced on V-alloys and on Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 2 at temperatures of 500--1030 degree C. CaO electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the oxygen-rich layer with <5 at. % Ca dissolved in liquid Li at 400--700 degree C. The reaction converted the oxygen-rich layer to an electrically insulating film. This coating method is applicable to reactor components because the liquid metal can be used over and over; only the solute within the liquid metal is consumed. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures

  11. Effect of Proton Irradiation on the Corrosion Behaviors of Ferritic/Martensitic Steel in Liquid Metal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) are the candidates of GEN-IV nuclear energy systems. Among various liquid metals that can be used as primary coolant material, sodium is a world widely used coolant for GEN-IV reactors. In this study, as-received Gr.92 and irradiated Gr.92 specimen in the oxygen-saturated liquid sodium were examined at high temperature for 300h. The microstructure results reveal the information of the effect of irradiation and effect of the chrome concentration in specimen. From the SRIM result, penetration distance of 40 μm in stainless steel and nominal sample thickness of 30 μm was used to avoid the damage peak and any proton implantation and From the microstructural evaluation, chromium-rich zones existed under the surface of the both of non-irradiated and irradiated materials. The irradiated materials showed chromium-rich zones with larger depths than the non-irradiated specimens.

  12. On the behavior and stability of a liquid metal in quasi-planar electric contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, S. D.

    2016-06-01

    The contacts between conductors formed under relatively low pressures can be treated as quasi-planar. Melting of the material of such contacts upon the passage of electric current is used in some technological processes, but the behavior of liquid in these conditions has not been analyzed. In this study, such an estimate was obtained for specific conditions appearing under electric-pulse compacting (briquetting) of metal shavings. Analysis of derived relations shows that this estimate is valid for any quasi-2D contacts upon passage of a pulsed current of duration from microseconds to milliseconds. It is shown that the spacing between contact surfaces decreases, the liquid metal is extruded in the lateral directions, and the area of the contact and its conductivity increase. Sausage-type magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability and overheating instability do not evolve in these conditions because the instability wavelength is larger than the rated thickness of the molten layer; screw MHD instability can appear in slower processes.

  13. High temperature corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadakkers, W.J.; Schuster, H.; Ennis, P.J.

    1988-08-01

    This paper covers three main topics: 1. high temperature oxidation of metals and alloys, 2. corrosion in sulfur containing environments and 3. structural changes caused by corrosion. The following 21 subjects are discussed: Influence of implanted yttrium and lanthanum on the oxidation behaviour of beta-NiA1; influence of reactive elements on the adherence and protective properties of alumina scales; problems related to the application of very fine markers in studying the mechanism of thin scale formation; oxidation behaviour of chromia forming Co-Cr-Al alloys with or without reactive element additions; growth and properties of chromia-scales on high-temperature alloys; quantification of the depletion zone in high temperature alloys after oxidation in process gas; effects of HC1 and of N2 in the oxidation of Fe-20Cr; investigation under nuclear safety aspects of Zircaloy-4 oxidation kinetics at high temperatures in air; on the sulfide corrosion of metallic materials; high temperature sulfide corrosion of Mn, Nb and Nb-Si alloys; corrosion behaviour or NiCrAl-based alloys in air and air-SO2 gas mixtures; sulfidation of cobalt at high temperatures; preoxidation for sulfidation protection; fireside corrosion and application of additives in electric utility boilers; transport properties of scales with complex defect structures; observations of whiskers and pyramids during high temperature corrosion of iron in SO2; corrosion and creep of alloy 800H under simulated coal gasification conditions; microstructural changes of HK 40 cast alloy caused by exploitation in tubes in steam reformer installation; microstructural changes during exposure in corrosive environments and their effect on mechanical properties; coatings against carburization; mathematical modeling of carbon diffusion and carbide precipitation in Ni-Cr-based alloys. (MM)

  14. Field-Controlled Electrical Switch with Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, James; Dickey, Michael D; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    When immersed in an electrolyte, droplets of Ga-based liquid metal (LM) alloy can be manipulated in ways not possible with conventional electrocapillarity or electrowetting. This study demonstrates how LM electrochemistry can be exploited to coalesce and separate droplets under moderate voltages of ~1-10 V. This novel approach to droplet interaction can be explained with a theory that accounts for oxidation and reduction as well as fluidic instabilities. Based on simulations and experimental analysis, this study finds that droplet separation is governed by a unique limit-point instability that arises from gradients in bipolar electrochemical reactions that lead to gradients in interfacial tension. The LM coalescence and separation are used to create a field-programmable electrical switch. As with conventional relays or flip-flop latch circuits, the system can transition between bistable (separated or coalesced) states, making it useful for memory storage, logic, and shape-programmable circuitry using entirely liquids instead of solid-state materials.

  15. Liquid metal reactor applications of the CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.E.; Bergeron, K.D.; Gido, R.; Valdez, G.D.; Scholtyssek, W.

    1988-01-01

    The CONTAIN code is the NRC's best-estimate code for the evaluation of the conditions that may exist inside a reactor containment building during a severe accident. Included in the phenomena modeled are thermal-hydraulics, radiant and convective heat transfer, aerosol loading and transient response, fission product transport and heating effects, and interactions of sodium and corium with the containment atmosphere and structures. CONTAIN has been used by groups in Japan and West Germany to assess its ability to analyze accident consequences for liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants. In conjunction with this use, collaborative efforts to improve the modeling have been pursued. This paper summarizes the current state of the version of CONTAIN that has been enhanced with extra capabilities for LMR applications. A description of physical models is presented, followed by a review of validation exercises performed with CONTAIN. Some demonstration calculations of an integrated LMR application are presented

  16. Vessel supporting structure for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, Armel; Jullien, Georges

    1974-01-01

    The supporting structure described is for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, the vessel being of the type suspended to the end slab of the reactor. It includes a ring connected at one of its two ends to a single shell and at the other end to two shells. One of these three shells connected to the lower end of the ring forms the upper part of the vessel to be supported. The two other shells are embedded in two sperate parts of the slab. The ring and shell assembly is housed in an annular space provided in the end slab and separating it into two parts, namely a central part and a peripheral part [fr

  17. Method of shielding a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The primary heat transport system of a nuclear reactor - particularly for a liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor - is shielded and protected from leakage by establishing and maintaining a bed of a powdered oxide closely and completely surrounding all components thereof by passing a gas upwardly therethrough at such a rate as to slightly expand the bed to the extent that the components of the system are able to expand without damage and yet the particles of a the bed remain close enough so that the bed acts as a guard vessel for the system. Preferably the gas contains 1 to 10% oxygen and the gas is passed upwardly through the bed at such a rate that the lower portion of the bed is a fixed bed while the upper portion is a fluidized bed, the line of demarcation therebetween being high enough that the fixed bed portion of the bed serves as guard vessel for the system

  18. Heating effects in a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, G.L.R.; Aitken, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A reassessment is made of the heating occurring at the anode of a liquid metal ion source, in the light of new microscopic observations. The apex region of the cones is in the form of a cusp, or jet, even at very low currents. The calculation for ohmic heating is conclusive for low currents; no heating occurs at the anode; for high currents (approx. 50-100 μA), substantial heating is conceivable, if a long, very thin, cylindrical jet exists at the apex of the anode. The answer to the problem of external heating, in the form of electrons bombarding the anode, is not quite conclusive; this is because of the impossibility of correctly assessing the electron flux entering the anode. However, it would appear to be a definite conclusion that for reasons of self-consistency field-ionisation of thermally released atoms cannot be a significant ion emission mechanism. (author)

  19. Disintegration of liquid metals by low pressure water blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of disintegrating metals by a low cost system and subsequently incorporating them into grout mixtures has been demonstrated. A low pressure water blasting technique consisting of multiple nozzles and a converging-line jet stream was developed to disintegrate liquid metals and produce coarse metal powder and shot. Molten iron resulted in spherical shot, while copper, aluminum, and tin produced irregular shaped particles. The particle size was between 0.05 and 3 mm (0.002 and 0.1 in.), and about half the particles were smaller than 1 mm (0.04 in.) in all cases. The water consumption was rather low, while the production rate was relatively high. The method proved to be simple and reliable. The coarse metal powders were suspendable in grout fluids, indicating that they are probably disposable by the shale hydrofracture technique

  20. Dispersion relations of the acoustic modes in divalent liquid metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Collective dynamics in liquid Ca and liquid Cd was studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS. Using our experimental technique to prepare proper sample cells and high performance of an IXS beamline (BL35XU at SPring-8 in Japan, the dynamic structure factor with reasonable statistics was obtained for these divalent liquid metals. For both liquids, the dynamic structure factor at low Q exhibits a central peak with a shoulder or small hump clearly visible on each side, and the inelastic excitation energy determined using the model function composed of Lorentzian and the damped harmonic oscillator function disperses with increasing Q. The dispersion curves of these liquids were compared with that of the longitudinal acoustic phonon in each crystalline phase. From these results, clear difference in the interatomic interaction be- tween liquid Ca and liquid Cd was inferred.

  1. Light-driven liquid metal nanotransformers for biomedical theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetka, Svetlana A.; Yu, Yue; Zhen, Xu; Pramanik, Manojit; Pu, Kanyi; Miyako, Eijiro

    2017-05-01

    Room temperature liquid metals (LMs) represent a class of emerging multifunctional materials with attractive novel properties. Here, we show that photopolymerized LMs present a unique nanoscale capsule structure characterized by high water dispersibility and low toxicity. We also demonstrate that the LM nanocapsule generates heat and reactive oxygen species under biologically neutral near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Concomitantly, NIR laser exposure induces a transformation in LM shape, destruction of the nanocapsules, contactless controlled release of the loaded drugs, optical manipulations of a microfluidic blood vessel model and spatiotemporal targeted marking for X-ray-enhanced imaging in biological organs and a living mouse. By exploiting the physicochemical properties of LMs, we achieve effective cancer cell elimination and control of intercellular calcium ion flux. In addition, LMs display a photoacoustic effect in living animals during NIR laser treatment, making this system a powerful tool for bioimaging.

  2. Two cylinder permanent magnet stirrer for liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevičs, A.; Baranovskis, R.; Kaldre, I.; Milgrāvis, M.; Beinerts, T.

    2017-07-01

    To achieve a uniform liquid metal composition and temperature distribution, stirring is often necessary for industrial processes. Here, a novel permanent magnet system for liquid melt stirring is proposed. It promises very low energy consumption and options for multiple different flow types compared to traditional travelling magnetic field inductors or mechanical stirrers. The proposed system has a simple design: it consists of two rotating permanent magnet cylinders, which are magnetized transversely to the axis of the cylinders. The experimental device was developed and tested under various regimes using GaInSn alloy in a cylindrical crucible. Aluminum stirring by permanent magnets in laboratory scale is tested, and stirring impact on directional solidification of metallic alloys is experimentally investigated.

  3. Feasible homopolar dynamo with sliding liquid-metal contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priede, Jānis; Avalos-Zúñiga, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    We present a feasible homopolar dynamo design consisting of a flat, multi-arm spiral coil, which is placed above a fast-spinning metal ring and connected to the latter by sliding liquid-metal electrical contacts. Using a simple, analytically solvable axisymmetric model, we determine the optimal design of such a setup. For small contact resistance, the lowest magnetic Reynolds number, Rm≈34.6, at which the dynamo can work, is attained at the optimal ratio of the outer and inner radii of the rings R i /R o ≈0.36 and the spiral pitch angle 54.7°. In a setup of two copper rings with the thickness of 3 cm, R i =10 cm and R o =30 cm, self-excitation of the magnetic field is expected at a critical rotation frequency around 10 Hz

  4. The US Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolin, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Based on National Energy Strategy projections, utilities will be required to substantially increase electric generating capacity over the next 40 yr to meet economic growth requirements and replace retiring capacity. Although aggressive conservation measures can save up to 85 GW(electric), ∼195 GW(electric) of additional generating capcity will still be needed by 2010. Assuming startup of new plants around 2000, US Department of Energy (DOE) analyses show that nuclear power can contribute 195 GW(electric) of capacity by 2030, or ∼20% of total electric generation. The DOE is involved in a number of strategies designed to revitalize the nuclear power industry and enable it to meet this projected need for additional capacity. Among these is an integrated overall strategy for advanced reactor development and high-level waste management. A high priority in pursuit of this strategy is the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) Program

  5. Submersion Quenching of Undercooled Liquid Metals in an Electrostatic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has a long history of providing materials research and thermophysical property data. The laboratory has recently added a new capability, a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals and alloys. This is the first submersion quench system inside an electrostatic levitator. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and silicon-cobalt alloys. This rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development, including studies of metastable phases and transient microstructures. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  6. The US Liquid-Metal Reactor Program - overview and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Salerno, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    The US Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) Program has three major elements being developed in an integrated fashion to produce a system meeting the US long-term nuclear energy needs. Reactor design, one of those elements, is the focus of this paper. The other two elements, the integral fast reactor metal-fuel cycle and the light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel actinide recycle, will be addressed in companion papers. The ALMR is adaptable to multiple missions with few modifications such as the core arrangements. The missions identified to date are (a) the extension of the existing uranium resources through breeding and highly efficient uranium utilization, (b) the recycle and utilization of the long-life actinides in LWR spent fuel as fissile material for the ALMR, and (c) the conversion of excess weapons fissil material into electricity. In addition to these missions, the reactor design is adaptable to either the metal-fuel cycle or the oxide fuel cycle

  7. Radioactive waste management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Fryer, R.H.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactive waste production and management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), which is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Argonne National Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since this facility, in addition to supplying power has been used to demonstrate the breeder, fuel cycling, and recently operations with defective fuel elements, various categories of waste have been handled safely over some 14 years of operation. Liquid wastes are processed such that the resulting effluent can be discharged to an uncontrolled area. Solid wastes up to 10,000 R/hr are packaged and shipped contamination-free to a disposal site or interim storage with exposures to personnel approximately 10 mrem. Gaseous waste discharges are low such as 143 Ci of noble gases in 1978 and do not have a significant effect on the environment even with operations with breached fuel

  8. Self-cooled liquid-metal blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Arheidt, K.; Barleon, L.

    1988-01-01

    A blanket concept for the Next European Torus (NET) where 83Pb-17Li serves both as breeder material and as coolant is described. The concept is based on the use of novel flow channel inserts for a decisive reduction of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop and employs beryllium as neutron multiplier in order to avoid the need for breeding blankets at the inboard side of the torus. This study includes the design, neutronics, thermal hydraulics, stresses, MHDs, corrosion, tritium recovery, and safety of a self-cooled liquid-metal blanket. The results of the investigations indicate that the self-cooled blanket is an attractive alternative to other driver blanket concepts for NET and that it can be extrapolated to the conditions of a DEMO reactor

  9. Superconductor homopolar machines with liquid-metal contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyevsky, B.L.; Bazarnov, B.A.; Oktyabrsky, A.M.; Popov, N.N.; Sherstuk, A.G.; Shopen, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    Alongside with the power increase of Electric Superconductor (SC) Machines including Homopolar Machines (HM) there is a strong need of improving their working characteristics, raising the efficiency, reducing the superconductor consumption. In the paper, the results of investigating the mass, dimensional and energetic properties of SCHM are given which are illustrated by the calculation of homopolar generators in the band of nominal power per unit P n = (2-250) MW at the voltage of 12, 24, 60, 230 V and rotation frequency of 25 and 50 rps. Screened and unscreened HM of a cylindrical type with liquid-metal current collector devices (LCD) and inductor consisting of 2 opposing SC coils mounted in a fixed cryostat inside the rotating armature are investigated

  10. CFD analysis of liquid metal cooled rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.M.; Suh, K.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The model subassembly of the BREST-type reactor core is a pin bundle of square arrangement. In this bundle there are two zones which differ with respect to pin diameters and level of heat production. The model pin bundle contains one spacer grid which is located near the midplane of the rod bundle geometry. The coolant consists of a eutectic alloy of 22% sodium (Na) plus 78% potassium (K). Experiments were performed in order to observe the thermal hydraulic behavior of the liquid metal coolant in the BREST core simulator. Results were obtained for the coolant exit temperatures, central measuring pin simulator external surface temperatures, and coolant velocities at the perimeter of the measuring pin simulator. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to simulate the liquid metal flows in subchannels. Semi-fine mesh structures were used to model the flow with reasonable accuracy and speed once rigorous node resolution dependency had been tested. A subchannel analysis code was used to investigate the flows as well. Since the subchannel analysis code is based on a lumped parameter model, it only calculates the subchannel averaged velocity values. The CFD code results were averaged on the subchannel basis to be comparable with the results from the subchannel code. The mixing vane is not considered for the time being so as to simplify the problem and to reduce the computational cost. The two codes showed similar results. The difference between the experimental and computational results is considered to mainly originate from the existence of the mixing vane. (authors)

  11. CFD analysis of liquid metal cooled rod assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, H.M.; Suh, K.Y. [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The model subassembly of the BREST-type reactor core is a pin bundle of square arrangement. In this bundle there are two zones which differ with respect to pin diameters and level of heat production. The model pin bundle contains one spacer grid which is located near the midplane of the rod bundle geometry. The coolant consists of a eutectic alloy of 22% sodium (Na) plus 78% potassium (K). Experiments were performed in order to observe the thermal hydraulic behavior of the liquid metal coolant in the BREST core simulator. Results were obtained for the coolant exit temperatures, central measuring pin simulator external surface temperatures, and coolant velocities at the perimeter of the measuring pin simulator. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used to simulate the liquid metal flows in subchannels. Semi-fine mesh structures were used to model the flow with reasonable accuracy and speed once rigorous node resolution dependency had been tested. A subchannel analysis code was used to investigate the flows as well. Since the subchannel analysis code is based on a lumped parameter model, it only calculates the subchannel averaged velocity values. The CFD code results were averaged on the subchannel basis to be comparable with the results from the subchannel code. The mixing vane is not considered for the time being so as to simplify the problem and to reduce the computational cost. The two codes showed similar results. The difference between the experimental and computational results is considered to mainly originate from the existence of the mixing vane. (authors)

  12. Automated scoping methodology for liquid metal natural circulation small reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hyung M.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Automated scoping methodology for natural circulation small modular reactor is developed. • In-house code is developed to carry out system analysis and core geometry generation during scoping. • Adjustment relations are obtained to correct the critical core geometry out of diffusion theory. • Optimized design specification is found using objective function value. • Convex hull volume is utilized to quantify the impact of different constraints on the scope range. - Abstract: A novel scoping method is proposed that can automatically generate design variable range of the natural circulation driven liquid metal cooled small reactor. From performance requirements based upon Generation IV system roadmap, appropriate structure materials are selected and engineering constraints are compiled based upon literature. Utilizing ASME codes and standards, appropriate geometric sizing criteria on constituting components are developed to ensure integrity of the system during its lifetime. In-house one dimensional thermo-hydraulic system analysis code is developed based upon momentum integral model and finite element methods to deal with non-uniform descritization of temperature nodes for convection and thermal diffusion equation of liquid metal coolant. In order to quickly generate critical core dimensions out of given unit cell information, an adjustment relation that relates the critical geometry estimated from one-group diffusion and that from MCNP code is constructed and utilized throughout the process. For the selected unit cell dimension ranges, burnup calculations are carried out to check the cores can generate energy over the reactor lifetime. Utilizing random method, sizing criteria, and in-house analysis codes, an automated scoping methodology is developed. The methodology is applied to nitride fueled integral type lead cooled natural circulation reactor concept to generate design scopes which satisfies given constraints. Three dimensional convex

  13. Thermohydraulic behavior of liquid metal pool submitted to electronic bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Patrice

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the thermohydraulics of liquid metal molten by an electron beam. We study the relationship between the liquid metal pool and the vapor rate. The aim is to find good conditions increasing the metal vapor rate. In first place, energy losses are identified. Mains are convection (buoyancy and thermo-capillary) strengthen by the deformation of the molten pool. The first action is to reduce the liquid interface deformation with a transient spot realized by scanning the electron beam. I find that in this case, the optimum vapor rate is obtained when the crossing time of the beam is smaller than characteristic time of formation of the cavity, but greater than the heating time of the surface. Secondly, I impose forces to change the morphology of the flow. Two actions are tried: magnetic field application and rotating motion of the crucible. External magnetic field application may reduce convective flow, by the creation of a magnetic brake. But in my experiment, magnetic field deteriorates electron beam before to be effective. Results obtained by the rotating motion of the crucible approve this choice to reduce energy losses and increase vapor rate. This growth of vapor rate is due to an expansion of the emitted vapor source and an increase of the central temperature of the molten pool. Nevertheless with the increase of the rotation velocity and after the optimum vapor rate, I note that the flow is not axisymmetric. My observation give to think about instabilities that are developed by baroclinic waves. The comparison of my works with the Eady's linear theory gives good results. (author) [fr

  14. Mechanical pumps for liquid metals; Pompes mecaniques pour metaux liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumier, J; Gollion, H J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The pumping of liquid metals by centrifugal pumps poses two principal problems. These are hermetic sealing of the rotating shaft and, its guidance where immersed in liquid metal. The solutions to the problems used on 13 experimental pumps are given here. The resolution of the guidance problem consists in the majority of cases in the utilisation of hydrostatic bearings. Accordingly, a theoretical study was instituted for the first time to calculate the bearings of the earlier pumps. After this, an experimental study was carried out, to check the theory by water tests. A relation for bearing calculation of pumps with diffusers is proposed. Finally the influence of the bearing elasticity on the shafts critical speed is studied. (authors) [French] Le pompage des metaux liquides, par des pompes centrifuges, pose 2 principaux problemes, qui sont: d'une part, la realisation d'une excellente etancheite au passage de l'arbre, d'autre part, son guidage sur la partie immergee dans le metal liquide. Les solutions retenues pour resoudre ces problemes sur 13 pompes experimentees sont presentees. Le probleme du guidage de l'arbre, a dans la majorite des cas ete resolu en utilisant un palier hydrostatique, aussi l'etude en a d'abord ete approfondie de facon theorique pour calculer les paliers des premieres pompes, puis experimentale pour controler la theorie, en effectuant des essais a l'eau. On propose une relation pour calculer les paliers des pompes a diffuseurs. On a en outre effectue une etude de l'influence de l'elasticite du palier hydrostatique sur la vitesse critique de l'arbre. (auteurs)

  15. Numerical simulation of turbulent forced convection in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodret, S; Di Maio, D Vitale; Caruso, G

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of the future generation of nuclear reactors, liquid metals are foreseen to be used as a primary coolant. Liquid metals are characterized by a very low Prandtl number due to their very high heat diffusivity. As such, they do not meet the so-called Reynolds analogy which assumes a complete similarity between the momentum and the thermal boundary layers via the use of the turbulent Prandtl number. Particularly, in the case of industrial fluid-dynamic calculations where a resolved computation near walls could be extremely time consuming and could need very large computational resources, the use of the classical wall function approach could lead to an inaccurate description of the temperature profile close to the wall. The first aim of the present study is to investigate the ability of a well- established commercial code (ANSYS FLUENT v.14) to deal with this issue, validating a suitable expression for the turbulent Prandtl number. Moreover, a thermal wall-function developed at Universite Catholique de Louvain has been implemented in FLUENT and validated, overcoming the limits of the solver to define it directly. Both the resolved and unresolved approaches have been carried out for a channel flow case and assessed against available direct numerical and large eddy simulations. A comparison between the numerically evaluated Nusselt number and the main correlations available in the literature has been also carried out. Finally, an application of the proposed methodology to a typical sub-channel case has been performed, comparing the results with literature correlations for tube banks

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  17. Elastomeric Sensing of Pressure with Liquid Metal and Wireless Inductive Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jacob; Zou, Xiyue; Hogan, Ben; Tumalle, Jonathan; Etikyala, Sowmith; Fung, Diego; Charles, Watley; Gu, Tianye; Hull, Patrick V.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-01-01

    This project describes resistance-based soft sensors filled with liquid metal, which permit measurements of large strains (0 percent to 110 percent), associated with small forces of less than 30 Newtons. This work also demonstrates a methodology for wireless transfer of these strain measurements without connected electrodes. These sensors allow intermittent detection of pressure on soft membranes with low force. Adapting these sensors for passive wireless pressure sensing will eliminate the need for embedded batteries, and will allow the sensors to transmit pressure data through non-conductive materials including glass and acrylic. The absence of batteries allows us to embed these sensors into materials for long-term use because the sensors only use passive analog circuit elements. We found the oxidation of the liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium) plays a role in the repeatability of the soft sensors. We investigated how the oxidation layer affected the behavior of the sensor by encapsulating materials (silicone, fluorosilicone, and PVC) with varied permeabilities to oxygen. We measured the effects of mechanical loading on the oxidation layer and the effects of wireless inductive coupling on the oxidation layer. We concluded our research by investigating the effects of embedding self-resonant circuits into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Efforts to design engineered systems with soft materials are a growing field with progress in soft robotics, epidermal electronics, and wearable electronics. In the field of soft robotics, PDMS-based grippers are capable of picking up delicate objects because their form-fitting properties allow them to conform to the shape of objects more easily than conventional robotic grippers. Epidermal devices also use PDMS as a substrate to hold electronic components such as radios, sensors, and power supply circuits. Additionally, PDMS-based soft sensors can monitor human motion with liquid metal embedded within micro-channels. Passive

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies of heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Through the Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA provides a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, collaborative assessments, knowledge preservation, and cooperative research in areas agreed by the Member States with fast reactor and partitioning and transmutation development programmes (e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS)). Trends in advanced fast reactor and ADS designs and technology development are periodically summarized in status reports, symposia, and seminar proceedings prepared by the IAEA to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information. The use of heavy liquid metals (HLM) is rapidly diffusing in different research and industrial fields. The detailed knowledge of the basic thermal hydraulics phenomena associated with their use is a necessary step for the development of the numerical codes to be used in the engineering design of HLM components. This is particularly true in the case of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic alloy cooled fast reactors, high power particle beam targets and in the case of the cooling of accelerator driven sub-critical cores where the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design codes is mandatory. Periodic information exchange within the frame of the TWG-FR has lead to the conclusion that the experience in HLM thermal fluid dynamics with regard to both the theoretical/numerical and experimental fields was limited and somehow dispersed. This is the case, e.g. when considering turbulent exchange phenomena, free-surface problems, and two-phase flows. Consequently, Member States representatives participating in the 35th Annual Meeting of the TWG-FR (Karlsruhe, Germany, 22-26 April 2002) recommended holding a technical meeting (TM) on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Heavy Liquid Metal Thermal Hydraulics. Following this recommendation, the IAEA has convened the Technical Meeting on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of

  19. State-of-the-art report on the development of liquid metal reactor fuel cladding materials in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kuk, Il Hiun; Ryu, Woo Seog; Jang, Jin Sung; Rhee, Chang Kyu; Kim, Dae Whan; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Woo Gon; Chung, Man Kyo; Han, Chang Hee

    1998-01-01

    PNC 1520 and PNC-FM5 have been developed as a cladding materials for LMR in Japan. PNC 1520 has superior swelling resistance and high temperature properties to PNC 31.6. And PNC-FMS steel has shown a high rupture stress as well as good neutron irradiation performance. In addition oxide dispersed ferritic steel (PNC-ODS) and 12Cr-8Mo steel have been developed. This report will give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is going to be operable in 2010 by analysis of the characteristics of cladding materials developed in Japan. (author). 39 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  20. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  1. Approaches to measurement of thermal-hydraulic parameters in liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture considers instrumentation for liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's). Included is instrumentation to measure sodium flow, pressure, temperature, acoustic noise, and sodium purity. It is divided into three major parts: (1) measurement requirements for sodium cooled reactor systems, (2) in-core and out-of-core measurements in liquid metal systems, and (3) performance measurements of water steam generators

  2. Effects of loading variables on fatigue-crack growth in liquid-metal environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement (LMIE) refers to the loss of ductility in normally ductile metals and alloys when stressed while in contact with a liquid metal. In this study, the fatigue crack growth behaviour of brass in molten gallium...

  3. A pump/intermediate heat exchanger assembly for a liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathenson, R.D.; Alexion, C.C.; Sumpman, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    A heat exchanger and electromagnetic pump assembly is disclosed comprising a heat exchanger housing defining an annularly shaped cavity and supporting therein a plurality of heat transfer tubes. An electromagnetic pump disposed beneath the heat exchanger comprises a circular array of flow couplers. Each flow coupler comprises a pump duct receiving primary liquid metal and a generator duct receiving a pumped intermediate liquid metal. A first plenum chamber is in communication with the generator ducts of all the flow couplers and receives intermediate liquid metal from inlet duct. The generator ducts exit their flows of intermediate liquid metal to a second plenum chamber in communication with the heat exchanger annularly shaped cavity to permit the flow of the intermediate liquid metal therethrough. A third plenum chamber receives collectively the flows of the primary liquid metal from the tubes and directs the primary liquid metal to the pump ducts of the flow couplers. The annular magnetic field of the electromagnetic pump is produced by a circular array of electromagnets having hollow windings cooled by a flow of intermediate liquid metal via tubes and manifolds. The leads to the electromagnets pass through an annular space around the inlet duct. (author)

  4. Immersion apparatus and process for an ultrasonic transducer in a liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Baud, P.

    1987-01-01

    The ultrasonic transducer is introduced in a casing. The coupling zone of the transducer is covered by a layer of liquid metal. This layer is solidified and then the transducer with his coating layer is introduced in the liquid metal under an inert atmosphere. The device for immersing the transducer is claimed [fr

  5. 1981 Annual status report. High-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The high temperature materials programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. A range of engineering studies is being carried out. A data bank storing factual data on alloys for high temperature applications is being developed and has reached the operational phase

  6. 1982 Annual status report: high-temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, M.

    1983-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Programme is executed at the JRC, Petten Establishment and has for the 1980/83 programme period the objective to promote within the European Community the development of high temperature materials required for future energy technologies. Materials and engineering studies include: corrosion with or without load, mechanical properties under static or dynamic loads, surface protection creep of tubular components in corrosive environments and high temperature materials data bank

  7. High-temperature metallography setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.; Shmarjahu, D.; Elfassy, S.

    1979-06-01

    A high-temperature metallography setup is presented. In this setup the observation of processes such as that of copper recrystallization was made possible, and the structure of metals such as uranium could be revealed. A brief historical review of part of the research works that have been done with the help of high temperature metallographical observation technique since the beginning of this century is included. Detailed description of metallographical specimen preparation technique and theoretical criteria based on the rate of evaporation of materials present on the polished surface of the specimens are given

  8. High temperature corrosion in gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Wate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several commercial scale coal gasification combined cycle power plants have been built and successfully operated during the last 5-10 years. Supporting research on materials of construction has been carried out for the last 20 years by EPRI and others. Emphasis was on metallic alloys for heat exchangers and other components in contact with hot corrosive gases at high temperatures. In this paper major high temperature corrosion mechanisms, materials performance in presently operating gasifiers and future research needs will be discussed.

  9. Liquid metal embrittlement. From basic concepts to recent results related to structural materials for liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorse, D.; Goryachev, S.; Auger, T.

    2003-01-01

    At first, the basic features of LME are recalled (definition, characteristics, embrittling couples), together with classical experimental features and open questions. Then, a review of a few very recent results obtained on classical embrittling couples but using new powerful investigation techniques developed in France is proposed. Second we define LMC. The 'LME-LMC' correlation is postulated. Then we concentrate on the LME-LMC problem related to the build-up of the Liquid Metal Spallation target in the frame of the MEGAPIE project. The Russian expertise on LME is briefly mentioned. Then we present some results obtained in the frame of the Groupement de Recherche' GEDEON, focusing on steel grade T91 in contact with lead and lead-bismuth eutectic, in agreement with Russian literature. (author)

  10. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX [Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Lavine, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Carsten M.; Deeds, W. Edward

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  12. Gallium-Based Room-Temperature Liquid Metals: Actuation and Manipulation of Droplets and Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Majidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallium-based room-temperature liquid metals possess extremely valuable properties, such as low toxicity, low vapor pressure, and high thermal and electrical conductivity enabling them to become suitable substitutes for mercury and beyond in wide range of applications. When exposed to air, a native oxide layer forms on the surface of gallium-based liquid metals which mechanically stabilizes the liquid. By removing or reconstructing the oxide skin, shape and state of liquid metal droplets and flows can be manipulated/actuated desirably. This can occur manually or in the presence/absence of a magnetic/electric field. These methods lead to numerous useful applications such as soft electronics, reconfigurable devices, and soft robots. In this mini-review, we summarize the most recent progresses achieved on liquid metal droplet generation and actuation of gallium-based liquid metals with/without an external force.

  13. FEM Modeling of the Relationship between the High-Temperature Hardness and High-Temperature, Quasi-Static Compression Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Feng; Yan, Lan; Xu, Xipeng

    2017-12-26

    The high-temperature hardness test has a wide range of applications, but lacks test standards. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element method (FEM) model of the relationship between the high-temperature hardness and high-temperature, quasi-static compression experiment, which is a mature test technology with test standards. A high-temperature, quasi-static compression test and a high-temperature hardness test were carried out. The relationship between the high-temperature, quasi-static compression test results and the high-temperature hardness test results was built by the development of a high-temperature indentation finite element (FE) simulation. The simulated and experimental results of high-temperature hardness have been compared, verifying the accuracy of the high-temperature indentation FE simulation.The simulated results show that the high temperature hardness basically does not change with the change of load when the pile-up of material during indentation is ignored. The simulated and experimental results show that the decrease in hardness and thermal softening are consistent. The strain and stress of indentation were analyzed from the simulated contour. It was found that the strain increases with the increase of the test temperature, and the stress decreases with the increase of the test temperature.

  14. FEM Modeling of the Relationship between the High-Temperature Hardness and High-Temperature, Quasi-Static Compression Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The high-temperature hardness test has a wide range of applications, but lacks test standards. The purpose of this study is to develop a finite element method (FEM model of the relationship between the high-temperature hardness and high-temperature, quasi-static compression experiment, which is a mature test technology with test standards. A high-temperature, quasi-static compression test and a high-temperature hardness test were carried out. The relationship between the high-temperature, quasi-static compression test results and the high-temperature hardness test results was built by the development of a high-temperature indentation finite element (FE simulation. The simulated and experimental results of high-temperature hardness have been compared, verifying the accuracy of the high-temperature indentation FE simulation.The simulated results show that the high temperature hardness basically does not change with the change of load when the pile-up of material during indentation is ignored. The simulated and experimental results show that the decrease in hardness and thermal softening are consistent. The strain and stress of indentation were analyzed from the simulated contour. It was found that the strain increases with the increase of the test temperature, and the stress decreases with the increase of the test temperature.

  15. Improvement in the technology of thermocouples for the detection of high temperatures with a view to using them in irradiation safety tests in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Liermann, J.; Aujollet, J.M.; Wilkins, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The safety tests carried out under the CABRI and PHEBUS programmes have made it possible to improve the technology of W/Re thermocouples and their reliability in particularly hard operating conditions. An element of response is provided to the problem of W/Re thermocouple drift under neutron flux by defining the new thermocouple Mo 5% Nb/Nb 10% Mo which, because of the low capture cross section of thermoelectric elements, gives one reason to hope for a less significant drift of these thermocouples under neutron flux than that found with W/Re thermocouples. Finally, determining the surface temperature of fuel element cladding with the Mo/Zircaloy thermocouple may prove worthwhile providing the temperatures do not exceed 1300 0 C and the electric insulator is aluminium oxide which up to 1300 0 C does not appear to react with thermoelectric wires [fr

  16. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1980 in Sunshine Project. Development of a high-temperature bed drilling technology (Feasibility study on high-temperature bed drilling); 1980 nendo koon chiso kusaku gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Koon chiso kussaku ni kansuru feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Discussions were given on feasibility of a technology to drill efficiently a high-temperature bed (350 degrees C and 400 kg/cm{sup 2}) to 3 to 5 km. This paper summarizes the bit items for development (bearings, cutters, blade tips, sealing materials, a tip retaining method and structures). The roller cutter bit had the retaining power of the mother cutter material strengthened by using improved carbonized steel and heat treatment. A bit bearing using heat resistant material showed a life of 40 hours or longer at 350 degrees C. The solid bit using a two-layered ultra hard blade tip achieved a drilling rate of 0.84 m/h without any breakage. Studies were also advanced on the air friction drilling method. This paper also dwelled on heat and corrosion resistant blade tips, materials, enhancement of heat resistance in powder sintered cutters, and studies on the bit sealing. In addition to discussions on the percussion drilling as a new drilling method, discussions were given on slanted drilling, air drilling and multi-leg drilling. The paper summarizes these discussions together with development problems to be solved in the future. Research and development works were carried out also on an explosion preventing device, a roll packer, and a rotating head prevent device. (NEDO)

  17. A study on the corrosion characteristics of lead-bismuth liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam Il; Park, Won S.; Han, Seok Jung; Jeong, Won Seok

    1999-03-01

    Pb-Bi eutectic has been adopted as a coolant and spallation target material of HYPER (Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor), an accelerator driven subcritical transmutation system. The contents and scope of the present study are to implement systematic survey and analyses of available results on the corrosion characteristics of Pb-Bi liquid metal which are considered to be the most important among Pb-Bi coolant technologies and to provide fundamental bases for future research efforts. Major parameters affecting the corrosion of structural materials in liquid metals are temperature, flow velocity, contents of impurities in coolant, compositions of structural materials, and so forth. It was already known that for traditional commercial austenitic steels of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti type and 12%Cr ferritic steels, the operating temperatures of Pb-Bi coolant cannot be raised above 400 dg C and 450 dg C, respectively. However, extensive researches have been performed to protect structural materials under higher operating temperature such as the development of various kinds of coating methods for steels and the investigations of coolant inhibition by different chemical elements. The available experimental results show that the effective methods to improve the performance of structural materials in Pb-Bi coolant are the development of suitable steel alloys, the creation of oxide type coatings, and the control of oxygen inhibition. According to the recently presented research results of URRS, utilization of these methods makes it possible to raise the operating temperature limit to 620-650 dg C. It provides the possibility of usage of Pb-Bi coolant for the transmutation system, HYPER some day. (Author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs

  18. Performance Tests of a Permeation Sensor for Test Blanket Modules Using Liquid Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. G.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, E. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Shin, K. I.; Jin, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    The tritium extraction from a breeder is one of the key technologies and its methods have been investigated. For developing the tritium extraction methods and evaluating the amount of tritium in the system, a reliable and correct sensor is required to measure the hydrogen concentration in liquid metal breeder. There are several researches for developing the sensors in the ITER participants and especially, EU has developed the permeation sensors trying to selecting materials with low Serviette's constant (solubility) and high hydrogen diffusivity coefficient. However, EU's response time is still too long time about tens of minutes to measure the tritium concentration in the online system. We have been performing the preliminary tests with designed and fabricated sensors to solve the late response of sensor. However, we could not continue the tests because of the membrane's oxidation (pure Fe) and the difficulty of welding nonferrous metals. In present study, a permeation sensor made of vacuum flanges with a porous plate inside is proposed not only to eliminate the difficulty of the fabrication but to optimize the performance of sensor. The permeation sensor to measure the hydrogen isotopes in liquid metal breeder has been proposed and evaluated to overcome the limitation of a long response time for various shapes and materials. We found that the previous sensors have limitation; the oxidation problems (pure Fe) and the difficulty in welding (nonferrous metals). Therefore we proposed a permeation sensor with the vacuum flanges filled with porous disks to eliminate the problems. By using the CF flanges, the problem caused by welding is removed. But the permeable response time of sensors took a long time to reach the pressure equivalent

  19. Flexible thermoelectric generator using bulk legs and liquid metal interconnects for wearable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Francisco; Parekh, Dishit P.; Ladd, Collin; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Dickey, Michael D.; Öztürk, Mehmet C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Flexible thermoelectric generator (TEG) with bulk legs. •Flexible thermoelectric generator with liquid metal interconnects. •Flexible TEG with potential to match the performance of rigid TEGs. •Flexible TEG for wearable electronics. -- Abstract: Interest in wearable electronics for continuous, long-term health and performance monitoring is rapidly increasing. The reduction in power levels consumed by sensors and electronic circuits accompanied by the advances in energy harvesting methods allows for the realization of self-powered monitoring systems that do not have to rely on batteries. For wearable electronics, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) offer the unique ability to continuously convert body heat into usable energy. For body harvesting, it is preferable to have TEGs that are thin, soft and flexible. Unfortunately, the performances of flexible modules reported to date have been far behind those of their rigid counterparts. This is largely due to lower efficiencies of the thermoelectric materials, electrical or thermal parasitic losses and limitations on leg dimensions posed by the synthesis techniques. In this work, we present an entirely new approach and explore the possibility of using standard bulk legs in a flexible package. Bulk thermoelectric legs cut from solid ingots are far superior to thermoelectric materials synthesized using other techniques. A key enabler of the proposed technology is the use of EGaIn liquid metal interconnects, which not only provide extremely low interconnect resistance but also stretchability with self-healing, both of which are essential for flexible TE modules. The results suggest that this novel approach can finally produce flexible TEGs that have the potential to challenge the rigid TEGs and provide a pathway for the realization of self-powered wearable electronics.

  20. A study on the corrosion characteristics of lead-bismuth liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tak, Nam Il; Park, Won S.; Han, Seok Jung; Jeong, Won Seok

    1999-03-01

    Pb-Bi eutectic has been adopted as a coolant and spallation target material of HYPER (Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor), an accelerator driven subcritical transmutation system. The contents and scope of the present study are to implement systematic survey and analyses of available results on the corrosion characteristics of Pb-Bi liquid metal which are considered to be the most important among Pb-Bi coolant technologies and to provide fundamental bases for future research efforts. Major parameters affecting the corrosion of structural materials in liquid metals are temperature, flow velocity, contents of impurities in coolant, compositions of structural materials, and so forth. It was already known that for traditional commercial austenitic steels of 18Cr-10Ni-Ti type and 12%Cr ferritic steels, the operating temperatures of Pb-Bi coolant cannot be raised above 400 dg C and 450 dg C, respectively. However, extensive researches have been performed to protect structural materials under higher operating temperature such as the development of various kinds of coating methods for steels and the investigations of coolant inhibition by different chemical elements. The available experimental results show that the effective methods to improve the performance of structural materials in Pb-Bi coolant are the development of suitable steel alloys, the creation of oxide type coatings, and the control of oxygen inhibition. According to the recently presented research results of URRS, utilization of these methods makes it possible to raise the operating temperature limit to 620-650 dg C. It provides the possibility of usage of Pb-Bi coolant for the transmutation system, HYPER some day. (Author). 27 refs., 6 tabs., 15 figs.

  1. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  2. High Temperature Superconductor Machine Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    A versatile testing platform for a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) machine has been constructed. The stationary HTS field winding can carry up to 10 coils and it is operated at a temperature of 77K. The rotating armature is at room temperature. Test results and performance for the HTS field...

  3. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  4. High temperature electronic gain device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.B.; Depp, S.W.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kerwin, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments is described. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube

  5. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  6. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  7. Properties of high temperature SQUIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.; Wu, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of weak links and dc and rf biased SQUIDs made with high temperature superconductors. A method for producing reliable, reproducible devices using Nb 3 Sn is outlined, and comments are made on directions future work should take

  8. High temperature component life assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Webster, G A

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this book is to investigate and explain the rapid advances in the characterization of high temperature crack growth behaviour which have been made in recent years, with reference to industrial applications. Complicated mathematics has been minimized with the emphasis placed instead on finding solutions using simplified procedures without the need for complex numerical analysis.

  9. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  10. High Temperature Materials Interim Data Qualification Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lybeck, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Projects for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. The VHTR program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are qualified for use, stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the first NDMAS objective. It describes the High Temperature Materials characterization data stream, the processing of these data within NDMAS, and reports the interim FY2010 qualification status of the data. Data qualification activities within NDMAS for specific types of data are determined by the data qualification category assigned by the data generator. The High Temperature Materials data are being collected under NQA-1 guidelines, and will be qualified data. For NQA-1 qualified data, the qualification activities include: (1) capture testing, to confirm that the data stored within NDMAS are identical to the raw data supplied, (2) accuracy testing to confirm that the data are an accurate representation of the system or object being measured, and (3) documenting that the data were collected under an NQA-1 or equivalent Quality Assurance program. Currently, data from two test series within the High Temperature Materials data stream have been entered into the NDMAS vault: (1) Tensile Tests for Sm (i.e., Allowable Stress) Confirmatory Testing - 1,403,994 records have been inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process. (2) Creep-Fatigue Testing to Support Determination of Creep-Fatigue Interaction Diagram - 918,854 records have been processed and inserted into the NDMAS database. Capture testing is in process.

  11. A Hall probe technique for characterizing high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Sheldon, P.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    Thin-film GaAs Hall probes were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy technology. A contactless technique was developed to characterize thin-film, high-temperature superconducting (HTSC) materials. The Hall probes detected the ac magnetic flux penetration through the high-temperature superconducting materials. The Hall detector has advantages over the mutual inductance magnetic flux detector

  12. Ceramics for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocellin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Problems related to materials, their fabrication, properties, handling, improvements are examined. Silicium nitride and silicium carbide are obtained by vacuum hot-pressing, reaction sintering and chemical vapour deposition. Micrographs are shown. Mechanical properties i.e. room and high temperature strength, creep resistance fracture mechanics and fatigue resistance. Recent developments of pressureless sintered Si C and the Si-Al-O-N quaternary system are mentioned

  13. High-temperature geothermal cableheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquat, J. A.; Eifert, R. W.

    1981-11-01

    Two high temperature, corrosion resistant logging cable heads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile environment loggings in which these cable heads were used.

  14. Summary: High Temperature Downhole Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Directional drilling can be used to enable multi-lateral completions from a single well pad to improve well productivity and decrease environmental impact. Downhole rotation is typically developed with a motor in the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) that develops drilling power (speed and torque) necessary to drive rock reduction mechanisms (i.e., the bit) apart from the rotation developed by the surface rig. Historically, wellbore deviation has been introduced by a “bent-sub,” located in the BHA, that introduces a small angular deviation, typically less than 3 degrees, to allow the bit to drill off-axis with orientation of the BHA controlled at the surface. The development of a high temperature downhole motor would allow reliable use of bent subs for geothermal directional drilling. Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing the development of a high temperature motor that will operate on either drilling fluid (water-based mud) or compressed air to enable drilling high temperature, high strength, fractured rock. The project consists of designing a power section based upon geothermal drilling requirements; modeling and analysis of potential solutions; and design, development and testing of prototype hardware to validate the concept. Drilling costs contribute substantially to geothermal electricity production costs. The present development will result in more reliable access to deep, hot geothermal resources and allow preferential wellbore trajectories to be achieved. This will enable development of geothermal wells with multi-lateral completions resulting in improved geothermal resource recovery, decreased environmental impact and enhanced well construction economics.

  15. High temperature fusion reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, S.D.; dePaz, J.F.; Gohar, M.Y.; Stevens, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion energy may have unique advantages over other systems as a source for high temperature process heat. A conceptual design of a blanket for a 7 m tokamak reactor has been developed that is capable of producing 1100 0 C process heat at a pressure of approximately 10 atmospheres. The design is based on the use of a falling bed of MgO spheres as the high temperature heat transfer system. By preheating the spheres with energy taken from the low temperature tritium breeding part of the blanket, 1086 MW of energy can be generated at 1100 0 C from a system that produces 3000 MW of total energy while sustaining a tritium breeding ratio of 1.07. The tritium breeding is accomplished using Li 2 O modules both in front of (6 cm thick) and behind (50 cm thick) the high temperature ducts. Steam is used as the first wall and front tritium breeding module coolant while helium is used in the rear tritium breeding region. The system produces 600 MW of net electricity for use on the grid

  16. The Dounreay PFR Liquid-Metal Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.V.; Comline, A.; Small, J.; Blyth, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UKAEA Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay had a liquid sodium-cooled core. Following its shutdown in 1994, the liquid metal is being removed from the reactor and other vessels by means of specialized equipment and reacted with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide in a special vessel. The reaction products are neutralized with hydrochloric acid to produce a saline solution.The reactor sodium delivery and processing equipment is all of novel design. As sodium has been withdrawn from the vessel, it has been necessary to switch off the primary sodium pumps (used to heat the sodium), and the reactor is now kept at temperature by a purpose-designed electric heater and a NaK loop heater.A primary sodium extract pump has currently removed [approximately]450 tonnes of primary sodium from the reactor. As the level falls special equipment will be used to punch a hole in the primary circuit pipe work and to drill the strongback to allow trapped sodium to drain for extraction

  17. Complaint liquid metal electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Lauren R.; Majidi, Carmel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a liquid-phase metal electrode to be used with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). DEAs are favorable for soft-matter applications where high efficiency and response times are desirable. A consistent challenge faced during the fabrication of these devices is the selection and deposition of electrode material. While numerous designs have been demonstrated with a variety of conductive elastomers and greases, these materials have significant and often intrinsic shortcomings, e.g. low conductivity, hysteresis, incapability of large deformations, and complex fabrication requirements. The liquid metal alloy eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) is a promising alternative to existing compliant electrodes, having both high conductivity and complete soft-matter functionality. The liquid electrode shares almost the same electrical conductivity as conventional metal wiring and provides no mechanical resistance to bending or stretching of the DEA. This research establishes a straightforward and effective method for quickly depositing EGaIn electrodes, which can be adapted for batch fabrication, and demonstrates the successful actuation of sample curved cantilever elastomer actuators using these electrodes. As with the vast majority of electrostatically actuated elastomer devices, the voltage requirements for these curved DEAs are still quite significant, though modifications to the fabrication process show some improved electrical properties. The ease and speed with which this method can be implemented suggests that the development of a more electronically efficient device is realistic and worthwhile.

  18. Extreme Toughening of Soft Materials with Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Navid; Bartlett, Michael D; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-05-01

    Soft and tough materials are critical for engineering applications in medical devices, stretchable and wearable electronics, and soft robotics. Toughness in synthetic materials is mostly accomplished by increasing energy dissipation near the crack tip with various energy dissipation techniques. However, bio-materials exhibit extreme toughness by combining multi-scale energy dissipation with the ability to deflect and blunt an advancing crack tip. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic materials architecture that also exhibits multi-modal toughening, whereby embedding a suspension of micron sized and highly deformable liquid metal (LM) droplets inside a soft elastomer, the fracture energy dramatically increases by up to 50x (from 250 ± 50 J m -2 to 11,900 ± 2600 J m -2 ) over an unfilled polymer. For some LM-embedded elastomer (LMEE) compositions, the toughness is measured to be 33,500 ± 4300 J m -2 , which far exceeds the highest value previously reported for a soft elastic material. This extreme toughening is achieved by (i) increasing energy dissipation, (ii) adaptive crack movement, and (iii) effective elimination of the crack tip. Such properties arise from the deformability of the LM inclusions during loading, providing a new mechanism to not only prevent crack initiation, but also resist the propagation of existing tears for ultra tough, soft materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Liquid metal actuator driven by electrochemical manipulation of surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Loren; Wissman, James; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We examine the electrocapillary properties of a fluidic actuator composed of a liquid metal droplet that is submerged in electrolytic solution and attached to an elastic beam. The beam deflection is controlled by electrochemically driven changes in the surface energy of the droplet. The metal is a eutectic gallium-indium alloy that is liquid at room temperature and forms an nm-thin Ga2O3 skin when oxidized. The effective surface tension of the droplet changes dramatically with oxidation and reduction, which are reversibly controlled by applying low voltage to the electrolytic bath. Wetting the droplet to two copper pads allows for a controllable tensile force to be developed between the opposing surfaces. We demonstrate the ability to reliably control force by changing the applied oxidizing voltage. Actuator forces and droplet geometries are also examined by performing a computational fluid mechanics simulation using Surface Evolver. The theoretical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements and provide additional confirmation that actuation is driven by surface tension.

  20. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations