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Sample records for high-resolution soft-x-ray spectroscopy

  1. Design and performance of a soft-x-ray interferometer for ultra-high-resolution fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approximately}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  2. Electronic states of solids probed by bulk-sensitive high-resolution soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sekiyama, A

    2003-01-01

    High-energy and high-resolution soft x-ray photoemission studies have been performed on strongly correlated Ce compounds and vanadium oxides at BL25SU of SPring-8. The bulk spectra of CeRu sub 2 are explained by a band-structure calculation (itinerant model) whereas the other Ce 4f spectra are well reproduced by calculations based on the single impurity Anderson model (model from a localized limit). In a strong contrast to so far reported results, the bulk spectral functions are revealed to be insensitive to x for Sr sub 1 sub - sub x Ca sub x VO sub 3. Our study has demonstrated the importance of high-energy and high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy for revealing detailed bulk electronic states of strongly correlated systems. (author)

  3. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Chen, Q.; Raabe, J.; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.; Piazzalunga, A.; Patthey, L.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/ΔE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 × 1013 photons s−1 (0.01% BW)−1 at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 µm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/ΔE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given. PMID:20724785

  4. High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy of 2.3 keV/u N sup 7 sup + ions through a microcapillary target

    CERN Document Server

    Iwai, Y; Kanai, Y; Oyama, H; Ando, K; Masuda, H; Nishio, K; Nakao, M; Tamamura, T; Komaki, K; Yamazaki, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-rays emitted from 2.3 keV/u sup 1 sup 5 N sup 7 sup + ions transmitted through a highly ordered Ni microcapillary were measured with a high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer. The highly ordered microcapillary has recently become available employing a nano-lithographic technique. A transmission ratio and charge state distribution of ions through the microcapillary target were found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. A preliminary analysis showed that a series of X-rays from np-1s transitions with n as high as 8 were identified, which is consistent with the classical over barrier model.

  5. Frontiers in x-ray components for high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging laminar type varied-line-spacing holographic gratings for soft x-ray

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, K

    2003-01-01

    Laminar-type varied-line-spacing gratings have been widely used for soft x-ray monochromator recently because of the features of low stray lights and higher order lights. We have developed and advanced holographic recording and an ion-beam etching methods for the laminar type varied-line spacing gratings. This report describes a short review of the soft x-ray spectrometers using varied-line-spacing gratings, the fabrication process of the laminar-type holographic gratings, and the performance of the flat field spectrographs equipped with the laminar type varied-line spacing gratings comparing with the mechanically ruled replica gratings. It is concluded that, for the sake of the advanced design and fabrication processes and excellent spectroscopic performance, laminar-type holographic gratings will be widely used for soft x-ray spectrometers for various purposes in the near future. (author)

  6. Technology development for soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törmä, P. T.; Sipilä, H. J.; Koskinen, T.; Mattila, M.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray spectroscopy instruments lose part of their performance due to the lack of suitable components for soft X-ray region below 1 keV. Therefore, in the analysis of low atomic number elements including lithium, beryllium, boron and carbon instrument sensitivity is often limited. In this work we describe how the performance of the spectroscopy of soft X-rays is significantly improved when all devices integrated in the spectroscopic instrument are suitable for both soft and hard X-rays. This concept is based on utilizing ultra-thin SiN X-ray windows with proven performance not only as a detector window but also as an X-ray source window. By including a soft-X-ray-sensitive silicon drift detector with efficient surface charge collection in this concept the sensitivity and performance of the instrument is significantly increased.

  7. Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronov, Dmitry L.; Cambie, Rossana; Ahn, Minseung; Anderson, Erik H.; Chang, Chih-Hao; Gullikson, Eric M.; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Salmassi, Farhad; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2009-09-16

    We describe a revolutionary new approach to high spectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the soft x-ray energy range, high spectral resolution is obtained by use of a relatively low line density grating operated in 1st order with small slits. This severely limits throughput. This limitation can be removed by use of a grating either in very high order, or with very high line density, if one can maintain high diffraction efficiency. We have developed a new technology for achieving both of these goals which should allow high throughput spectroscopy, at resolving powers of up to 106 at 1 keV. Such optics should provide a revolutionary advance for high resolution lifetime free spectroscopy, such as RIXS, and for pulse compression of chirped beams. We report recent developmental fabrication and characterization of a prototype grating optimized for 14.2 nm EUV light. The prototype grating with a 200 nm period of the blazed grating substrate coated with 20 Mo/Si bilayers with a period of 7.1 nm demonstrates good dispersion in the third order (effective groove density of 15,000 lines per mm) with a diffraction efficiency of more than 33percent.

  8. The Astro-H High Resolution Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Azzarell, Phillip; Bialas, Tom; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Canavan, Edgar; Chiao, Meng P.; Costantini, Elisa; DiPirro, Michael J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the overall design and performance of the Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS). The instrument uses a 36-pixel array of x-ray microcalorimeters at the focus of a grazing-incidence x-ray mirror Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) for high-resolution spectroscopy of celestial x-ray sources. The instrument was designed to achieve an energy resolution better than 7 eV over the 0.3-12 keV energy range and operate for more than 3 years in orbit. The actual energy resolution of the instrument is 4-5 eV as demonstrated during extensive ground testing prior to launch and in orbit. The measured mass flow rate of the liquid helium cryogen and initial fill level at launch predict a lifetime of more than 4 years assuming steady mechanical cooler performance. Cryogen-free operation was successfully demonstrated prior to launch. The successful operation of the SXS in orbit, including the first observations of the velocity structure of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, demonstrates the viability and power of this technology as a tool for astrophysics.

  9. Design of High Resolution Soft X-Ray Microcalorimeters Using Magnetic Penetration Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch. Sarah; Balvin, Manuel; Bandler, Simon; Denis, Kevin; Finkbeiner, Fred; Porst, Jan-Patrick; Sadlier, Jack; Smith, Stephen; Stevenson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We have designed high-resolution soft x-ray microcalorimeters using magnetic penetration thermometers (MPTs) in an array of pixels covering a total of 2 square centimeters to have a resolving power of 300 at energies around 300 eV. This performance is desirable for studying the soft x-ray background from the warm hot intergalactic medium. MPT devices have small sensor heat capacity and high responsivities, which makes them excellent detector technology for attempting to attain sub-eV resolution. We are investigating the feasibility of pixels with absorbers that are 625 x 625 square micrometers, up to 1 x 1 square millimeters in area and 0.35 micrometer thick and thinner. Our tests have shown that suspended gold absorbers 0.35 micrometers thick (RRR = 6.7) are feasible to fabricate. We modeled the thermal diffusion from such thin gold over the size of a 625 x 625 square micrometer absorber, and conclude that the effect of the thermalization on the resolution of a 300 eV photon is an additional approximately 0.2 eV FWHM of broadening. We discuss the thermal effects of small absorber attachment sterns on solid substrate, as well as considerations for multiplexed readout. We will present the progress we have made towards building and testing this soft x-ray detector.

  10. Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G

    2011-03-17

    The subjects of discussion included: VUV photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy, Low energy IPES, Resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

  11. Calibration of a high resolution grating soft x-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, E. W.; Dunn, J.; Brown, G. V.; Cone, K. V.; Park, J.; Porter, F. S.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kelley, R. L.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2010-10-01

    The calibration of the soft x-ray spectral response of a large radius of curvature, high resolution grating spectrometer (HRGS) with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector is reported. The instrument is cross-calibrated for the 10–50 Å waveband at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory electron beam ion trap (EBIT) x-ray source with the EBIT calorimeter spectrometer. The HRGS instrument is designed for laser-produced plasma experiments and is important for making high dynamic range measurements of line intensities, line shapes, and x-ray sources.

  12. Conception of broadband stigmatic high-resolution spectrometers for the soft X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, E A; Shatokhin, A N; Ragozin, E N [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    We formulate an approach to the development of stigmatic high-resolution spectral instruments for the soft X-ray range (λ ≤ 300 Å), which is based on the combined operation of normalincidence multilayer mirrors (including broadband aperiodic ones) and grazing-incidence reflection gratings with nonequidistant grooves (so-called VLS gratings). A concave multilayer mirror serves to produce a slightly astigmatic image of the radiation source (for instance, an entrance slit), and the diffraction grating produces a set of its dispersed stigmatic spectral images. The width of the operating spectral region is determined by the aperiodic structure of the multilayer mirror and may range up to an octave in wavelength. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Splittings, Satellites and Fine Structure in the Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G.; Yu, S. -W.; Chung, B. W.

    2013-06-14

    Perhaps the most demanding and powerful actinide spectroscopy is that using soft X-ray and VUV photons. Because of the relatively low energy and fairly small sampling depths of these photons and the corresponding electrons, it is necessary to use un-encapsulated samples with highly cleaned and well-prepared surfaces. This causes a myriad of sample containment problems for these radioactive materials. Despite these hindrances and difficulties, the soft-X-ray and ultra-violet spectroscopy of the actinides can provide an amazing level of detailed information, particularly having to do with 5f electronic structure. In this paper, the splittings, satellites and fine structure of the following actinide soft X-ray spectroscopies will be discussed: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, including Bremstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy and resonant inverse photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM) for High Resolution Probing of Earth's Microstructural Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikedi, P. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Cambrian explosion; occurrence of landslides in very dry weather conditions; rockslides; dead, shriveled-up and crumbled leaves possessing fossil records with the semblance of well preserved, flat leaves; abundance of trilobite tracks in lower and higher rock layers; and sailing stones are enigmas demanding demystifications. These enigmas could be elucidated when data on soil structure, texture and strength are provided by some device with submicrometre accuracy; for these and other reasons, the design of a Depth Probing Soft X-ray Microprobe (DPSXRM), is being proposed; it is expected to deliver soft X-rays, at spatial resolution, ϛ≥600nm and to probe at the depth of 0.5m in 17s. The microprobe is portable compared to a synchrotron radiation facility (Diamond Light Source has land size of 43,300m2); spatial resolution,ϛ , of the DPSXRM surpasses those of the X-ray Fluorescence microanalysis (10µm), electron microprobe (1-3µm) and ion microprobe (5->30µm); the DPSXRM has allowance for multiple targets. Vanadium and Manganese membranes are proposed owing to respective 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 X-rays emitted, which best suits micro-probing of Earth's microstructural samples. Compound systems like the Kirk-Patrick and Baez and Wolter optics, aspheric mirrors like elliptical and parabolic optics, small apertures and Abbe sine condition are employed to reduce or remove astigmatism, obliquity, comatic and spherical aberrations—leading to good image quality. Results show that 5.899KeV MnKα1 and 4.952KeV VKα1 soft X-rays will travel a distance of 2.75mm to form circular patches of radii 2.2mm and 2.95mm respectively. Zone plate with nth zone radius of 1.5mm must be positioned 1.5mm and 2mm from the electron gun if circular patches must be formed from 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV MnKα1 soft X-rays respectively. The focal lengths of 0.25μm≤ƒ≤1.50μm and 0.04μm≤ƒ≤0.2μm covered by 4.952KeV VKα1 and 5.899KeV Mn Kα1 soft X-Rays, will

  15. Recent progress of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of uranium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Okane, Tetsuo; Saitoh, Yuji [Condensed Matter Science Divisions, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Fujimori, Atsushi [Condensed Matter Science Divisions, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamagami, Hiroshi [Condensed Matter Science Divisions, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sayo, Hyogo (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Etsuji; Haga, Yoshinori [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ōnuki, Yoshichika [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Recent progresses in the soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) studies (hν ≳ 100 eV) for uranium compounds are briefly reviewed. The soft X-ray PES has enhanced sensitivities for the bulk U 5f electronic structure, which is essential to understand the unique physical properties of uranium compounds. In particular, the recent remarkable improvement in energy resolutions from an order of 1 eV to 100 meV made it possible to observe fine structures in U 5f density of states. Furthermore, soft X-ray ARPES becomes available due to the increase of photon flux at beamlines in third generation synchrotron radiation facilities.The technique made it possible to observe bulk band structures and Fermi surfaces of uranium compounds and therefore, the results can be directly compared with theoretical models such as band-structure calculations. The core-level spectra of uranium compounds show a systematic behavior depending on their electronic structures, suggesting that they can be utilized to determine basic physical parameters such as the U 5f-ligand hybridizations or Comlomb interaction between U 5f electrons. It is shown that soft X-ray PES provides unique opportunities to understand the electronic structures of uranium compounds.

  16. Band-gap measurements of bulk and nanoscale hematite by soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, B.; Frandsen, Cathrine; Maxey, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    -gap determination in bulk and nanoscale itinerant electron semiconductors such as CdS and ZnO, but this approach has not been established for materials such as iron oxides that possess band-edge electronic structure dominated by electron correlations. We performed soft x-ray spectroscopy at the oxygen K...... of phase-pure hematite nanoparticles, we find that there is no evidence for size-driven change in the band gap of hematite nanoparticles down to around 8 nm....

  17. Observation of immuno-labeled cells at high resolution using soft X-ray microscope at Ritsumeikan University SR Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, A [Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266, Tamura-cho, Nagahama, Shiga, 526-0829 (Japan); Takemoto, K; Kihara, H [Department of Physics, Kansai Medical University, 18-89 Uyamahigashi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1136 (Japan); Fukui, T; Yoshimura, Y; Namba, H [Department of Physical Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan); Okuno, K, E-mail: takemoto@makino.kmu.ac.j [SR Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1, Noji-Higashi Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    Mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3 cells were labeled with the heavy metal (silver and gold) and observed intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope. Microtubules, Golgi apparatus and early endosomes of NIH3T3 cells were stained with immuno-gold nanoparticles, and immuno-staining was intensified by silver or gold enhancement procedure. Using a transmission soft X-ray microscope beamline (BL12) at Ritsumeikan University SR center, we observed immuno-stained NIH3T3 cells with several wavelengths just below and above oxygen edge ({lambda} = 2.32 nm). Using this method, cytoskeleton (microtubules) and organelles (Golgi apparatus and early endosomes) were successfully imaged with high resolution. Thus, immuno-gold silver and gold enhancement technique is useful for specific labeling of intracellular structure under an X-ray microscope.

  18. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  19. Design of solar cell materials via soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpsel, F.J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cook, P.L. [Natural Sciences Department, University of Wisconsin Superior, Superior, WI 54880 (United States); Torre, G. de la [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Lastra, J.M. [Material Physics Center (MPC), Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Donostia International Physics Center - DIPC, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Department of Physics, Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Gonzalez-Moreno, R. [Material Physics Center (MPC), Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Donostia International Physics Center - DIPC, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hamers, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kronawitter, C.X. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Johnson, P.S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ortega, J.E.; Pickup, D. [Material Physics Center (MPC), Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Donostia International Physics Center - DIPC, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The use of soft X-ray spectroscopy for developing new materials for solar cells is illustrated. ► A generic layout of a solar cell is given, which facilitates the discussion of the energy levels involved in a solar cell and their optimization. ► Systematic measurements of organometallic dyes are presented in combination with density functional theory. ► The data reveal trends that are useful for tailoring materials for solar cells. ► A solar cell design based on thin film p-type diamond as donor is used as example. -- Abstract: This overview illustrates how spectroscopy with soft X-rays can assist the development of new materials and new designs for solar cells. The starting point is the general layout of a solar cell, which consists of a light absorber sandwiched between an electron donor and an electron acceptor. There are four relevant energy levels that can be measured with a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy, as illustrated for an organic dye as absorber attached to a p-doped diamond film as donor. Systematic measurements of organometallic dyes (phthalocyanines and porphyrins) as a function of the metal atom are presented for the metal 2p and N 1s absorption edges. In combination with density functional theory one can discern trends that are useful for tailoring absorber molecules. A customized porphyrin molecule is investigated that combines an absorber with a donor and a linker to an oxide acceptor. The bridge to device fabrication is crossed by correlating spectroscopic features with the photocurrent in hematite photoanodes for water splitting. For speeding up the development of new materials and designs of solar cells a feedback loop between spectroscopy, theory, synthesis and device fabrication is envisioned.

  20. Design of solar cell materials via soft X-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himpsel, F.J.; Cook, P.L.; de la Torre, G.

    2013-01-01

    to an oxide acceptor. The bridge to device fabrication is crossed by correlating spectroscopic features with the photocurrent in hematite photoanodes for water splitting. For speeding up the development of new materials and designs of solar cells a feedback loop between spectroscopy, theory, synthesis......This overview illustrates how spectroscopy with soft X-rays can assist the development of new materials and new designs for solar cells. The starting point is the general layout of a solar cell, which consists of a light absorber sandwiched between an electron donor and an electron acceptor......) as a function of the metal atom are presented for the metal 2p and N 1s absorption edges. In combination with density functional theory one can discern trends that are useful for tailoring absorber molecules. A customized porphyrin molecule is investigated that combines an absorber with a donor and a linker...

  1. High average power, highly brilliant laser-produced plasma source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Witte, Katharina; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Günther, Sabrina; Baumann, Jonas; Jung, Robert; Stiel, Holger; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Sandner, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a novel laser-produced plasma source is presented which delivers pulsed broadband soft X-radiation in the range between 100 and 1200 eV. The source was designed in view of long operating hours, high stability, and cost effectiveness. It relies on a rotating and translating metal target and achieves high stability through an on-line monitoring device using a four quadrant extreme ultraviolet diode in a pinhole camera arrangement. The source can be operated with three different laser pulse durations and various target materials and is equipped with two beamlines for simultaneous experiments. Characterization measurements are presented with special emphasis on the source position and emission stability of the source. As a first application, a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurement on a thin polyimide foil shows the potential of the source for soft X-ray spectroscopy.

  2. Soft x-ray pulse length measurement by pump-probe absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, H.W.K. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Sher, M.H.; Mohideen, U.; Wood, O.R. II; Aumiller, G.D. [AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (United States); McIlrath, T.J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bokor, J.; Freeman, R.R. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Sugar, J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors have demonstrated a system for subpicosecond, soft-x-ray continuum, pump-probe absorption spectroscopy. Using multiphoton ionization to abruptly change the x-ray absorption spectra of a gas, they have measured the temporal profile of laser-generated x-ray pulses near 90 eV. Although the x-ray pulses from a laser-generated plasma here were only as short as {approximately}20 psec, the technique is extendible to higher energy x-rays which will have pulse durations approaching 100 fsec. They also present the absorption spectrum of Kr ions produced under conditions of high intensity non-resonant multiphoton ionization. The spectra are identified with a fit to the Cowan code.

  3. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation spectroscopy study of molecule-based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. S.; Kim, D. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kim, P. [The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. H. [Korea University, Jochiwon (Korea, Republic of); Baik, J. Y.; Shin, H. J. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The electronic structures of molecule-based nanoparticles, such as biomineralized Helicobacter pylori ferritin (Hpf), Heme, and RbCo[Fe(CN){sub 6}]H{sub 2}O (RbCoFe) Prussian blue analogue, have been investigated by employing photoemission spectroscopy and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fe ions are found to be nearly trivalent in Hpf and Heme nanoparticles, which provides evidence that the amount of magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) should be negligible in the Hpf core and that the biomineralization of Fe oxides in the high-Fe-bound-state Hpf core arises from a hematite-like formation. On the other hand, Fe ions are nearly divalent and Co ions are Co{sup 2+}-Co{sup 3+} mixed-valent in RbCoFe. Therefore this finding suggests that the mechanism of the photo-induced transition in RbCoFe Prussian blue analogue is not a simple spin-state transition of Fe{sup 2+}-Co{sup 3+} → Fe{sup 3+}-Co{sup 2+}. It is likely that Co{sup 2+} ions have the high-spin configuration while Fe{sup 2+} ions have the low-spin configuration.

  4. Design of Molecular Solar Cells via Feedback from Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpsel, Franz J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Spectroscopy with soft X-rays was used to develop new materials and novel designs for solar cells and artificial photosynthesis. In order to go beyond the widely-used trial-and-error approach of gradually improving a particular design, we started from the most general layout of a solar cell (or a photo-electrochemical device) and asked which classes of materials are promising for best performance. For example, the most general design of a solar cell consists of a light absorber, an electron donor, and an electron acceptor. These are characterized by four energy levels, which were measured by a combination of spectroscopic X-ray techniques. Tuning synchrotron radiation to the absorption edges of specific elements provided element- and bond-selectivity. The spectroscopic results were complemented by state-of-the-art calculations of the electronic states. These helped explaining the observed energy levels and the orbitals associated with them. The calculations were extended to a large class of materials (for example thousands of porphyrin dye complexes) in order to survey trends in the energy level structure. A few highlights serve as examples: 1) Organic molecules combining absorber, donor, and acceptor with atomic precision. 2) Exploration of highly p-doped diamond films as inert, transparent electron donors. 3) Surface-sensitive characterization of nanorod arrays used as photoanodes in water splitting. 4) Computational design of molecular complexes for efficient solar cells using two photons.

  5. Magneto-optical reflection spectroscopy on graphene/Co in the soft x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, H.-Ch.; Jansing, C.; Gilbert, M.; Krivenkov, M.; Sanchez-Barriga, J.; Varykhalov, A.; Rader, O.; Wahab, H.; Timmers, H.; Gaupp, A.; Tesch, M.; Sokolov, A.; Legut, D.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of ferromagnetic ordering in graphene on cobalt is demonstrated by means of resonant magnetic reflection spectroscopy exploiting the transversal magneto-optical Kerr-effect (T-MOKE). Using linearly polarized synchrotron radiation in the soft x-ray range with energies spanning the carbon 1s edge, the π- and σ- bonds of graphene were excited individually, showing that magnetism in graphene is carried by the π – orbitals. Magnetic signals were detected over a wide energy range from 257 – 340 eV with a T-MOKE peak value of 1.1 % at the π – resonance energy near 285 eV. By comparison with corresponding spectra measured at the 2p edges of the Co substrate, a large induced magnetic moment of 0.14 μB was derived for graphene. Individual hysteresis curves monitored at the Co 2p and C 1s edges show that the carbon magnetism is induced by the Co substrate.

  6. Magnetism at spinel thin film interfaces probed through soft x-ray spectroscopy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, R.V.; Liberati, M.; Takamura, Y.; Kourkoutis, L. Fitting; Bettinger, J. S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Arenholz, E.; Doran, A.; Scholl, A.; Muller, D. A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-12-16

    Magnetic order and coupling at the interfaces of highly spin polarized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} heterostructures have been determined by surface sensitive and element specific soft x-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy techniques. At ambient temperature, the interface between paramagnetic CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} or MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} isostructural bilayers exhibits long range magnetic order of Co, Mn and Cr cations which cannot be explained in terms of the formation of interfacial MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} or CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Instead, the ferrimagnetism is induced by the adjacent Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer and is the result of the stabilization of a spinel phase not achievable in bulk form. Magnetism at the interface region is observable up to 500 K, far beyond the chromite bulk Curie temperature of 50-95 K.

  7. Development of a spectro-electrochemical cell for soft X-ray photon-in photon-out spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Tomoko; Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka; Kato, Masaru; Yagi, Ichizo

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spectro-electrochemical cell for X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopy, which are element-specific methods to study local electronic structures in the soft X-ray region. In the usual electrochemical measurement setup, the electrode is placed in solution, and the surface/interface region of the electrode is not normally accessible by soft X-rays that have low penetration depth in liquids. To realize soft X-ray observation of electrochemical reactions, a 15-nm-thick Pt layer was deposited on a 150-nm-thick film window with an adhesive 3-nm-thick Ti layer for use as both the working electrode and the separator window between vacuum and a sample liquid under atmospheric pressure. The designed three-electrode electrochemical cell consists of a Pt film on a SiC window, a platinized Pt wire, and a commercial Ag|AgCl electrode as the working, counter, and reference electrodes, respectively. The functionality of the cell was tested by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. As a demonstration, the electroplating of Pb on the Pt/SiC membrane window was measured by X-ray absorption and real-time monitoring of fluorescence intensity at the O 1s excitation.

  8. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and mo...

  9. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of single sized CdS nanocrystals: size confinement and electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüning, J.; Rockenberger, J.; Eisebitt, S.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Karl, A.; Kornowski, A.; Weller, H.; Eberhardt, W.

    1999-08-01

    Soft X-ray spectroscopy of CdS nanocrystals within their crystalline superlattice allows to relate unambiguously, changes of the electronic structure with the particle size and shape which is known from single crystal X-ray diffraction. We find that the valence and conduction band edge shift contribute to the same extent to the total band gap opening of about 2 eV with respect to CdS bulk as the particle size decreases to 10 Å. Taking a finite height of the potential walls into account, we can reproduce these results within an effective mass approximation model.

  10. Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2009-04-24

    We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

  11. Time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy of a magnetic octupole transition in nickel-like xenon, cesium, and barium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A

    2005-11-11

    A microcalorimeter with event mode capability for time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy, and a high-resolution flat-field EUV spectrometer have been employed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap for observations and wavelength measurements of M1, E2, and M3 decays of long-lived levels in the Ni-like ions Xe{sup 26+}, Cs{sup 27+}, and Ba{sup 28+}. Of particular interest is the lowest excited level, 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3}, which can only decay via a magnetic octupole (M3) transition. For this level in Xe an excitation energy of (590.40 {+-} 0.03eV) and a level lifetime of (11.5 {+-} 0.5 ms) have been determined.

  12. Bright Linearly and Circularly Polarized Extreme Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray High Harmonics for Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is an extreme nonlinear optical process. When implemented in a phase-matched geometry, HHG coherent upconverts femtosecond laser light into coherent "X-ray laser" beams, while retaining excellent spatial and temporal coherence, as well as the polarization state of the driving laser. HHG has a tabletop footprint, with femtosecond to attosecond time resolution, combined with nanometer spatial resolution. As a consequence of these unique capabilities, HHG is now being widely adopted for use in molecular spectroscopy and imaging, materials science, as well as nanoimaging in general. In the first half of this thesis, I demonstrate high flux linearly polarized soft X-ray HHG, driven by a single-stage 10-mJ Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. I first down-converted the laser to 1.3 mum using an optical parametric amplifier, before up-converting it into the soft X-ray region using HHG in a high-pressure, phase-matched, hollow waveguide geometry. The resulting optimally phase-matched broadband spectrum extends to 200 eV, with a soft X-ray photon flux of > 106 photons/pulse/1% bandwidth at 1 kHz, corresponding to > 109 photons/s/1% bandwidth, or approximately a three orders-of-magnitude increase compared with past work. Using this broad bandwidth X-ray source, I demonstrated X-ray absorption spectroscopy of multiple elements and transitions in molecules in a single spectrum, with a spectral resolution of 0.25 eV, and with the ability to resolve the near edge fine structure. In the second half of this thesis, I discuss how to generate the first bright circularly polarized (CP) soft X-ray HHG and also use them to implement the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. Using counter-rotating CP lasers at 1.3 mum and 0.79 mum, I generated CPHHG with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right CP peaks, with energies

  13. Band structure of TiO sub 2 -doped yttria-stabilized zirconia probed by soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, T; Kobayashi, K; Yamaguchi, S; Fukushima, A; Shin, S

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of TiO sub 2 -doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been studied by soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The valence band is mainly composed of the O 2p state. The O 1s XAS spectrum exhibits the existence of the Ti 3d unoccupied state under the Zr 4d conduction band. The intensity of the Ti 3d unoccupied state increases with increasing TiO sub 2 concentration. The energy separation between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the Ti 3d unoccupied state is in accord with the energy gap, as expected from dc-polarization and total conductivity measurements. (author)

  14. The evolution of Ga and As core levels in the formation of Fe/GaAs (001):A high resolution soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Jamie; Neal, James; Shen, Tiehan; Morton, Simon; Tobin, James; Waddill, George Dan; Matthew, Jim; Greig, Denis; Hopkinson, Mark

    2008-07-14

    A high resolution soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of Ga and As 3d core levels has been conducted for Fe/GaAs (001) as a function of Fe thickness. This work has provided unambiguous evidence of substrate disrupting chemical reactions induced by the Fe overlayer--a quantitative analysis of the acquired spectra indicates significantly differing behavior of Ga and As during Fe growth, and our observations have been compared with existing theoretical models. Our results demonstrate that the outdiffusing Ga and As remain largely confined to the interface region, forming a thin intermixed layer. Whereas at low coverages Fe has little influence on the underlying GaAs substrate, the onset of substrate disruption when the Fe thickness reaches 3.5 Angstrom results in major changes in the energy distribution curves (EDCs) of both As and Ga 3d cores. Our quantitative analysis suggests the presence of two additional As environments of metallic character: one bound to the interfacial region and another which, as confirmed by in situ oxidation experiments, surface segregates and persists over a wide range of overlayer thickness. Analysis of the corresponding Ga 3d EDCs found not two, but three additional environments--also metallic in nature. Two of the three are interface resident whereas the third undergoes outdiffusion at low Fe coverages. Based on the variations of the integrated intensities of each component, we present a schematic of the proposed chemical makeup of the Fe/GaAs (001) system.

  15. The Evolution of Ga and As Core Levels in the Formation of Fe/GaAs(001): A High Resolution Soft X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J W; Neal, J R; Shen, T H; Morton, S A; Tobin, J G; Waddill, G D; Matthew, J D; Greig, D; Hopkinson, M

    2006-12-08

    A high resolution soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of Ga and As 3d core levels has been conducted for Fe/GaAs (001) as a function of Fe thickness. This work has provided unambiguous evidence of substrate disrupting chemical reactions induced by the Fe overlayer--a quantitative analysis of the acquired spectra indicates significantly differing behavior of Ga and As during Fe growth, and our observations have been compared with existing theoretical models. Our results demonstrate that the outdiffusing Ga and As remain largely confined to the interface region, forming a thin intermixed layer. Whereas at low coverages Fe has little influence on the underlying GaAs substrate, the onset of substrate disruption when the Fe thickness reaches 3.5 {angstrom} results in major changes in the energy distribution curves (EDCs) of both As and Ga 3d cores. Our quantitative analysis suggests the presence of two new As environments of metallic character; one bound to the interfacial region and another which, as confirmed by in-situ oxidation experiments, surface segregates and persists over a wide range of overlayer thickness. Analysis of the corresponding Ga 3d EDCs found not two, but three new environments--also metallic in nature. Two of the three are interface-resident whereas the third undergoes outdiffusion at low Fe coverages. Based on the variations of the integrated intensities of each component, we present a schematic of the proposed chemical make-up of the Fe/GaAs (001) system.

  16. A sealable ultrathin window sample cell for the study of liquids by means of soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grötzsch, D.; Streeck, C.; Nietzold, C.; Malzer, W.; Mantouvalou, I.; Nutsch, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Beckhoff, B.; Kanngießer, B.

    2017-12-01

    A new sample cell concept for the analysis of liquids or solid-liquid interfaces using soft X-ray spectroscopy is presented, which enables the complete sealing of the cell as well as the transport into vacuum via, for example, a load-lock system. The cell uses pressure monitoring and active as well as passive pressure regulation systems, thereby facilitating the full control over the pressure during filling, sealing, evacuation, and measurement. The cell design and sample preparation as well as the crucial sealing procedure are explained in detail. As a first proof-of-principle experiment, successful nitrogen K-edge fluorescence yield near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure experiments of a biomolecular solution are presented. For this purpose, it is shown that the careful evaluation of all involved parameters, such as window type or photon flux, is desirable for optimizing the experimental result.

  17. The Electronic Structure of Carbon and its Allotropes as Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Steven

    1993-01-01

    A study of the electronic structure of the stage I and stage II alkali graphite intercalation compounds using soft x-ray emission spectroscopy has been done. The pi band of the alkali graphite intercalation compounds is strongly affected by the intercalation process as witnessed by the apparent change in shape of the density of states in comparison to highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. From the change in shape, it is possible to determine the amount of charge transferred from the intercalant to the graphite. Our result of complete charge transfer is in disagreement with the results of Wiech and his co-workers. A thorough discussion of both methods of analysis is presented. A comparison of the observed density of states of synthetically grown diamond with natural diamond indicates that synthetic diamond is not the same as natural diamond. A brief discussion of various techniques for growing diamond is presented, as well as the construction of a chemical vapor deposition apparatus to grow diamond-like thin films along with soft x-ray emission and Raman spectroscopy measurements. We find that diamond can only be grown at low pressures if it is highly defective. This is in agreement with theoretical models of chemical vapor deposition. We also discuss the electronic structure of a very rare form of diamond, Lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamond). Lonsdaleite is sp^3 bonded carbon but in a hexagonal matrix. It is only found in highly shocked systems and appears to be the metastable phase between graphite and diamond on the carbon phase diagram. We also briefly discuss the most recently discovered member of the carbon family, Buckminsterfullerene. We present electronic structure data on C_ {60} samples produced in a carbon-arc generator designed and built at the University. Comparison of our data to other published data shows very good agreement.

  18. First measurements using the ALS Soft X-ray Fourier Transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, E.J.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Spring, J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Commissioning of a Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) is under way at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution spectroscopy in the photon experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  19. Hard X-rays in–soft X-rays out: An operando piggyback view deep into a charging lithium ion battery with X-ray Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Artur, E-mail: artur.braun@alumni.ethz.ch [Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94720 (United States); Song, Seung-Wan [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Huang, Tzu-Wen [Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Sokaras, Dimosthenis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94720 (United States); Liu, Xiasong; Yang, Wanli [Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weng, Tsu-Chien [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94720 (United States); Liu, Zhi [Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: For lithium intercalation battery electrodes, understanding of the electronic structure of bulk and surface is essential for their operation and functionality. Soft X-rays are excellent probes for such electronic structure information, but soft X-rays are predominantly surface sensitive and thus cannot probe the bulk. Moreover, soft X-rays hardly permit meaningful in situ and operando studies in battery assemblies. We show here how we penetrate with hard X-rays (>10 keV) in situ a lithium cell, containing a manganite-based cathode. Through X-ray Raman spectroscopy we extract the Mn 2p multiplet from the entire cathode material, thus obtaining bulk-sensitive electronic structure information during battery charging and discharging.

  20. Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of vanadium oxides andrelated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Thorsten [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    In today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one ''spintronic'' device that exploits both charge and ''spin'' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; and (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 μm thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (< 4 at.%) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm

  1. Davisson-Germer Prize in Atomic or Surface Physics Talk: Soft X-Ray Studies of Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films: From Spectroscopy to Ultrafast Nanoscale Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    My talk will review the development of soft x-ray spectroscopy and microscopy and its impact on our understanding of chemical bonding, magnetism and dynamics at surfaces and interfaces. I will first outline important soft x-ray spectroscopy and microscopy techniques that have been developed over the last 30 years and their key strengths such as elemental and chemical specificity, sensitivity to small atomic concentrations, separation of charge and spin properties, spatial resolution down to the nanometer scale, and temporal resolution down to the intrinsic femtosecond timescale of atomic and electronic motions. I will then present scientific breakthroughs based on soft x-ray studies in three selected areas: the nature of molecular bonding and reactivity on metal surfaces, the molecular origin of liquid crystal alignment on surfaces, and the microscopic origin of interface-mediated spin alignments in modern magnetic devices. My talk will also cover the use of soft x-rays for revealing the temporal evolution of electronic structure, addressing the key problem of ``function,'' down to the intrinsic femtosecond time scale of charge and spin configuration changes. As examples I will present the formation and breaking of chemical bonds in surface complexes and the motion of the magnetization in magnetic devices. Work supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science of the US Department of Energy.

  2. Soft X-ray Spectroscopy Study of the Electronic Structure of Oxidized and Partially Oxidized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E.; Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Yin, Yadong; Falcone, Roger; Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2010-10-24

    The crystal structure of magnetite nanoparticles may be transformed to maghemite by complete oxidation, but under many relevant conditions the oxidation is partial, creating a mixed-valence material with structural and electronic properties that are poorly characterized. We used X-ray diffraction, Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy to characterize the products of oxidizing uncoated and oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles in air. The oxidization of uncoated magnetite nanoparticles creates a material that is structurally and electronically indistinguishable from maghemite. By contrast, while oxidized oleic acid-coated nanoparticles are also structurally indistinguishable from maghemite, Fe L-edge spectroscopy revealed the presence of interior reduced iron sites even after a 2-year period. We used X-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K-edge to study the valence bands (VB) of the iron oxide nanoparticles, using resonant excitation to remove the contributions from oxygen atoms in the ligands and from low-energy excitations that obscured the VB edge. The bonding in all nanoparticles was typical of maghemite, with no detectable VB states introduced by the long-lived, reduced-iron sites in the oleic acid-coated sample. However, O K-edge absorption spectroscopy observed a 0.2 eV shift in the position of the lowest unoccupied states in the coated sample, indicating an increase in the semiconductor band gap relative to bulk stoichiometric maghemite that was also observed by optical absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the ferrous iron sites within ferric iron oxide nanoparticles coated by an organic ligand can persist under ambient conditions with no evidence of a distinct interior phase and can exert an effect on the global electronic and optical properties of the material. This phenomenon resembles the band gap enlargement caused by electron accumulation in the

  3. Optical design of the Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, R; Keavney, D J; Borland, M; Young, L

    2013-07-01

    The Short Pulse X-ray facility planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade will provide two sectors with photon beams having picosecond pulse duration. The Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy (SPSXS) beamline will cover the 150-2000 eV energy range using an APS bending magnet. SPSXS is designed to take full advantage of this new timing capability in addition to providing circular polarized radiation. Since the correlation between time and electron momentum is in the vertical plane, the monochromator disperses in the horizontal plane. The beamline is designed to maximize flux and preserve the time resolution by minimizing the number of optical components. The optical design allows the pulse duration to be varied from 1.5 to 100 ps full width at half-maximum (FWHM) without affecting the energy resolution, and the resolution to be changed with minimal effect on the pulse duration. More than 10(9) photons s(-1) will reach the sample with a resolving power of 2000 and a pulse duration of ∼2 ps for photon energies between 150 and 1750 eV. The spot size expected at the sample position will vary with pulse duration and exit slit opening. At 900 eV and at a resolving power of 2000 the spot will be ∼10 µm × 10 µm with a pulse duration of 2.3 ps FWHM.

  4. Soft X-ray spectroscopy of oxide-embedded and functionalized silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Joel A.; Henderson, Eric J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Hessel, Colin M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cavell, Ronald G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada); Veinot, Jonathan G.C., E-mail: jveinot@ualberta.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    An X-ray absorption spectroscopic investigation into the electronic and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs) derived from the thermal processing of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) is presented. Hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching and subsequent photochemical hydrosilylation with styrene liberates the as-synthesized oxide-embedded Si-NCs from their matrix and renders them solution dispersible through the formation of surface Si-C bonds. The impact of this process on the photoluminescence behavior exhibited by these materials has been studied through near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) spectroscopies.

  5. Soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected neurotransmitters in the gas phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, Assimo; Melandri, Sonia; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G. Ciamician' dell' Universita, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Giuliano, Barbara M. [Departamento de Quimica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Plekan, Oksana [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Feyer, Vitaliy [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Electronic Properties (PGI-6), Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Leo-Brandt-Strasse, 52428 Juelich (Germany); Richter, Robert [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, I-00016 Rome (Italy); Prince, Kevin C., E-mail: kevin.prince@elettra.trieste.it [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neurotransmitter molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectron spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak hydrogen bonding. -- Abstract: The valence molecular orbitals and core levels of tyramine, tryptamine and tryptophol in the gas phase have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and theoretical methods. The energies of the outer valence region spectrum are found to be in agreement with previously reported He I spectra, while new data on the inner valence molecular orbitals are reported. The structures in the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen core level spectra of these molecules have been identified and assigned. These compounds are characterised by conformers with hydrogen bonding in which the {pi} systems of the phenol and indole groups act as hydrogen acceptors, but a spectroscopic signature of this hydrogen bond was not observed. This is in contrast with our previous spectra of amino acids, where conformers with specific hydrogen bonding showed strong effects in core level spectra. We attribute the difference to the weaker strength of the {pi}-hydrogen bonding.

  6. Solid and liquid spectroscopic analysis (SALSA) -- A soft x-ray spectroscopy endstation with a novel flow-through liquid cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Bar, M.; Zhang, Y.; Weigand, M.; Krause, S.; Pookpanratana, S.; Hofmann, T.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.; Umbach, E.; Heske, C.

    2009-08-06

    We present a novel synchrotron endstation with a flow-through liquid cell designed to study the electronic structure of liquids using soft x-ray spectroscopies. In this cell, the liquid under study is separated from the vacuum by a thin window membrane, such that the sample liquid can be investigated at ambient pressure. The temperature of the probing volume can be varied in a broad range and with a fast temperature response. The optimized design of the cell significantly reduces the amount of required sample liquid and allows the use of different window membrane types necessary to cover a broad energy range. The liquid cell is integrated into the solid and liquid spectroscopic analysis SALSA endstation that includes a high-resolution, high-transmission x-ray spectrometer and a state-of-the-art electron analyzer. The modular design of SALSA also allows the measurement of solid-state samples. The capabilities of the liquid cell and the x-ray spectrometer are demonstrated using a resonant inelastic x-ray scattering map of a 25 wt percent NaOD solution.

  7. Soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the ultrathin Ba/InGaN interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benemanskaya, G. V.; Pronin, V. P.; Timoshnev, S. N.; Nelyubov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Electronic structure of the clean In0.22Ga0.78N surface and the ultrathin Ba/In0.22Ga0.78N interface has been studied in situ by the synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy during excitation in the photon energy range of 100-650 eV. Changes in the valence band and surface states spectra and in the In 3d, In 4d, N 1s, Ga 3d, Ba 4d, Ba 5p core levels spectra have been investigated under the step-by-step Ba submonolayer deposition. Changes in the surface electronic structure of the InGaN caused by Ba adsorption are found to originate predominantly from the local interaction of the Ga and In dangling bonds and Ba adatoms that results in effect of the suppression of the two intrinsic surface states and appearance of a new induced state. The Ba atomic layer deposition is revealed to induce the charge transfer between the Ba adatoms and the N surface atoms with increasing N-ionicity.

  8. Magnetic coupling in (GaMn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors - studied by soft X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronast, F.

    2006-07-01

    Manganese doped into Gallium Arsenide provides a local spin magnetic moment and acting as an acceptor it creates itinerant holes, which can mediate long range ferromagnetic order. We studied the magnetic coupling of Mn atoms and their hybridization with the GaAs host in epitactically grown (GaMn)As layers, utilizing X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Mn L2,3 absorption edges. Combining surface and bulk sensitive detection methods with additional reflectivity measurements we resolved a chemical and magnetic depth profile of Mn in the (GaMn)As layer. The depth profile reveals an inhomogeneous distribution of Mn in two different ground state configurations. The bulk is dominated by Mn residing at the Ga sites, for this substitutional Mn the hybridization with the sp-states of the As ligands causes an admixture of a 3d{sup 6} weight to the 3d{sup 5} ground state configuration. At the surface we find an accumulation of non-ferromagnetic Mn in a pure 3d{sup 5} electronic configuration. The enhanced surface segregation of this second Mn species upon annealing provides strong evidence that the surface layer is caused by the diffusion of interstitial Mn during the growth and the annealing. With increasing Mn concentration we find an increasing amount of Mn atoms not participating in the ferromagnetic ordering. Their number scales approximately with the number of Mn nearest neighbor pairs expected for a statistical Mn distribution. For the Mn atoms not participating in the ferromagnetic ordering we also find a reduced number of 3d electrons of close to 3d{sup 4}. Both observations can be explained by the presence of antiferromagnetically coupled Mn-Mn nearest neighbor pairs at higher Mn concentrations. So far antiferromagnetic coupling has only been observed in doped II-VI semiconductors. The pd-hybridization, mediating the magnetic exchange coupling, is usually assumed to be spherically isotropic. We studied the pd-hybridization by X

  9. Electron delocalization in cyanide-bridged coordination polymer electrodes for Li-ion batteries studied by soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asakura, Daisuke; Okubo, Masashi; Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Zhou, Haoshen; Amemiya, Kenta; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Wang, Wei-Cheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Chang, Chinglin; Guo, Jinghua; Honma, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure change during the reversible Li-ion storage reaction in a bimetallic MnFe-Prussian blue analogue (Li(x)K(0.14)Mn(1.43)[Fe(CN)(6)] center dot 6H(2)O) was investigated by soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Mn L(2,3)-edgespectra revealed the unchanged Mn(2+) high-spin

  10. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at atmospheric pressure with a table-top laser-induced soft x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühl, Frank-Christian, E-mail: Frank-christian.kuehl@mail.de; Müller, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.mueller@llg-ev.de; Schellhorn, Meike; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Wieneke, Stefan [Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst, Von-Ossietzky-Str 99, D-37085 Göttingen (Germany); Eusterhues, Karin [Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Fürstengraben 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The authors present a table-top soft x-ray absorption spectrometer, accomplishing investigations of the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) in a laboratory environment. The system is based on a low debris plasma ignited by a picosecond laser in a pulsed krypton gas jet, emitting soft x-ray radiation in the range from 1 to 5 nm. For absorption spectroscopy in and around the “water window” (2.3–4.4 nm), a compact helium purged sample compartment for experiments at atmospheric pressure has been constructed and tested. NEXAFS measurements on CaCl{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4} samples were conducted at the calcium and manganese L-edges, as well as at the oxygen K-edge in air, atmospheric helium, and under vacuum, respectively. The results indicate the importance of atmospheric conditions for an investigation of sample hydration processes.

  11. Time-resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in transmission mode on liquids at MHz repetition rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattis Fondell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a setup combining a liquid flatjet sample delivery and a MHz laser system for time-resolved soft X-ray absorption measurements of liquid samples at the high brilliance undulator beamline UE52-SGM at Bessy II yielding unprecedented statistics in this spectral range. We demonstrate that the efficient detection of transient absorption changes in transmission mode enables the identification of photoexcited species in dilute samples. With iron(II-trisbipyridine in aqueous solution as a benchmark system, we present absorption measurements at various edges in the soft X-ray regime. In combination with the wavelength tunability of the laser system, the set-up opens up opportunities to study the photochemistry of many systems at low concentrations, relevant to materials sciences, chemistry, and biology.

  12. High-resolution resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with soft X-rays at the ADRESS beamline of the Swiss light source: Instrumental developments and scientific highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.schmitt@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Schlappa, Justine; Monney, Claude; Flechsig, Uwe; Patthey, Luc [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We have optimized the grating optics for VLS type RIXS spectrometers. ► Cu L{sub 3} RIXS can efficiently probe magnetic fluctuations in quasi-one dimensional cuprates. ► RIXS is sensitive to spin–orbital separation in one-dimensional cuprates. ► RIXS is capable to give information on interface states in oxide heterostructures. ► Mapping of electron–hole pair excitations with RIXS probes the unoccupied band structure. -- Abstract: The experimental development of the resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) technique in the soft X-ray energy range has been tremendous during the last years. The ADRESS beamline at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland and its RIXS spectrometer SAXES has boosted the scientific capabilities with soft X-ray RIXS. Increased resolving power above 10,000 and the possibility to rotate the spectrometer to different scattering geometries allows analyzing the collective behavior of charge, orbital and spin excitations by assessing their momentum dependence. Focus of most projects at this facility lies in the investigation of low- and medium-energy excitations in correlated electron materials. In addition ADRESS has also been used for RIXS investigations on molecules in the liquid and gaseous phase. This review reports on the recent extension of the optics of the SAXES RIXS spectrometer with an additional grating optimized for the spectral range from ca. 400 to 700 eV. Furthermore, the scientific opportunities emerging from ADRESS are highlighted in RIXS studies on quasi one-dimensional cuprates, oxide heterostructures and a weakly correlated broad band material.

  13. Soft x-ray excitonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulet, A.; Bertrand, J. B.; Klostermann, T.; Guggenmos, A.; Karpowicz, N.; Goulielmakis, E.

    2017-09-01

    The dynamic response of excitons in solids is central to modern condensed-phase physics, material sciences, and photonic technologies. However, study and control have hitherto been limited to photon energies lower than the fundamental band gap. Here we report application of attosecond soft x-ray and attosecond optical pulses to study the dynamics of core-excitons at the L2,3 edge of Si in silicon dioxide (SiO2). This attosecond x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (AXANES) technique enables direct probing of the excitons’ quasiparticle character, tracking of their subfemtosecond relaxation, the measurement of excitonic polarizability, and observation of dark core-excitonic states. Direct measurement and control of core-excitons in solids lay the foundation of x-ray excitonics.

  14. REDSoX: Monte-Carlo ray-tracing for a soft x-ray spectroscopy polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Hans M.; Egan, Mark; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Heine, Sarah N. T.; Hellickson, Tim; Frost, Jason; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Theriault-Shay, Adam

    2017-08-01

    X-ray polarimetry offers a new window into the high-energy universe, yet there has been no instrument so far that could measure the polarization of soft X-rays (about 17-80 Å) from astrophysical sources. The Rocket Experiment Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Polarimeter (REDSoX Polarimeter) is a proposed sounding rocket experiment that uses a focusing optic and splits the beam into three channels. Each channel has a set of criticalangle transmission (CAT) gratings that disperse the x-rays onto a laterally graded multilayer (LGML) mirror, which preferentially reflects photons with a specific polarization angle. The three channels are oriented at 120 deg to each other and thus measure the three Stokes parameters: I, Q, and U. The period of the LGML changes with position. The main design challenge is to arrange the gratings so that they disperse the spectrum in such a way that all rays are dispersed onto the position on the multi-layer mirror where they satisfy the local Bragg condition despite arriving on the mirror at different angles due to the converging beam from the focusing optics. We present a polarimeteric Monte-Carlo ray-trace of this design to assess non-ideal effects from e.g. mirror scattering or the finite size of the grating facets. With mirror properties both simulated and measured in the lab for LGML mirrors of 80-200 layers we show that the reflectivity and the width of the Bragg-peak are sufficient to make this design work when non-ideal effects are included in the simulation. Our simulations give us an effective area curve, the modulation factor and the figure of merit for the REDSoX polarimeter. As an example, we simulate an observation of Mk 421 and show that we could easily detect a 20% linear polarization.

  15. Soft x-ray reflectometry, hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations of the internal structure of TiO2(Ti/SiO2/Si stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Filatova, Igor V Kozhevnikov, Andrey A Sokolov, Evgeniy V Ubyivovk, Sergey Yulin, Mihaela Gorgoi and Franz Schäfers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a mathematical analysis method of reflectometry data and used it to characterize the internal structure of TiO2/SiO2/Si and Ti/SiO2/Si stacks. Atomic concentration profiles of all the chemical elements composing the samples were reconstructed from the analysis of the reflectivity curves measured versus the incidence angle at different soft x-ray reflection (SXR photon energies. The results were confirmed by the conventional techniques of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPES and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The depth variation of the chemical composition, thicknesses and densities of individual layers extracted from SXR and HXPES measurements are in close agreement and correlate well with the HRTEM images.

  16. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubin, Markus; Kern, Jan; Gul, Sheraz; Kroll, Thomas; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Löchel, Heike; Fuller, Franklin D; Sierra, Raymond G; Quevedo, Wilson; Weniger, Christian; Rehanek, Jens; Firsov, Anatoly; Laksmono, Hartawan; Weninger, Clemens; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Glownia, James M; Krzywinski, Jacek; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J; Minitti, Michael P; Dakovski, Georgi L; Koroidov, Sergey; Kawde, Anurag; Kanady, Jacob S; Tsui, Emily Y; Suseno, Sandy; Han, Zhiji; Hill, Ethan; Taguchi, Taketo; Borovik, Andrew S; Agapie, Theodor; Messinger, Johannes; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Bergmann, Uwe; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn ∼ 6-15 mmol/l) with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5) in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l) at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  17. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of metalloproteins and high-valent metal-complexes at room temperature using free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kubin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the L-edge of 3d transition metals provides unique information on the local metal charge and spin states by directly probing 3d-derived molecular orbitals through 2p-3d transitions. However, this soft x-ray technique has been rarely used at synchrotron facilities for mechanistic studies of metalloenzymes due to the difficulties of x-ray-induced sample damage and strong background signals from light elements that can dominate the low metal signal. Here, we combine femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser with a novel x-ray fluorescence-yield spectrometer to overcome these difficulties. We present L-edge absorption spectra of inorganic high-valent Mn complexes (Mn ∼ 6–15 mmol/l with no visible effects of radiation damage. We also present the first L-edge absorption spectra of the oxygen evolving complex (Mn4CaO5 in Photosystem II (Mn < 1 mmol/l at room temperature, measured under similar conditions. Our approach opens new ways to study metalloenzymes under functional conditions.

  18. Design of a multi-axis cryogenic sample manipulator for soft X-ray and VUV spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. J.; Chiu, C. C.; Cheng, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    We have designed and constructed several manipulators for cryogenic samples and soft X-ray and VUV spectra. These manipulators are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum and up to six axis motions - three translational and three angular motions. Three translational and the polar angular motions are implemented with commercial stages. The azimuthal (in the beam direction) and tilting motions are driven with separate gear trains and connected to stepping motors on the top flange (100 CF). The azimuthal angular range is about ±180°, and the tilting range is from 75° to -25° the resolution is better than 0.1°. The sample position is designed to be situated at the center of the polar and azimuthal rotation axes. The tilting axis is designed with an offset to decrease the spatial interference with the analyzer for photoemission spectra. The sample is attached to the sample holder and transferred to the cryogenic stage via a load-lock system. The sample holder is cooled with a continuous-flow cryostat (Janis ST-400) via flexible copper braids. With liquids helium and nitrogen for the cryostat, the lowest temperature of the sample holder attains 9.15 K and 82.4 K, respectively. During tests, the rate of consumption of liquid helium is less than 0.8 L/h.

  19. Spin state transition in LaCoO3 studied using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkort, M W; Hu, Z; Cezar, J C; Burnus, T; Hartmann, H; Reuther, M; Zobel, C; Lorenz, T; Tanaka, A; Brookes, N B; Hsieh, H H; Lin, H-J; Chen, C T; Tjeng, L H

    2006-10-27

    Using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism at the Co-L(2,3) edge, we reveal that the spin state transition in LaCoO3 can be well described by a low-spin ground state and a triply degenerate high-spin first excited state. From the temperature dependence of the spectral line shapes, we find that LaCoO3 at finite temperatures is an inhomogeneous mixed-spin state system. It is crucial that the magnetic circular dichroism signal in the paramagnetic state carries a large orbital momentum. This directly shows that the currently accepted low- or intermediate-spin picture is at variance. Parameters derived from these spectroscopies fully explain existing magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance, and inelastic neutron data.

  20. Photo-Induced Spin-State Conversion in Solvated Transition Metal Complexes Probed via Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huse, Nils; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2010-04-30

    Solution-phase photoinduced low-spin to high-spin conversion in the FeII polypyridyl complex [Fe(tren(py)3)]2+ (where tren(py)3 is tris(2-pyridylmethyliminoethyl)amine) has been studied via picosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy. Following 1A1 --> 1MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation at 560 nm, changes in the iron L2- and L3-edges were observed concomitant with formation of the transient high-spin 5T2 state. Charge-transfer multiplet calculations coupled with data acquired on low-spin and high-spin model complexes revealed a reduction in ligand field splitting of 1 eV in the high-spin state relative to the singlet ground state. A significant reduction in orbital overlap between the central Fe-3d and the ligand N-2p orbitals was directly observed, consistent with the expected ca. 0.2 Angstrom increase in Fe-N bond length upon formation of the high-spin state. The overall occupancy of the Fe-3d orbitals remains constant upon spin crossover, suggesting that the reduction in sigma-donation is compensated by significant attenuation of pi-back-bonding in the metal-ligand interactions. These results demonstrate the feasibility and unique potential of time-resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study ultrafast reactions in the liquid phase by directly probing the valence orbitals of first-row metals as well as lighter elements during the course of photochemical transformations.

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; Ratner, Daniel; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D.; Löchel, Heike; Krzywinski, Jacek; Lutman, Alberto; Ding, Yuantao; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. Here we compare L-...

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser

    OpenAIRE

    Kroll, T.; J. Kern; Kubin, M; Ratner, D.; Gul, S.; Fuller, FD; Löchel, H.; Krzywinski, J.; A. Lutman; Ding, Y.; Dakovski, GL; Moeller, S.; Turner, JJ; Alonso-Mori, R.; Nordlund, DL

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Optical Society of America. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatiz...

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy using a self-seeded soft X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Thomas; Kern, Jan; Kubin, Markus; Ratner, Daniel; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin D; Löchel, Heike; Krzywinski, Jacek; Lutman, Alberto; Ding, Yuantao; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Turner, Joshua J; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Nordlund, Dennis L; Rehanek, Jens; Weniger, Christian; Firsov, Alexander; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Sierra, Raymond G; Laksmono, Hartawan; Hill, Ethan; Borovik, Andrew; Erko, Alexei; Föhlisch, Alexander; Mitzner, Rolf; Yachandra, Vittal K; Yano, Junko; Wernet, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-10-03

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) enable unprecedented new ways to study the electronic structure and dynamics of transition metal systems. L-edge absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique for such studies and the feasibility of this method at XFELs for solutions and solids has been demonstrated. However, the required x-ray bandwidth is an order of magnitude narrower than that of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), and additional monochromatization is needed. Here we compare L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of a prototypical transition metal system based on monochromatizing the SASE radiation of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) with a new technique based on self-seeding of LCLS. We demonstrate how L-edge XAS can be performed using the self-seeding scheme without the need of an additional beam line monochromator. We show how the spectral shape and pulse energy depend on the undulator setup and how this affects the x-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  4. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of the surface chemistry and treatments of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Craig; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Contreras, Miguel; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Mansfield, Lorelle; Hurst, Katherine E.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Ramanathan, Kannan; Prendergast, David; Christensen, Steven T.

    2017-02-01

    The surface and near surface structure of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) absorber layers is integral to the producing a high-quality photovoltaic junction. By using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and monitoring multiple elemental absorption edges with both theory and experiment, we are able to identify several features of the surface of CIGS as a function of composition and surface treatments. The XAS data shows trends in the near surface region of oxygen, copper, indium and gallium species as the copper content is varied in the films. The oxygen surface species are also monitored through a series of experiments that systematically investigates the effects of water and various solutions of: ammonium hydroxide, cadmium sulfate, and thiourea. These being components of cadmium sulfide chemical bath deposition (CBD). Characteristics of the CBD are correlated with a restorative effect that produces as normalized, uniform surface chemistry as measured by XAS. This surface chemistry is found in CIGS solar cells with excellent power conversion efficiency (<19%). The results provide new insight for CIGS processing strategies that seek to replace CBD and/or cadmium sulfide.

  5. Redox behaviour of over-exchanged Fe/ZSM5 zeolites studied with in-situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, WM; Battiston, AA; Knop-Gericke, A; Havecker, M; Bluhm, H; Weckhuysen, BM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Koningsberger, DC; de Groot, FMF|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    2003-01-01

    The oxidation and reduction behaviour of calcined over-exchanged Fe/ZSM5 has been studied using soft X-ray absorption by measuring the average iron valence under (2 mbar) helium, oxygen and deNOx (HC-SCR) conditions between room temperature and 350 degreesC. The results ( probing depth of

  6. Electron itinerancy, orbital symmetry and itinerant spin fluctuations in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by soft x-ray spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannella, Norman

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of superconductivity with critical temperature exceeding 55 K in the iron-pnictides (FeSC) compounds has offered the community a new set of materials hosting high temperature superconductivity [1]. In this talk, I will discuss some of our most important results obtained with complementary soft x-ray spectroscopies such as core level and Angle Resolved Photoemission (ARPES) and x-ray absorption (XAS) on different families of FeSC compounds. Results concerning two main aspects particularly important for the physics of the FeSC materials will be discussed, namely 1) the bonding topology/orbital symmetry, and 2) the presence of spin fluctuations. The symmetry of the orbitals and their hybridization play a central role in the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, and in the nature of the superconducting pairing. I will discuss the symmetry and topology of the occupied and unoccupied orbitals by presenting results of polarization-dependent ARPES and element-specific XAS measurements of the electronic structure in the normal state of BaFe2As2 and BaFe1.8Co0.2As2 single crystals. I will then focus on discussing how the presence of exchange multiplets in the Fe 3s photoemission spectra in different FeSC materials are indicative of the presence of fluctuating spin moments on the Fe sites. Due to extremely fast time scales involved, the detection of magnetic fluctuations by means of magnetic probes has so far remained elusive. Our experiment provides a strong test case for the occurring of itinerant magnetic fluctuations, whose detection has been made possible by the extremely fast time scales proper of the photoemission process. The Fermi surface topology revealed by ARPES experiments in different FeSC compounds and its possible relation to the presence of magnetic fluctuation will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] Y. Kamihara, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 3296 (2008).

  7. Ion-implanted Si-nanostructures buried in a SiO{sub 2} substrate studied with soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In recent years silicon nanostructures have gained great interest because of their optical luminescence, which immediately suggests several applications, e.g., in optoelectronic devices. Nanostructures are also investigated because of the fundamental physics involved in the underlying luminescence mechanism, especially attention has been drawn to the influence of the reduced dimensions on the electronic structure. The forming of stable and well-defined nanostructured materials is one goal of cluster physics. For silicon nanostructures this goal has so far not been reached, but various indirect methods have been established, all having the problem of producing less well defined and/or unstable nanostructures. Ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a promising new technique to overcome some of these difficulties. In this experiment the authors investigate the electronic structure of ion-implanted silicon nanoparticles buried in a stabilizing SiO{sub 2} substrate. Soft X-ray emission (SXE) spectroscopy features the appropriate information depth to investigate such buried structures. SXE spectra to a good approximation map the local partial density of occupied states (LPDOS) in broad band materials like Si. The use of monochromatized synchrotron radiation (MSR) allows for selective excitation of silicon atoms in different chemical environments. Thus, the emission from Si atom sites in the buried structure can be separated from contributions from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. In this preliminary study strong size dependent effects are found, and the electronic structure of the ion-implanted nanoparticles is shown to be qualitatively different from porous silicon. The results can be interpreted in terms of quantum confinement and chemical shifts due to neighboring oxygen atoms at the interface to SiO{sub 2}.

  8. Soft X-ray multilayers and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Zhan Shan; Tang Wei Xing; Qin Shuji; Zhou Bing; Chen Ling Ya

    2002-01-01

    The periodic and non-periodic multilayers were designed by using a random number to change each layer and a suitable merit function. Ion beam sputtering and magnetron sputtering were used to fabricate various multilayers and beam splitters in soft X-ray range. The characterization of multilayers by small angle X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and reflectivity illustrated the multilayers had good structures and smooth interlayers. The reflectivity and transmission of a beam splitter is about 5%. The fabrication and transmission properties of Ag, Zr were studied. The Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy were used to investigate the contents and distributions of impurities and influence on qualities of filters. The attenuation coefficients were corrected by the data obtained by measurements

  9. Considerations for a soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Barry L.; Hao, X.; Jacobsen, Chris J.; Kirz, Janos; Miao, J.; Wirick, Sue; Ade, Harald; Buckley, Christopher J.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Hulbert, Steven L.; McNulty, Ian; Oversluizen, Tom

    1996-11-01

    The X-1A soft x-ray undulator at the NSLS is the source for our experimental programs in spectromicroscopy. We require both spatial and temporal coherence. Due to the relatively large horizontal divergence of the electron beam in the low (beta) straight section of the x-ray storage ring, it has been possible to split the beam using a scraping mirror into two branches: X-1A used by our program and X-1B used for high resolution spectroscopy. We are now rebuilding the X-1A beamline to provide improved resolving power and essentially linear trade-off between photon rate at the zone plate and resolving power for the soft x-ray spectromicroscopy experiments. This new beamline will exploit both additional floorspace due to the NSLS building expansion and increases in the brightness of the x-ray ring. Our beam will be further split into two separate beamlines, both of which will use toroidal mirrors to focus the source on the monochromator entrance slits horizontally and to focus on the monochromator exit slits vertically. This separation comes at no loss of coherent flux and permits low thermal loading on the optics, since we need little more than the coherent fraction of the beam at the Fresnel zone plate for microfocusing. Because of the small angular acceptance for spatially coherent illumination of the zone plates and the use of an approximately satisfied Rowland condition, our monochromators have sufficient resolving power with fixed exit arms. Experiments can then be placed near the exit slits, with spatial coherence established by the exit slit size. Resolving power will be controlled by adjusting the entrance slit alone with no change of spatial coherence. The zone plates will be overfilled to be less sensitive to beam vibration and drift.

  10. Ground Calibration of the Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Fujimoto, R. J.; Haas, D.; Den Herder, J. W.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV energy resolution at 6 keV. The instrument used a microcalorimeter array at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope to enable high-resolution non-dispersive spectroscopy in the soft x-ray waveband (0.3-12 keV). We present the suite of ground calibration measurements acquired from 2012-2015, including characterization of the detector system, anti-coincidence detector, optical blocking filters, and filter-wheel filters. The calibration of the 36-pixel silicon thermistor microcalorimeter array includes parameterizations of the energy gain scale and line spread function for each event grade over a range of instrument operating conditions, as well as quantum efficiency measurements. The x-ray transmission of the set of five Al/polyimide thin-film optical blocking filters mounted inside the SXS dewar has been modeled based on measurements at synchrotron beamlines, including with high spectral resolution at the C, N, O, and Al K-edges. In addition, we present the x-ray transmission of the dewar gate valve and of the filters mounted on the SXS filter wheel (external to the dewar), including beryllium, polyimide, and neutral density filters.

  11. Soft X-ray Laser Microscopy of Lipid Rafts towards GPCR-Based Drug Discovery Using Time-Resolved FRET Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Kodama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Many signaling molecules involved in G protein-mediated signal transduction, which are present in the lipid rafts and believed to be controlled spatially and temporally, influence the potency and efficacy of neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. This has focus interest on lipid rafts and the notion that these microdomains acts as a kind of signaling platform and thus have an important role in the expression of membrane receptor-mediated signal transduction, cancer, immune responses, neurotransmission, viral infections and various other phenomena due to specific and efficient signaling according to extracellular stimuli. However, the real structure of lipid rafts has not been observed so far due to its small size and a lack of sufficiently sophisticated observation systems. A soft X-ray microscope using a coherent soft X-ray laser in the water window region (2.3–4.4 nm should prove to be a most powerful tool to observe the dynamic structure of lipid rafts of several tens of nanometers in size in living cells. We have developed for the X-ray microscope a new compact soft X-ray laser using strongly induced plasma high harmonic resonance. We have also developed a time-resolved highly sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET system and confirmed protein-protein interactions coupled with ligands. The simultaneous use of these new tools for observation of localization of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs in rafts has become an important and optimum tool system to analyze the dynamics of signal transduction through rafts as signaling platform. New technology to visualize rafts is expected to lead to the understanding of those dynamics and innovative development of drug discovery that targets GPCRs localized in lipid rafts.

  12. In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Peng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Borondics, Ferenc; Glans, Per-Anders; West, Mark W.; Chang, Ching-Lin; Salmeron, Miquel; Guo, Jinghua

    2010-03-31

    A novel electrochemical setup has been developed for soft x-ray absorption studies of the electronic structure of electrode materials during electrochemical cycling. In this communication we illustrate the operation of the cell with a study of the corrosion behavior of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution via the electrochemically induced changes of its electronic structure. This development opens the way for in situ investigations of electrochemical processes, photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells, water splitting, corrosion, electrodeposition, and a variety of important biological processes.

  13. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation investigations of actinidematerials systems utilizing X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonantinelastic X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuh, D.K.; Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.-H.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-03

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) methods have been utilized with increasing frequency over the past several years to study topics in actinide science, ranging from those of a fundamental nature to those that address a specifically-targeted technical need. In particular, the emergence of microspectroscopic and fluorescence-based techniques have permitted investigations of actinide materials at sources of soft x-ray SR. Spectroscopic techniques with fluorescence-based detection are useful for actinide investigations since they are sensitive to small amounts of material and the information sampling depth may be varied. These characteristics also serve to simplify both sample preparation and safety considerations. Examples of investigations using these fluorescence techniques will be described along with their results, as well as the prospects for future investigations utilizing these methodologies.

  14. Strong O 2p-Fe 3d Hybridization Observed in Solution-Grown Hematite Films by Soft X-ray Spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yifan; Thorne, James E; Wu, Cheng Hao; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Du, Chun; Jang, Ji-Wook; Liu, Erik; Wang, Dunwei; Guo, Jinghua

    2018-01-18

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting holds the potential as a direct route for solar energy conversation and storage. The performance of a PEC device is strongly influenced by the electronic properties of the photonanode surface. It has been shown that the synthesis methods can have a profound impact on the electronic properties and PEC performance of various photoelectrode materials such as hematite. Soft X-ray spectroscopic techniques, including O K-edge XAS and Fe L-edge XAS/XES, have been employed to investigate how the synthesis methods impact the electronic structure of resulting hematite materials. It is found that the hematite samples via solution regrowth methods show dramatically increased 3d-4sp band ratios in O K-edge XAS spectra and decreased relative elastic peak intensities in Fe L-edge RIXS spectra compared with samples synthesized via ALD or solution grown. The difference observed in O-K and Fe-L spectra indicated that solution regrowth strategy alters the O 2p-Fe 3d hybridization and hence the electronic structure of the hematite films, which proves to be beneficial for PEC performance of the hematite photoanode. Our findings provided new insights and potentially useful strategies for enhancing the PEC performance of photoanode materials.

  15. Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Behrens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs, like the Linac Coherent Light Source or the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH, makes unprecedented research on matter at atomic length and ultrafast time scales possible. However, in order to take advantage of these unique light sources and to meet the strict requirements of many experiments in photon science, FEL photon pulse durations need to be known and tunable. This can be achieved by controlling the FEL driving electron beams, and high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics can be utilized to provide constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In this paper, we present comparative measurements of soft x-ray pulse durations and electron bunch lengths at FLASH. The soft x-ray pulse durations were measured by FEL radiation pulse energy statistics and compared to electron bunch lengths determined by frequency-domain spectroscopy of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range and time-domain longitudinal phase space measurements. The experimental results, theoretical considerations, and simulations show that high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics provide reasonable constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In addition, we demonstrated the generation of soft x-ray pulses with durations below 50 fs (FWHM after the implementation of the new uniform electron bunch compression scheme used at FLASH.

  16. New experimental perspectives for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies at ultra-low temperatures below 50 mK and in high magnetic fields up to 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeck, T.; Baev, I.; Gieschen, S.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, S.; Palutke, S.; Feulner, P.; Uhlig, K.; Martins, M.; Wurth, W.

    2016-04-01

    A new ultra-low temperature experiment including a superconducting vector magnet has been developed for soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments at third generation synchrotron light sources. The sample is cooled below 50 mK by a cryogen free 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. At the same time, magnetic fields of up to ±7 T in the horizontal direction and ±0.5 T in the vertical direction can be applied by a superconducting vector magnet. The setup allows to study ex situ and in situ prepared samples, offered by an attached UHV preparation chamber with load lock. The transfer of the prepared samples between the preparation section and the dilution refrigerator is carried out under cryogenic temperatures. First commissioning studies have been carried out at the Variable Polarization XUV Beamline P04 at PETRA III and the influence of the incident photon beam to the sample temperature has been studied.

  17. Electronic structure of Fe2P(10 1 bar 0) studied by soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugizaki, Y.; Motoyama, H.; Edamoto, K.; Ozawa, K.

    2017-10-01

    The electronic structure of Fe2P(10 1 bar 0) has been investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The surface prepared by cycles of Ar+ ion sputtering and annealing at 500-800 °C showed a c(2 × 2) low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. An Fe 3d-P 3p hybrid band (main band) and a satellite were observed at 0-4 eV and 5-8 eV, respectively, in PES spectra of c(2 × 2) Fe2P(10 1 bar 0). The main band showed a clear cut-off at the Fermi edge, indicating the metallic nature of Fe2P. The satellite intensity showed a resonant maximum around the Fe 3p threshold, suggesting that the satellite is caused through a shake-up process. Three types of surface-shifted components were found in P 2p PES spectra. All the P 2p peaks have symmetric line shapes, while the Fe 2p PES and Fe L-edge XAS spectra have asymmetric line shapes, suggesting that the electronic states around the Fermi level are mostly composed of Fe 3d components. These results suggest that the stabilization of the electronic structure at metal sites through the bonding with P atoms is ineffective on Fe2P(10 1 bar 0), as in the case of Fe2P(0001).

  18. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  19. A table-top femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Stephen; Loh, Zhi-Heng; Khalil, Munira; Correa, Raoul E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-05-21

    A laser-based, table-top instrument is constructed to perform femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Ultrashort soft x-ray pulses produced via high-order harmonic generation of the amplified output of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system are used to probe atomic core-level transient absorptions in atoms and molecules. The results provide chemically specific, time-resolved dynamics with sub-50-fs time resolution. In this setup, high-order harmonics generated in a Ne-filled capillary waveguide are refocused by a gold-coated toroidal mirror into the sample gas cell, where the soft x-ray light intersects with an optical pump pulse. The transmitted high-order harmonics are spectrally dispersed with a home-built soft x-ray spectrometer, which consists of a gold-coated toroidal mirror, a uniform-line spaced plane grating, and a soft x-ray CCD camera. The optical layout of the instrument, design of the soft x-ray spectrometer, and spatial and temporal characterization of the high-order harmonics are described. Examples of static and time-resolved photoabsorption spectra collected on this apparatus are presented.

  20. The Development of a Scanning Soft X-Ray Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarback, Harvey Miles

    We have developed a scanning soft X-ray microscope, which can be used to image natural biological specimens at high resolution and with less damage than electron microscopy. The microscope focuses a monochromatic beam of synchrotron radiation to a nearly diffraction limited spot with the aid of a high resolution Fresnel zone plate, specially fabricated for us at the IBM Watson Research Center. The specimen at one atmosphere is mechanically scanned through the spot and the transmitted radiation is efficiently detected with a flow proportional counter. A computer forms a realtime transmission image of the specimen which is displayed on a color monitor. Our first generation optics have produced images of natural wet specimens at a resolution of 300 nm.

  1. Room temperature redox reaction by oxide ion migration at carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 heterointerface probed by an in situ hard x-ray photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tsuchiya, Shogo Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki Yamashita, Hideki Yoshikawa, Kazuya Terabe, Keisuke Kobayashi and Shu Yamaguchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SX-XAS have been employed to investigate a local redox reaction at the carbon/Gd-doped CeO2 (GDC thin film heterointerface under applied dc bias. In HX-PES, Ce3d and O1s core levels show a parallel chemical shift as large as 3.2 eV, corresponding to the redox window where ionic conductivity is predominant. The window width is equal to the energy gap between donor and acceptor levels of the GDC electrolyte. The Ce M-edge SX-XAS spectra also show a considerable increase of Ce3+ satellite peak intensity, corresponding to electrochemical reduction by oxide ion migration. In addition to the reversible redox reaction, two distinct phenomena by the electrochemical transport of oxide ions are observed as an irreversible reduction of the entire oxide film by O2 evolution from the GDC film to the gas phase, as well as a vigorous precipitation of oxygen gas at the bottom electrode to lift off the GDC film. These in situ spectroscopic observations describe well the electrochemical polarization behavior of a metal/GDC/metal capacitor-like two-electrode cell at room temperature.

  2. Soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy of the Ba atomic layer deposition on the ceramic multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemanskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina.benemanskaya@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya str. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Dementev, P.A.; Lapushkin, M.N. [Ioffe Institute, Politekhnicheskaya str. 26, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Timoshnev, S.N. [St Petersburg Academic University, Khlopina str.8/3, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Senkovskiy, B. [Helmholts-Zentrum Berlin, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Ba/BiFeO{sub 3} interface was studied by X-ray synchrotron- photoemission spectroscopy. • Ba adsorption is found to modify the Bi 4f, O 1s and Fe 2p core level spectra. • Ba induced charge transfer causes increasing in Bi-valency and O-ionicity. • Ba adsorption results in increasing the amount of Fe{sup 2+} ions in the surface region. - Abstract: Electronic structure of the ceramic multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} and the Ba/BiFeO{sub 3} nanointerface is investigated in situ in an ultrahigh vacuum by synchrotron-based photoemission spectroscopy with the excited photon energy from 120 eV to 900 eV. The Bi 4f, O 1s, Fe 2p, and Ba 5p core-levels spectra are studied. The Ba atomic layer deposition is found to induce a significant change in spectra that is originated from the charge transfer between Ba adatoms and Bi, O surface atoms with increasing the Bi-valency and O-ionicity. The Fe 2p{sub 3/2} core level spectrum for the clean BiFeO{sub 3} is shown to contain both the Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ion components with the atomic ratio of Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} ∼1. The Ba adsorption is found to increase the ratio up to ∼1.5. This new effect is clearly caused by recharge between Fe{sup 3+} ↔ Fe{sup 2+} ions with increasing the amount of Fe{sup 2+} ions.

  3. Insights from soft X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength of the pri......The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength...... of the primary X-ray beam is relatively close to the absorption edge of selected elements of the sample. The resulting effects are summarized as "anomalous dispersion" and can be always observed with "soft" X-rays (wavelength around 2 A) since they match the absorption edges of sulfur and chlorine...

  4. Surface layering and melting in an ionic liquid studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mezger, Markus; Ocko, Benjamin M.; Reichert, Harald; Deutsch, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    The molecular-scale structure of the ionic liquid [C18mim]+[FAP]− near its free surface was studied by complementary methods. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant soft X-ray reflectivity revealed a depth-decaying near-surface layering. Element-specific interfacial profiles were extracted with submolecular resolution from energy-dependent soft X-ray reflectivity data. Temperature-dependent hard X-ray reflectivity, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and infrared spectroscopy uncovere...

  5. Surface layering and melting in an ionic liquid studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, Markus; Ocko, Benjamin M; Reichert, Harald; Deutsch, Moshe

    2013-03-05

    The molecular-scale structure of the ionic liquid [C18mim](+)[FAP](-) near its free surface was studied by complementary methods. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant soft X-ray reflectivity revealed a depth-decaying near-surface layering. Element-specific interfacial profiles were extracted with submolecular resolution from energy-dependent soft X-ray reflectivity data. Temperature-dependent hard X-ray reflectivity, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and infrared spectroscopy uncovered an intriguing melting mechanism for the layered region, where alkyl chain melting drove a negative thermal expansion of the surface layer spacing.

  6. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the electronic structures of the MnFe Prussian blue analogs (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsook; Seong, Seungho; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kim, D. H.; Thakur, Nidhi; Yusuf, S. M.; Kim, Bongjae; Min, B. I.; Kim, Younghak; Kim, J.-Y.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Kang, J.-S.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structures of Prussian blue analog (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] cyanides have been investigated by employing soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe and Mn L (2 p ) edges. The measured XAS spectra have been analyzed with the configuration-interaction (CI) cluster model calculations. The valence states of the Fe and Mn ions are found to be Fe2 +-Fe3 + mixed valent, with an average valency of v (Fe )˜2.8 and nearly divalent (Mn2 +), respectively. Our Mn/Fe 2 p XMCD study supports that Mn2 + ions are in the high-spin states while Fe2 +-Fe3 + ions are in the low-spin states. The Fe and Mn 2 p XAS spectra are found to be essentially the same for 80 ≤T ≤ 300 K, suggesting that a simple charge transfer upon cooling from Fe3 +-CN -Mn2 + to Fe2 +-CN -Mn3 + does not occur in (RbxBay) Mn[3 -(x +2 y )]/2[Fe (CN) 6] . According to the CI cluster model analysis, it is necessary to take into account both the ligand-to-metal charge transfer and the metal-to-ligand charge transfer in describing Fe 2 p XAS, while the effect of charge transfer is negligible in describing Mn 2 p XAS. The CI cluster model analysis also shows that the trivalent Fe3 + ions have a strong covalent bonding with the C ≡N ligands and are under a large crystal-field energy of 10 D q ˜3 eV, in contrast to the weak covalency effect and a small 10 D q ˜0.6 eV for the divalent Mn2 + ions.

  7. In-situ soft X-ray absorption of over-exchanged Fe/ZSM5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, WM; Battiston, AA; Knop-Gericke, A; Havecker, M; Mayer, R; Bluhm, H; Schlogl, R; Weckhuysen, BM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Koningsberger, DC; de Groot, FMF|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X

    2003-01-01

    In-situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been applied to study the iron redox behavior in over-exchanged Fe/ZSM5. The Fe L-2,L-3 XAS and O K spectral shapes of the Fe/ZSM5 surface have been measured during heat treatments and reduction/oxidation cycles. Charge-transfer multiplet

  8. Filters for soft X-ray solar telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Eberhard; Grebe, Kurt; Golub, Leon

    1990-01-01

    Soft X-ray telescopes require filters that block visible and infrared light and have good soft X-ray transmission. The optical properties of possible materials are discussed, and the fabrication and testing methods for the filters used in a 10-inch normal incidence telescope for 63 A are described. The best performances in the 44-114-A wavelength range are obtained with foils of carbon and rhodium.

  9. Soft x-ray nanoscale imaging using highly brilliant laboratory sources and new detector concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Braenzel, J.; Dehlinger, A.; Jung, R.; Luebcke, A.; Regehly, M.; Ritter, S.; Tuemmler, J.; Schnuerer, M.; Seim, C.

    2017-05-01

    In this contribution, we report about nanoscale imaging using a laser produced plasma source based laboratory transmission X-ray microscope (LTXM) in the water window. The highly brilliant soft X-ray radiation of the LTXM is provided by a laser-produced nitrogen plasma source focused by a multilayer condenser mirror to the sample. An objective zone plate maps the magnified image of the sample on the super resolution camera. This camera employs a deep cooled soft-X-ray CCD imaging sensor sandwiched with a xy piezo stage to allow subpixel displacements of the detector. The camera is read out using a very low noise electronics platform, also directing low µm shifts of the sensor between subsequent image acquisitions. Finally an algorithm computes a high resolution image from the individual shifted low-resolution image frames.

  10. Spectroscopic study of site selective DNA damage induced by intense soft X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, K

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of DNA damage induced by direct photon impact, we observed the near edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) of DNA nucleobases using monochromatic synchrotron soft X-rays around nitrogen and oxygen K-shell excitation regions. Each spectrum obtained has unique structure corresponding to pi* excitation of oxygen or nitrogen 1s electron. These aspects open a way of nucleobase-selective photo-excitation in a DNA molecule using high resolution monochromatized soft X-rays. From the analysis of polarization-dependent intensities of the pi* resonance peak, it is clarified that adenine, guanine an uracil form orientated surface structure. Furthermore from the direct measurement of positive ions desorbed from photon irradiated DNA components, it is revealed that the sugar moiety is a fragile site in a DNA molecule. (author)

  11. Arcus: An Overview of the Soft X-ray Grating Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall; Arcus Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Arcus MIDEX Explorer, which NASA selected for a Phase A study in August 2017, provides high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy in the 12-50Å bandpass with unprecedented sensitivity. Its capabilities include spectral resolution >2500 and effective areas in the range 200-600 cm^2. The three top science goals for Arcus are (1) to measure the effects of structure formation imprinted upon the hot baryons that are predicted to lie in extended halos around galaxies, groups, and clusters, (2) to trace the propagation of outflowing mass, energy, and momentum from the vicinity of the black hole to extragalactic scales as a measure of their feedback and (3) to explore how stars, circumstellar disks and exoplanet atmospheres form and evolve. Arcus relies upon the same 12m focal length grazing-incidence silicon pore X-ray optics (SPO) that ESA has developed for the Athena mission; the focal length is achieved on orbit via an extendable optical bench. The focused X-rays from these optics are diffracted by high-efficiency Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) gratings, and the results are imaged with flight-proven CCD detectors and electronics. The power and telemetry requirements on the spacecraft are modest and mission operations are straightforward, as most observations will be long (~100 ksec), uninterrupted, and pre-planned.

  12. Resolving the Origin of the Diffuse Soft X-ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.; Edgar, Ricard J.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Sanders, Wilton T.

    2012-01-01

    In January 1993, the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer (DXS) measured the first high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse soft X-ray background between 44-80A. A line-dominated spectrum characteristic of a 10(exp 6)K collisionally ionized plasma' was expected but while the observed spectrum was clearly line-dominated, no model would fit. Then in 2003 the Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) launched and observed the diffuse extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectrum between 90- 265A. Although many emission lines were again expected; only Fe IX at 171.1A was detected. The discovery of X-rays from comets led to the realization that heavy ions (Z=6-28) in the solar wind will emit soft X-rays as the ions interact via charge exchange with neutral atoms in the heliosphere and geocorona. Using a new model for solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission, we show that the diffuse soft X-ray background can be understood as a combination of emission from charge exchange onto the slow and fast solar wind together with a more distant and diffuse hot (10(exp 6)K) plasma.

  13. Intense soft X-ray flux from Her-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catura, R. C.; Acton, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    An intense flux of soft X-rays extending up to at least 1 keV has been observed from Her X-1. If the soft X-ray intensity is corrected for interstellar absorption the luminosity between 0.16 and 1 keV is comparable to that from 2-10 keV. The soft X-rays are modulated with the 1.24 sec period observed at higher energies but are approximately 180 deg out of phase with the high energy flux. These results extend the detection of this flux to higher energy, a different binary phase, and to a time 19 periods (of the 35 day cycle) later. These observations suggest that this soft emission is a stable feature in the spectrum of this source during its X-ray on state and that this emission is local to Her X-1.

  14. Performance of soft X-ray emission spectrometer employing charge-coupled device detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, T A; Muramatsu, Y

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a soft X-ray emission spectrometer employing a charge-coupled device camera was examined in the energy range of 80-1250 eV. The spectra observed by low-energy electron irradiation for metal L, oxygen K and silicon L lines were in good agreement with the previous observations by conventional MCP detectors. The results suggest that the energy resolution is good enough for the resonant excitation spectroscopy by synchrotron radiation as well.

  15. Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: novel instrumentation, high resolution, and the"map" approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; B& #228; r, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Zubavichus, Y.; Zharnikov, M.; Grunze, M.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.

    2008-06-17

    Techniques to study the electronic structure of liquids are rare. Most recently, resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been shown to be an extremely versatile spectroscopy to study both occupied and unoccupied electronic states for liquids in thermodynamic equilibrium. However, XES requires high-brilliance soft x-ray synchrotron radiation and poses significant technical challenges to maintain a liquid sample in an ultra-high vacuum environment. Our group has therefore developed and constructed a novel experimental setup for the study of liquids, with the long-term goal of investigating the electronic structure of biological systems in aqueous environments. We have developed a flow-through liquid cell in which the liquid is separated from vacuum by a thin Si3N4 or SiC window and which allows a precise control of temperature. This approach has significant advantages compared to static liquids cells used in the past. Furthermore, we have designed a dedicated high-transmission, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer. The high transmission makes it possible to measure complete resonant XES"maps" in less than an hour, giving unprecedented detailed insight into the electronic structure of the investigated sample. Using this new equipment we have investigated the electronic structure of liquid water. Furthermore, our XES spectra and maps give information about ultra-fast dissociation on the timescale of the O 1s core hole lifetime, which is strongly affected by the initial state hydrogen bonding configuration.

  16. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  17. New soft X-ray beamline BL07LSU at SPring-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Susumu; Senba, Yasunori; Tanaka, Takashi; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Hirono, Toko; Kimura, Hiroaki; Fujisawa, Masami; Miyawaki, Jun; Harasawa, Ayumi; Seike, Takamitsu; Takahashi, Sunao; Nariyama, Nobuteru; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Masao; Ohata, Toru; Furukawa, Yukito; Takeshita, Kunikazu; Goto, Shunji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Shin, Shik; Kitamura, Hideo; Kakizaki, Akito; Oshima, Masaharu; Matsuda, Iwao

    2014-03-01

    A new soft X-ray beamline, BL07LSU, has been constructed at SPring-8 to perform advanced soft X-ray spectroscopy for materials science. The beamline is designed to achieve high energy resolution (E/ΔE> 10000) and high photon flux [>10(12) photons s(-1) (0.01% bandwidth)(-1)] in the photon energy range 250-2000 eV with controllable polarization. To realise this state-of-the-art performance, a novel segmented cross undulator was developed and adopted as a light source. The details of the undulator light source and beamline monochromator design are described. The achieved performance of the beamline, such as the photon flux, energy resolution and the state of polarization, is reported.

  18. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity.

  19. ``Soft X-ray transient'' outbursts which are not soft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocksopp, C.; Bandyopadhyay, R.M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have accumulated multiwavelength (X-ray, optical, radio) lightcurves for the eight black hole X-ray binaries which have been observed to enter a supposed `soft X-ray transient' outburst, but remained in the low/hard state throughout the outburst. Comparison of the lightcurve morphologies,

  20. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  1. Soft-X-Ray Tomography Diagnostic at the Rtp Tokamak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Cruz, D. F.; Donne, A. J. H.

    1994-01-01

    An 80-channel soft x-ray tomography system has been constructed for diagnosing the RTP (Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project) tokamak plasma. Five pinhole cameras, each with arrays of 16 detectors are distributed more or less homogeneously around a poloidal plasma cross section. The cameras are positioned

  2. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  3. Resonant magnetic scattering of polarized soft x rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacchi, M. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Hague, C.F. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Gullikson, E.M.; Underwood, J. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Magnetic effects on X-ray scattering (Bragg diffraction, specular reflectivity or diffuse scattering) are a well known phenomenon, and they also represent a powerful tool for investigating magnetic materials since it was shown that they are strongly enhanced when the photon energy is tuned across an absorption edge (resonant process). The resonant enhancement of the magnetic scattering has mainly been investigated at high photon energies, in order to match the Bragg law for the typical lattice spacings of crystals. In the soft X-ray range, even larger effects are expected, working for instance at the 2p edges of transition metals of the first row or at the 3d edges of rare earths (300-1500 eV), but the corresponding long wavelengths prevent the use of single crystals. Two approaches have been recently adopted in this energy range: (i) the study of the Bragg diffraction from artificial structures of appropriate 2d spacing; (ii) the analysis of the specular reflectivity, which contains analogous information but has no constraints related to the lattice spacing. Both approaches have their own specific advantages: for instance, working under Bragg conditions provides information about the (magnetic) periodicity in ordered structures, while resonant reflectivity can easily be related to electronic properties and absorption spectra. An important aspect common to all the resonant X-ray scattering techniques is the element selectivity inherent to the fact of working at a specific absorption edge: under these conditions, X-ray scattering becomes in fact a spectroscopy. Results are presented for films of iron and cobalt.

  4. Probing the graphite band structure with resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Shirley, E.L.; Hudson, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation offers several advantages over surface sensitive spectroscopies for probing the electronic structure of complex multi-elemental materials. Due to the long mean free path of photons in solids ({approximately}1000 {angstrom}), SXF is a bulk-sensitive probe. Also, since core levels are involved in absorption and emission, SXF is both element- and angular-momentum-selective. SXF measures the local partial density of states (DOS) projected onto each constituent element of the material. The chief limitation of SXF has been the low fluorescence yield for photon emission, particularly for light elements. However, third generation light sources, such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), offer the high brightness that makes high-resolution SXF experiments practical. In the following the authors utilize this high brightness to demonstrate the capability of SXF to probe the band structure of a polycrystalline sample. In SXF, a valence emission spectrum results from transitions from valence band states to the core hole produced by the incident photons. In the non-resonant energy regime, the excitation energy is far above the core binding energy, and the absorption and emission events are uncoupled. The fluorescence spectrum resembles emission spectra acquired using energetic electrons, and is insensitive to the incident photon`s energy. In the resonant excitation energy regime, core electrons are excited by photons to unoccupied states just above the Fermi level (EF). The absorption and emission events are coupled, and this coupling manifests itself in several ways, depending in part on the localization of the empty electronic states in the material. Here the authors report spectral measurements from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  5. Probing nucleobase photoprotection with soft x-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleobases absorb strongly in the ultraviolet region, leading to molecular excitation into reactive states. The molecules avoid the photoreactions by funnelling the electronic energy into less reactive states on an ultrafast timescale via non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. Current theory on the nucleobase thymine discusses two conflicting pathways for the photoprotective dynamics. We present our first results of our free electron laser based UV-pump soft x-ray-probe study of the photoprotection mechanism of thymine. We use the high spatial sensitivity of the Auger electrons emitted after the soft x-ray pulse induced core ionization. Our transient spetra show two timescales on the order of 200 fs and 5 ps, in agreement with previous (all UV ultrafast experiments. The timescales appear at different Auger kinetic energies which will help us to decipher the molecular dynamics.

  6. The JET multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Blackler, K.; Dillon, S.F.; Edwards, A.W.; Gill, R.D.; Lyadina, E.; Mulligan, W.; Staunton-Lambert, S.A.B.; Thompson, D.G.; Wilson, D.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    A new soft X-ray detector system has been constructed for the pumped divertor phase of JET which incorporates a number of enhancements over the previous system in both hardware and data acquisition. The hardware improvements include: six independent views of the plasma at one toroidal location (as opposed to two in the old system), spatial resolution improved from 7 cm to 3 cm, frequency response increased from 30 khz to 100 khz and improved toroidal mode resolution. These enhancements will allow the study of MHD activity in finer detail. The tomographic reconstruction of soft X-ray emissivities will be improved to include Fourier terms up to cos(5{theta}) compared with only cos(2{theta}) before. Through the implementation of a fast central acquisition and trigger system, data from a range of diagnostics will be available at high bandwidth to allow processing of plasma phenomena of far greater complexity than was possible before. (authors). 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Nanofabrication of Diffractive Soft X-ray Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the present status of the nanofabrication of diffractive optics, i.e. zone plates, and test objects for soft x-ray microscopy at KTH. The emphasis is on new and improved fabrication processes for nickel and germanium zone plates. A new concept in which nickel and germanium are combined in a zone plate is also presented. The main techniques used in the fabrication are electron beam lithography for the patterning, followed by plasma etching and electroplating for the stru...

  8. Extremely high quality soft X-ray beam line BL25SU of SPring-8: instrumentation and research activities

    CERN Document Server

    Suga, S

    2001-01-01

    Very high resolution and bright soft X-ray light is supplied with high stability and enough photon flux by the twin-helical undulator beam line BL25SU of SPring-8. Either helicity light with very high circular polarization is emitted on the same optical axis. The fundamental radiation can cover the h nu region from 0.22 to 3 keV, among which the h nu region below 2 keV is covered by a constant deviation angle monochromator with varied line spacing plane gratings (VLSPGM). The content of the higher order light is less than 1%. Accurate evaluation of the energy resolution of the VLSPGM is done by photoemission of the Fermi edge of Au. By using a grating with a central groove density of 600/mm, a resolution of better than 15,000 is realized at 870 eV, whereas a resolution of better than 20,000 is realized by using a grating with 1000/mm central groove density. Three experimental stations for solid state spectroscopy are permanently set up in tandem on BL25SU: (1) high resolution photoemission (2) magnetic circul...

  9. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Lewis, W. S.; Crary, F. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The soft x-ray energy band (less than 4 keV) is an important spectral regime for planetary remote sensing, as a wide variety of solar system objects are now known to shine at these wavelengths. These include Earth, Jupiter, comets, moons, Venus, and the Sun. Earth and Jupiter, as magnetic planets, are observed to emanate strong x-ray emissions from their auroral (polar) regions, thus providing vital information on the nature of precipitating particles and their energization processes in planetary magnetospheres. X rays from low latitudes have also been observed on these planets, resulting largely from atmospheric scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays. Cometary x-rays are now a well established phenomena, more than a dozen comets have been observed at soft x-ray energies, with the accepted production mechanism being charge-exchange between heavy solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. Also, Lunar x-rays have been observed and are thought to be produced by scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays from the Moon's surface. With the advent of sophisticated x-ray observatories, e.g., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary x-ray astronomy is advancing at a much faster pace. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has recently captured soft x-rays from Venus. Venusian x-rays are most likely produced through fluorescence of solar x-rays by C and O atoms in the upper atmosphere. Very recently, using CXO we have discovered soft x-rays from the moons of Jupiter-Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede. The plausible source of the x-rays from the Galilean satellites is bombardment of their surfaces by energetic (greater than 10 KeV) ions from the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Io plasma Torus (IPT) is also discovered by CXO to be a source of soft x-rays by CXO have revealed a mysterious pulsating (period approx. 45 minutes) x-ray hot spot is fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and is magnetically connected to a region in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter. These

  10. LCLS in—photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Razib; Buth, Christian; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Beerwerth, Randolf; Holmes, Michael; Aldrich, Jeff; Lin, Ming-Fu; Minitti, Michael; Osipov, Timur; Schlotter, William; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Fritzsche, Stephan; Berrah, Nora

    2018-02-01

    We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (∼1200 eV) from the x-ray free-electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable line spacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for photoionization shake off of neutral neon and double auger decay of single core holes.

  11. The impact of pulse duration on multiphoton ionization in the soft X-ray regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Mathias; Sorokin, Andrey A.; Tiedtke, Kai

    2013-05-01

    At the soft X-ray free electron laser FLASH, multiphoton ionization of free atoms has been studied by ion time-of-flight spectroscopy. Depending on the multiphoton mechanism, the ionization processes are influenced in different ways by the FEL pulse duration. This feature has been used, e.g., to measure the pulse duration of FLASH in the femtosecond regime by non-linear autocorrelation. In the present contribution, the impact of pulse duration on multiphoton ionization is discussed with an emphasis on the distinction between sequential and non-sequential processes, and collective electron excitation as well.

  12. LCLS in - photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Obaid, Razib; Buth, Christian; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Beerwerth, Randolf; Holmes, Michael; Aldrich, Jeff; Lin, Ming-Fu; Minitti, Michael; Osipov, Timur; Schlotter, William; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Fritzsche, Stephan; Berrah, Nora

    2017-01-01

    We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (~1200 eV) from the x-ray free electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable linespacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for ph...

  13. The SPECIES beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory: a facility for soft X-ray RIXS and APXPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpelainen, Samuli; Såthe, Conny; Grizolli, Walan; Agåker, Marcus; Head, Ashley R; Andersson, Margit; Huang, Shih Wen; Jensen, Brian N; Wallén, Erik; Tarawneh, Hamed; Sankari, Rami; Nyholm, Ralf; Lindberg, Mirjam; Sjöblom, Peter; Johansson, Niclas; Reinecke, Benjamin N; Arman, M Alif; Merte, Lindsay R; Knudsen, Jan; Schnadt, Joachim; Andersen, Jesper N; Hennies, Franz

    2017-01-01

    SPECIES is an undulator-based soft X-ray beamline that replaced the old I511 beamline at the MAX II storage ring. SPECIES is aimed at high-resolution ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments. The beamline has two branches that use a common elliptically polarizing undulator and monochromator. The beam is switched between the two branches by changing the focusing optics after the monochromator. Both branches have separate exit slits, refocusing optics and dedicated permanent endstations. This allows very fast switching between two types of experiments and offers a unique combination of the surface-sensitive XPS and bulk-sensitive RIXS techniques both in UHV and at elevated ambient-pressure conditions on a single beamline. Another unique property of the beamline is that it reaches energies down to approximately 27 eV, which is not obtainable on other current APXPS beamlines. This allows, for instance, valence band studies under ambient-pressure conditions. In this article the main properties and performance of the beamline are presented, together with selected showcase experiments performed on the new setup.

  14. Tungsten/Magnesium silicide multilayers for soft x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, P; Houdy, P; Kühne, M; Müller, P; Barchewitz, R; Delaboudiniere, J P; Smith, D J

    1992-01-01

    W/Mg2Si multilayers for soft x-ray optics above the MgKα and MgLα lines have been deposited by RF sputtering. Their structural characteristics have been deduced from in situ kinetic ellipsometry, ex situ grazing x-ray reflection measurements, and high-resolution electron microscopy. Their soft x-ray performances have been measured by synchrotron radiation around the MgKα and MgLα lines and related to the structural characteristics. For short wavelengths, first Bragg peak reflectivities as high as 31% have been measured for multilayers with double period equal to 84 Å. For samples with smaller layer thicknesses, these performances decrease due to finite interdiffusion at the interfaces. Nevertheless, well-defined Bragg peaks are observed even when the double period is as low as 44 Å. Near the MgLα line, more than 20% reflectivity at the first Bragg peak has been measured at normal incidence. At the same wavelength the selectivity is two times higher than that of conventional systems such as Mo/Si.

  15. $YB_{66} a new soft X-ray monochromator for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, J; Rowen, M; Schäfers, F; Müller, B R; Rek, Z U

    1999-01-01

    For pt.I see Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., vol.A291, p.243-8, 1990. YB/sub 66/, a complex boron-rich man-made crystal, has been singled out as a potential monochromator material to disperse synchrotron soft X-rays in the 1-2 keV region. Results of a series of systematic property characterizations pertinent for this application are presented in this paper. These include Laue diffraction patterns and high-precision lattice-constant determination, etch rate, stoichiometry, thermal expansion, soft X-ray reflectivity and rocking-curve measurements, thermal load effects on monochromator performance, nature of intrinsic positive glitches and their reduction. The 004 reflection of YB/sub 66/ has a reflectance of ~3 in this spectral region. The width of the rocking curve varies from 0.25 eV at 1.1 keV to 1.0 eV at 2 keV, which is a factor of two better than that of beryl(1010) in the same energy range, and enables measurements of high-resolution XANES spectra at the Mg, Al and Si K- edges. The thermal bump on the...

  16. The Diffuse Soft X-ray Background: Trials and Tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    2013-01-01

    I joined the University of Wisconsin-Madison sounding rocket group at its inception. It was an exciting time, as nobody knew what the X-ray sky looked like. Our group focused on the soft X-ray background, and built proportional counters with super thin (2 micron thick) windows. As the inter gas pressure of the counters was about 1 atmosphere, it was no mean feat to get payload to launch without the window bursting. On top of that we built all our own software from space solutions to unfolding the spectral data. For we did it then as now: Our computer code modeled the detector response and then folded various spectral shapes through the response and compared the results with the raw data. As far as interpretation goes, here are examples of how one can get things wrong: The Berkeley group published a paper of the soft X-ray background that disagreed with ours. Why? It turned out they had **assumed** the galactic plane was completely opaque to soft X-ray and hence corrected for detector background that way. It turns out that the ISM emits in soft X-rays! Another example was the faux pas of the Calgary group. They didn’t properly shield their detector from the sounding rocket telemetry. Thus they got an enormous signal, which to our amusement some (ambulance chaser) theoreticians tried to explain! So back then as now, mistakes were made, but at least we all knew how our X-ray systems worked from soup (the detectors) to nuts (the data analysis code) where as toady “anybody” with a good idea but only a vague inkling of how detectors, mirrors and software work, can be an X-ray astronomer. On the one hand, this has made the field accessible to all, and on the other, errors in interpretation can be made as the X-ray telescope user can fall prey to running black box software. Furthermore with so much funding going into supporting observers, there is little left to make the necessary technology advances or keep the core expertise in place to even to stay even with

  17. Modeling the Soft X-Ray During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaman, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Solar Radiation can effect our communication and navigation systems here on Earth. In particular, solar X-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is responsible for ionizing (charging) earth's upper atmosphere, and sudden changes in the ionosphere can disrupt high frequency communication systems (e.g. airplane-to-ground) and degrade the location accuracy for GPS navigation. New soft X-ray flare data are needed to study the sources for the SXR radiation and variability of the solar flares and thus help to answer questions if all flares follow the same trend or have different plasma characteristics? In December 2015, the Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) launched from Cape Canaveral Florida to answer those questions. The MinXSS CubeSat is a miniature satellite that was designed to measure the soft X-ray spectra and study flares in the 1-15 Å wavelength range. So far, the CubeSat has observed more than ten flares. The MinXSS flare data are plotted in energy vs irradiance to display the soft X-ray spectra, and these spectra are compared with different types of CHIANTI models of the soft X-ray radiation. One comparison is for non-flaring spectra using AIA EUV images to identify solar features called active regions, coronal holes, and quiet sun, and then using the fractional area of each feature to calculate a CHIANTI-based spectrum. This comparison reveals how important the active region radiation is for the SXR spectra. A second comparison is for flare spectra to several isothermal models that were created using CHIANTI. The isothermal model comparisons were done with both the raw count spectra from MinXSS and the derived irradiance spectra. This dual comparison helps to validate the irradiance conversion algorithm for MinXSS. Comparisons of the MinXSS data to the models show that flares tend to follow a temperature pattern. Analysis of the MinXSS data can help us understand our sun better, could lead to better forecasts of solar flares, and thus

  18. Soft X-ray spectral variations in Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S. M.; Charles, P. A.; Bowyer, S.; Blissett, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra of Scorpius X-1 obtained with the low-energy detectors of the A-2 experiment on HEAO 1 are presented. The raw count spectra are deconvolved using the Kahn and Blissett technique to reveal the presence of oxygen absorption in the range 0.5-0.7 keV. The strength of this feature is shown to vary on a time scale of order hours. These results are interpreted as evidence for variable X-ray photoionization of circumsource material in the system. An alternative model, involving variable Compton broadening of an oxygen edge, is also discussed.

  19. A soft X-ray image of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Snowden, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one percent of that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the moon's surface.

  20. Wide-field-of-view phase-contrast imaging of nanostructures with a comparatively large polychromatic soft x-ray plasma source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasilov, S V; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, T A; Fukuda, Y; Kando, M; Kawachi, T; Skobelev, I Yu; Daido, H; Kato, Y; Bulanov, S V

    2009-11-01

    Polychromatic soft x-ray plasma sources were not previously considered to be among the sources suitable for the propagation based phase contrast imaging because of their comparatively large emission-zone size. In the current work a scheme based on the combination of soft x-ray emission of multicharged ions, generated by the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with an ultrasonic jet of gas clusters, and an LiF crystal detector was used to obtain phase-enhanced high-resolution images of micro- and nanoscale objects in a wide field of view.

  1. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braicovich, L., E-mail: lucio.braicovich@polimi.it; Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G. [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133 (Italy); Le Tacon, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38043 (France); Supruangnet, R. [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  2. Enhancement of soft X-ray reflectivity and interface stability in nitridated Pd/Y multilayer mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dechao; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Yiwen; Li, Pin; Wen, Mingwu; Jonnard, Philippe; Giglia, Angelo; Kozhevnikov, Igor V; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan

    2015-12-28

    Pd/Y multilayer mirrors operating in the soft X-ray region are characterized by a high theoretical reflectance, reaching 65% at normal incidence in the 8-12 nm wavelength range. However, a severe intermixing of neighboring Pd and Y layers results in an almost total disappearance of the interfaces inside the multilayer structures fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering and thus a dramatic reflectivity decrease. Based on grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the stability of the interfaces in Pd/Y multilayer structures can be essentially improved by adding a small amount of nitrogen (4-8%) to the working gas (Ar). High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the interlayer width is only 0.9 nm and 0.6 nm for Y(N)-on-Pd(N) and Pd(N)-on-Y(N) interfaces, respectively. A well-defined crystalline texture of YN (200) is observed on the electron diffraction pattern. As a result, the measured reflectance of the Pd(N)/Y(N) multilayer achieves 30% at λ = 9.3 nm. The peak reflectivity value is limited by the remaining interlayers and the formation of the YN compound inside the yttrium layers, resulting in an increased absorption.

  3. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W. [Univ. of London, Surrey (United Kingdom); Judge, J. [Unilever plc, Sharnbrook (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  4. Overview of nanoscale NEXAFS performed with soft X-ray microscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Guttmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, in material science nanoscale structures are becoming more and more important. Not only for the further miniaturization of semiconductor devices like carbon nanotube based transistors, but also for newly developed efficient energy storage devices, gas sensors or catalytic systems nanoscale and functionalized materials have to be analysed. Therefore, analytical tools like near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS spectroscopy has to be applied on single nanostructures. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXM as well as full-field transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM allow the required spatial resolution to study individual nanostructures. In the soft X-ray energy range only STXM was used so far for NEXAFS studies. Due to its unique setup, the TXM operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB at the electron storage ring BESSY II is the first one in the soft X-ray range which can be used for NEXAFS spectroscopy studies which will be shown in this review. Here we will give an overview of the different microscopes used for NEXAFS studies and describe their advantages and disadvantages for different samples.

  5. Bulk and surface electronic structure of GaN measured using angle resolved photoemission, soft x-ray emission and soft x-ray absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.E.; Dhesi, S.S.; Duda, L.C.; Stagarescu, C.B.; Singh, R.; Moustakas, T.D. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Guo, J.H.; Nordgren, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The electronic structure of thin film wurtzite GaN has been studied using a combination of angle resolved photoemission, soft x-ray absorption and soft x-ray emission spectroscopies. The authors have measured the bulk valence and conduction band partial density of states by recording Ga L and N K- x-ray emission and absorption spectra. They compare the x-ray spectra to a recent ab initio calculation and find good overall agreement. The x-ray emission spectra reveal that the top of the valence band is dominated by N 2p states, while the x-ray absorption spectra show the bottom of the conduction band as a mixture of Ga 4s and N 2p states, again in good agreement with theory. However, due to strong dipole selection rules the authors can also identify weak hybridization between Ga 4s- and N 2p-states in the valence band. Furthermore, a component to the N K-emission appears at approximately 19.5 eV below the valence band maximum and can be identified as due to hybridization between N 2p and Ga 3d states. They report preliminary results of a study of the full dispersion of the bulk valence band states along high symmetry directions of the bulk Brillouin zone as measured using angle resolved photoemission. Finally, they tentatively identify a non-dispersive state at the top of the valence band in parts of the Brillouin zone as a surface state.

  6. Ultrahigh resolution soft x-ray emission spectrometer at BL07LSU in SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, University of Tokyo, Koto, Shingu-cho, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, University of Tokyo, Koto, Shingu-cho, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Niwa, Hideharu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, University of Tokyo, Koto, Shingu-cho, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tokushima, Takashi; Horikawa, Yuka [RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Shin, Shik [RIKEN/SPring-8, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Oshima, Masaharu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Organization, University of Tokyo, Koto, Shingu-cho, Tatsuno, Hyogo 679-5165 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    An extremely high resolution flat field type slit less soft x-ray emission spectrometer has been designed and constructed for the long undulator beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8. By optimizing the ruling parameters of two cylindrical gratings, a high energy resolution {Delta}E < 100 meV and/or an E/{Delta}E{approx} 10 000 are expected for the energy range of 350 eV - 750 eV taking into account the broadening by the spatial resolution (25 {mu}m) of a CCD detector. A coma-free operation mode proposed by Strocov et al., is also applied to eliminate both defocus and coma aberrations. The spectrometer demonstrated experimentally that E/{Delta}E= 10 050 and 8046 for N 1s (402.1 eV) and Mn 2p (641.8 eV) edges, respectively.

  7. Multi-Color Soft X-Ray Measurements of Te in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, C.; Fonck, R. J.; Lawson, R.; Thorson, T.

    2001-10-01

    The central electron temperature, Te(0), of the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment is a key measurement for evaluating plasma quality, constraining equilibrium reconstructions, and monitoring RF heating. Te(0,t) is determined by two-color broadband spectroscopy of the soft X-ray continuum. Decreased sensitivity at lower plasma temperature limits this method to determining the central Te. Analysis of impurity line intensities supplements this method by using the ratio of intensities at specific wavelengths. This ratio estimates relative concentrations of ionized states of an impurity, which infer Te(0). The Pegasus prototype system contains six photodiodes, four for the impurity lines of CIV, CV, OVI, and OVII, while the other two employ 2- and 3- mil thick Be filters for continuum measurements. The expected range of Te(0) is 100 to 500 eV with a target time resoltion of 0.5ms. The accuracy will be checked independently using a soft X-ray pulse height analysis method employing a CCD detector.

  8. Progress report on the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2016-04-01

    We describe the initial in-orbit operations and performance of the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS). Astro-H, JAXA's sixth X-ray observatory, is scheduled for launch on February 12, 2016, from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan abord an H-IIA rocket. The instrument is based on a 36-pixel array of microcalorimeters designed for high resolution over the 0.3-12 keV energy band at the focus of a high throughput, grazing-incidence x-ray mirror. The instrument is the result of a joint collaboration between the JAXA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and many partners in Japan, and the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and collaborators in the US. The principal components of the spectrometer are the microcalorimeter detector system, a low-temperature anticoincidence detector, a 3-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to maintain 50 mK operation under both cryogen and cryogen-free operation, a hybrid liquid helium/cryogen-free dewar with both Stirling and Joule-Thomson coolers, electronics for reading out the array, processing the x-ray data for spectroscopy, and operating the ADR and cryocoolers. The dewar is closed out by an aperture system with five thin-film filters designed to provide high x-ray transmission with low heat loads to the dewar and detector system, and prevent contamination from condensing on the filters. The instrument was designed to have better than 7 eV energy resolution, and was demonstrated to achieve 4-5 eV resolution across the array at the full spacecraft level of integration during extensive ground testing prior to launch. The overall cooling chain has been designed to provide a lifetime of at least 3 years in orbit, and continue to operate without liquid helium to provide redundancy and the longest operational lifetime for the instrument. In this presentation, we will describe the early phases of the SXS instrument in orbit and provide a sense of the astronomical results that can be expected. This presentation is

  9. Applications of a table-top time-resolved luminescence spectrometer with nanosecond soft X-ray pulse excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Fidler, V.; Benedikt, P.; Čuba, V.; Gbur, T.; Boháček, Pavel; Nikl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2014), s. 448-451 ISSN 0018-9499 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : LiCaAlF 6 * luminescence * scintillators * soft x-ray * SrHfO 3 * time-resolved spectroscopy * ZnO :Ga Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2014

  10. Soft X-ray emission studies of biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurmaev, E.Z. E-mail: kurmaev@ifmlrs.uran.ru; Werner, J.P.; Moewes, A.; Chiuzbaian, S.; Bach, M.; Ching, W.-Y.; Motozaki, W.; Otsuka, T.; Matsuya, S.; Endo, K.; Neumann, M

    2004-07-01

    Soft X-ray fluorescence measurements are used to characterize three groups of biomaterials: Vitamin B{sub 12} and derivatives, antioxidants (aspirin and paracetamol), and human teeth. We show that the chemical bonding in Vitamin B{sub 12} is characterized by the strong Co-C bond and the relatively weak Co-N bond. The Co-C bond in cyanocobalamin is found to be stronger than that of methylcobalamin leading to their different biological activity. The chemical bonding of paracetamol and aspirin is characterized by the formation of oxygen lone-pair {pi}-orbitals, which can neutralize free radicals and therefore be related to antioxidant activity of these compounds. Carbon K{alpha} emission spectra of a caries lesion suggest that the CaCO{sub 3} like phase exists in sound enamel and that a selective loss of carbonate occurs during the early stages of a caries attack.

  11. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  12. Imaging performance and tests of soft x-ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiller, E.; McCorkle, R.; Wilczynski, J. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Golub, L.; Nystrom, G. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA)); Takacz, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Welch, C. (Lockheed Missile and Space Co., Las Cruces, NM (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Photos obtained during 5 min. of observation time from the flight of our 10 in. normal incidence soft x-ray ({lambda} = 63.5{Angstrom}) telescope on September 11, 1989 are analyzed and the data are compared to the results expected from tests of the mirror surfaces. These tests cover a range of spatial periods from 25 cm to 1{Angstrom}. The photos demonstrate a reduction in the scattering of the multilayer mirror compared to a single surface for scattering angles above 1 arcmin, corresponding to surface irregularities with spatial periods below 10 {mu}m. Our results are used to predict the possible performance of future flights. Sounding rocket observations might be able to reach a resolution around 0.1 arcsec. Higher resolutions will require flights of longer durations and improvements in mirror testing for the largest spatial periods. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. 2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing, E-mail: lqxu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Xueqin [Hefei Juneng Electro Physics, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-06-15

    A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.

  14. Magnetic imaging with polarized soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Properties, behavior, and functionalities of magnetic materials are largely determined by microscopic spin textures, particularly their formation into domains, their coupling mechanisms and their dynamic behavior. Advanced characterization tools are prerequisite to fundamentally understand magnetic materials and control spins for novel magnetic applications. Magnetic microscopies allow us to image directly the static and dynamic features of the relevant microscopic magnetization structures in advanced magnetic materials and thus provide detailed and direct insight into underlying physical phenomena. A large variety of magnetic imaging techniques has become available with particular strengths but also certain limitations. Essential features of magnetic microscopies are a high spatial resolution down into the nanometer regime, as this is the fundamental length scale of magnetic exchange interaction and the ultimate length scale in advanced magnetic technologies; magnetic and elemental sensitivity with quantitative capabilities, as the properties of advanced magnetic materials can be tailored by combining various magnetic elements and their magnetic moments; high temporal resolution from the ns to the fs regime to understand the associated spin dynamic processes and the functionality in magnetic devices; tomographic capabilities with nm resolution as new directions in nanoscience and technologies are moving into 3 dim arrangements of spin structures; and interfacial sensitivity as novel ways to control spins harness either the coupling across interfaces in multilayered structures or utilize non-collinear spin arrangements, which often occur from symmetry breaking at surfaces and interfaces. The unique properties of polarized soft x-rays, their abundancy and specific interaction with magnetic materials in form of dichroism effects have triggered the development of various magnetic x-ray imaging techniques. This review will provide an overview of the current state

  15. Hard and soft X-ray spectroscopy of Sm-based heavy-fermion compounds SmFe{sub 4} P{sub 12} and SmOs{sub 4} Sb{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: yamasaki@konan-u.ac.jp; Imada, S.; Higashimichi, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Saita, T.; Miyamachi, T.; Sekiyama, A. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sugawara, H. [Graduate School of Human and Natural Environment Science, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8502 (Japan); Kikuchi, D.; Sato, H. [Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Higashiya, A. [RIKEN, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yabashi, M. [Japan Synchrotron Research Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Tamasaku, K.; Miwa, D.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Suga, S. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    We have carried out soft and hard X-ray spectroscopy of Sm-based filled skutterudites SmFe{sub 4} P{sub 12} and SmOs{sub 4} Sb{sub 12}. Sm 3d-4f resonant photoemission and Sm 3d-4f X-ray absorption spectra suggest that SmOs{sub 4} Sb{sub 12} has much more strongly mixed Sm valence state than SmFe{sub 4} P{sub 12} in the bulk. On the other hand, the Sm trivalent state is dominant on the surface of SmOs{sub 4} Sb{sub 12}.

  16. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  17. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groote, R. P.; Lynch, K. M.; Wilkins, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  18. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  19. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  20. The Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. Scott; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Mitsuda, Kazuhiasa; Ohashi, Takaya; Astro-H/SXS Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    The Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a high spectral resolution, cryogenic x-ray spectrometer that will fly on the Japan/U.S. Astro-H observatory in 2014. The SXS is composed of a 36 pixel, imaging, x-ray calorimeter array that will operate at 0.05 K utilizing a 2-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and a redundant pre-cooler design using both a 40 liter liquid helium tank and a 1.7 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Additional redundant Stirling cycle coolers provide pre-cooling for the (JT) and cool the outer thermal shields for the JT and the helium tank. The detector system, while similar to that flown on Suzaku, is composed of larger 0.81×0.81mm pixels, but has significantly better performance, currently predicted to be better than 4 eV FWHM at 6 keV with 95% quantum efficiency. This instrument is the result of a close collaboration between many institutions in the U.S. and Japan over the last 25 years. Here we will present an overview of the SXS instrument, the SXS cooling system, and recent laboratory improvements to the detector system.

  1. Soft x-ray microscope using Fourier transform holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNulty, I.; Kirz, J.; Jacobsen, C.; Anderson, E.; Howells, M.R.; Rarback, H. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    A Fourier transform holographic microscope with an anticipated resolution of better than 100 nm has been built. Extensive testing of the apparatus has begun. Preliminary results include the recording of interference fringes using 3.6 nm x-rays. The microscope employs a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array of 576 {times} 384 elements. The system is illuminated by soft x-rays from a high brightness undulator. The reference point source is formed by a Fresnel zone plate with a finest outer zone width of 50 nm. Sufficient temporal coherence for hologram formation is obtained by a spherical grating monochromator. The x-ray hologram intensities at the recording plane are to be collected, digitized and reconstructed by computer. Data acquisition is under CAMAC control, while image display and off-line processing takes place on a VAX graphics workstation. Computational models of Fourier transform hologram synthesis, and reconstruction in the presence of noise, have demonstrated the feasibility of numerical methods in two dimensions, and that three-dimensional information is potentially recoverable. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Synoptic IPS and Yohkoh soft X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Rappoport, S.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.; Strong, K.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation measurements of the disturbance factor, g, from October 1991 to October 1992 are used to construct synoptic Carrington maps. These maps, which show the structure of the quiet solar wind, are compared with X-ray Carrington maps from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) instrument. For the period studied the global structure outlined by (weakly) enhanced g-values apparent in the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) maps tend to match the active regions (as shown in the X-ray maps) significantly better than the heliospheric current sheet. Contrary to traditional opinion, which views active regions as magnetically closed structures that do not have any significant impact on the solar wind flow, our results suggest that density fluctuations in the solar wind are significantly enhanced over active regions. These results support the suggestion by Uchida et al. (1992), based on Yohkoh observations of expanding active regions, that active regions play a role in feeding mass into the quiet solar wind.

  3. The Astro-H Soft X-Ray Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Astro-H is led by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with many other institutions including the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Goddard's contributions include two soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs). The telescopes have an effective area of 562 square cm at 1 keV and 425 square cm at 6 keV with an image quality requirement of 1.7 arc-minutes half power diameter (HPD). The engineering model has demonstrated 1.1 arc-minutes HPD error. The design of the SXT is based on the successful Suzaku mission mirrors with some enhancements to improve the image quality. Two major enhancements are bonding the X-ray mirror foils to alignment bars instead of allowing the mirrors to float, and fabricating alignment bars with grooves within 5 microns of accuracy. An engineering model SXT was recently built and subjected to several tests including vibration, thermal, and X-ray performance in a beamline. Several lessons were learned during this testing that will be incorporated in the flight design. Test results and optical performance are discussed, along with a description of the design of the SXT.

  4. ASTRO-H Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos Peter J.; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin

    2011-01-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort. Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors\\ of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keY, currently being fabricated in the X-ray Optics Lab at Goddard Space Flight Center. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 micron, 229 micron, and 305 micron of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 micron nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 micron. Improvements on angular response over the Astro-El/Suzaku mirrors come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. In this paper, we report the results of calibration of the engineering model of SXT (EM), and project the quality of the flight mirrors.

  5. Detectability of Sungrazing Comet Soft X-ray Irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Oh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Originating from the Oort cloud, some comets disappear to impact against the Sun or to split up by strong gravitational force. Then they don't go back to the Oort cloud. They are called sungrazing comets. The comets are detected by sublimation of ices and ejection of gas and dust through solar heat close to the Sun. There exists the charge transfer from heavy ions in the solar wind to neutral atoms in the cometary atmosphere by interaction with the solar wind. Cometary atoms would be excited to high electronic levels and their de-excitation would result in X-ray emission, or it would be scattering of solar X-ray emission by very small cometary grains. We calculated the X-ray emission applying the model suggested by Mendis & Flammer (1984 and Cravens (1997. In our estimation, the sungrazing comet whose nucleus size is about 1 km in radius might be detectable within a distance of 3 solar radius from the sun on soft X-ray solar camera.

  6. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Katsuda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs, based on grating spectrometers onboard XMM-Newton and Chandra, has been revealing a variety of new astrophysical phenomena. Broadened oxygen lines for a northwestern compact knot in SN 1006 clearly show a high oxygen temperature of ~300 keV. The high temperature together with a lower electron temperature (kTe ~ 1 keV can be reasonably interpreted as temperature non-equilibration between electrons and oxygen behind a collisionless shock. An ejecta knot in the Puppis A SNR shows blueshifted line emission by ~ 1500kms-1. The line widths are fairly narrow in contrast to the SN 1006's knot; an upper limit of 0.9 eV is obtained for O VIII Lyα, which translates to an oxygen temperature of kTO < 30 keV. The low temperature suggests that the knot was heated by a reverse shock whose velocity is 4 times slower than that of a forward shock. Anomalous intensity ratios in O VII Heα lines, i.e., a stronger forbidden line than a resonance line, is found in a cloud-shock interaction region in Puppis A. The line ratio can be best explained by the charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. There are several other targets for which we plan to analyze high-quality grating data prior to the operation of the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard Astro-H.

  7. High resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy of water and aqueous ions using the micro-jet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Kathrin M.; Koennecke, Rene; Ghadimi, Samira; Golnak, Ronny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, c/o BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Soldatov, Mikhail A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, c/o BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu 344090 (Russian Federation); Hodeck, Kai F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, c/o BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Soldatov, Alexander [Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, Sorge 5, Rostov-na-Donu 344090 (Russian Federation); Aziz, Emad F., E-mail: Emad.Aziz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, c/o BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, FB Physik, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Soft X-ray absorption (XA) and emission (XE) spectroscopy is a powerful method for probing the local electronic structure of light elements (e.g. C, O, N, S) and transition metals, which are all of importance for biochemical systems. Here, we report for the first time on the XE spectra of a liquid micro-jet sample in a vacuum environment. We developed a high resolution X-ray emission spectrometer and recorded the spectra of pure water in full agreement with those of the literature, as well as of an aqueous solution of NiCl{sub 2}. For the latter system, ground state Hartree-Fock calculations using a self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) approach were carried out to specify the nature of the d-occupied orbital. Our results confirm the dark-channel-fluorescence-yield mechanism that we recently proposed for the case of metal ions in aqueous solutions. The ability to record absorption and emission spectra of an aqueous liquid-jet opens the way for the study of biochemical systems in physiological media. - Abstract: Soft X-ray absorption (XA) and emission (XE) spectroscopy is a powerful method for probing the local electronic structure of light elements (e.g. C, O, N, S) and transition metals, which are all of importance for biochemical systems. Here, we report for the first time on the XE spectra of a liquid micro-jet sample in a vacuum environment. We developed a high resolution X-ray emission spectrometer and recorded the spectra of pure water in full agreement with those of the literature, as well as of an aqueous solution of NiCl{sub 2}. For the latter system, ground state Hartree-Fock calculations using a self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) approach were carried out to specify the nature of the d-occupied orbital. Our results confirm the dark-channel-fluorescence-yield mechanism that we recently proposed for the case of metal ions in aqueous solutions. The ability to record absorption and emission spectra of an aqueous liquid-jet opens the

  8. Design and construction of a Fourier transform soft x-ray interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spring, John A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Helium, with its two electrons and one nucleus, is a three-body system. One of the models for investigating correlated electron motion in this system is autoionization, produced via double excitation of the electrons. Predictions about the autoionization spectrum of helium have differed from each other and from preliminary experimental data. However, previous experiments have not been able to distinguish among the theoretical predictions because their energy resolution is not high enough to resolve the narrow linewidths of quasi-forbidden peaks and the resonances that appear in the highest excited states. Consequently, a team of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have embarked on a project for building a high-resolution Fourier-Transform Soft X-ray (or VUV) interferometer (FTSX) to provide definitive data to answer remaining questions about the autoionization spectrum of helium. The design and construction of this interferometer is described in detail below, including the use of a flexure stage to provide the large path length difference necessary for high resolution measurements, the manufacture of x-ray beamsplitters, a description of the software, and the solution to the problems of stick-slip, vibration, and alignment. Current progress of its development is also described, as well as future goals.

  9. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  10. Soft x-ray generation in gases with an ultrashort pulse laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditmire, Todd Raymond [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-01-08

    An experimental investigation of soft x-ray production resulting from the interaction of intense near infra-red laser radiation with gases is presented in this thesis. Specifically, soft x-ray generation through high order harmonic generation or exploiting intense inverse bremsstrahlung heating is examined. Most of these studies are conducted with femtosecond, terawatt class Cr:LiSrAlF6 (LiSAF) laser, though results derived from studies with other laser systems are presented as well. The majority of this work is devoted to experimental investigations, however, theoretical and computational models are developed to interpret the data. These studies are motivated by the possibility of utilizing the physics of intense laser/matter interactions as a potential compact source of bright x-rays. Consequently, the thrust of many of the experiments conducted is aimed at characterizing the x-rays produced for possible use in applications. In general, the studies of this manuscript fall into three categories. First, a unique 130 fs, 8 TW laser that is based on chirped pulse amplification, is described, and its performance is evaluated. The generation of x-rays through high order harmonics is then discussed with emphasis on characterizing and optimizing harmonic generation. Finally, the generation of strong, incoherent x-ray radiation by the intense irradiation of large (>1,000 atom) clusters in gas jets, is explored. The physics of laser energy absorption by clusters illuminated with intensities of 1015 to 1017 W/cm2 is considered in detail. X-ray spectroscopy of the hot plasmas that result from the irradiation of the clusters is conducted, and energy transport and kinetics issues in these plasmas are discussed.

  11. Soft X-ray transients in the Hertzsprung gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ulrich

    1998-06-01

    We apply the disc instability model for soft X-ray transients to identify system parameters along evolutionary sequences of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) that are consistent with transient behaviour. In particular, we focus on the hitherto neglected group of BHXBs with intermediate-mass giant donor stars. These spend a significant fraction of their X-ray active phase crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Three case B binary sequences with a black hole accretor and 2.5-Msolar initial donor mass are presented in detail. We formulate rules which summarize the behaviour of these sequences and provide an approximate description for case B mass-transfer in intermediate-mass BHXBs. Chiefly, the time-scale of the overall radius expansion is given by the initial donor mass, while the surface appearance is determined by the current donor mass. With these rules we obtain a general overview of transient and persistent behaviour of all intermediate-mass BHXBs by just considering single star sequences of different mass. We find that although systems in the process of crossing the Hertzsprung gap are in general persistently bright, with Eddington or super-Eddington transfer rates, there is a narrow instability strip where transient behaviour is possible. This strip extends over a secondary mass range 2.0<~M_2<~3.5 Msolar. GRO J1655-40 might be such a system. We predict that there are no BHXB transients with (sub)giant donors more massive than 3.5 Msolar, and no neutron star transients in the Hertzsprung gap.

  12. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  13. Sensitivity calibration of surface barrier diodes for soft x-ray observation of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, M.; Shimazu, Y.; Asakura, N.

    1992-01-01

    Relative sensitivities of surface barrier diode detectors used for soft x-ray imaging of plasma emission were calibrated using synchrotron radiation as a calibration source. The variation of responses among 33 detectors against monochromatized light in the soft x-ray region were measured at the calibration beam line BL5B of UVSOR. The response of detectors against pulsed incident radiation (20 μs) was stored and averaged by a boxcar integrator. The calibration factors obtained at this experiment were applied to correct the soft x-ray emission profiles measured from a high-temperature plasma.

  14. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  15. Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, α, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, μ = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in α on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ≈ 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ≈ 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for Δα/α is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in α in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II λ 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on α-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in α at the 3-ppm precision level (1σ confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of α is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of Δα/α at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3σ level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ≈ 2.4018 damped Lyα system

  16. Wide Field-of-View (FOV) Soft X-Ray Imager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Wide Field-of-View (FOV) Soft X-Ray Imager proposes to be a state-of-art instrument with applications for numerous heliospheric and planetary...

  17. A new soft x-ray pulse height analysis array in the HL-2A tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Liu, Yi; Yang, J W; Song, X Y; Liao, M; Li, X; Yuan, G L; Yang, Q W; Duan, X R; Pan, C H

    2009-12-01

    A new soft x-ray pulse height analysis (PHA) array including nine independent subsystems, on basis of a nonconventional software multichannel analysis system and a silicon drift detector (SDD) linear array consisting of nine high performance SDD detectors, has been developed in the HL-2A tokamak. The use of SDD has greatly improved the measurement accuracy and the spatiotemporal resolutions of the soft x-ray PHA system. Since the ratio of peak to background counts obtained from the SDD PHA system is very high, p/b > or = 3000, the soft x-ray spectra measured by the SDD PHA system can approximatively be regarded as electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution can be well derived in the pure ohmic and auxiliary heating discharges. The performance of the new soft x-ray PHA array and the first experimental results with some discussions are presented.

  18. Observation of fs-laser spallative ablation using soft X-ray laser probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikino, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tomita, Takuro; Minami, Yasuo; Eyama, Takashi; Kakimoto, Naoya; Izutsu, Rui; Baba, Motoyoshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Suemoto, Tohru

    2017-03-01

    The initial stages of femtosecond laser ablation of gold were observed by single-shot soft X-ray laser interferometer and reflectometer. The ablation front surface and the spallation shell dome structure were observed from the results of the soft X-ray interferogram, reflective image, and shadowgraph. The formation and evolution of soft X-ray Newton's rings (NRs) were found by reflective imaging at the early stages of the ablation dynamics. The soft X-ray NRs are caused by the interference between the bulk ablated surface and nanometer-scale thin spallation layer. The spallation layer was kept at the late timing of the ablation dynamics, and the height of that reached over 100 μm. The temporal evolution of the bulk ablated surface was observed in the ablation dynamics. From these results, we have succeeded in obtaining the temporal evolution of the ablation front exfoliated from the gold surface.

  19. Soft X-ray Absorbers Enabling Study of the Diffuse X-ray Background Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Absorbers for soft x-rays need to be made thinner and with larger area, to collect more photons, and with minimal number of support stems. However, the structure is...

  20. Soft X-ray and cathodoluminescence measurement, optimisation and analysis at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, C. M.; Wilson, N. C.; Torpy, A.; Delle Piane, C.

    2018-01-01

    Advances in field emission gun electron microprobes have led to significant gains in the beam power density and when analysis at high resolution is required then low voltages are often selected. The resulting beam power can lead to damage and this can be minimised by cooling the sample down to cryogenic temperatures allowing sub-micrometre imaging using a variety of spectrometers. Recent advances in soft X-ray emission spectrometers (SXES) offer a spectral tool to measure both chemistry and bonding and when combined with spectral cathodoluminescence the complementary techniques enable new knowledge to be gained from both mineral and materials. Magnesium and aluminium metals have been examined at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures by SXES and the L-emission Fermi-edge has been observed to sharpen at the lower temperatures directly confirming thermal broadening of the X-ray spectra. Gains in emission intensity and resolution have been observed in cathodoluminescence for liquid nitrogen cooled quartz grains compared to ambient temperature quartz. This has enabled subtle growth features at quartz to quartz-cement boundaries to be imaged for the first time.

  1. The soft X-ray absorption spectrum of the allyl free radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagia, M; Bodo, E; Decleva, P; Falcinelli, S; Ponzi, A; Richter, R; Stranges, S

    2013-01-28

    The first experimental study of the X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of the allyl free radical, CH(2)CHCH(2), is reported. A supersonic He seeded beam of hyperthermal allyl radicals was crossed by a high resolution synchrotron radiation (SR) in the focus of a 3D ion momentum imaging time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer to investigate the soft X-ray absorption and fragmentation processes. The XAS, recorded as Total-Ion-Yield (TIY), is dominated by C1s electron excitations from either the central carbon atom, C(C), or the two terminal carbon atoms, C(T), to the frontier orbitals, the semi-occupied-molecular-orbital (SOMO) and the lowest-unoccupied-molecular-orbital (LUMO). All of the intense features in the XAS could only be assigned with the aid of ab initio spectral simulation at the Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent-Field (MCSCF) level of theory, this level being required because of the multi-reference nature of the core-excited state wavefunctions of the open shell molecule. The ionization energies (IEs) of the singlet and triplet states of the C1s ionized allyl radical (XPS) were also calculated at the MCSCF level.

  2. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubor, Nenad M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  3. Reabsorption of soft x-ray emission at high x-ray free-electron laser fluences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G; Segtnan, Vegard H; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan P; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2014-10-10

    We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

  4. Soft-X-ray ARPES facility at the ADRESS beamline of the SLS: concepts, technical realisation and scientific applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strocov, V N; Wang, X; Shi, M; Kobayashi, M; Krempasky, J; Hess, C; Schmitt, T; Patthey, L

    2014-01-01

    Soft-X-ray angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) with photon energies around 1 keV combines the momentum space resolution with increasing probing depth. The concepts and technical realisation of the new soft-X-ray ARPES endstation at the ADRESS beamline of SLS are described. The experimental geometry of the endstation is characterized by grazing X-ray incidence on the sample to increase the photoyield and vertical orientation of the measurement plane. The vacuum chambers adopt a radial layout allowing most efficient sample transfer. High accuracy of the angular resolution is ensured by alignment strategies focused on precise matching of the X-ray beam and optical axis of the analyzer. The high photon flux of up to 10(13) photons s(-1) (0.01% bandwidth)(-1) delivered by the beamline combined with the optimized experimental geometry break through the dramatic loss of the valence band photoexcitation cross section at soft-X-ray energies. ARPES images with energy resolution up to a few tens of meV are typically acquired on the time scale of minutes. A few application examples illustrate the power of our advanced soft-X-ray ARPES instrumentation to explore the electronic structure of bulk crystals with resolution in three-dimensional momentum, access buried heterostructures and study elemental composition of the valence states using resonant excitation.

  5. X-ray Chirped Pulse Amplification: towards GW Soft X-ray Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fajardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive modeling of the seeding of plasma-based soft X-ray lasers is reported in this article. Seminal experiments on amplification in plasmas created from solids have been studied in detail and explained. Using a transient collisional excitation scheme, we show that a 18 µJ, 80 fs fully coherent pulse is achievable by using plasmas pumped by a compact 10 Hz laser. We demonstrate that direct seeding of plasmas created by nanosecond lasers is not efficient. Therefore, we propose and fully study the transposition to soft X-rays of the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA technique. Soft X-ray pulses with energy of 6 mJ and 200 fs duration are reachable by seeding plasmas pumped by compact 100 J, sub-ns, 1 shot/min lasers. These soft X-ray lasers would reach GW power, corresponding to an increase of 100 times as compared to the highest peak power achievable nowadays in the soft X-ray region (30 eV–1 keV. X-ray CPA is opening new horizon for soft x-ray ultra-intense sources.

  6. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  7. Mechanism of cellular secretion studied by high resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Jr., Billy W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, Davis, and San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Meyer-Ilse, W [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for X-ray Optics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Rothman, S S [Univ. of California, Berkeley and San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The secretion of proteins is a fundamental cellular process. The physical and biochemical mechanisms that underlie this process have been studied with the view that they can serve as a general model for how cells transport many different substances to and through their various compartments and to the external environment. In this work, the authors study the secretion of digestive enzymes by the acinar cell of the mammalian pancreas. This is the classical system for studying such processes. The proteins that digest food are stored in approximately micrometer sized vesicles, zymogen granules, within these cells. There are two explanations for how these proteins are transported from within the granules to the exterior of the cell during the process of secretion. One proposes that whole granules are lost from the cell in discrete events, and the other proposes that partial and gradual emptying of the granules accounts for protein secretion. Of course, both mechanisms may occur. The authors are attempting to assess to what degree each of these mechanisms account for protein secretion by the organ. In order to do so, the authors have been determining whether physical changes in the granules, such as mass loss, occur during secretion as the second model predicts, or if there is a simple reduction in the number of granules as predicted by the first model.

  8. Optical Analysis of an Ultra-High resolution Two-Mirror Soft X-Ray Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, Cheng; Hoover, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    This work has summarized for a Schwarzschild microscope some relationships between numerical aperture (NA), magnification, diameter of the primary mirror, radius of curvature of the secondary mirror, and the total length of the microscope. To achieve resolutions better than a spherical Schwarzschild microscope of 3.3 Lambda for a perfectly aligned and fabricated system. it is necessary to use aspherical surfaces to control higher-order aberrations. For an NA of 0.35, the aspherical Head microscope provides diffraction limited resolution of 1.4 Lambda where the aspherical surfaces differ from the best fit spherical surface by approximately 1 micrometer. However, the angle of incidence varies significantly over the primary and the secondary mirrors, which will require graded multilayer coatings to operate near peak reflectivities. For higher numerical apertures, the variation of the angle of incidence over the secondary mirror surface becomes a serious problem which must be solved before multilayer coatings can be used for this application. Tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has shown that water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance for operations with 130 A radiation. Surface contour errors have been shown to have a significant impact on the MTF and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror.

  9. Raman and fluorescence contributions to the resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, F.; Fujiwara, H.; Berner, G.; Yamasaki, A.; Niwa, H.; Kiuchi, H.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Gabel, J.; Kirilmaz, O.; Sekiyama, A.; Miyawaki, J.; Harada, Y.; Suga, S.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Ti 3 d carriers at the interface of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures by high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS), with special focus on the roles of overlayer thickness and oxygen vacancies. Our measurements show the existence of interfacial Ti 3 d electrons already below the critical thickness for conductivity. The (total) interface charge carrier density increases up to a LaAlO3 overlayer thickness of 6 unit cells before it levels out. Furthermore, we observe strong Ti 3 d charge carrier doping by oxygen vacancies. The RIXS data combined with photoelectron spectroscopy and transport measurements indicate the simultaneous presence of localized and itinerant charge carriers. At variance with previous interpretations, we show that in our excitation energy dependent RIXS measurements the amounts of localized and itinerant Ti 3 d electrons in the ground state do not scale with the intensities of the Raman and fluorescence peaks, respectively. Rather, we attribute the observation of either Raman components or fluorescence signal to the specific nature of the intermediate state reached in the RIXS excitation process.

  10. 3D chemical mapping: application of scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) in combination with angle-scan tomography in bio-, geo-, and environmental sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, Martin; Schmid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of environmental processes and mechanisms often requires information on the organochemical and inorganic composition of specimens at high spatial resolution. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) performed in the soft X-ray range (100-2,200 eV) provides chemical speciation information for elements that are of high biogeochemical relevance such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but also includes transition metals such as iron, manganese, or nickel. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combines XAS with high resolution mapping on the 20-nm scale. This provides two-dimensional (2D) quantitative information about the distribution of chemical species such as organic macromolecules, metals, or mineral phases within environmental samples. Furthermore, the combination of STXM with angle-scan tomography allows for three-dimensional (3D) spectromicroscopic analysis of bio-, geo-, or environmental samples. For the acquisition of STXM tomography data, the sample is rotated around an axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Various sample preparation approaches such as stripes cut from TEM grids or the preparation of wet cells allow for preparing environmentally relevant specimens in a dry or in a fully hydrated state for 2D and 3D STXM measurements. In this chapter we give a short overview about the principles of STXM, its application to environmental sciences, different preparation techniques, and the analysis and 3D reconstruction of STXM tomography data.

  11. Interferometer-controlled soft X-ray scanning photoemission microscope at SOLEIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, José; Razado-Colambo, Ivy; Lorcy, Stephane; Giorgetta, Jean-Luc; Polack, François; Asensio, Maria C.

    2013-03-01

    ANTARES beamline (BL), a new soft X-ray scanning photoemission microscope located at the SOLEIL synchrotron storage ring has been recently designed, built and commissioned. The implemented interferometer control allows the accurate measurement of the transverse position of the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) relative to the sample. An effective sample position feedback has been achieved during experiments in static mode, with a fixed FZP position required to perform nano Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Nano-ARPES) measurements. Likewise, long-term stability has been attained for the FZP position relative to the sample during the translation of the FZP when performing typical X-ray absorption experiments around the absorption edges of light elements. Moreover, a fully automatic feedback digital control of the interferometric system provides extremely low orthogonal distortion of the recorded two-dimensional images. The microscope is diffraction limited with the resolution set to several tens of nanometers by the quality of the zone plates. Details on the design of the interferometric system and a brief description of the first commissioning results are presented here.

  12. Investigation of electronic order using resonant soft X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlappa, J.

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this PhD work was the application of resonant soft X-ray diffraction technique for the investigation of electronic order in transition metal oxides at the TM L{sub 2,3}-edge, trying to obtain a quantitative understanding of the data. The method was first systematically explored through application to a model system in order to test the feasibility of the technique and to understand of how X-ray optical effects have to be taken into account. Two more complex systems were investigated; stripe order in La{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}NiO{sub 4} and charge and orbital order in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The main focus of the work was on the spectroscopic potential of the technique, trying to obtain a level of quantitative description of the data. For X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) from transition metal oxides, cluster configuration interaction calculation provides a powerful and realistic microscopic theory. In the frame work of this thesis cluster theory, considering explicit hybridization effects between the TM-ion and the surrounding oxygen ligands, has been applied for the first time to describe resonant diffraction data. (orig.)

  13. High resolution spectroscopy of the disk chromosphere. I - Observing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J. M.; Mauter, H. A.; Mann, G. R.; Brown, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Review of some of the main features of a high resolution spectroscopy program aimed at the precise photometric observation of chromospheric fine structures using the Sacramento Peak vacuum telescope. The observing procedures are described, and a sample of the first observational results is presented.

  14. Soft X-Ray Second Harmonic Generation as an Interfacial Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R. K.; Raj, S. L.; Pascal, T. A.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Foglia, L.; Simoncig, A.; Fabris, N.; Miotti, P.; Hull, C. J.; Rizzuto, A. M.; Smith, J. W.; Mincigrucci, R.; Masciovecchio, C.; Gessini, A.; Allaria, E.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Roussel, E.; Spampinati, S.; Penco, G.; Di Mitri, S.; Trovò, M.; Danailov, M.; Christensen, S. T.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Coreno, M.; Poletto, L.; Drisdell, W. S.; Prendergast, D.; Giannessi, L.; Principi, E.; Nordlund, D.; Saykally, R. J.; Schwartz, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes at soft x-ray wavelengths have remained largely unexplored due to the lack of available light sources with the requisite intensity and coherence. Here we report the observation of soft x-ray second harmonic generation near the carbon K edge (˜284 eV ) in graphite thin films generated by high intensity, coherent soft x-ray pulses at the FERMI free electron laser. Our experimental results and accompanying first-principles theoretical analysis highlight the effect of resonant enhancement above the carbon K edge and show the technique to be interfacially sensitive in a centrosymmetric sample with second harmonic intensity arising primarily from the first atomic layer at the open surface. This technique and the associated theoretical framework demonstrate the ability to selectively probe interfaces, including those that are buried, with elemental specificity, providing a new tool for a range of scientific problems.

  15. Soft X-Ray Second Harmonic Generation as an Interfacial Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, R. K.; Raj, S. L.; Pascal, T. A.; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Foglia, L.; Simoncig, A.; Fabris, N.; Miotti, P.; Hull, C. J.; Rizzuto, A. M.; Smith, J. W.; Mincigrucci, R.; Masciovecchio, C.; Gessini, A.; Allaria, E.; De Ninno, G.; Diviacco, B.; Roussel, E.; Spampinati, S.; Penco, G.; Di Mitri, S.; Trovò, M.; Danailov, M.; Christensen, S. T.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T. -C.; Coreno, M.; Poletto, L.; Drisdell, W. S.; Prendergast, D.; Giannessi, L.; Principi, E.; Nordlund, D.; Saykally, R. J.; Schwartz, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    Nonlinear optical processes at soft x-ray wavelengths have remained largely unexplored due to the lack of available light sources with the requisite intensity and coherence. Here we report the observation of soft x-ray second harmonic generation near the carbon K edge (~284 eV) in graphite thin films generated by high intensity, coherent soft x-ray pulses at the FERMI free electron laser. Our experimental results and accompanying first-principles theoretical analysis highlight the effect of resonant enhancement above the carbon K edge and show the technique to be interfacially sensitive in a centrosymmetric sample with second harmonic intensity arising primarily from the first atomic layer at the open surface. This technique and the associated theoretical framework demonstrate the ability to selectively probe interfaces, including those that are buried, with elemental specificity, providing a new tool for a range of scientific problems.

  16. The stellar contribution to the galactic soft X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Avni, Y.; Bookbinder, J.; Giacconi, R.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Maxson, C. W.; Topka, K.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    Log N-log S relations for stars are constructed based on median X-ray luminosities for dF, dG, and dK stars previously reported for the Einstein Observatory/Center for Astrophysics stellar survey and on a detailed X-ray luminosity function derived here for dM stars, and the stellar contribution to the diffuse soft X-ray background is investigated. The principal results are that stars provide approximately 20% of the soft X-ray background in the 0.28-1.0 keV passband and therefore contribute significantly to the soft X-ray background in this energy range (with dM stars constituting the dominant contributing class), and that the stellar contribution to the diffuse X-ray background in the 0.15-0.28 keV passband is less than approximately 3%.

  17. Debris-free soft x-ray source with gas-puff target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qiliang; Chen, Bo; Gong, Yan; Cao, Jianlin; Lin, Jingquan; Lee, Hongyan

    2001-12-01

    We have been developing a debris-free laser plasma light source with a gas-puff target system whose nozzle is driven by a piezoelectric crystal membrane. The gas-puff target system can utilize gases such as CO2, O2 or some gas mixture according to different experiments. Therefore, in comparison with soft X-ray source using a metal target, after continuously several-hour laser interaction with gas from the gas-puff target system, no evidences show that the light source can produce debris. The debris-free soft X-ray source is prepared for soft X-ray projection lithography research at State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics. Strong emission from CO2, O2 and Kr plasma is observed.

  18. The soft X-ray polychromator for the Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Finch, M. L.; Gilbreth, C. W.; Culhane, J. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Bowles, J. A.; Guttridge, P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Firth, J. G.; Hayes, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the soft X-ray polychromator (XRP) operating in the 1.4-22.4 A range of the soft X-ray spectrum which includes many emission lines important for the diagnosis of plasmas in the 1.5-50 million deg temperature range. The flat crystal scanning spectrometer provides for a channel polychromatic mapping of flares and active regions in the resonance lines of O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI; in its spectral scanning mode it covers essentially the entire 1.4-22.5 A region.

  19. The Soft X-ray Research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakovski, Georgi L., E-mail: dakovski@slac.stanford.edu; Heimann, Philip; Holmes, Michael [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Krupin, Oleg [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); European XFEL, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Rowen, Michael; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-02

    A description of the Soft X-ray Research instrument (SXR) at the Linac Coherent Light Source is given. Recent scientific highlights illustrate the wide variety of experiments and detectors that can be accommodated at SXR. The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280–2000 eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials, magnetism, surface science, and matter under extreme conditions. A brief description of the main instrument components will be given, followed by some selected scientific highlights.

  20. Studying Nanoscale Magnetism and its Dynamics with Soft X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Monnikue M; Fischer, Peter

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy allows for imaging magnetic structures at a spatial resolution down to 15nm and a time resolution in the sub-100ps regime. Inherent elemental specificity can be used to image the magnetic response of individual components such as layers in multilayered systems. This review highlights current achievements and discusses the future potential of magnetic soft X-ray microscopy at fsec X-ray sources where snapshot images of ultrafast spin dynamics with a spatial resolution below 10nm will become feasible.

  1. PLD fabrication of a soft X-ray multilayer mirror and LPP reflectance test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, I.; Lewis, C. L. S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Warwick, P. J.; Jordan, R.; Lunney, J. G.

    1998-05-01

    A soft X-ray mirror based on a molybdenum-silicon (Mo/Si) multilayer structure has been fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The multilayer was designed to reflect at 196 Å for normal incidence operation. An iterative graphical procedure was used to calculate the optimum periodic multilayer structure. The normal incidence reflectance of the multilayer was determined using a continuum source of soft X-rays from a laser-produced plasma (LPP). The multilayer peak reflectance was 7.3% at 190 Å, with the magnitude of reflectance consistent with an effective interfacial roughness within the structure equal to ˜15 Å.

  2. An in-vacuum diffractometer for resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorn, D. G.; He, F.; Davis, H.; Achkar, A. J.; Zhang, J.; Sutarto, R.; Wadati, H.; Radi, A.; Wilson, T.; Wright, G.; Shen, K. M.; Geck, J.; Zhang, H.; Novak, V.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Venema, L.C.

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of a 4-circle in-vacuum diffractometer for resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering. The diffractometer, installed on the resonant elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at the Canadian Light Source, includes 9 in-vacuum motions driven by

  3. Improved resolution for soft-x-ray monochromatization using lamellar multilayer gratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, R.; Krishnan, B.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.; de Boer, Meint J.; Vratzov, B.; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Huskens, Jurriaan; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Hegeman, P.E.; Brons, G.C.S.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Morawe, Christian; Khounsary, Ali M.; Goto, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    Lamellar Multilayer Gratings (LMG) offer improved resolution for soft-x-ray (SXR) monochromatization, while maintaining a high reflection efficiency in comparison to conventional multilayer mirrors (MM). We previously used a Coupled-Waves Approach (CWA) to calculate SXR diffraction by LMGs and

  4. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright Quasar 3C273

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    By encouraging this discovery, we try to analyze the four ROSAT PSPC data sets of. 3C273 which were not included in the investigation by Leach et al. (1995) in order to search any periodic long-term soft X-ray variation. We present the observation in section 2, an analysis and the results in section 3, and discussion and ...

  5. Electron Velocity Distributions Measured with Soft-X-Ray PHA at RTP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Cruz, D. F.; Meijer, J. H.; Donne, A. J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A soft x-ray pulse height analysis (PHA) system is begin used at the Rijhuizen Tokamak Project to study the electron velocity distribution. A liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector is used to view the plasma along a tangential line of sight. A gas cell in combination with Al foils is used for

  6. Development of Compact Soft X-ray Source Based on Laser Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, S; Saitô, T; Ueyama, D; Washio, Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on backward Compton scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser and 4 MeV high quality electron beam generated from rf gun system. The range of energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein’s coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. As a preliminary experiment, about 300 eV X-ray generation was carried out. As next step, soft X-ray optics with zone plate was proposed for Soft X-ray microscopy. In this conference, we will report details and results of the experiment.

  7. Turning solid aluminium transparent by intense soft X-ray photoionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagler, B.; Zastrau, U.; Faustlin, R. R.; Vinko, S. M.; Whitcher, T.; Nelson, A. J.; Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Chalupsky, J.; Abreu, E.; Bajt, S.; Bornath, T.; Burian, T.; Chapman, H.; Cihelka, J.; Doppner, T.; Duesterer, S.; Dzelzainis, T.; Fajardo, M.; Forster, E.; Fortmann, C.; Galtier, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gode, S.; Gregori, G.; Hajkova, V.; Heimann, P.; Juha, L.; Jurek, M.; Khattak, F. Y.; Khorsand, A. R.; Klinger, D.; Kozlova, M.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, R. W.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.; Mercere, P.; Murphy, W. J.; Przystawik, A.; Redmer, R.; Reinholz, H.; Riley, D.; Ropke, G.; Rosmej, F.; Saksl, K.; Schott, R.; Thiele, R.; Tiggesbaumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Uschmann, I.; Vollmer, H. J.; Wark, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Saturable absorption is a phenomenon readily seen in the optical and infrared wavelengths. It has never been observed in core-electron transitions owing to the short lifetime of the excited states involved and the high intensities of the soft X-rays needed. We report saturable absorption of an

  8. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright Quasar 3C273

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 22; Issue 4. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright ... no correlation between them. There is no distinct variation of the photon index in the case of simple power law model fitting. For power law + free absorption model fitting, the average photon index () is 2.08.

  9. Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. P. Singh

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design, Characteristics and Performance. K. P. SINGH1,∗ ... Here, we present an overview of its design, mechanical hardware, electronics, data modes, observational ..... products using the SXT pipeline software. The pipeline requires Level-1 data files and ...

  10. Deexcitation Dynamics of Superhydrogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations after Soft-x-Ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Geert; Boschman, Leon; Deuzeman, Mart Johan; Gonzalez Magana, Olmo; Hoekstra, Steven; Cazaux, Stéphanie; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Schlathölter, Thomas

    We have investigated the response of superhydrogenated gas-phase coronene cations upon soft x-ray absorption. Carbon (1s)⟶π⋆ transitions were resonantly excited at hν =285 eV. The resulting core hole is then filled in an Auger decay process, with the excess energy being released in the form of an

  11. Enhanced Reflectivity of Soft-X-Ray Multilayer Mirrors by Reduction of Si Atomic Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatmann, R.; Keppel, A.; Xue, Y.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Wiel, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We report a significant increase of the reflectivity of a soft x-ray Mo/Si multilayer mirror after low energy hydrogen ion beam bombardment of each of the Si layers after deposition. Cross section transmission electron microscopy pictures indicate no significant qualitative difference in interface

  12. Resonant soft x-ray scattering from stepped surfaces of SrTiO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlappa, J.; Chang, C.F.; Hu, Z.; Schierle, E.; Ott, H.; Weschke, E.; Kaindl, G.; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Tjeng, L.H.; Schüssler-Langeheine, C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the resonant diffraction signal from stepped surfaces of SrTiO3 at the Ti 2p ¿ 3d (L2,3) resonance in comparison with x-ray absorption (XAS) and specular reflectivity data. The steps on the surface form an artificial superstructure suitable as a model system for resonant soft x-ray

  13. Resonant soft x-ray scattering and charge density waves in correlated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusydi, Andrivo

    2006-01-01

    Summary This work describes results obtained on the study of charge density waves (CDW) in strongly correlated systems with a new experimental method: resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The basic motivation is the 1986 discovery by Bednorz and Müler of a new type of superconductor, based on Cu

  14. Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 2. Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design, Characteristics and Performance. K. P. Singh G. C. Stewart N. J. Westergaard S. Bhattacharayya S. Chandra V. R. Chitnis G. C. Dewangan A. T. Kothare I. M. Mirza K. Mukerjee V. Navalkar ...

  15. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of an Individual Catalyst Particle with Soft X-ray Ptychography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, Anna M.; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Kalirai, Samanbir; Farmand, Maryam; Shapiro, David A.; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Fe deposition in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysis is critical for the mitigation of catalyst degradation. Here we employ soft X-ray ptychography to determine at the nanoscale the distribution and chemical state of Fe in an aged FCC catalyst particle. We show that both particle

  16. Generation of intense soft X-rays from capillary discharge plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At Laser Plasma Division, RRCAT, a program on high voltage capillary discharge had been started. The system consists of a 400 kV Marx bank, water line capacitor, spark gap and capillary chamber. The initial results of the emission of intense short soft X-ray pulses (5–10 ns) from the capillary discharge are reported.

  17. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  18. High Resolution-Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy on uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimi, Amin, E-mail: hakimi@uni-mainz.de; Fischbach, Thomas [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Raeder, Sebastian [TRIUMF (Canada); Trautmann, Norbert [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie (Germany); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    High Resolution-Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (HR-RIS) allows for sensitive probing of atomic structures and energy level schemes even for highly complex systems. This work explores the applicability of commercial diode lasers for isotope selective spectroscopy of uranium. Using narrow bandwidth continuous-wave (cw) diode lasers, multi step excitation processes were investigated involving levels which could be populated with the radiation of 405 nm BluRay{sup Copyright-Sign} laser diodes as a first step for ultra trace analysis of uranium.

  19. Soft X-Ray Microimaging of Whole Wet Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, John Richard

    1992-01-01

    analysis of whole wet samples at high resolution.

  20. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  1. Origin of magnetic circular dichroism in soft x-ray fluorescence of Heusler alloys at threshold excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonskikh, M. V.; Yarmoshenko, Yu. M.; Grebennikov, V. I.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Butorin, S. M.; Duda, L.-C.; Nordgren, J.; Plogmann, S.; Neumann, M.

    2001-06-15

    The results of investigations of the Heusler alloys NiMnSb and Co{sub 2}MnSb by magnetic circular dichroism in soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (SXEMCD) are presented. The data obtained are in a good agreement with theoretical calculations of x-ray emission. A very intense resonant inelastic peak in the Mn L{sub 3} spectra in the region of states above the nominal Fermi level was observed and attributed to x-ray reemission. The interplay between the theoretically predicted half-metallic character of the Mn 3d valence band and the Mn L{sub 2},L{sub 3} SXEMCD spectra is discussed.

  2. Soft X-ray photoemission study of nitrogen diffusion in TiN/HfO:N gate stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Gaumer, C.; Lhostis, S. [ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Licitra, C. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 09 (France); Silly, M.; Sirotti, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renault, O. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2012-01-01

    The impact of HfO:N post nitridation anneal (PNA) and gate fabrication on the physico-chemical properties of the TiN/HfO:N/SiO{sub 2}/Si stack are investigated using Soft X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (S-XPS) and Vacuum UltraViolet Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (VUV-SE). Defects created in the high-k during plasma nitridation are passivated by PNA under O{sub 2}. Both oxygen and nitrogen diffusion is observed towards the bottom SiO{sub 2}/Si interface together with a regrowth of the SiO{sub 2}. These defects play a major role regarding nitrogen diffusion during gate fabrication. Without PNA, no diffusion is observed because O and N atoms are trapped inside the high-k. With PNA and simultaneous defects passivation, nitrogen from both metal gate and high-k diffuses towards the bottom SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  3. Soft x-ray scattering using FEL radiation for probing near-solid density plasmas at few electronvolt temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toleikis, S; Faustlin, R R; Cao, L; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gode, S; Gregori, G; Irsig, R; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Li, B; Meiwes-Broer, K; Przystawik, A; Radcliffe, P; Redmer, R; Tavella, F; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Truong, N X; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U; Tschentscher, T

    2009-03-03

    We report on soft x-ray scattering experiments on cryogenic hydrogen and simple metal targets. As a source of intense and ultrashort soft x-ray pulses we have used free-electron laser radiation at 92 eV photon energy from FLASH at DESY, Hamburg. X-ray pulses with energies up to 100 {micro}J and durations below 50 fs provide interaction with the target leading simultaneously to plasma formation and scattering. Experiments exploiting both of these interactions have been carried out, using the same experimental setup. Firstly, recording of soft x-ray inelastic scattering from near-solid density hydrogen plasmas at few electronvolt temperatures confirms the feasibility of this diagnostics technique. Secondly, the soft x-ray excitation of few electronvolt solid-density plasmas in simple metals could be studied by recording soft x-ray line and continuum emission integrated over emission times from fs to ns.

  4. Application of high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy: Vibrational resolved C 1s and O 1s spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foehlisch, A.; Nilsson, A.; Martensson, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    There are various effects which determine the line shape of a core-level electron spectrum. These are due to the finite life-time of the core hole, inelastic scattering of the outgoing photoelectron, electronic shake-up and shake-off processes and vibrational excitations. For free atoms and molecules the different contributions to the observed line shapes can often be well separated. For solids, surfaces and adsorbates the line shapes are in general much broader and it has in the past been assumed that no separation of the various contributions can be made. In the present report the authors will show that this is indeed not the case. Surprisingly, the vibrational fine structure of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) can be resolved in the C 1s and O 1s electron spectra. This was achieved by the combination of highly monochromatized soft X-rays from B18.0 with a high resolution Scienta 200 mm photoelectron spectrometer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with tunable excitation energy yields as a core level spectroscopy atomic and site-specific information. The presented measurements allow for a determination of internuclear distances and potential energy curves in corehole ionized adsorbed molecules. The authors analysis of the c(2x2) phase CO/Ni(100) on {open_quotes}top{close_quotes} yielded a vibrational splitting of 217 +/- 2 meV for C 1s ionization. For O 1s ionization a splitting of 173 +/- 8 meV was found.

  5. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  6. Soft X-ray observations of the supernova remnants HB 3 and 3C 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, C. M. F.; Tuohy, I. R.; Garmire, G. P.

    1980-01-01

    The HEAO 1 A-2 low energy detectors have discovered soft X-ray emission from a source positionally coincident with the supernova remnant HB 3. The flux in the energy range 0.3-2.2 keV is about 6 x 10 to the -11th ergs per sq cm s. The spectral data are fitted to a hydrogen thermal bremsstrahlung model, and the physical parameters of the supernova remnant are estimated. The age derived is about 21,000 years, and the initial blast energy is about 3.1 x 10 to the 50th ergs. Upper limits to the soft X-ray flux and the luminosity of the supernova remnant 3 C 58 are also derived.

  7. The two solar flares diagnostics based on the soft X-ray emission recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Savchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The time history of the temperature and the emission measure of the solar flare plasma have been studied relying upon the experimental data on the soft X-rays recorded by the IRIS spectrometer on June 29, 2002 (F1 and March 27, 2003 (F2. F1 was a thermal flare and was not accompanied by hard X-rays. This data analysis revealed that at least two sequential energy-release processes occurred during the F1 event. The F2 event took place behind the limb, so only the top part of the flare loop being the soft X-ray source was recorded by the satellite-based spectrometer. From this data analysis it appeared that fast plasma heating occurred in the initial stage of F2 and then the flare region expanded and the emission measure of flare plasma increased.

  8. Nanoscale Imaging Using Coherent and Incoherent Laboratory Based Soft X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Dehlinger, A.; Janulewicz, K. A.; Jung, R.; Legall, H.; Pratsch, C.; Seim, C.; Tümmler, J.

    Nanoscale imaging of biological samples in the lab as well as mask inspection in extreme ultraviolet lithography near the production line with sub 30 nm resolution require high spectral brightness soft x-ray sources. Laser produced plasma (LPP) sources and plasma based X-ray lasers (XRL) emit soft X-ray radiation in the wavelength region of interest between 2 and 20 nm. Whereas LPP sources easily can be tuned to the so called water window (2.2-4.4 nm) the output of an XRL is restricted to relatively few fixed wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet range. However due to the relatively high degree of coherence the XRL is well suited also for nanoscale imaging using coherent techniques like coherent diffraction imaging or Fourier transform holography.

  9. Relations Between FUV Excess and Coronal Soft X-Ray Emission Among Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.; Hargrave, Mason; Eckholm, Elliot

    2017-11-01

    The far-ultraviolet magnitudes of late-F, G and early-K dwarfs with (B - V) ⩾ 0.50 as measured by the GALEX satellite are shown to correlate with soft X-ray luminosity. This result indicates that line and continuum emission from stellar active regions make significant contributions to the flux in the GALEX FUV band for late-F, G and K dwarfs. By contrast, detection of a correlation between FUV brightness and soft X-ray luminosity among early-F dwarfs requires subtraction of the photospheric component from the FUV flux. The range in (B - V) among F and G dwarfs over which a correlation between uncorrected FUV magnitude and X-ray luminosity is detected coincides with the range in colour over which coronal and chromospheric emission correlates with stellar rotation.

  10. Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M.

    1996-03-01

    Soft x-ray magneto-optic Kerr rotation has been measured using a continuously tunable multilayer linear polarizer in the beam reflected form samples in applied magnetic fields. Like magnetic circular dichroism, Kerr rotation in the soft x-ray can be element - specific and much larger than in the visible spectral range when the photon energy is tuned near atomic core resonances. Thus sensitive element-specific hysteresis measurements are possible with this technique. Examples showing large Kerr rotation from an Fe film and element-specific hysteresis loops of the Fe and Cr in an Fe/Cr multilayer demonstrate these new capabilities. Some consequences of the strong anomalous dispersion near the FeL{sub 2,3} edges to the Kerr rotation are discussed.

  11. Moving the Frontier of Quantum Control into the Soft X-Ray Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aquila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The femtosecond nature of X-ray free electron laser (FEL pulses opens up exciting research possibilities in time-resolved studies including femtosecond photoemission and diffraction. The recent developments of seeding X-ray FELs extend their capabilities by creating stable, temporally coherent, and repeatable pulses. This in turn opens the possibility of spectral engineering soft X-ray pulses to use as a probe for the control of quantum dynamics. We propose a method for extending coherent control pulse-shaping techniques to the soft X-ray spectral range by using a reflective geometry 4f pulse shaper. This method is based on recent developments in asymmetrically cut multilayer optic technology and piezoelectric substrates.

  12. Reflection of femtosecond pulses from soft X-ray free-electron laser by periodical multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, D.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Faculty of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany); Hendel, S.; Bienert, F.; Sacher, M.D.; Heinzmann, U. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    Recent experiments on a soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) source (FLASH in Hamburg) have shown that multilayers (MLs) can be used as optical elements for highly intense X-ray irradiation. An effort to find most appropriate MLs has to consider the femtosecond time structure and the particular photon energy of the FEL. In this paper we have analysed the time response of 'low absorbing' MLs (e.g. such as La/B{sub 4}C) as a function of the number of periods. Interaction of a pulse train of Gaussian shaped sub-pulses using a realistic ML grown by electron-beam evaporation technique has been analysed in the soft-X-ray range. The structural parameters of the MLs were obtained by reflectivity measurements at BESSY II and subsequent profile fittings. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Magnetic moments in a gadolinium iron garnet studied by soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.; Tjeng, L.H.; Meigs, G.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    The magnetic moments of Gd and Fe in gadolinium iron garnet (Gd3Fe5O12) were probed at 77 and 300 K by soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD) measurements at the GdMa4,5 and at the FeL2,3 absorption edges. The SXMCD signal at each edge allows one to independently determine the magnetic

  14. High numerical aperture tabletop soft x-ray diffraction microscopy with 70-nm resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Richard L.; Song, Changyong; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W.; Raymondson, Daisy A.; Paul, Ariel; Amirbekian, Bagrat; Lee, Edwin; Sakdinawat, Anne E.; La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Marconi, Mario C.; Menoni, Carmen S.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Miao, Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    Light microscopy has greatly advanced our understanding of nature. The achievable resolution, however, is limited by optical wavelengths to ≈200 nm. By using imaging and labeling technologies, resolutions beyond the diffraction limit can be achieved for specialized specimens with techniques such as near-field scanning optical microscopy, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. Here, we report a versatile soft x-ray diffraction microscope with 70- ...

  15. Generation of bright isolated attosecond soft X-ray pulses driven by multicycle midinfrared lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chang; Mancuso, Christopher; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Galloway, Ben; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Huang, Pei-Chi; Walker, Barry; Plaja, Luis; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Becker, Andreas; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2014-06-10

    High harmonic generation driven by femtosecond lasers makes it possible to capture the fastest dynamics in molecules and materials. However, to date the shortest subfemtosecond (attosecond, 10(-18) s) pulses have been produced only in the extreme UV region of the spectrum below 100 eV, which limits the range of materials and molecular systems that can be explored. Here we experimentally demonstrate a remarkable convergence of physics: when midinfrared lasers are used to drive high harmonic generation, the conditions for optimal bright, soft X-ray generation naturally coincide with the generation of isolated attosecond pulses. The temporal window over which phase matching occurs shrinks rapidly with increasing driving laser wavelength, to the extent that bright isolated attosecond pulses are the norm for 2-µm driving lasers. Harnessing this realization, we experimentally demonstrate the generation of isolated soft X-ray attosecond pulses at photon energies up to 180 eV for the first time, to our knowledge, with a transform limit of 35 attoseconds (as), and a predicted linear chirp of 300 as. Most surprisingly, advanced theory shows that in contrast with as pulse generation in the extreme UV, long-duration, 10-cycle, driving laser pulses are required to generate isolated soft X-ray bursts efficiently, to mitigate group velocity walk-off between the laser and the X-ray fields that otherwise limit the conversion efficiency. Our work demonstrates a clear and straightforward approach for robustly generating bright isolated attosecond pulses of electromagnetic radiation throughout the soft X-ray region of the spectrum.

  16. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  17. The Soft X-ray Research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakovski, Georgi L; Heimann, Philip; Holmes, Michael; Krupin, Oleg; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Rowen, Michael; Schlotter, William F; Turner, Joshua J

    2015-05-01

    The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280-2000 eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials, magnetism, surface science, and matter under extreme conditions. A brief description of the main instrument components will be given, followed by some selected scientific highlights.

  18. The Soft X-ray Research instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    OpenAIRE

    Dakovski, Georgi L.; Heimann, Philip; Holmes, Michael; Krupin, Oleg; Michael P. Minitti; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan; Rowen, Michael; Schlotter, William F; Turner, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Research instrument provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses in the energy range 280?2000?eV. A diverse set of experimental stations may be installed to investigate a broad range of scientific topics such as ultrafast chemistry, highly correlated materials, magnetism, surface science, and matter under extreme conditions. A brief description of the main instrument components will be given, followed by some selected scientific highlights.

  19. Microfocusing of soft X-ray undulator light using an elliptically bent cylinder mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, S; Mashima, K; Miyaji, A; Ishiguro, E; Ohashi, H; Tamenori, Y; Okumura, H; Kanashima, T; Ishikawa, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an elliptically bent cylinder mirror, installed in A-branch of the Soft X-ray photochemistry beamline (BL27SU) at the SPring-8, is described. The aim of this branch beamline is to provide a micro white-beam focusing for a need in photochemistry community. This elastically bent mirror is the key component for the extremely intense micro-beam focusing optics.

  20. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  1. Soft x-ray photoemission study of the thermal stability of the Al2O3/Ge (100) interface as a function of surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Rajesh Kumar; Rao Gajula, Durga; McNeill, David; Hughes, Greg

    2013-08-01

    The high temperature thermal stability of ultra-thin atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on sulphur passivated and hydrofluoric acid (HF) treated germanium surfaces was studied using soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The interface sulphur component was stable up to 500 °C vacuum annealing. The interfacial oxides were completely removed at 600 °C for the sulphur passivated sample, whereas HF treated sample showed traces of residual oxides at the interface. However, this annealing treatment does not show any significant change in Al2O3 stoichiometry. The dielectric-semiconductor band offsets were estimated using photoemission spectroscopy measurements.

  2. Nanofabrication of free-standing spectroscopic photon sieves operating in soft x-ray region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Wei, Lai; Li, Hailiang; Cao, Leifeng; Xie, Changqing

    2017-08-01

    A novel design of X-ray spectroscopic photon sieves (SPS) was realized to eliminate the higher diffraction orders. SPS gratings consist of randomly distributed circular holes, forming an approximately sinusoidal transmission function. Due to the intensive absorption of soft X-rays in any known material, these gold nanoholes are free-standing without supporting membrane. For applications in soft X-ray region, a hybrid lithographic method was used to manufacture spectroscopic photon sieves (SPS) of 1000 lines/mm in high throughput. In the fabrication process, an electron beam was focused to write patterns on the membrane substrate to achieve a master mask. Using this mask XRL and gold electroplating were performed to efficiently replicate SPS structures. After that, UVL was used to define the supporting coarse frame. In the replication process of XRL, the deviation of circle patterns caused by overheating problem in exposure has been resolved by inserting appropriate filters in X-ray beam path. The spectrum of X-ray source for exposure can be restricted in the 1.0- 2.0 keV energy band. Therefore, less heat are produced in exposure due to less absorption of higher energy X-rays in resist. After the SPS has been finished, the diffraction pattern was achieved at the soft X-ray beam line on Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The calibration results show that higher-order diffraction orders were efficiently suppressed along the axis of symmetry.

  3. Is optical Fe II emission related to the soft X-ray properties of quasars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Elvis, Martin; McHardy, Ian

    1987-10-01

    Radio-quiet quasars generally show broad, blended multiplets of Fe II emission in their optical and UV spectra. Radio-loud quasars also show UV Fe II emission, but their optical Fe II emission is generally weaker. No satisfactory theory connecting the generation of Fe II and radio emission has been found to explain this effect. A second, well-established distinction between the two clases of quasar is in their X-ray properties: radio-loud quasars are more X-ray luminous, and recent results have shown that they also have systematically flatter soft X-ray slopes. Here it is proposed that the second effect causes the first; i.e., that the primary factor controlling the optical Fe II emission is the soft X-ray spectrum. This proposition is supported by X-ray and optical data for nine quasars, which shows a correlation between the soft X-ray slope and the strength of the optical Fe II emission. One of these quasars (1803+676) is radio-quiet, and yet its optical spectrum shows no evidence for Fe II emission. This quasar is also unusual in that it has a flat X-ray spectrum. This further supports the proposal that the X-ray spectrum is important in determining the relative strengths of UV and optical Fe II emission.

  4. Soft x rays as a tool to investigate radiation-sensitive sites in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, D.J.; Zaider, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is now clear that the initial geometrical distribution of primary radiation products in irradiated biological matter is fundamental to the observed end point (cell killing, mutation induction, chromosome aberrations, etc.). In recent years much evidence has accumulated indicating that for all radiations, physical quantities averaged over cellular dimensions (micrometers) are not good predictors of biological effect, and that energy-deposition processes at the nanometer level are critical. Thus irradiation of cells with soft x rays whose secondary electrons have ranges of the order of nanometers is a unique tool for investigating different models for predicting the biological effects of radiation. We demonstrate techniques whereby the biological response of the cell and the physical details of the energy deposition processes may be separated or factorized, so that given the response of a cellular system to, say, soft x rays, the response of the cell to any other radiation may be predicted. The special advantages of soft x rays for eliciting this information and also information concerning the geometry of the radiation sensitive structures within the cell are discussed.

  5. System Design and Implementation of the Detector Assembly of the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, M. P.; Adams, J.; Goodwin, P.; Hobson, C.W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammom, D.; McGuinness, D. S.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H presents to the science community unprecedented capability (less than 7 eV at 6 keV) for high-resolution spectral measurements in the range of 0.5-12 keV to study extended celestial sources. At the heart of this SXS is the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer (XCS) where detectors (calorimeter array and anticoincidence detector) operate at 50 mK, the bias circuit operates at nominal 1.3 K, and the first stage amplifiers operateat 130 K, all within a nominal 20 cm envelope. The design of the detector assembly in this XCS originates from the Astro-E x-ray spectrometer (XRS) and lessons learned from Astro-E and Suzaku. After the production of our engineering model, additional changes were made in order to improve our flight assembly process for better reliability and overall performance. In this poster, we present the final design and implementation of the flight detector assembly, show comparison of parameters and performance to Suzakus XRS, and list susceptibilities to other subsystems as well as our lessons learned.

  6. Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging with a laser-plasma source and a color center detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, F; Valentini, G; Vozzi, C; Benedetti, E; Cabanillas-Gonzalez, J; Faenov, A; Gasilov, S; Pikuz, T; Poletto, L; Sansone, G; Villoresi, P; Nisoli, M; De Silvestri, S; Stagira, S

    2007-09-01

    Elemental sensitivity in soft x-ray imaging of thin foils with known thickness is observed using an ultrafast laser-plasma source and a LiF crystal as detector. Measurements are well reproduced by a simple theoretical model. This technique can be exploited for high spatial resolution, wide field of view imaging in the soft x-ray region, and it is suitable for the characterization of thin objects with thicknesses ranging from hundreds down to tens of nanometers.

  7. Quasi-phase matching of soft X-ray light from high-order harmonic generation using waveguide structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Emily Abbott

    Ultrafast laser technology has made it possible to achieve extremely high field intensities, above 1018 W/cm2, or alternatively, light pulses with extremely short time durations corresponding to only a few femtoseconds (10-15 s). In this high intensity regime, the laser field energy is comparable to the binding energy of an electron to an atom. One result of this highly non-perturbative atom-light interaction is the process of high-order harmonic generation (HHG). In HHG, the strong laser field first ionizes the atom. The subsequent motion of the free electron is controlled by the oscillating laser field, and the electron can reach kinetic energies many times that of the original binding energy to the atom. The high energy electron can then recollide with its parent ion, releasing a high energy photon. This process occurs for many atoms driven coherently by the same laser field, resulting in a coherent, laser-like beam of ultrafast light spanning the ultraviolet to soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. In this thesis, I will present two major breakthroughs in the field of high harmonic generation. First, I will discuss work on quasi-phase matching of high harmonic generation, which has allowed increased conversion efficiency of high harmonic light up to the water window region of the soft X-ray spectrum (˜300 eV) for the first time.[31] This spectral region is significant because at these photon energies, water is transparent while carbon strongly absorbs, making it a useful light source for very high resolution contrast microscopy on biological samples. Since the resolution is on order of the wavelength of the light (˜4 nm for 300 eV), detailed structures of cells and DNA can be viewed. A table-top source of light in the water window soft X-ray region would greatly benefit biological and medical research. Second, I will present work on the generation of very high harmonic orders from ions. This work is the first to show that harmonic emission from ions is of

  8. Critical-angle transmission grating technology development for high resolving power soft x-ray spectrometers on Arcus and Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Song, Jungki; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Gaskin, Jessica A.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Cheimetz, Peter; Hertz, Edward; Smith, Randall K.; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; La Caria, Marlis-Madeleine; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    Soft x-ray spectroscopy with high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ) and large effective area (A) addresses numerous unanswered science questions about the physical laws that lead to the structure of our universe. In the soft x-ray band R > 1000 can currently only be achieved with diffraction grating-based spectroscopy. Criticalangle transmission (CAT) gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies, low mass), resulting in minimal mission resource requirements, while greatly improving figures of merit. Diffraction efficiency > 33% and R > 10, 000 have been demonstrated for CAT gratings. Last year the technology has been certified at Technology Readiness Level 4 based on a probe class mission concept. The Explorer-scale (A > 450 cm2 , R > 2500) grating spectroscopy Arcus mission can be built with today's CAT grating technology and has been selected in the current Explorer round for a Phase A concept study. Its figure of merit for the detection of weak absorption lines will be an order of magnitude larger than current instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. Further CAT grating technology development and improvements in the angular resolution of x-ray optics can provide another order of magnitude improvement in performance, as is envisioned for the X-ray Surveyor/Lynx mission concept currently under development for input into the 2020 Decadal Survey. For Arcus we have tested CAT gratings in a spectrometer setup in combination with silicon pore optics (SPO) and obtained resolving power results that exceed Arcus requirements before and after environmental testing of the gratings. We have recently fabricated the largest (32 mm x 32 mm) CAT gratings to date, and plan to increase grating size further. We mounted two of these large gratings to frames and aligned them in the

  9. Comparison of a CCD and an APS for soft X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graeme; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Clark, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maneuski, D.; Marchal, J.; Steadman, P.; Tartoni, N.; Turchetta, R.

    2011-12-01

    We compare a new CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) to a Princeton Instruments PIXIS-XO: 2048B Charge Coupled Device (CCD) with soft X-rays tested in a synchrotron beam line at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). Despite CCDs being established in the field of scientific imaging, APS are an innovative technology that offers advantages over CCDs. These include faster readout, higher operational temperature, in-pixel electronics for advanced image processing and reduced manufacturing cost. The APS employed was the Vanilla sensor designed by the MI3 collaboration and funded by an RCUK Basic technology grant. This sensor has 520 x 520 square pixels, of size 25 μm on each side. The sensor can operate at a full frame readout of up to 20 Hz. The sensor had been back-thinned, to the epitaxial layer. This was the first time that a back-thinned APS had been demonstrated at a beam line at DLS. In the synchrotron experiment soft X-rays with an energy of approximately 708 eV were used to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of integration times with both sensors. The CCD had to be operated at a temperature of -55°C whereas the Vanilla was operated over a temperature range from 20°C to -10°C. We show that the APS detector can operate with frame rates up to two hundred times faster than the CCD, without excessive degradation of image quality. The signal to noise of the APS is shown to be the same as that of the CCD at identical integration times and the response is shown to be linear, with no charge blooming effects. The experiment has allowed a direct comparison of back thinned APS and CCDs in a real soft x-ray synchrotron experiment.

  10. Measurements of fast electron beams and soft X-ray emission from plasma-focus experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8 measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric, krypton (1.6% volumetric, or xenon (0.8% volumetric, decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes, which can be formed near the observed hot spots.

  11. Tunable coherent radiation at soft X-ray wavelengths: Generation and interferometric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosfjord, Kristine Marie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The availability of high power, spectrally and spatially coherent soft x-rays (SXR) would facilitate a wide variety of experiments as this energy region covers the primary resonances of many magnetic and biological materials. Specifically, there are the carbon and oxygen K-edges that are critical for biological imaging in the water window and the L-edges of iron, nickel, and cobalt for which imaging and scattering studies can be performed. A new coherent soft X-ray branchline at the Advanced Light Source has begun operation (beamline 12.0.2). Using the third harmonic from an 8 cm period undulator, this branch delivers coherent soft x-rays with photon energies ranging from 200eV to 1keV. This branchline is composed of two sub-branches one at 14X demagnification and the other 8X demagnification. The former is optimized for use at 500eV and the latter at 800eV. Here the expected power from the third harmonic of this undulator and the beamline design and characterization is presented. The characterization includes measurements on available photon flux as well as a series of double pinhole experiments to determine the coherence factor with respect to transverse distance. The first high quality Airy patterns at SXR wavelengths are created with this new beamline. The operation of this new beamline allows for interferometry to be performed in the SXR region. Here an interferometric experiment designed to directly determine the index of refraction of a material under test is performed. Measurements are first made in the EUV region using an established beamline (beamline12.0.1) to measure silicon, ruthenium and tantalum silicon nitride. This work is then extended to the SXR region using beamline 12.0.2 to test chromium and vanadium.

  12. 3D nanoscale imaging of biological samples with laboratory-based soft X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlinger, Aurélie; Blechschmidt, Anne; Grötzsch, Daniel; Jung, Robert; Kanngießer, Birgit; Seim, Christian; Stiel, Holger

    2015-09-01

    In microscopy, where the theoretical resolution limit depends on the wavelength of the probing light, radiation in the soft X-ray regime can be used to analyze samples that cannot be resolved with visible light microscopes. In the case of soft X-ray microscopy in the water-window, the energy range of the radiation lies between the absorption edges of carbon (at 284 eV, 4.36 nm) and oxygen (543 eV, 2.34 nm). As a result, carbon-based structures, such as biological samples, posses a strong absorption, whereas e.g. water is more transparent to this radiation. Microscopy in the water-window, therefore, allows the structural investigation of aqueous samples with resolutions of a few tens of nanometers and a penetration depth of up to 10μm. The development of highly brilliant laser-produced plasma-sources has enabled the transfer of Xray microscopy, that was formerly bound to synchrotron sources, to the laboratory, which opens the access of this method to a broader scientific community. The Laboratory Transmission X-ray Microscope at the Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray technologies (BLiX) runs with a laser produced nitrogen plasma that emits radiation in the soft X-ray regime. The mentioned high penetration depth can be exploited to analyze biological samples in their natural state and with several projection angles. The obtained tomogram is the key to a more precise and global analysis of samples originating from various fields of life science.

  13. Imaging mammalian cells with soft x rays: The importance of specimen preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Studies of mammalian cell structure and spatial organization are a very prominent part of modern cell biology. The interest in them as well as their size make them very accommodating subject specimens for imaging with soft x-rays using the XM-1 transmission microscope built and operated by The Center for X-ray Optics on Beam Line 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if the fixative protocols normally used in electron or visible light microscopy were adequate to allow imaging cells, either fibroblasts or neurons, with minimal visible radiation damage due to imaging with soft x-rays at 2.4 nm. Two cell types were selected. Fibroblasts are easily cultured but fragile cells which are commonly used as models for the detailed study of cell physiology. Neurons are complex and sensitive cells which are difficult to prepare and to culture for study in isolation from their connections with surrounding cells. These cell types pose problems in their preparation for any microscopy. To improve the contrast and to prevent postmortem alteration of the chemistry and hence the structure of cells extracted from culture or from living organisms, fixation and staining techniques are employed in electron and visible light microscopy. It has been accepted by biologists for years that these treatments create artifacts and false structure. The authors have begun to develop protocols for specimens of each of these two cell types for soft x-ray microscopy which will preserve them in as near normal state as possible using minimal fixation, and make it possible to image them in either a hydrated or dried state free of secondary addition of stains or other labels.

  14. Performance of Co/Ti multilayers in a water window soft x-ray regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Piyali; Biswas, Arup; De, Rajnarayan; Divakar Rao, K; Ghosh, Subir; Modi, M H; John, Siju; Barshilia, H C; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Sahoo, Naba Kishor

    2017-09-20

    The DC magnetron sputter grown Co/Ti multilayers, with ultra-low bi-layer thicknesses and with Co layers deposited under mixed ambience of argon and dry air, have been investigated for use in the water window soft x-ray regime of 23-44 Å. Initially, deposition parameters have been optimized for obtaining smooth and continuous low thickness Co and Ti single-layer films, and, then, multilayers with five bi-layers of various bi-layer thicknesses were deposited. The samples have been primarily characterized by the grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements with a hard x-ray laboratory source. Subsequently, a set of multilayers with an increasing number of bi-layers has been deposited with a constant bi-layer thickness of 42 Å. GIXR results show that hard x-ray reflectivity at the first Bragg peak is maximum for the 20 bi-layer sample, beyond which the reflectivity decreases. Finally, the samples with the most promising hard x-ray GIXR have been used for soft x-ray reflectivity measurement with synchrotron radiation, and ∼2.5% peak reflectivity has been obtained in the multilayer sample at a 30.7 Å wavelength for a 21.5° grazing angle of incidence. The fitting results for both hard and soft x-ray reflectivities have been thoroughly investigated to find out the cause of the saturation of reflectivity with the increase in the number of bi-layers.

  15. Soft x-ray free-electron laser induced damage to inorganic scintillators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Chalupský, Jaromír; Vyšín, Luděk; Boháček, Pavel; Přeček, Martin; Wild, J.; Özkan, C.; Coppola, N.; Farahani, S.D.; Schulz, J.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Gaudin, J.; Bajt, S.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Chapman, H.N.; Loch, R.A.; Jurek, M.; Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Moeller, S.; Harmand, M.; Galasso, G.; Nagasono, M.; Saskl, K.; Sovák, P.; Juha, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2015), 254-264 ISSN 2159-3930 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1312; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fluorescent and luminescent materials * laser damage * free-electron lasers * soft x-rays * laser materials processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.657, year: 2015

  16. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of an Individual Catalyst Particle with Soft X-ray Ptychography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Anna M; Weker, Johanna Nelson; Kalirai, Sam; Farmand, Maryam; Shapiro, David A; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-04-01

    Understanding Fe deposition in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysis is critical for the mitigation of catalyst degradation. Here we employ soft X-ray ptychography to determine at the nanoscale the distribution and chemical state of Fe in an aged FCC catalyst particle. We show that both particle swelling due to colloidal Fe deposition and Fe penetration into the matrix as a result of precracking of large organic molecules occur. The application of ptychography allowed us to provide direct visual evidence for these two distinct Fe-based deactivation mechanisms, which have so far been proposed only on the basis of indirect evidence.

  17. Control of the Soft X-ray Polychromator on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, L. A.; Levay, M.; Gilbreth, C. W.; Finch, M. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Firth, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Polychromator on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite consists of two largely independent instruments: the Flat Crystal Spectrometer, a highly collimated scanning spectrometer mounted on a raster platform, and the Bent Crystal Spectrometer, a broadly collimated spectrometer providing high time-resolution (128 ms) spectra for the study of rapidly evolving phenomena. Each instrument is controlled by a microcomputer system built around an RCA 1802 microprocessor. This paper presents a discussion of the motivation for using a microprocessor in this application, and the design concepts that were implemented. The effectiveness of the approach as seen after several months of operation will also be discussed.

  18. Intrinsic disc emission and the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Chris; Davis, S. W.; Jin, C.; Blaes, O.; Ward, M.

    2012-03-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies have low-mass black holes and mass accretion rates close to (or exceeding) Eddington, so a standard blackbody accretion disc should peak in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the lack of true absorption opacity in the disc means that the emission is better approximated by a colour temperature corrected blackbody, and this colour temperature correction is large enough (˜2.4) that the bare disc emission from a zero spin black hole can extend into the soft X-ray bandpass. Part of the soft X-ray excess seen in these objects must be intrinsic emission from the disc unless the vertical structure is very different to that predicted. None the less, this is not the whole story even for the extreme NLS1 as the shape of the soft excess is much broader than predicted by a bare disc spectrum, indicating some Compton upscattering by warm, optically thick material. We associate this with the disc itself, so it must ultimately be powered by mass accretion. We build an energetically self-consistent model assuming that the emission thermalizes to a (colour temperature corrected) blackbody only at large radii. At smaller radii the gravitational energy is split between powering optically thick Comptonized disc emission (forming the soft X-ray excess) and an optically thin corona above the disc (forming the tail to higher energies). We show examples of this model fit to the extreme NLS1 RE J1034+396, and to the much lower Eddington fraction broad-line Seyfert 1 PG 1048+231. We use these to guide our fits and interpretations of three template spectra made from co-adding multiple sources to track out a sequence of active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra as a function of L/LEdd. Both the individual objects and template spectra show the surprising result that the Compton upscattered soft X-ray excess decreases in importance with increasing L/LEdd. The strongest soft excesses are associated with low mass accretion rate AGN rather than being tied to some

  19. Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, G. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Physics); Lewis, C.L.S. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Physics); MacPhee, A.G. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Physics); Neely, D. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Physics); Holden, M. (Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Krishnan, J. (Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Tallents, G.J. (Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics); Key, M.H. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom). Central Laser Facility Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.); Norreys, P.N. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom). Central Laser Facility); Smith, C.G. (Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.); Zhang, J. (Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Clarendon Lab.); Holden, P.B. (York Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Comp

    1994-01-01

    Coupling of a soft X-ray laser beam with a relaying concave mirror in a sequentially pumped amplifier geometry using the Ne-like Ge system has been studied experimentally. Preliminary observations indicate an increase in the spatial coherence of the amplified relayed beam. In addition, near-field imaging of one of the amplifier plasmas shows a double-lobed intensity pattern of the emergent beam indicating refractive guiding of the amplified beam with components both normal and tangential to the target surface. (orig.)

  20. The soft X-ray telescope for the SOLAR-A mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneta, S.; Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Lemen, J.; Brown, W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R.; Freeland, S.; Jurcevich, B.; Owens, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) of the SOLAR-A mission is designed to produce X-ray movies of flares with excellent angular and time resolution as well as full-disk X-ray images for general studies. A selection of thin metal filters provide a measure of temperature discrimination and aid in obtaining the wide dynamic range required for solar observing. The co-aligned SXT aspect telescope will yield optical images for aspect reference, white-light flare and sunspot studies, and, possibly, helioseismology. This paper describes the capabilities and characteristics of the SXT for scientific observing.

  1. Coherent Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Textures in FeGe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ukleev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent resonant soft X-ray scattering was utilized to examine the magnetic textures in a thin plate of the cubic B20 compound FeGe. Small-angle scattering patterns were measured with controlled temperatures and magnetic fields exhibiting magnetic scattering from a helical texture and skyrmion lattice. By measuring the scattering pattern in a saturation magnetic field, magnetic and charge scattering were distinguished and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm was applied to reconstruct the magnetic texture in the real-space. Results of the real-space reconstruction of magnetic texture from two independently measured datasets were used to compare the reliability of the retrieval.

  2. Motion control system of MAX IV Laboratory soft x-ray beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjöblom, Peter, E-mail: peter.sjoblom@maxlab.lu.se; Lindberg, Mirjam, E-mail: mirjam.lindberg@maxlab.lu.se; Forsberg, Johan, E-mail: johan.forsberg@maxlab.lu.se; Persson, Andreas G., E-mail: andreas-g.persson@maxlab.lu.se; Urpelainen, Samuli, E-mail: samuli.urpelainen@maxlab.lu.se; Såthe, Conny, E-mail: conny.sathe@maxlab.lu.se [MAX IV Laboratory, Photongatan 2, 225 92 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-27

    At the MAX IV Laboratory, five new soft x-ray beamlines are under development. The first is Species and it will be used to develop and set the standard of the control system, which will be common across the facility. All motion axes at MAX IV will be motorized using stepper motors steered by the IcePAP motion controller and a mixture of absolute and incremental encoders following a predefined coordinate system. The control system software is built in Tango and uses the Python-based Sardana framework. The user controls the entire beamline through a synoptic overview and Sardana is used to run the scans.

  3. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adjei, D.; Ayele, M. G.; Wachulak, P.; Bartnik, A.; Wegrzynski, L.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Vyšín, Luděk; Wiechec, A.; Lekki, J.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Pina, L.; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 364, Dec (2015), s. 27-32 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GA13-28721S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * soft X-rays * radiobiology * gas puff target * water window Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  4. Measurements of laser generated soft X-ray emission from irradiated gold foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. S.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Drake, R. P.; Shvarts, D. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.; Fraenkel, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    2016-11-15

    Soft x-ray emission from laser irradiated gold foils was measured at the Omega-60 laser system using the Dante photodiode array. The foils were heated with 2 kJ, 6 ns laser pulses and foil thicknesses were varied between 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 μm. Initial Dante analysis indicates peak emission temperatures of roughly 100 eV and 80 eV for the 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm thick foils, respectively, with little measurable emission from the 2.0 μm foils.

  5. Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Alexander; Kronast, Florian; Papp, Christian; Yang, See-Hun; Cramm, Stefan; Krug, Ingo P.; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric M.; Hilken, Dawn L.; Anderson, Erik H.; Fischer, Peter; Durr, Hermann A.; Schneider, Claus M.; Fadley, Charles S.

    2010-10-29

    We demonstrate the addition of depth resolution to the usual two-dimensional images in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), with application to a square array of circular magnetic Co microdots. The method is based on excitation with soft x-ray standing-waves generated by Bragg reflection from a multilayer mirror substrate. Standing wave is moved vertically through sample simply by varying the photon energy around the Bragg condition. Depth-resolved PEEM images were obtained for all of the observed elements. Photoemission intensities as functions of photon energy were compared to x-ray optical calculations in order to quantitatively derive the depth-resolved film structure of the sample.

  6. Application of soft X-ray microscopy to environmental microbiology of hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, K.; Yoshimura, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2017-06-01

    Microstructures of unprocessed filamentous cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena foetida sp., producing a musty smell were observed using soft X-ray microscopy. Carbon-enriched structures and granules as well as oxygen-enriched granules which have been already reported were observed. Except for early log growth phase, the oxygen-enriched granules were observed. However, the carbon-enriched structures were observed throughout log growth phase. The result suggests there is a relationship between the oxygen-enriched granules and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) productivity, since the 2-MIB productivity of each cell is increased depending on the culture period in log growth phase.

  7. Dichroic interference effects in circularly polarized soft-x-ray resonant magnetic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C. (National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Chen, C.T. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Johnson, E.D.; Hastings, J.B. (National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Lin, H.J. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Ho, G.H. (Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)); Meigs, G. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)); Brot, J.; Hulbert, S.L. (National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Idzerda, Y.U. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)); Vettier, C. (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble CEDEX (France))

    1994-10-01

    Dichroic interference effects were observed in circularly polarized soft-x-ray reflectivity at the Co [ital L][sub 2,3] edges of a magnetic multilayer. The data show a maximum asymmetry ratio of 80%, greater than the degree of circular polarization of the incident light, a changeover in the dichroic characteristics with increasing grazing angle, and an inverted interference pattern in the angular dependence of the asymmetry ratio. These observations are explained successfully by a classical electromagnetic model calculation which includes the complete polarization state of the incident light and spatial interference within the multilayer.

  8. XUV emission features from the Livermore soft x-ray laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckart, M.J.; Scofield, J.H.; Hazi, A.U.

    1987-09-08

    The measured wavelengths in the soft x-ray region for 3p to 3s and 3d to 3p transitions in neon-, sodium-, and magnesium-like selenium are presented. The experimental results for the neon-like ions are compared to theoretical wavelength values and with values extrapolated along the isoelectronic sequence. The ions were contained in a plasma heated in a line-focus of a Nd-glass laser. The measurements were made with a time-gated microchannel-plate-intensified grazing incidence spectrograph.

  9. Quantitative study of mammalian cells by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, K.; Ohigashi, T.; Toné, S.; Kado, M.; Ito, A.

    2017-06-01

    Molecular distribution in mammalian cells was studied by soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy with respect to the quantitative aspect of analysis. NEXAFS profiles at the C, N and O K-absorption edges were combined and used for the analysis. For the estimation of quantity for nucleic acids and proteins, NEXAFS profiles of DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) at the N K-absorption edge were applied assuming that those were their representatives. The method has a potential to explore the other molecular components than nucleic acids and proteins.

  10. Efficient production of the nickel-like soft x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daido, H.; Kato, Y.; Murai, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Kodama, R.; Takabe, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Koike, F. [Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    We have demonstrated efficient soft x-ray lasing in nickel-like lanthanide elements (Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy) covering the spectral range between 6 nm and 8 nm. A curved slab target was pumped by 1.053 {mu}m-wavelength multiple laser pulses; two or three 100 ps duration pulses separated by 400 ps. A gain coefficient of 3.1 cm{sup {minus}1} and a gain-length product of 7.8 have been achieved at 7.97 nm in the Nd ions with 250 J pumping energy on a 2.5 cm length target. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Propagation-based phase-contrast enhancement of nanostructure images using a debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source and an LiF crystal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatoly Ya; Gasilov, Sergei V; Skobelev, Igor Yu; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Homma, Takayuki; Kawase, Keigo; Hayashi, Yukio; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki; Bulanov, Sergei V

    2009-11-10

    We demonstrate in-line phase-contrast imaging of nanothickness foils by using a relatively large, polychromatic, debris-free femtosecond-laser-driven cluster-based plasma soft x-ray source, and a high-resolution, large dynamic range LiF crystal detector. The spatial coherence length of radiation in our setup reached a value of 5 microm on the sample plane, which is enough to observe phase-contrast enhancement in the images registered by the detector placed only a few hundred micrometers behind the object. We have developed a tabletop soft x-ray emission source, which emits radiation within a 4pi sr solid angle, and which allows one to obtain contact and propagation-based phase-contrast imaging of nanostructures with 700 nm spatial resolutions. This advance could be of utility for metrology applications.

  12. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, H; Nakajima, K; Suzuki, M; Sasakawa, K; Kimura, K

    2011-06-01

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate (MCP) detector which is commonly used as a focal plane detector of the spectrometer in HRBS. In order to reject the stray ions, several barriers are installed inside the spectrometer and a thin Mylar foil is mounted in front of the detector. The dark noise of the MCP detector is rejected by the coincidence measurement with the secondary electrons emitted from the Mylar foil upon the ion passage. After these improvements, the background noise is reduced by a factor of 200 at a maximum. The detection limit can be improved down to 10 ppm for As in Si at a measurement time of 1 h under ideal conditions. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  13. High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Molecular Rotary Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Sergio R.; Cnossen, Arjen; Perez, Cristobal; Buma, Wybren Jan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    To develop synthetic molecular motors and machinery that can mimic their biological counterparts has become a stimulating quest in modern synthetic chemistry. Gas phase studies of these simpler synthetic model systems provide the necessary isolated conditions that facilitate the elucidation of their structural intricacies. We report the first high-resolution rotational study of a synthetic molecular rotary motor based on chiral overcrowded alkenes using chirp-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants were determined based on a fit using more than two hundred rotational transitions spanning 5≤J≤21 in the 2-4 GHz frequency range. Despite the lack of polar groups, the rotor's asymmetry produces strong a- and b-type rotational transitions arising from a single predominant conformer. Evidence for fragmentation of the rotor allows for unambiguous identification of the isolated rotor components. The experimental spectroscopic parameters of the rotor are compared and discussed against current high-level ab initio and density functional theory methods. Vicario et al. Chem. Commun., 5910-5912 (2005) Brown et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79, 053103 (2008)

  14. Optical multichannel analyzer techniques for high resolution optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The development of optical multichannel analyzer techniques for UV/VIS spectroscopy is presented. The research focuses on the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring high resolution spectral lineshape functions from the exciton phosphorescence in H/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. It is found that the temperature dependent frequency shifts and widths confirm a theoretical model based on an exchange theory. The exchange of low energy phonon modes which couple with excited state exciton transitions is shown to display the proper temperature dependent behavior. In addition to the techniques for using the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) to perform low light level target integration, the use of the OMA for capturing spectral information in transient pulsed laser applications is discussed. An OMP data acquisition system developed for real-time signal processng is described. Both hardware and software interfacing considerations for control and data acquisition by a microcomputer are described. The OMA detector is described in terms of the principles behind its photoelectron detection capabilities and its design is compared with other optoelectronic devices.

  15. Final Report on Small Particle Speciation for Forensics Analysis by Soft X-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacold, J. I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Altman, A. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Donald, S B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davisson, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, K S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Minasian, S. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nelson, A J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tyliszczak, T [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Materials of interest for nuclear forensic science are often highly heterogeneous, containing complex mixtures of actinide compounds in a wide variety of matrices. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is ideally suited to study such materials, as it can be used to chemically image specimens by acquiring X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data with 25 nm spatial resolution. In particular, STXM in the soft X-ray synchrotron radiation regime (approximately 120 – 2000 eV) can collect spectroscopic information from the actinides and light elements in a single experiment. Thus, STXM combines the chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectroscopy with high spatial resolution in a single non-destructive characterization method. This report describes the application of STXM to a broad range of nuclear materials. Where possible, the spectroscopic images obtained by STXM are compared with information derived from other analytical methods, and used to make inferences about the process history of each material. STXM measurements can yield information including the morphology of a sample, “elemental maps” showing the spatial distribution of major chemical constituents, and XANES spectra from localized regions of a sample, which may show spatial variations in chemical composition.

  16. A Versatile Multilayer Polarimeter for the Soft X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Wang, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; MacDonald, M. A.; Poole, I. B.; Quinn, F. M.

    2010-06-01

    As modern undulators can generate light with arbitrary polarization states, experiments exploiting this feature in the range of soft x-rays have become increasingly widespread. For the success of these experiments characterising the polarization at the sample position is vital. Therefore a versatile, multi-purpose, UHV compatible, multilayer polarimeter has been designed and developed for measuring the Stokes vector of a soft x-ray beam. This high-precision, ultra high vacuum compatible instrument is supported by a Hexapod to simplify its alignment. Furthermore, the instrument has its own independent control system and has been designed for portability so that it can be moved with relative ease between different synchrotron facilities. The polarization analysis requires the rotation of a phase retarder and a polarization analyser, both about a common axis of the photon beam. The polarimeter employs reflection / transmission multilayers as phase retarders / analysers. Several sets of multilayers are installed inside the UHV chamber so that they may be exchanged in-situ without breaking the vacuum. The polarimeter doubles-up as a reflectometer / ellipsometer that enable determination of the polarization properties of optical elements including multilayers with very small surface roughness and several hundred bi-layers. The design details of the polarimeter and the results of first experiments to characterise the polarization of a beamline will be presented.

  17. Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Diffraction Reveals Transient Structural Distortions of Ternary Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Mann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-based soft X-ray time-resolved scattering experiments with nanosecond time resolution (10 ns and nanometer spatial resolution were carried out at a table top soft X-ray plasma source (2.2–5.2 nm. The investigated system was the lyotropic liquid crystal C16E7/paraffin/glycerol/formamide/IR 5. Usually, major changes in physical, chemical, and/or optical properties of the sample occur as a result of structural changes and shrinking morphology. Here, these effects occur as a consequence of the energy absorption in the sample upon optical laser excitation in the IR regime. The liquid crystal shows changes in the structural response within few hundred nanoseconds showing a time decay of 182 ns. A decrease of the Bragg peak diffracted intensity of 30% and a coherent macroscopic movement of the Bragg reflection are found as a response to the optical pump. The Bragg reflection movement is established to be isotropic and diffusion controlled (1 μs. Structural processes are analyzed in the Patterson analysis framework of the time-varying diffraction peaks revealing that the inter-lamellar distance increases by 2.7 Å resulting in an elongation of the coherently expanding lamella crystallite. The present studies emphasize the possibility of applying TR-SXRD techniques for studying the mechanical dynamics of nanosystems.

  18. Polarized soft X-ray scattering reveals differences in chain orientation within block copolymer lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litofsky, Joshua; Le, Thinh; Aplan, Melissa; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Fully conjugated block copolymers can serve as the active layer in organic photovoltaics (OPV) and other organic electronic devices. The use of Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering (RSoXS) allows for studies into the molecular orientation and domain spacing of the polymers within lamellae by tuning the X-ray energy and polarization to examine various components of block copolymers. Using the conjugated block copolymer system of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(thiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl), P3HT-b-PFTBT, and PFTBT derivatives, we can examine the effects of various polymer blocks on the differences of morphology between the donor and acceptor. Polarized Soft X-Ray Scattering (PSoXS) allows us to quantify the type and the degree of orientation of chains within block copolymer domains in thin films. Our work suggests that within our conjugated block copolymers, the P3HT chains orient parallel to the block copolymer interface. Furthermore, examining the anisotropy in PSoXS data provides a clear signature of the block copolymer microstructure, confirming the domain spacing extracted from PSoXS scales with the end-to-end distance of the blocks.

  19. Technical Development of Profile Measurement for the Soft X-Ray Via Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Taku; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hidume, Kentaro; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, Shuichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Ueyama, Daisuke; Urakawa, Junji; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    A compact X-ray source is called for such various fields as material development, biological science, and medical treatment. At Waseda University, we have already succeeded to generate the soft X-ray of the wavelength within so-called water window region (250-500eV) via Compton backward scattering between 1047nm Nd:YLF laser and 4.2MeV high quality electron beam. Although this method equips some useful characters, e.g. high intensity, short pulse, energy variableness, etc, the X-ray generating system is compact enough to fit in tabletop size. In the next step, there rises two principal tasks, that is, to make the soft X-ray intensity higher, and to progress X-ray profile measurement techniques as preliminary experiments for biomicroscopy. Specifically, we utilize two-pass amp for the former, and irradiate X-ray to a resist film which is previously exposed by UV lamp or get images with X-ray CCD for the latter. In this conference, we will show the experimental results and some future plans.

  20. Towards an atlas of mammalian cell ultrastructure by cryo soft X-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Waltraud G.; Heymann, J. Bernard; Nagashima, Kunio; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Rehbein, Stefan; Schneider, Gerd; McNally, James G.

    2011-01-01

    We provide a catalog of 3D cryo soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) images obtained from ~6–12 µm thick mouse adenocarcinoma cells. Included are multiple representative images of nuclei, nucleoli, nuclear membrane, nuclear membrane channels, mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, filaments and plasma membrane, plus three structures not previously described by cryo-SXT, namely Golgi, microvilli and nuclear-membrane blebs. Sections from the 3D cryo-SXT tomograms for all the preceding structures closely resemble those seen by thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Some structures such as nuclear-membrane channels and nuclear-membrane blebs are more easily detected by cryo-SXT than TEM most likely due to their better contrast and cellular preservation in cryo-SXT combined with the ability to rapidly locate these structures within a full 3D image. We identify and discuss two current limitations in cryo-SXT: variability in image quality and difficulties in detecting weaker contrast structures such as chromatin and various nuclear bodies. Progress on these points is likely to come from the solution of several technical problems in image acquisition, plus the implementation of advanced cryo soft X-ray microscopy approaches such as phase contrast or optical sectioning. PMID:22155291

  1. Cool half of the H-R diagram in soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, T.R.; Linsky, J.L.; Vaiana, G.S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.

    1981-11-01

    We report results of an Einstein Guest Observing program to map the occurrence of soft x-ray emission, which is a signature of hot stellar coronae (T>10/sup 6/ K), in the cool half of the Hertzsprung Russell (H-R) diagram. We detect X-rays from F--M dwarfs and late F through early K giants, but not from the cooler giants, other than the spectroscopic binary epsilon Car (K0 II+B), or from any supergiants, other than Canopus (F0IB--II). The empirical separation of the cool half of the H-R diagram into a region where stellar soft X-ray emission is a common phenomenon, and a region where hot coronae are rare, if present at all among single stars, is similar to that found previously by Linsky and Haisch for C IV lambdalambda1548,1551 emission (Troughly-equal10/sup 5/ K) and by Stencel and Mullan for the onset of rapid mass loss in strong, cool (T< or approx. =10/sup 4/ K) stellar winds. We discuss the energy balance in the outer atmospheres of the coronal stars, the likely absorption of X-ray emission by cool winds in the ''hybrid-spectrum'' supergiants, a rotation-activity connection among the G dwarfs, and possible evolutionary origins of the structure seen in the cool half of the X-ray H-R diagram.

  2. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for speciation, quantitation and nano-eco-toxicology of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R; Hitchcock, A P

    2016-02-01

    There is a critical need for methods that provide simultaneous detection, identification, quantitation and visualization of nanomaterials at their interface with biological and environmental systems. The approach should allow speciation as well as elemental analysis. Using the intrinsic X-ray absorption properties, soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) allows characterization and imaging of a broad range of nanomaterials, including metals, oxides and organic materials, and at the same time is able to provide detailed mapping of biological components. Thus, STXM offers considerable potential for application to research on nanomaterials in biology and the environment. The potential and limitations of STXM in this context are discussed using a range of examples, focusing on the interaction of nanomaterials with microbial cells, biofilms and extracellular polymers. The studies outlined include speciation and mapping of metal-containing nanomaterials (Ti, Ni, Cu) and carbon-based nanomaterials (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerene). The benefits of X-ray fluorescence detection in soft X-ray STXM are illustrated with a study of low levels of Ni in a natural river biofilm. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Soft X-ray microscopy to 25 nm with applications to biology and magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Denbeaux, G; Chao, W; Eimueller, T; Johnson, L; Köhler, M; Larabell, C; Legros, M; Fischer, P; Pearson, A; Schuetz, G; Yager, D; Attwood, D

    2001-01-01

    We report both technical advances in soft X-ray microscopy (XRM) and applications furthered by these advances. With new zone plate lenses we record test pattern features with good modulation to 25 nm and smaller. In combination with fast cryofixation, sub-cellular images show very fine detail previously seen only in electron microscopy, but seen here in thick, hydrated, and unstained samples. The magnetic domain structure is studied at high spatial resolution with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) as a huge element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism, occurring e.g. at the L sub 2 sub , sub 3 edges of transition metals. It can be used to distinguish between in-plane and out-of-plane contributions by tilting the sample. As XRM is a photon based technique, the magnetic images can be obtained in unlimited varying external magnetic fields. The images discussed have been obtained at the XM-1 soft X-ray microscope on beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley.

  4. Soft X-ray spectrometer design for warm dense plasma measurements on DARHT Axis-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, Nicholas Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, John Oliver [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-11

    A preliminary design study is being performed on a soft X-ray spectrometer to measure K-shell spectra emitted by a warm dense plasma generated on Axis-I of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100-ns-long intense, relativistic electron pulse with a beam current of 1.7 kA and energy of 19.8 MeV deposits energy into a thin metal foil heating it to a warm dense plasma. The collisional ionization of the target by the electron beam produces an anisotropic angular distribution of K-shell radiation and a continuum of both scattered electrons and Bremsstrahlung up to the beam energy of 19.8 MeV. The principal goal of this project is to characterize these angular distributions to determine the optimal location to deploy the soft X-ray spectrometer. In addition, a proof-of-principle design will be presented. The ultimate goal of the spectrometer is to obtain measurements of the plasma temperature and density to benchmark equation-of-state models of the warm dense matter regime.

  5. STELLAR WIND INDUCED SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Lammer, H. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz (Austria); Fossati, L. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Johnstone, C. P. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Holmström, M. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Zaitsev, V. V., E-mail: kristina.kislyakova@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-30

    In this Letter, we estimate the X-ray emission from close-in exoplanets. We show that the Solar/Stellar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism (SWCX), which produces soft X-ray emission, is very effective for hot Jupiters. In this mechanism, X-ray photons are emitted as a result of the charge exchange between heavy ions in the solar wind and the atmospheric neutral particles. In the solar system, comets produce X-rays mostly through the SWCX mechanism, but it has also been shown to operate in the heliosphere, in the terrestrial magnetosheath, and on Mars, Venus, and the Moon. Since the number of emitted photons is proportional to the solar wind mass flux, this mechanism is not very effective for the solar system giants. Here we present a simple estimate of the X-ray emission intensity that can be produced by close-in extrasolar giant planets due to charge exchange with the heavy ions of the stellar wind. Using the example of HD 209458b, we show that this mechanism alone can be responsible for an X-ray emission of ≈10{sup 22} erg s{sup –1}, which is 10{sup 6} times stronger than the emission from the Jovian aurora. We discuss also the possibility of observing the predicted soft X-ray flux of hot Jupiters and show that despite high emission intensities they are unobservable with current facilities.

  6. Synchrontron VUV and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1998-01-01

    Surfaces of the aluminized Teflon FEP multi-layer thermal insulation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were found to be cracked and curled in some areas at the time of the second servicing, mission in February 1997, 6.8 years after HST was deployed in low Earth orbit (LEO). As part of a test program to assess environmental conditions which would produce embrittlement sufficient to cause cracking of Teflon on HST, samples of Teflon FEP with a backside layer of vapor deposited aluminum were exposed to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft x-ray radiation of various energies using facilities at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples were exposed to synchrotron radiation of narrow energy bands centered on energies between 69 eV and 1900 eV. Samples were analyzed for ultimate tensile strength and elongation. Results will be compared to those of aluminized Teflon FEP retrieved from HST after 3.6 years and 6.8 years on orbit and will he referenced to estimated HST mission doses of VUV and soft x-ray radiation.

  7. Design and fabrication of an active polynomial grating for soft-X-ray monochromators and spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Perng, S Y; Kuan, C K; Tseng, T C; Wang, D J

    2001-01-01

    An active polynomial grating has been designed for use in synchrotron radiation soft-X-ray monochromators and spectrometers. The grating can be dynamically adjusted to obtain the third-order-polynomial surface needed to eliminate the defocus and coma aberrations at any photon energy. Ray-tracing results confirm that a monochromator or spectrometer based on this active grating has nearly no aberration limit to the overall spectral resolution in the entire soft-X-ray region. The grating substrate is made of a precisely milled 17-4 PH stainless steel parallel plate, which is joined to a flexure-hinge bender shaped by wire electrical discharge machining. The substrate is grounded into a concave cylindrical shape with a nominal radius and then polished to achieve a roughness of 0.45 nm and a slope error of 1.2 mu rad rms. The long trace profiler measurements show that the active grating can reach the desired third-order polynomial with a high degree of figure accuracy.

  8. Multiple Auger cycle photoionisation of manganese atoms by short soft x-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, S.; Gerken, N.; Mertens, K.; Richter, M.; Sonntag, B.; Sorokin, A. A.; Braune, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Zimmermann, P.; Martins, M.

    2017-04-01

    The multiple ionisation of atomic Mn, excited at (photon energy: 52.1 eV) and above (photon energy: 61.1 eV) the discrete giant 3p{--}3d resonance, was studied using high irradiation free-electron-laser soft x-ray pulses from the BL2 beamline of FLASH, DESY, Hamburg. In particular, the impact of the giant resonance on the ionisation mechanism was investigated. Ion mass-over-charge spectra were obtained by means of ion time-of-flight spectrometry. For the two photon energies, the yield of the different ionic charge states Mn{}q+ (q = 0-7) was determined as a function of the irradiance of the soft x-ray pulses. The maximum charge state observed was Mn6+ for resonant excitation at 52.1 eV and Mn7+ for non-resonant excitation at 61.1 eV at a maximum irradiation of 3× {10}13 {W}{{cm}}-2 .

  9. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benstead, J., E-mail: james.benstead@awe.co.uk; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Moore, A. S.; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Reagan, S.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    A new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF’s x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300–510 eV and 200–400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.

  10. Report on the workshop on new directions in soft x-ray near-threshold phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C. (eds.)

    1988-07-01

    The ''Workshop on New Directions in Soft X-Ray Near-Threshold Phenomena'' was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, CA on March 1--4, 1987. It was attended by 59 scientists from 8 countries, representing 27 institutions. Major funding for the meeting was donated by L-Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who hosted and organized two previous workshops on photoabsorption and scattering in the soft x-ray energy range. Additional funding was provided by the User's Group of the Advanced Light Source. The Workshop, as its name suggests, emphasized physical phenomena in atoms, molecules, and solids near inner-shell thresholds. Of particular interest were threshold ionization, post-collisional interaction, resonant photoemission and fluorescence, and multi-electron effects such as shake-up and shake-off. In these areas and others, special consideration was given to presenting recent discoveries and potential ''new directions'' for future work.

  11. Design and scientific performance of the soft x-ray imager on board EXIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalucci, Lorenzo; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Bazzano, Angela; Caraveo, Patrizia; Della Ceca, Roberto; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Pareschi, Giovanni; Ramsey, Brian D.; Ubertini, Pietro; Uslenghi, Michela C. A.

    2010-07-01

    The EXIST mission has been recently re-designed prior to being proposed to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey. One of the most recent improvements has been the addition of a third instrument consisting of a powerful Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) that will study in detail and help characterizing the high energy sources detected by the High Energy Telescope (HET). The EXIST concept fully exploits the heritage of Swift in the fast follow-up of transients and in particular GRBs, with 10 to 20 times more sensitivity in the high energy band (from 0.2 to 600 keV) and exceptional performance in the near-IR/optical provided by the Infrared Telescope (IRT). SXI has an important role in extending by more than one decade in energy, down to the soft X-rays the coverage of HET. Such combination will be fully exploited when performing pointed observations. Within the EXIST follow-up program, foreseen during the second part of the mission, SXI and HET will be able to collect high quality spectra for thousands of sources covering the energy range 0.1- hundreds keV. Furthermore, while working in survey mode SXI will cover about half the sky in 2 years and will be able to improve the location accuracy of many faint HET sources (reducing the positional uncertainty from 20 arcsec to ~ 1-2 arcsec). In this paper we will address the performance and the main scientific contributions expected from SXI.

  12. Metallic magnetic calorimeters for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, M.; Hengstler, D.; Geist, J.; Schoetz, C.; Hassel, K.; Hendricks, S.; Keller, M.; Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). KIP

    2015-07-01

    We develop microfabricated, energy dispersive particle detector arrays based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy to challenge bound-state QED calculations. Our MMCs are operated at about T=30 mK and use a paramagnetic temperature sensor, read-out by a SQUID, to measure the energy deposited by single X-ray photons. We discuss the physics of MMCs, the detector performance and the cryogenic setups for two different detector arrays. We present their microfabrication layouts with focus on challenges like the heatsinking of each pixel of the detector and the overhanging absorbers. The maXs-20 detector is a linear 1x8-pixel array with excellent linearity in its designated energy range up to 20 keV and unsurpassed energy resolution of 1.6 eV for 6 keV x-rays. MaXs-20 operated in a highly portable pulse tube cooled ADR setup has already been used at the EBIT facilities of the MPI-K for new reference measurements of V-like and Ti-like tungsten. The maXs-30 detector currently in development is a 8x8-pixel 2d-array with an active detection area of 16 mm{sup 2} and is designed to detect X-rays up to 50 keV with a designated energy resolution below 5 eV. MaXs-30 will be operated in a cryogen free 3He/4He-dilution refrigerator at the tip of a 40 cm long cold finger at T=20 mK.

  13. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machek, Pavel; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brüggmann, Ulf; Dräger, Günter; Fröba, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 μm thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5×1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  14. An ultrahigh-vacuum goniometer for in situ soft X-ray standing-wave analysis of semiconductor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, M; Maeyama, S

    1998-05-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum goniometer was developed for in situ X-ray standing-wave (XSW) analysis of semiconductor surfaces prepared by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Although two ultrahigh-vacuum motors for chi and phi rotating axes are inside the analysis chamber, low-energy photoelectrons can still be collected as the magnetic field is sufficiently suppressed by using metal shields. Furthermore, the sample can be annealed at temperatures higher than 870 K on the goniometer in the analysis chamber. This goniometer is used at beamline 1A (BL-1A) at the Photon Factory, where both monochromated soft X-rays and UV radiation are available. This analysis system was shown to be suitable not only for in situ soft-XSW and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) studies but also for synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SRPES) studies. The annealing effects on an S-adsorbed GaAs(001) surface could be studied by SRPES, XANES and XSW using this new goniometer.

  15. Study of self-generated electric field at shock front by broadband proton probing and soft X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui; Sio, Hong; Wilks, Scott; McGuffey, Christopher; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathieu; Heeter, Bob; Beg, Farhat; Collins, Gilbert; Ping, Yuan; MIT Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration; UCSD Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Self-generated electric fields arise from gradients in the electron pressure at shock fronts. We report observations of such E-fields from experiments conducted on OMEGA EP. In the experiments, strong shock waves were generated in low density gas under a quasi-planar geometry and diagnosed by broadband proton radiography. The broad proton spectrum allows energy-dependent measurements of deflection from which one can quantitatively constrain the electrical potential and field thickness. Three UV beams delivering up to 6.4 kJ energy in 2ns were used for shock generation and a short laser pulse of energy up to 850 J, 10 ps duration, was used to accelerate the broadband proton beam for point-projection radiography. Observations show the existence of electric fields with potential 300 V at the front of a Mach 9 shock in helium gas. A Mach 16 shock is also studied, from which both the field thickness and electric potential are reproduced. Simultaneous spatially resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy provided additional measurements of shock velocity, particle velocity and thermal emission. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27 344 with support from OFES Early Career program and LLNL LDRD program. This work has been partially supported by the University of California Office of the President Lab Fee Grant Number LFR-17-449059.

  16. High-performance double-filter soft x-ray diagnostic for measurement of electron temperature structure and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M. B.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Thomas, M. A.; Reyfman, M.; Kumar, S. T. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    A new soft x-ray (SXR) T{sub e} and tomography diagnostic has been developed for MST that can be used for simultaneous SXR spectrum measurement, tomographically reconstructed emissivity, and reconstructed and line-of-sight electron temperature. The diagnostic utilizes high-performance differential transimpedance amplifiers (gain 10{sup 5}-10{sup 9}) to provide fast time response (up to 125 kHz), allowing for the study of plasma structure dynamics. SXR double-foil T{sub e} measurements are consistent with Thomson scattering. SXR brightness through a variety of filter thicknesses has been combined with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) impurity density measurements to determine the plasma energy spectrum. Magnetic pickup from the fluctuating magnetic fields in the plasma (B(tilde sign){approx}20 gauss at 10-20 kHz) has been dramatically reduced by improving the detector and housing design, so that nanoampere diode currents are now measured without interference from the substantial fluctuating magnetic field incident on the plasma facing surface of the probe.

  17. Design of an ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L; Reininger, R; Wu, Y-Q; Zou, Y; Xu, Z-M; Shi, Y-B; Dong, J; Ding, H; Sun, J-L; Guo, F-Z; Wang, Y; Tai, R-Z

    2014-01-01

    A new ultrahigh-energy-resolution and wide-energy-range soft X-ray beamline has been designed and is under construction at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The beamline has two branches: one dedicated to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and the other to photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). The two branches share the same plane-grating monochromator, which is equipped with four variable-line-spacing gratings and covers the 20-2000 eV energy range. Two elliptically polarized undulators are employed to provide photons with variable polarization, linear in every inclination and circular. The expected energy resolution is approximately 10 meV at 1000 eV with a flux of more than 3 × 10(10) photons s(-1) at the ARPES sample positions. The refocusing of both branches is based on Kirkpatrick-Baez pairs. The expected spot sizes when using a 10 µm exit slit are 15 µm × 5 µm (horizontal × vertical FWHM) at the ARPES station and 10 µm × 5 µm (horizontal × vertical FWHM) at the PEEM station. The use of plane optical elements upstream of the exit slit, a variable-line-spacing grating and a pre-mirror in the monochromator that allows the influence of the thermal deformation to be eliminated are essential for achieving the ultrahigh-energy resolution.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moler, Jr., Edward John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, (√3 x √3)R30° and (1.5 x 1.5)R18° CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from (√3x√3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/ΔE≈-106 in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  19. Evaluating structure in thin block copolymer films with soft x-rays (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Daniel; Liman, Christopher; Hannon, Adam F.; Ren, Jiaxing; Chen, Xuanxuan; Suh, Hyo Seon; de Pablo, Juan J.; Nealey, Paul F.; Kline, R. Joseph

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry is evaluating a variety of approaches for the cost efficient production of future processing and memory generations. Amongst the technologies being explored are multiple patterning steps, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, multiple-beam electron beam lithography and the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs). BCP DSA utilizes a chemical or topographical template to induce long range order in a thin film of BCP which enhances the resolution of the original pattern. The characterization of buried structure within a DSA BCP film is challenging due to the lack of contrast between the organic materials. Critical-dimension small angle x-ray scattering (CDSAXS) measurements were performed on DSA BCP films, using soft X-rays to tune the contrast, in order to understand the relationship between template structure and film morphology.1 The results of these measurements show that as the width of the guiding stripe widens the arrangement of the BCP on the guiding stripe inverts, shifting from the A block being centered on the guiding stripe to the B block being centered on the guiding stripe. The initial results of integration of mean field simulations into the analysis of scattering data will also be discussed. In addition to examining the BCP structure with CDSAXS, soft X-ray reflectivity2 measurements were performed on BCP to better understand the relationship between interface width for systems with alternative architectures (triblocks) and additives (polymers/ionic liquids). The addition of a selectively associating additive increases the interaction parameter between the two blocks, resulting in the reduction of the interface width and access to smaller pitches. The use of soft X-ray reflectivity allows the evaluation of the distribution of the additive. (1) Sunday, D. F.; Hammond, M. R.; Wang, C.; Wu, W.; Delongchamp, D. M.; Tjio, M.; Cheng, J. Y.; Kline, R. J.; Pitera, J. W. Determination of the Internal Morphology of

  20. Soft x-ray blazed transmission grating spectrometer with high resolving power and extended bandpass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert; Schattenburg, Mark

    2016-04-01

    A number of high priority questions in astrophysics can be addressed by a state-of-the-art soft x-ray grating spectrometer, such as the role of Active Galactic Nuclei in galaxy and star formation, characterization of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and the “missing baryon” problem, characterization of halos around the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, as well as stellar coronae and surrounding winds and disks. An Explorer-scale, large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer is highly feasible based on Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) grating technology. Still significantly higher performance can be provided by a CAT grating spectrometer on an X-ray-Surveyor-type mission. CAT gratings combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies) with minimal mission resource requirements. They are high-efficiency blazed transmission gratings that consist of freestanding, ultra-high aspect-ratio grating bars fabricated from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using advanced anisotropic dry and wet etch techniques. Blazing is achieved through grazing-incidence reflection off the smooth grating bar sidewalls. The reflection properties of silicon are well matched to the soft x-ray band. Nevertheless, CAT gratings with sidewalls made of higher atomic number elements allow extension of the CAT grating principle to higher energies and larger dispersion angles. We show x-ray data from metal-coated CAT gratings and demonstrate efficient blazing to higher energies and larger blaze angles than possible with silicon alone. We also report on measurements of the resolving power of a breadboard CAT grating spectrometer consisting of a Wolter-I slumped-glass focusing mirror pair from Goddard Space Flight Center and CAT gratings, to be

  1. Point Spread Function of ASTRO-H Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Iizuka, Ryo; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Mori, Hideyuki; hide

    2016-01-01

    ASTRO-H (Hitomi) satellite equips two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), one of which (SXT-S) is coupled to Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) while the other (SXT-I) is coupled to Soft X-ray Imager (SXI). Although SXTs are lightweight of approximately 42 kgmodule1 and have large on-axis effective area (EA) of approximately 450 cm(exp 2) at 4.5 keV module(sub 1) by themselves, their angular resolutions are moderate approximately 1.2 arcmin in half power diameter. The amount of contamination into the SXS FOV (3.05 times 3.05 arcmin(exp 2) from nearby sources was measured in the ground-based calibration at the beamline in Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. The contamination at 4.5 keV were measured with sources distant from the SXS center by one width of the FOV in perpendicular and diagonal directions, that is, 3 and 4.5 arcmin-off, respectively. The average EA of the contamination in the four directions with the 3 and 4.5 arcmin-off were measured to be 2 and 0.6% of the on-axis EA of 412 cm (exp) for the SXS FOV, respectively. The contamination from a source distant by two FOV widths in a diagonal direction, that is, 8.6 arcmin-off was measured to be 0.1% of the on-axis at 4.5 keV. The contamination amounts were also measured at 1.5 keV and 8.0 keV which indicated that the ratio of the contamination EA to that of on-axis hardly depended on the source energy. The off-axis SXT-I images from 4.5 to 27 arcmin were acquired at intervals of -4.5 arcmin for the SXI FOV of 38 times 38 arcmin(exp 2). The image shrinked as the off-axis angle increased. Above 13.5 arcmin of off-angle, a stray appeared around the image center in the off-axis direction. As for the on-axis image, a ring-shaped stray appeared at the edge of SXI of approximately 18 arcmin distant from the image center.

  2. The SMILE Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) CCD design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Holland, A. D.; Burgon, R.; Buggey, T.; Skottfelt, J.; Sembay, S.; Drumm, P.; Thornhill, J.; Read, A.; Sykes, J.; Walton, D.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Kennedy, T.; Raab, W.; Verhoeve, P.; Agnolon, D.; Woffinden, C.

    2018-01-01

    SMILE, the Solar wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer, is a joint science mission between the European Space Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The spacecraft will be uniquely equipped to study the interaction between the Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the solar wind on a global scale. SMILE's instruments will explore this science through imaging of the solar wind charge exchange soft X-ray emission from the dayside magnetosheath, simultaneous imaging of the UV northern aurora and in-situ monitoring of the solar wind and magnetosheath plasma and magnetic field conditions. The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) is the instrument being designed to observe X-ray photons emitted by the solar wind charge exchange process at photon energies between 200 eV and 2000 eV . X-rays will be collected using a focal plane array of two custom-designed CCDs, each consisting of 18 μm square pixels in a 4510 by 4510 array. SMILE will be placed in a highly elliptical polar orbit, passing in and out of the Earth's radiation belts every 48 hours. Radiation damage accumulated in the CCDs during the mission's nominal 3-year lifetime will degrade their performance (such as through decreases in charge transfer efficiency), negatively impacting the instrument's ability to detect low energy X-rays incident on the regions of the CCD image area furthest from the detector outputs. The design of the SMILE-SXI CCDs is presented here, including features and operating methods for mitigating the effects of radiation damage and expected end of life CCD performance. Measurements with a PLATO device that has not been designed for soft X-ray signal levels indicate a temperature-dependent transfer efficiency performance varying between 5×10‑5 and 9×10‑4 at expected End of Life for 5.9 keV photons, giving an initial set of measurements from which to extrapolate the performance of the SXI CCDs.

  3. Active Detectors for Plasma Soft X-Ray Detection at PALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Granja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work carried out for an experimental study of low-energy nuclear excitation by laser-produced plasma at the PALS Prague laser facility. We describe the adaptation and shielding of single-quantum active radiation detectors developed at IEAP CTU Prague to facilitate their operation inside the laser interaction chamber in the vicinity of the plasma target. The goal of this effort is direct real-time single-quantum detection of plasma soft X-ray radiation with energy above a few keV and subsequent identification of the decay of the excited nuclear states via low-energy gamma rays in a highly radiative environment with strong electromagnetic interference.

  4. RASOR: An advanced instrument for soft x-ray reflectivity and diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, T. A. W.; Hase, T. P. A.; Iida, T.; Endo, K.; Steadman, P.; Marshall, A. R.; Dhesi, S. S.; van der Laan, G.; Hatton, P. D.

    2010-07-01

    We report the design and construction of a novel soft x-ray diffractometer installed at Diamond Light Source. The beamline endstation RASOR is constructed for general users and designed primarily for the study of single crystal diffraction and thin film reflectivity. The instrument is comprised of a limited three circle (θ, 2θ, and χ) diffractometer with an additional removable rotation (ϕ) stage. It is equipped with a liquid helium cryostat, and post-scatter polarization analysis. Motorized motions are provided for the precise positioning of the sample onto the diffractometer center of rotation, and for positioning the center of rotation onto the x-ray beam. The functions of the instrument have been tested at Diamond Light Source, and initial test measurements are provided, demonstrating the potential of the instrument.

  5. Ultrafast molecular dynamics of dissociative ionization in OCS probed by soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Ali; Wales, Benji; Karimi, Reza; Gauthier, Isabelle; MacDonald, Michael; Zuin, Lucia; Sanderson, Joe

    2016-11-01

    Soft x-rays (90-173 eV) from the 3rd generation Canadian Light Source have been used in conjunction with a multi coincidence time and position sensitive detection apparatus to observe the dissociative ionization of OCS. By varying the x-ray energy we can compare dynamics from direct and Auger ionization processes, and access ionization channels which result in two or three body breakup, from 2+ to 4+ ionization states. We make several new observations for the 3+ state such as kinetic energy release limited by photon energy, and using Dalitz plots we can see evidence of timescale effects between the direct and Auger ionization process for the first time. Finally, using Dalitz plots for OCS4+ we observe for the first time that breakup involving an O2+ ion can only proceed from out of equilibrium nuclear arrangement for S(2p) Auger ionization.

  6. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at the CLS: Commissioning results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaznatcheev, K.V. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N OX4 (Canada)], E-mail: kkaznatcheev@lightsource.ca; Karunakaran, Ch. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N OX4 (Canada); Lanke, U.D.; Urquhart, S.G. [Chemistry Department, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C9 (Canada); Obst, M. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N OX4 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Hitchcock, A.P. [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2007-11-11

    The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy beamline (SM) at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) is a dedicated spectromicroscopy facility, consisting of an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU), a beamline based on a collimated PGM optimized for 100-2000 eV range and two end stations: scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and roll-in X-ray photoemission electron microscope (X-PEEM, from Elmitec GmbH). The overall system has achieved its design parameters with an on-sample flux of {approx}10{sup 8} ph/s at R=3000, 0.5 A in STXM and {approx}10{sup 12} ph/s at R=3000, 0.5 A in the PEEM, in each case at a spatial resolution exceeding 40 nm. It can also provide an energy resolving power above 10,000. A careful EPU calibration procedure enables advanced polarization measurements.

  7. Optimization of soft X-ray tomography on the COMPASS tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imríšek Martin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS tokamak is equipped with the soft X-ray (SXR diagnostic system based on silicon photodiode arrays shielded by a thin beryllium foil. The diagnostic is composed of two pinhole cameras having 35 channels each and one vertical pinhole camera with 20 channels, which was installed recently to improve tomographic inversions. Lines of sight of the SXR detectors cover almost complete poloidal cross section of the COMPASS vessel with a spatial resolution of 1-2 cm and temporal resolution of about 3 μs. Local emissivity is reconstructed via Tikhonov regularization constrained by minimum Fisher information that provides reliable and robust solution despite limited number of projections and ill-conditionality of this task. Improved border conditions and numerical differentiation matrices suppressing artifacts in reconstructed radiation were implemented in the code. Furthermore, a fast algorithm eliminating iterative processes was developed, and it is foreseen to be tested in real-time plasma control.

  8. Magnetic effects on the resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering in the transition metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, V.I. E-mail: greben@imp.uran.ru

    2003-03-01

    Applications of resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering for studying magnetic systems are discussed. The emission spectra show the magnetic circular dichroism when they are excited by the polarized incident X-ray radiation. A theoretical description for L{alpha} and L{beta} emission spectra recorded at different excitation photon energies gives the main spectral lines: a normal emission peak, with the constant energy, and a quasi-elastic peak that moves in energy scale when the incident photon energy changes. The intensity of the quasi-elastic peak is strongly controlled by valence electron excitations due to core-hole effects. The emission experiments contain information on the atomic magnetic moment values in the case of depolarized incident radiation and in disordered magnetic states. The integral intensities ratio for L{beta}/L{alpha} lines in transition metal oxides are analyzed from this point of view.

  9. Platinum/carbon multilayer reflectors for soft-x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, G S; Yamashita, K; Suzuki, T; Hatsukade, I; Tamura, K; Ishigami, T; Takahama, S; Namba, Y

    1994-09-01

    We have fabricated platinum/carbon (Pt/C) multilayer reflectors with 2d spacaings between 50 and 200 Å, using an electron-beam evaporator. We investigated the effects of 2d values, the number of layer pairs, substrate temperature, coatings, and the long-term stability on the reflectivity performance by using characteristic x rays and monochromatized synchrotron radiation in the 0.8-8-keV region. In this study we show that Pt/C multilayers with 10-20 layer pairs exhibit high and stable soft-x-ray reflectivity. The interfacial roughness was measured in the range of 5 Å and becomes lower for structures deposited at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Coating these reflectors with a 100-Å-thick platinum layer increased the grazing angle reflectivity without significantly lowering the Bragg peak reflectivity.

  10. Tunable orbital angular momentum beams in the extreme ultraviolet/soft x-ray regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; San Román, Julio; Picón, Antonio; Plaja, Luis; Hernández-García, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) has been recently proven to produce harmonic vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) region from the nonlinear up-conversion of infrared vortex beams. In this work we present two methods to control and extend the OAM content of the harmonic vortices. First, we show that when a driver combination of different vortex modes is used, HHG leads to the production of harmonic vortices with a broad OAM content due to its nonperturbative nature. Second, we show that harmonic vortices with two discrete OAM contributions -so called fractional OAM modes- are generated when HHG is driven by conical refraction beams. Our work offers the possibility of generating tunable OAM beams in the XUV regime, potentially extensible to the soft x rays, overcoming the state of the art limitations for the generation of OAM beams far from the visible domain.

  11. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  12. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  13. A comparison between soft x-ray and magnetic phase data on the Madison symmetric torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanMeter, P. D., E-mail: pvanmeter@wisc.edu; Reusch, L. M.; Sarff, J. S.; Den Hartog, D. J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The Soft X-Ray (SXR) tomography system on the Madison Symmetric Torus uses four cameras to determine the emissivity structure of the plasma. This structure should directly correspond to the structure of the magnetic field; however, there is an apparent phase difference between the emissivity reconstructions and magnetic field reconstructions when using a cylindrical approximation. The difference between the phase of the dominant rotating helical mode of the magnetic field and the motion of the brightest line of sight for each SXR camera is dependent on both the camera viewing angle and the plasma conditions. Holding these parameters fixed, this phase difference is shown to be consistent over multiple measurements when only toroidal or poloidal magnetic field components are considered. These differences emerge from physical effects of the toroidal geometry which are not captured in the cylindrical approximation.

  14. Stability of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides irradiated by soft X-rays and low energy electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Roger C.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh R.; Shi, Tan; Zhang, Kehao; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Jovanovic, Igor; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2017-04-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional materials (2DMs) such as molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide have attracted significant attention due to their unique electronic properties. Understanding their nanoscale radiation tolerance is needed for developing radiation-hardened nanoelectronics. Here, we report that the XPS environment of soft X-ray (E = 1.486 keV) exposure in a vacuum combined with a low energy electron flood gun leads to charge accumulation in the 2D layers over time, with little impact on layer chemistry. Additionally, the charging that induced the 2DM/substrate heterostructure depends more on the growth technique, the size of as-grown domains, and the surface coverage of the 2DM than the conductivity of the substrate. Charging is minimized for the combination of a continuous 2DM film and strong coupling between the 2DM and the substrate.

  15. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5–7.5 × 1013 cm−3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d–4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20–40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  16. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hayato; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sasaki, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; LHD Experiment Group

    2017-08-01

    The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA) emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5-7.5) × 1013 cm-3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d-4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20-40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  17. Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering Studies of Multiferroic YMn2O5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partzsch, S.; Wilkins, S.B.; Schierle, E.; Soltwisch, V.; Hill, J.P.; Weschke, E.; Souptel, D.; Buchner, B.; Geck, J.

    2011-06-17

    We performed soft x-ray resonant scattering at the MnL{sub 2,3}- and OK edges of YMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. While the resonant intensity at the MnL{sub 2,3} edges represent the magnetic order parameter, the resonant scattering at the OK edge is found to be directly related to the macroscopic ferroelectric polarization. The latter observation reveals the important role of the spin-dependent Mn-O hybridization for the multiferroicity of YMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We present details about how to obtain correct energy dependent lineshapes and discuss the origin of the resonant intensity at the OK edge.

  18. The photoelectric effect from CsI by polarized soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ping S.; Church, Eric D.; Hanany, Shaul; Liu, Yee; Fleischman, Judith; Kaaret, Philip; Novick, Robert; Manzo, Giuseppe

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the polarization dependence of the photoelectric effect produced by soft X-rays from CsI indicate that the geometrical effects in these experiments can often mimic the polarization signature. This paper presents a detailed calculation of these geometrical effects that are produced when the X-ray beam is not precisely aligned on a rotatable plane photocathode. The experimentally observed geometrical effects were used to precisely determine the realignment of the incident beam of polarized X-rays on a rotatable photocathode. The results allow determinations of the true polarization dependence of the photoemission from CsI. It is shown that the photoelectric effect in CsI depends on the polarization state of the X-rays.

  19. Soft X-ray response of a CCD with a grating spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Shouho, M; Katayama, H; Kohmura, T; Tsunemi, H; Kitamoto, S; Hayashida, K; Miyata, E; Hashimotodani, K; Yoshita, K; Koyama, K; Ricker, G; Bautz, M W; Foster, R; Kissel, S

    1999-01-01

    We calibrate the X-ray imaging spectrometers, which are CCD cameras installed on the ASTRO-E satellite, by using dispersed continuous soft X-rays from a grating spectrometer. We obtained the signal-pulse height and energy-resolution as a function of X-ray energies continuously. However, the wings of the line spread function of the grating distorts the center of the signal-pulse height derived by a simple analysis. An estimation of this distortion is presented. We also describe two methods of extracting the pure signal-pulse-height distribution from the data using the spectrometer. A brief description of the low-energy tail is presented.

  20. Space- and time-resolved soft x-ray emission from laser-produced magnesium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S.S.; Bindhu, C.V.; Kunze, H.J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik V, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany)]. E-mail: hans-joachim.kunze@ep5.ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2001-02-21

    Soft x-ray emission from plasmas produced by ablation from a magnesium target employing a ruby laser is studied using a grazing incidence spectrograph in the spectral region 3-12 nm. Emission intensities are investigated for different ionic lines as a function of position, time after the maximum of the laser pulse and laser irradiance. A gated pinhole camera is employed for studying the evolution of the plasma at early stages. The propagation distances and velocities are measured. Our results show that the line intensities of all ionic lines increase with laser irradiance until a saturation plateau is observed at high irradiance levels. The increase in ionization and intensity saturation with varying laser irradiance seems to suggest strong interaction of the laser pulse with the dense plasma formed near the target within the pulse duration. (author)

  1. Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering studies of U(VI)reduction on iron surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butorin, S.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Kvashnina, K.; Soroka, I.; Ollila, K.; Guo, J.-H.; Roberts, K.E.; Werme, L.; Nordgren, J.

    2003-11-01

    We report on the spectroscopic analysis of several samples relevant to the processes governing the behavior of oxidized uranium species in groundwater solutions under anoxic conditions. Both Fe samples with different times of exposure to the U(IV) solution and Fe metal solution interfaces in the liquid cell ex-situ and in-situ, respectively. Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering is shown to be sensitive to the chemical state of uranium. The measurements were performed at a number of energies of the primary photon beam across the U 5d absorption edge. The results unambiguously indicate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) on the Fe surface.

  2. Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daido, H.; Ninomiya, S.; Imani, T.; Kodama, R.; Takagi, M.; Kato, Y. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamado-oka, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan); Murai, K. [Department of Material Physics, Osaka National Research Institute, Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563 (Japan); Zhang, J.; You, Y.; Gu, Y. [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 525-84, Chengdu, 610003 (China)

    1996-07-01

    We report what we believe is the first observation of clear soft-x-ray lasing in Ni-like Ag, Te, La, Ce, and Pr and also in Nd covering the spectral range 14.3{endash}7.9 nm. A curved slab target was irradiated with quadruple 1.053-{mu}m laser pulses. The pulse-to-pulse separation for the first three pulses was 400 ps, and that between the third and the fourth pulses was 1.6 ns. The pulse duration and irradiance on the target were 100 ps and {approximately}7{times}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively. For all the targets the most intense lasing was observed at the fourth pump pulse. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. Molecular dynamics of dissociative ionization in OCS probed by soft X-ray synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramadhan, Ali; Gauthier, Isabelle; Karimi, Reza; MacDonald, Michael; Zuin, Lucia; Sanderson, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-rays (90-173 eV) from the 3rd generation Canadian Light Source have been used in conjunction with a multi coincidence time and position sensitive detection apparatus to observe the dissociative ionization of OCS. By varying the X-ray energy we can compare dynamics from direct and Auger ionization processes, and access ionization channels which result in two or three body breakup, from 2+ to 4+ ionization states. We make several new observations for the 3+ state such as kinetic energy release limited by photon energy, and using Dalitz plots we can see evidence of timescale effects between the direct and Auger ionization process for the first time. Finally, using Dalitz plots for OCS$^{4+}$ we observe for the first time that breakup involving an O$^{2+}$ ion can only proceed from out of equilibrium nuclear arrangement for S(2p) Auger ionization.

  4. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Dhesi, S S; Maccherozzi, F; Cavill, S; Shepherd, E; Yuan, F; Deshmukh, R; Scott, S; van der Laan, G; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B(4)C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  5. RASOR: an advanced instrument for soft x-ray reflectivity and diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, T A W; Hase, T P A; Iida, T; Endo, K; Steadman, P; Marshall, A R; Dhesi, S S; van der Laan, G; Hatton, P D

    2010-07-01

    We report the design and construction of a novel soft x-ray diffractometer installed at Diamond Light Source. The beamline endstation RASOR is constructed for general users and designed primarily for the study of single crystal diffraction and thin film reflectivity. The instrument is comprised of a limited three circle (theta, 2theta, and chi) diffractometer with an additional removable rotation (phi) stage. It is equipped with a liquid helium cryostat, and post-scatter polarization analysis. Motorized motions are provided for the precise positioning of the sample onto the diffractometer center of rotation, and for positioning the center of rotation onto the x-ray beam. The functions of the instrument have been tested at Diamond Light Source, and initial test measurements are provided, demonstrating the potential of the instrument.

  6. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maccherozzi, F.; Cavill, S.; Shepherd, E.; Yuan, F.; Deshmukh, R.; Scott, S.; van der Laan, G.; Sawhney, K. J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  7. ROSAT EUV and soft X-ray studies of atmospheric composition and structure in G191-B2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, M. A.; Fleming, T. A.; Finley, D. S.; Koester, D.; Diamond, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies of the hot DA white dwarf GI91-B2B have been unable to determine whether the observed soft X-ray and EUV opacity arises from a stratified hydrogen and helium atmosphere or from the presence of trace metals in the photosphere. New EUV and soft X-ray photometry of this star, made with the ROSAT observatory, when analyzed in conjunction with the earlier data, shows that the stratified models cannot account for the observed fluxes. Consequently, we conclude that trace metals must be a substantial source of opacity in the photosphere of G191-B2B.

  8. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  9. Soft X-ray generation in cascade SASE FEL with two-frequency undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K.

    2017-08-01

    The generation of soft X-ray radiation in cascade self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL) using harmonics of a two-frequency undulator is studied. An advanced phenomenological model of SASE FEL, accounting for the properties of the undulator and of the electron beam, including major losses, is employed. The account for the beam energy spread, divergence and diffraction is harmonic dependent, which is a step forward from the previous models and phenomenological approach, which consider all the losses independent of the harmonic number. The model is validated with the experimental measurements of the FEL harmonic generation and with relevant three-dimensional numerical simulations. The model is adopted for the description of cascading SASE FELs. With its help the dynamics of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) SASE FEL cascades is analyzed to obtain the maximum high harmonic power in the X-ray band with the lowest possible seed frequency and the shortest FEL length. The advantages of the two-frequency undulator for SASE FEL in this context are demonstrated and the possibility of its usage in cascading HGHG SASE FEL is shown. Several types of cascade FELs with two-frequency undulators are simulated. Frequency multiplication in two, three and four stage cascades is introduced to obtain soft X-ray radiation. The possibility of the generation of a powerful radiation, 75 MW at λ ∼2.5\\text{--}4.5 \\text{nm} and a lower intensity 3rd harmonic, 100 kW at λ ∼1 \\text{nm} , is demonstrated in multi-cascade FELs at just 20–35 meters with the seed wavelengths λ{seed}∼140 \\text{nm}, ∼40 \\text{nm} and ∼11\\text{--}13 \\text{nm} .

  10. Correlative cryogenic tomography of cells using light and soft x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Cinquin, Bertrand P.; Do, Myan; McDermott, Gerry [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); National Center for X-ray Tomography, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA (United States); Le Gros, Mark A., E-mail: MALegros@lbl.gov [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Physical BioSciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); National Center for X-ray Tomography, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA (United States); Larabell, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.larabell@ucsf.edu [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Physical BioSciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); National Center for X-ray Tomography, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Correlated imaging is the process of imaging a specimen with two complementary modalities, and then combining the two data sets to create a highly informative, composite view. A recent implementation of this concept has been the combination of soft x-ray tomography (SXT) with fluorescence cryogenic microscopy (FCM). SXT–FCM is used to visualize cells that are held in a near-native, cryopreserved. The resultant images are, therefore, highly representative of both the cellular architecture and molecular organization in vivo. SXT quantitatively visualizes the cell and sub-cellular structures; FCM images the spatial distribution of fluorescently labeled molecules. Here, we review the characteristics of SXT–FCM, and briefly discuss how this method compares with existing correlative imaging techniques. We also describe how the incorporation of a cryo-rotation stage into a cryogenic fluorescence microscope allows acquisition of fluorescence cryogenic tomography (FCT) data. FCT is optimally suited for correlation with SXT, since both techniques image the specimen in 3-D, potentially with similar, isotropic spatial resolution. - Highlights: • We describe a new correlated imaging modality: soft x-ray tomography combined (SXT) with confocal fluorescence tomography (CFT). • Data from the two modalities are combined accurately and precisely using fiducials visible in both types of data. • Cells imaged by SXT–CFT are maintained close to their native state by cryo-preservation. • SXT–CFT is applicable to most cell types, especially cells grown in suspension. • ‘Super-resolution’ microscopes being developed for CFT data acquisition match the spatial resolution of SXT.

  11. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Daniel; Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Vyšín, Luděk; Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Pina, Ladislav; Davídková, Marie; Juha, Libor

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray "water window" spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280-540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 103 photons/μm2/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms' sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the "water window", where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET - Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  12. Examining the angular resolution of the ASTRO-H's soft x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Mori, Hideyuki; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Soong, Yang; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari

    2016-10-01

    The international x-ray observatory ASTRO-H was renamed "Hitomi" after launch. It covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to 600 keV. It is equipped with two soft x-ray telescopes (SXTs: SXT-I and SXT-S) for imaging the soft x-ray sky up to ˜12 keV, which focus an image onto the respective focal-plane detectors: CCD camera (SXI) and a calorimeter (SXS). The SXTs are fabricated in a quadrant unit. The angular resolution in half-power diameter (HPD) of each quadrant of the SXTs ranges between 1.1 and 1.4 arc min at 4.51 keV. It was also found that one quadrant has an energy dependence on the HPD. We examine the angular resolution with "spot scan" measurements. In order to understand the cause of imaging capability deterioration and to reflect it to the future telescope development, we carried out spot scan measurements, in which we illuminate all over the aperture of each quadrant with a square beam 8 mm on a side. Based on the scan results, we made "maps" of image blurring and a focus position. The former and the latter reflect figure error and positioning error, respectively, of the foils that are within the incident 8 mm×8 mm beam. As a result, we estimated those errors in a quadrant to be ˜0.9 to 1.0 and ˜0.6 to 0.9 arc min, respectively. We found that the larger the positioning error in a quadrant is, the larger its HPD is. The HPD map, which manifests the local image blurring, is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focus position is different from location to location in each telescope. It is also found that the difference in local performance causes energy dependence of the HPD.

  13. The hard X-ray perspective on the soft X-ray excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Lohfink, Anne M.; Zoghbi, Abderahmen [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Fabian, Andrew C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gallo, Luigi C. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3 (Canada); Walton, Dominic, E-mail: ranjan@astro.umd.edu [Cahill Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of many active galactic nuclei exhibit a 'soft excess' below 1 keV, whose physical origin remains unclear. Diverse models have been suggested to account for it, including ionized reflection of X-rays from the inner part of the accretion disk, ionized winds/absorbers, and Comptonization. The ionized reflection model suggests a natural link between the prominence of the soft excess and the Compton reflection hump strength above 10 keV, but it has not been clear what hard X-ray signatures, if any, are expected from the other soft X-ray candidate models. Additionally, it has not been possible up until recently to obtain high-quality simultaneous measurements of both soft and hard X-ray emission necessary to distinguish these models but upcoming joint XMM-NuSTAR programs provide precisely this opportunity. In this paper, we present an extensive analysis of simulations of XMM-NuSTAR observations, using two candidate soft excess models as inputs, to determine whether such campaigns can disambiguate between them by using hard and soft X-ray observations in tandem. The simulated spectra are fit with the simplest 'observer's model' of a blackbody and neutral reflection to characterize the strength of the soft and hard excesses. A plot of the strength of the hard excess against the soft excess strength provides a diagnostic plot which allows the soft excess production mechanism to be determined in individual sources and samples using current state-of-the-art and next generation hard X-ray enabled observatories. This approach can be straightforwardly extended to other candidate models for the soft excess.

  14. Examining the Angular Resolution of the Astro-H's Soft X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Mori, Hideyuki; hide

    2016-01-01

    The international x-ray observatory ASTRO-H was renamed Hitomi after launch. It covers a wide energy range from a few hundred eV to 600 keV. It is equipped with two soft x-ray telescopes (SXTs: SXT-I and SXT-S) for imaging the soft x-ray sky up to 12 keV, which focus an image onto the respective focal-plane detectors: CCD camera (SXI) and a calorimeter (SXS). The SXTs are fabricated in a quadrant unit. The angular resolution in half-power diameter (HPD) of each quadrant of the SXTs ranges between 1.1 and 1.4 arc min at 4.51 keV. It was also found that one quadrant has an energy dependence on the HPD. We examine the angular resolution with spot scan measurements. In order to understand the cause of imaging capability deterioration and to reflect it to the future telescope development, we carried out spot scan measurements, in which we illuminate all over the aperture of each quadrant with a square beam 8 mm on a side. Based on the scan results, we made maps of image blurring and a focus position. The former and the latter reflect figure error and positioning error, respectively, of the foils that are within the incident 8 mm x 8 mm beam. As a result, we estimated those errors in a quadrant to be approx. 0.9 to 1.0 and approx. 0.6 to 0.9 arc min, respectively. We found that the larger the positioning error in a quadrant is, the larger its HPD is. The HPD map, which manifests the local image blurring, is very similar from quadrant to quadrant, but the map of the focus position is different from location to location in each telescope. It is also found that the difference in local performance causes energy dependence of the HPD.

  15. Development of a compact laser-produced plasma soft X-ray source for radiobiology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adjei, Daniel, E-mail: nana.adjeidan@gmail.com [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Radiation Protection Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Ayele, Mesfin Getachew; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Bartnik, Andrzej; Wegrzynski, Łukasz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2, Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Vyšín, Luděk [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Engineering Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Wiechec, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Kwiatek, Wojciech M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 152, Radzikowskiego Str., 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Pina, Ladislav [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Engineering Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Davídková, Marie [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Řež (Czech Republic); Juha, Libor [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-01

    A desk-top laser-produced plasma (LPP) source of soft X-rays (SXR) has been developed for radiobiology research. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with the focused beam of a commercial Nd:YAG laser. The source has been optimized to get a maximum photon emission from LPP in the X-ray “water window” spectral wavelength range from 2.3 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of oxygen) to 4.4 nm (i.e., an absorption edge of carbon) (280–540 eV in photon energy units) by using argon gas-puff target and spectral filtering by free-standing thin foils. The present source delivers nanosecond pulses of soft X-rays at a fluence of about 4.2 × 10{sup 3} photons/μm{sup 2}/pulse on a sample placed inside the vacuum chamber. In this paper, the source design, radiation output characterization measurements and initial irradiation experiments are described. The source can be useful in addressing observations related to biomolecular, cellular and organisms’ sensitivity to pulsed radiation in the “water window”, where carbon atoms absorb X-rays more strongly than the oxygen, mostly present in water. The combination of the SXR source and the radiobiology irradiation layout, reported in this article, make possible a systematic investigation of relationships between direct and indirect action of ionizing radiation, an increase of a local dose in carbon-rich compartments of the cell (e.g., lipid membranes), an experimental estimation of a particular role of the Auger effect (in particular in carbon atoms) in the damage to biological systems, and the study of ionization/excitation-density (LET – Linear Energy Transfer) and dose-rate effects in radiobiology.

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  17. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present high resolution upconversion of incoherent infrared radiation by means of sum-frequency mixing with a laser followed by simple CCD Si-camera detection. Noise associated with upconversion is, in strong contrast to room temperature direct mid-IR detection, extremely small, thus very faint...

  18. High-energy photoemission spectroscopy for investigating bulk electronic structures of strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Akira, E-mail: sekiyama@mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531, Osaka (Japan); SPring-8/RIKEN, Sayo 679-5148, Hyogo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Progress of high-energy photoemission spectroscopy for investigating the bulk electronic structures of strongly correlated electron systems is reviewed. High-resolution soft X-ray photoemission has opened the door for revealing the bulk strongly correlated spectral functions overcoming the surface contributions. More bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) enables us to study the electronic structure with negligible surface contribution. The recent development of the polarization-dependent HAXPES is also described in this short review.

  19. Soft X-ray and ENA imaging of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere : OpenGGCM modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H. K.; Sibeck, D. G.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Raeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    Charged ions and neutral atoms exchange electrons in many space plasma venues. Soft X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions, such as C6+, O7+, and Fe13+, interact with Hydrogen and Helium atoms. Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are produced when solar wind protons encounter neutral atoms. Consequently ENA and soft x-ray images can be a powerful technique to probe remotely the plasma and neutral density structures created when the solar wind interacts with planetary exospheres, such as those at the Earth, Moon, Mars, Venus, and comets. Here, we use the OpenGGCM global magnetosphere-ionosphere MHD model and the Hodges model for the Earth's exosphere to simulate both soft X-ray and ENA images of Earth's dayside cusps and magnetosheath in preparation for future mission planning. We consider several solar wind and IMF scenarios, such as a sudden increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure and southward IMF turning. We then predict the time-dependent variations in X-Ray and ENA images that would be observed by spacecraft far outside the magnetosphere. As expected, strong signals appear near to and define the positions of the bow shock, magnetopause, and cusps. The soft X-ray imager observes changes in the dayside system nearly instantaneously, while the ENA imager measures the changes later due to the finite travel time of ENAs from the dayside systems to the spacecraft location.

  20. Soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism : a new technique for probing magnetic properties of magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Idzerda, Y.U.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of applying the novel soft-X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD) technique to investigate the magnetic properties of magnetic surfaces and uitrathin films. Measurements have been carried out on Ni films of various thickness on a Cu(100) substrate at the Ni L2,3

  1. The faint neutron star soft X-ray transient SAX J1810.8-2609 in quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the analysis of a 35-ksec-long Chandra observation of the neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) SAX J1810.8-2609. We detect three sources in the field of view. The position of one of them is consistent with the location of the ROSAT error circle of SAX J1810.8-2609. The accurate Chandra

  2. Achievement of the saturation limit and energy extraction in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, J. J.; Clark, D. P.; Chilla, J. L. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.

    1996-12-01

    A major goal in ultrashort wavelength laser research is the development of compact "table-top" amplifiers capable of generating soft X-ray pulses of substantial energy that can impact applications. Such development motivates the demonstration of gain media generated by compact devices, that can be successfully scaled in length to reach gain saturation. At this condition, which occurs when the laser intensity reaches the saturation intensity, a large fraction of the energy stored in the laser's upper level can be extracted. To date, gain saturation had only been achieved in a few soft X-ray laser transitions in plasmas generated by some of the world's largest laser facilities.1 Gain in soft X-ray lines has been reported in several compact systems, but in only three cases was the gain length product greater than 5.2-4 In all cases, however, laser energy extraction from table-top amplifiers has been small. A next major step in the development of compact, ultrashort wavelength lasers consists in ad-vancing from gain observations to the demonstration of substantial laser output energies. We have achieved saturated soft X-ray laser operation at 46.9 nm in Ne-like argon in the plasma column generated by a compact capillary discharge.

  3. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy in light antiprotonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, G L; Augsburger, M A; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Elble, M; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    2000-01-01

    At the LEAR facility, CERN, antiprotonic L alpha transitions in light elements have been investigated with a focussing crystal spectrometer. The high resolution of the experiment allowed for the first time to resolve in pH/pH the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ state from the close-lying states 2/sup 3/P/sub 2/, 2/sup 1/P/sub 1/, and 2/sup 3/P /sub 1/. In pD the corresponding transitions were found to be more than an order of magnitude broader. To a large extent the results for pH support the meson exchange model. (15 refs).

  4. First peek of ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) in-orbit performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter; Mori, Hideyuki; Olsen, Larry; Robinson, David; Koenecke, Richard; Chang, Bill; Hahne, Devin; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kurashima, Sho; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Miyazawa, Takuya; Tachibana, Kenji; Tamura, Keisuke; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Tawara, Yuzuru; Sugita, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    ASTRO-H (Hitomi) is a Japanese X-ray astrophysics satellite just launched in February, 2016, from Tanegashima, Japan by a JAXA's H-IIA launch vehicle. It has two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments, that were developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in collaboration with ISAS/JAXA and Nagoya University. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter instrument (Soft X-ray Spectrometer, SXS) and the other for an X-ray CCD camera (Soft X-ray Imager, SXI), both covering the X-ray energy band up to 15 keV. The two SXTs were fully characterized at the 30-m X-ray beamline at ISAS/JAXA. The combined SXT+SXS system effective area is about 250 and 300 cm2 at 1 and 6 keV, respectively, although observations were performed with the gate valve at the dewar entrance closed, which blocks most of low energy X-rays and some of high energy ones. The angular resolution for SXS is 1.2 arcmin (Half Power Diameter, HPD). The combined SXT+SXI system effective area is about 370 and 350 cm2 at 1 and 6 keV, respectively. The angular resolution for SXI is 1.3 arcmin (HPD). The both SXTs have a field of view of about 16 arcmin (FWHM of their vignetting functions). The SXT+SXS field of view is limited to 3 x 3 arcmin by the SXS array size. In-flight data available to the SXT team was limited at the time of this conference and a point-like source data is not available for the SXT+SXS. Although due to lack of attitude information we were unable to reconstruct a point spread function of SXT+SXI, according to RXJ1856.5-3754 data, the SXT seems to be working as expected in terms of imaging capability. As for the overall effective area response for both SXT+SXS and SXT+SXI, consistent spectral model fitting parameters with the previous measurements were obtained for Crab and G21.5-0.9 data. On the other hand, their 2-10 keV fluxes differ by about 20% at this point. Calibration work is still under progress. The SXT is the latest version of the aluminum foil X-ray mirror, which is

  5. First Peek of ASTRO-H Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) In-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Mori, Hideyuki; Olsen, Lawrence; Robinson, David; Koenecke, Richard; Chang, William; Hahne, David; Iisuka, Ryo; hide

    2016-01-01

    ASTRO-H (Hitomi) is a Japanese X-ray astrophysics satellite just launched in February, 2016, from Tanegashima, Japan by a JAXA's H-IIA launch vehicle. It has two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments, that were developed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in collaboration with ISAS/JAXA and Nagoya University. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter instrument (Soft X-ray Spectrometer, SXS) and the other for an X-ray CCD camera (Soft X-ray Imager, SXI), both covering the X-ray energy band up to 15 keV. The two SXTs were fully characterized at the 30-m X-ray beam line at ISAS/JAXA. The combined SXT+SXS system effective area is about 250 and 300 cm(exp 2) at 1 and 6 keV, respectively, although observations were performed with the gate valve at the dewar entrance closed, which blocks most of low energy X-rays and some of high energy ones. The angular resolution for SXS is 1.2 arcmin (Half Power Diameter, HPD). The combined SXT+SXI system effective area is about 370 and 350 cm (exp 2) at 1 and 6 keV, respectively. The angular resolution for SXI is 1.3 arcmin (HPD). The both SXTs have a field of view of about 16 arcmin (FWHM of their vignetting functions).The SXT+SXS field of view is limited to 3 x 3 arcmin by the SXS array size. In-flight data available to the SXT team was limited at the time of this conference and a point-like source data is not available for the SXT+SXS. Although due to lack of attitude information we were unable to reconstruct a point spread function of SXT+SXI, according to RXJ1856.5-3754 data, the SXT seems to be working as expected in terms of imaging capability. As for the overall effective area response for both SXT+SXS and SXT+SXI, consistent spectral model fitting parameters with the previous measurements were obtained for Crab and G21.5-0.9 data. On the other hand, their 2-10 keV fluxes differ by about 20% at this point. Calibration work is still under progress. The SXT is the latest version of the aluminum foil X

  6. In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Audard, Marc; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haas, Daniel; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Koyama, Shu; Kurashima, Sho; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Markevitch, Maxim; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mori, Hideyuki; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; de Vries, Cor P.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre- flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

  7. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  8. A new detector system for low energy X-ray fluorescence coupled with soft X-ray microscopy: First tests and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bufon, Jernej; Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Altissimo, Matteo; Bellutti, Pierluigi; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Borghes, Roberto; Carrato, Sergio; Cautero, Giuseppe; Fabiani, Sergio; Giacomini, Gabriele; Giuressi, Dario; Kourousias, George; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Picciotto, Antonino; Piemonte, Claudio; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rashevskaya, Irina; Stolfa, Andrea; Vacchi, Andrea; Zampa, Gianluigi; Zampa, Nicola; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The last decades have witnessed substantial efforts in the development of several detector technologies for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) applications. In spite of the increasing trend towards performing, cost-effective and reliable XRF systems, detectors for soft X-ray spectroscopy still remain a challenge, requiring further study, engineering and customization in order to yield effective and efficient systems. In this paper we report on the development, first characterization and tests of a novel multielement detector system based on low leakage current silicon drift detectors (SDD) coupled to ultra low noise custom CMOS preamplifiers for synchrotron-based low energy XRF. This new system exhibits the potential for improving the count rate by at least an order of magnitude resulting in ten-fold shorter dwell time at an energy resolution similar to that of single element silicon drift detectors.

  9. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  10. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A. P., E-mail: aph@mcmaster.ca; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; Cooper, G. [Chemistry & Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); West, M. M.; Berejnov, V. [Faculty of Health Sciences Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J. [Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp., Burnaby BC V5J 5J8 (Canada)

    2016-01-28

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  11. Spatially resolved TiOx phases in switched RRAM devices using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, D.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Guttmann, P.; Regoutz, A.; Khiat, A.; Serb, A.; Gupta, I.; Prodromakis, T.

    2016-02-01

    Reduction in metal-oxide thin films has been suggested as the key mechanism responsible for forming conductive phases within solid-state memory devices, enabling their resistive switching capacity. The quantitative spatial identification of such conductive regions is a daunting task, particularly for metal-oxides capable of exhibiting multiple phases as in the case of TiOx. Here, we spatially resolve and chemically characterize distinct TiOx phases in localized regions of a TiOx-based memristive device by combining full-field transmission X-ray microscopy with soft X-ray spectroscopic analysis that is performed on lamella samples. We particularly show that electrically pre-switched devices in low-resistive states comprise reduced disordered phases with O/Ti ratios around 1.37 that aggregate in a ~100 nm highly localized region electrically conducting the top and bottom electrodes of the devices. We have also identified crystalline rutile and orthorhombic-like TiO2 phases in the region adjacent to the main reduced area, suggesting that the temperature increases locally up to 1000 K, validating the role of Joule heating in resistive switching. Contrary to previous studies, our approach enables to simultaneously investigate morphological and chemical changes in a quantitative manner without incurring difficulties imposed by interpretation of electron diffraction patterns acquired via conventional electron microscopy techniques.

  12. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Lan, H.; Liu, Y. L.; Wei, J.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Wang, H. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhao, J. L.; Wang, L.; Liu, S. C.; Ye, Y.; Li, J.; Lin, X.; Li, X. L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Tritz, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Zhu, Y. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

  13. A soft x-ray split-and-delay unit for FLASH II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roling, Sebastian; Rollnik, Matthias; Kuhlmann, Marion; Plönjes, Elke; Wahlert, Frank; Zacharias, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    For the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH II at DESY in Hamburg a new split-and-delay unit (SDU) is built for photon energies in the range of 30 eV beam splitting at grazing incidence angles. A three dimensional set-up allows for the use of two different beam paths. With grazing angles of θ = 1.3° in the fixed beam paths and θ = 1.8° in the variable beam path a good compromise between a sufficient reflectance (shallow angles) and a large possible maximum delay (steeper angles) has been chosen. The maximum possible delay is -6 ps 30 % at hν = 800 eV. For photon energies up to hν = 1800 eV a different beam path with platinum coated mirrors is used enabling a total transmission in the fixed beam path of T > 29 % at hν = 800 eV and T = 24 % at hν = 1800 eV, respectively. In the variable beam path the total transmission in this photon energy range is considerably lower but still sufficient with T = 13 % at hν = 800 eV and T > 6 % at hν = 1800 eV.

  14. The cool half of the H-R diagram in soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Vaiana, G. S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an Einstein Observatory program to map the occurrence of hot coronae (T greater than 1 million K) in the cool half of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram are reported. F-M dwarfs, and late F through early K star giants characterized by 10,000 K chromospheric and 20,000-200,000 K FUV emission lines were studied in one region, while a second region study included red giants later than K2 III and supergiants later than G5 Ib with weaker chromospheric emission and no high temperature species. Program goals comprised determination of the C IV division as seen in soft X-rays, and identification of stellar parameters which distinguish strong from weak coronal X-ray sources. A summary of target stars, X-ray fluxes, and UV emission profiles is provided, and coronal emissions, comparisons of C IV and wind boundaries, hybrid-spectrum supergiants, the energy balance of stellar outer atmospheres, stellar rotation and coronae, and evolutionary considerations are discussed, along with lines of future research.

  15. The diffuse soft X-ray background as seen with the Einstein Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic survey of the diffuse soft X-ray background as seen directly with the Einstein Observatory is presented. With the aid of 1633 selected 1 x 1 deg fields of view obtained by the IPC to provide about 5-percent sky coverage, with some bias toward the Galactic plane, the background in the 0.16-3.5 keV spectral region was spatially resolved on this angular scale. Maps of the background are characterized and produced at different energies within the Einstein passband. It is confirmed that the Galactic ridge is not present at energies below 0.33 keV and it is demonstrated that the appearance of the ridge above this energy is not due to hard Galactic sources with a flux above 10 exp -13 ergs/sq cm/s. A southern Galactic region is identified, with l between 80 and 180 deg and b less than -5 deg, where the mean background intensity has the lowest value and is homogeneous within better than 9 percent. The implications of these results for the Galactic structure and for the nature of the extragalactic X-ray background are discussed.

  16. Soft X-Ray Thomson Scattering in Warm Dense Hydrogen at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faustlin, R R; Toleikis, S; Bornath, T; Doppner, T; Dusterer, S; Forster, E; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Gode, S; Gregori, G; Irsig, R; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Li, B; Meiwes-Broer, K; Mithen, J; Przystawik, A; Redlin, H; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Tavella, F; Thiele, R; Tiggesbaumker, J; Uschmann, I; Zastrau, U; Tschentscher, T

    2009-07-15

    We present collective Thomson scattering with soft x-ray free electron laser radiation as a method to track the evolution of warm dense matter plasmas with {approx}200 fs time resolution. In a pump-probe scheme an 800 nm laser heats a 20 {micro}m hydrogen droplet to the plasma state. After a variable time delay in the order of ps the plasma is probed by an x-ray ultra violet (XUV) pulse which scatters from the target and is recorded spectrally. Alternatively, in a self-Thomson scattering experiment, a single XUV pulse heats the target while a portion of its photons are being scattered probing the target. From such inelastic x-ray scattering spectra free electron temperature and density can be inferred giving insight on relaxation time scales in plasmas as well as the equation of state. We prove the feasibility of this method in the XUV range utilizing the free electron laser facility in Hamburg, FLASH. We recorded Thomson scattering spectra for hydrogen plasma, both in the self-scattering and in the pump-probe mode using optical laser heating.

  17. Laboratory Calibration of Density-Dependent Lines in the EUV and Soft X-Ray Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepson, J K; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Desai, P

    2010-12-09

    We analyzed spectral data of Fe XXII and Ar XIV from laboratory sources in which the electron density varies by several orders of magnitude to help benchmark density-sensitive emission lines useful for astrophysics and to test the atomic models underlying the diagnostic line ratios. We found excellent agreement for Fe XXII, but poorer agreement for Ar XIV. A number of astrophysically important emission lines are sensitive to electron density in the EUV and soft X-ray regions. Lines from Fe XXII, for example, have been used in recent years as diagnostics of stellar coronae, such as the active variable AB Dor, Capella, and EX Hya (Sanz-Forcada et al. 2003, Mewe et al. 2001, Mauche et al. 2003). Here we report spectral data of Fe XXII and Ar XIV from laboratory sources in which the electron density is known from either K-shell density diagnostics (for electron beam ion traps) or from non-spectroscopic means (tokamaks), ranging from 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} to 5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}. These measurements were used to test the atomic data underlying the density diagnostic line ratios, complementing earlier work (Chen et al. 2004).

  18. Investigation of xerogel sensor materials by soft x-ray laser ablation mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Marina; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Filevich, Jorge; Woolston, Mark; Carlton, David; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Rocca, Jorge; Koshkin, Alexander; Menoni, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Xerogels possess many properties that make them prospective candidate for new generation sensor material. By modification of a well-established gel synthesis method, based on supercritical drying, it was possible to obtain a low-cost and highly porous compound. This material has micro volume printing capability, i.e. can be spin-coated to form a thin film. With stable sensing molecules introduced into the pores of its matrix, xerogels provide a fluorescent response to vapors of target compounds, making them identifiable at low concentrations in the air. There are many factors that influence the stability of the xerogel and the reliability of the response signal appearance - from choosing the right synthesis method to selecting a proper sensor molecule. We have investigated the chemical composition of xerogels by soft x-ray laser ablation mass spectrometry. Various morphologies of the printed films as a function of gel formation stage were demonstrated. Results will be presented on the influence of Nile Red dye sensor molecules on the matrix structure with the volumetric distribution shown. This work is supported by NIH/NIAID and NSF grant EEC 0310717.

  19. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF A CO ICE INDUCED BY SOFT X-RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Jiménez-Escobar, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Chen, Y.-J.; Chuang, K.-J.; Huang, C.-H. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Muñoz Caro, G. M., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-03-01

    We irradiated a pure carbon monoxide ice with soft X-rays of energies up to 1.2 keV. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan, exploiting both monochromatic (at 0.3 and 0.55 keV) and broader energy (0.25–1.2 keV) fluxes. The infrared spectra of the irradiated ices showed the formation of a number of products such as polycarbon mono- and dioxides C{sub n}O{sub m}, and chains containing up to 10 carbon atoms. While a gentle increase in the energy absorbed by the ice sample is reflected by an increase in the column densities of newly born species, such correlation breaks down at very high fluxes. In this regime the production yield falls down sharply by about a factor of 100. The refractory residue obtained in the broad energy irradiation is a “compromise” between those obtained with proton irradiation of C{sub 3}O{sub 2} and CO ices in previous experiments. Finally, we discuss the possible implications for space chemistry.

  20. Soft x-ray images of the Laser Entrance Hole of NIC Hohlraums (paper, HTPD2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M B; Meezan, N B

    2012-04-30

    Hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility convert laser energy into a thermal x-radiation drive, which implodes the capsule, thus compressing the fuel. The x-radiation drive is measured with a low resolution, time-resolved x-ray spectrometer that views the hohlraum's laser entrance hole (LEH) at 37{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. This measurement has no spatial resolution. To convert this to the drive inside the hohlraum, the area and fraction of the measured x-radiation which comes from the region inside the hohlraum must be known. The size of the LEH is measured with the time integrated Static X-ray Imager (SXI) which view the LEH at 18{sup o} to the hohlraum axis. A soft x-ray image has been added to the SXI to measure the fraction of x-radiation inside the LEH's Clear Aperture in order to correct the measured radiation. A multilayer mirror plus filter selects an x-ray band centered at 870 eV, near the x-ray energy peak of a 300 eV blackbody. Results from this channel and corrections to the x-radiation drive are discussed.

  1. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, A. P.; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; West, M. M.; Cooper, G.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  2. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sungchul; Kanematsu, Manabu; Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Moon, Juhyuk; Kilcoyne, David; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h) and acceleration (~4 h) periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H. PMID:28774096

  3. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Bae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h and acceleration (~4 h periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H. The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H.

  4. Model Atmosphere Spectrum Fit to the Soft X-Ray Outburst Spectrum of SS Cyg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Suleimanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The X-ray spectrum of SS Cyg in outburst has a very soft component that can be interpreted as the fast-rotating optically thick boundary layer on the white dwarf surface. This component was carefully investigated by Mauche (2004 using the Chandra LETG spectrum of this object in outburst. The spectrum shows broad ( ≈5 °A spectral features that have been interpreted as a large number of absorption lines on a blackbody continuum with a temperature of ≈250 kK. Because the spectrum resembles the photospheric spectra of super-soft X-ray sources, we tried to fit it with high gravity hot LTE stellar model atmospheres with solar chemical composition, specially computed for this purpose. We obtained a reasonably good fit to the 60–125 °A spectrum with the following parameters: Teff = 190 kK, log g = 6.2, and NH = 8 · 1019 cm−2, although at shorter wavelengths the observed spectrum has a much higher flux. The reasons for this are discussed. The hypothesis of a fast rotating boundary layer is supported by the derived low surface gravity.

  5. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  6. Yeast cell metabolism investigated by CO{_2} production and soft X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, A.; Batani, D.; Previdi, F.; Milani, M.; Pozzi, A.; Turcu, E.; Huntington, S.; Takeyasu, H.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained using a new technique for studying cell metabolism are presented. The technique, consisting in CO2 production monitoring, has been applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. Also the cells were irradiated using the soft X-ray laser-plasma source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the aim of producing a damage of metabolic processes at the wall level, responsible for fermentation, without great interference with respiration, taking place in mitochondria, and DNA activity. The source was calibrated with PIN diodes and X-ray spectrometers and used Teflon stripes as target, emitting X-rays at about 0.9 keV, with a very low penetration in biological material. X-ray doses delivered to the different cell compartments were calculated following a Lambert-Bouguet-Beer law. Immediately after irradiation, the damage to metabolic activity was measured again by monitoring CO2 production. Results showed a general reduction in gas production by irradiated samples, together with non-linear and non-monotone response to dose. There was also evidence of oscillations in cell metabolic activity and of X-ray induced changes in oscillation frequency.

  7. The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT): current status of calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kurashima, Sho; Ishida, Manabu; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Saji, Shigetaka; Sato, Toshiki; Tachibana, Sasagu; Mori, Hideyuki; Christensen, Finn; Brejnholt, Nicolai; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya

    2017-08-01

    We report the atomic scattering factor in the 11.2-15.4 keV for the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)9 obtained in the ground based measurements. The large effective area of the SXT covers above 10 keV. In fact, the flight data show the spectra of the celestical objects in the hard X-ray band. In order to model the area, the reflectivity measurements in the 11.2-15.4 keV band with the energy pitch of 0.4 - 0.7 eV were made in the synchrotron beamline Spring-8 BL01B1. We obtained atomic scattering factors f1 and f2 by the curve fitting to the reflectivities of our witness sample. The edges associated with the gold' s L-I, II, and III transitions are identified, of which the depths are found to be roughly 60% shallower than those expected from the Henke's atomic scattering factor.

  8. GIXRF in the soft X-Ray range used for the characterization of ultra shallow junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckhoff, Burkhard; Hoenicke, Philipp [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany); Giubertoni, Damiano; Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Grazing incidence X-Ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis in the soft X-ray range provides excellent conditions for exciting B-K and As-L{sub iii,ii} shells. The X-ray Standing Wave field (XSW) associated with GIXRF on flat samples is used as a tunable depth sensor to gain information about the implantation profile. This technique is very sensitive to near surface layers. It is therefore well suited for the study of ultra shallow dopant distributions. Arsenic implanted (implantation energies between 0.5 keV and 5.0 keV) and Boron implanted (implantation energies between 0.2 keV and 3.0 keV) Si wafers have been used to compare SIMS analysis with GIXRF analysis. The measurements have been carried out at the electron storage ring BESSY II using monochromatized undulator radiation of well-known radiant power and spectral purity. The use of an absolutely calibrated energy-dispersive detector for the registration of the B-K{alpha} and As-L{alpha} fluorescence radiation allows for the absolute determination of the retained dose. An estimate of the concentration profile has been obtained by fitting the measurements with profiles derived by simulation of the implantation process. A good match among the total retained dose measured with the different techniques has been observed.

  9. Soft X-ray spectro-tomography study of cyanobacterial biomineral nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obst, M; Wang, J; Hitchcock, A P

    2009-12-01

    Quantitative three-dimensional (3D) chemical mapping using angle-scan spectro-tomography in a scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscope (STXM) has been used for the first time to characterize the early stages of CaCO(3) biomineral nucleation on the surface of planktonic freshwater cyanobacterial cells of the strain Synechococcus leopoliensis PCC 7942. The apparatus for STXM angle-scan tomography is described. Aspects of sample preparation, sample mounting and data acquisition and quantitative analysis and interpretation are discussed in detail. Angle-scan tomography and chemically selective 3D imaging at multiple photon energies has been combined with a complete 2D spectromicroscopic characterization of the biochemical and mineralogical composition. This has provided detailed insights into the mechanisms of mineral nucleation, leading to development of a detailed model of CaCO(3) nucleation by the cyanobacterial strain S. leopoliensis PCC 7942. It shows that Ca is absorbed by the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the cyanobacteria and that CaCO(3) with aragonite-like short-range order is precipitated rather homogeneously within the EPS. The precipitation of the thermodynamically more stable calcite polymorph then starts at Ca-rich hot spots within the EPS and close to the cyanobacteria.

  10. Soft X-ray emission study of Pd-Ni-Cu-P bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S. [Center for Materials Research Using Third-Generation Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima 731-5193 (Japan)], E-mail: hosokawa@cc.it-hiroshima.ac.jp; Sato, H. [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Mimura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Happo, N. [Faculty of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Tezuka, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Ichitsubo, T.; Matsubara, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Nishiyama, N. [R and D Institute of Metals and Composites for Future Industries, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    Soft X-ray emission spectra were measured on Pd{sub 42.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glasses near the Ni and Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edges to evaluate, respectively, the Ni and Cu 3d partial density of states (DOS) in the valence band. The Pd 4d, and the Ni and Cu 3d partials in the conduction-band were also obtained from X-ray absorption spectra around the Pd 3p{sub 3/2}, Ni, and Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edges, respectively. The partial DOS of each d state was estimated from the spectra, and the feature of the electronic structure in these glasses were discussed in detail. In particular, it was found that the Pd 4d partial DOS near the Fermi energy largely decreases and becomes localized by replacing the Ni atoms with the Cu atoms, which may closely related to the excellent glass-forming ability in the Pd{sub 42.5}Ni{sub 7.5}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} bulk metallic glass.

  11. Metal-line emission from the warm-hot intergalactic medium - I. Soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Serena; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Booth, C. M.; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P. C.

    2010-09-01

    Emission lines from metals offer one of the most promising ways to detect the elusive warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM; 105 rsim 106 K). We find that the OVIII 18.97 Å is the strongest emission line, with a predicted maximum surface brightness of ~102photon s-1 cm-2 sr-1, but a number of other lines are only slightly weaker. All lines show a strong correlation between the intensity of the observed flux and the density and metallicity of the gas responsible for the emission. On the other hand, the potentially detectable emission consistently corresponds to the temperature at which the emissivity of the electronic transition peaks. The emission traces neither the baryonic nor the metal mass. In particular, the emission that is potentially detectable with proposed missions traces overdense (ρ > rsim 102ρmean) and metal-rich (Z > rsim 10-1 Zsolar) gas in and around galaxies and groups. While soft X-ray line emission is therefore not a promising route to close the baryon budget, it does offer the exciting possibility to image the gas accreting on to and flowing out of galaxies.

  12. Absolute brightness modeling for improved measurement of electron temperature from soft x-rays on MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Franz, P.; Goetz, J. A.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; van Meter, P.

    2017-10-01

    The two-color soft x-ray tomography (SXT) diagnostic on MST is now capable of Te measurement down to 500 eV. The previous lower limit was 1 keV, due to the presence of SXR emission lines from Al sputtered from the MST wall. The two-color technique uses two filters of different thickness to form a coarse spectrometer to estimate the slope of the continuum x-ray spectrum, which depends on Te. The 1.6 - 2.0 keV Al emission lines were previously filtered out by using thick Be filters (400 µm and 800 µm), thus restricting the range of the SXT diagnostic to Te >= 1 keV. Absolute brightness modeling explicitly includes several sources of radiation in the analysis model, enabling the use of thinner filters and measurement of much lower Te. Models based on the atomic database and analysis structure (ADAS) agree very well with our experimental SXR measurements. We used ADAS to assess the effect of bremsstrahlung, recombination, dielectronic recombination, and line emission on the inferred Te. This assessment informed the choice of the optimum filter pair to extend the Te range of the SXT diagnostic. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program under Award Numbers DE-FC02-05ER54814 and DE-SC0015474.

  13. Conditions for soft x-ray lasing action in a confined plasma column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suckewer, S.; Fishman, H.

    1979-09-01

    The idea of using a multi-Z (e.g., carbon, oxygen) thin plasma column as a medium for soft x-ray lasing action is presented. A plasma confined by a strong magnetic field is first heated by a CO/sub 2/-laser, and then cools rapidly by radiation losses. This leads to a level population inversion of hydrogen-like carbon or oxygen ions. Two computational models are presented. One uses given electron temperature, T/sub e/(t), evolutions. The other uses T/sub e/(t) calculated from an energy balance equation ith CO/sub 2/-laser beam power as a parameter. According to calculations, a total gain of G > 100 is expected for 3 ..-->.. 2 and G > 10 for 4 ..-->.. 2 transitions (lambda = 182 A and lambda = 135 A, respectively) for CVI ions using a CO/sub 2/-laser beam with power approx. 5 x 10/sup 10/ W for plasma column heating.

  14. Development of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT): Engineering Model Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instuments onboard, with a sensitive energy band below 12 keV. One is for an X-ray micorocalorimeter detector and the other for a X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. It is similar to the Suzaku XRT, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Goal of the angular resolution and effective area are 1 arcmin and 390 cm$A2$ at 6 keV, respectively. We made serveral improvements from Suzaku to ASTRO-H, such as thicker substrates, more forming mandrels, thinner epoxy layer for replication, stiffer housings, precise alignment bars, etc. With all these changes, we have fabricated the engineering test unit of the SXT. In this paper, we will discuss all the changes made, their effects, and report X-ray performance of the SXT test unit. An angular resolution of the test unit was measured at new Goddard X-ray calibration facility (100 m X-ray beamline) and was found to be 1.1 arcmin. We will also discuss further improvements toward the flight unit to be delivered to JAXA in 2012.

  15. Atomic number scaling of the nickel-like soft x-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daido, H.; Ninomiya, S.; Imani, T. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-30

    The authors report the review of the experimental results obtained at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, of the soft X-ray lasing in various Ni-like ions whose atomic numbers range from 47(Ag) to 66(Dy). The lasing wavelengths are between 14 nm and 5 nm. X-ray lasing in these materials were obtained when the plasma profiles were properly controlled in time and space by irradiation of curved slab targets with multiple laser pulses. They also describe the original work of the atomic physics calculations which provide the transition energies, transition probabilities and other atomic constants for Ni-like ion species whose atomic numbers range from 36 to 92 calculated with GRASP code (multi-configuration Dirac Fock code) and YODA code (relativistic distorted wave code). Based on these atomic constants, they have calculated the kinetics of the population inversion with a simplified rate equation model in conjunction with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic code to find out the desired pumping conditions. They show a possibility for significant improvement in the pumping efficiency with the use of a picosecond laser irradiating a properly configured preformed plasma. Finally, a simplified estimation of the pumping efficiency is described based on the atomic constants and plasma physics issues.

  16. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A S; Benstead, J; Ahmed, M F; Morton, J; Guymer, T M; Soufli, R; Pardini, T; Hibbard, R L; Bailey, C G; Bell, P M; Hau-Riege, S; Bedzyk, M; Shoup, M J; Regan, S P; Agliata, T; Jungquist, R; Schmidt, D W; Kot, L B; Garbett, W J; Rubery, M S; Skidmore, J W; Gullikson, E; Salmassi, F

    2016-11-01

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  17. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S., E-mail: alastair.moore@physics.org; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Benstead, J.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Regan, S. P.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  18. X-ray absorption and soft x-ray fluorescence analysis of KDP optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A J; van Buuren, T; Miller, E; Land, T A; Bostedt, C; Franco, N; Whitman, P K; Baisden, P A; Terminello, L J; Callcott, T A

    2000-08-09

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) is a non-linear optical material used for laser frequency conversion and optical switches. Unfortunately, when KDP crystals are coated with a porous silica anti-reflection coating [1] and then exposed to ambient humidity, they develop dissolution pits [2,3]. Previous investigations [2] have shown that thermal annealing renders KDP optics less susceptible to pitting suggesting that a modification of surface chemistry has occurred. X-ray absorption and fluorescence were used to characterize changes in the composition and structure of KDP optics as a function of process parameters. KDP native crystals were also analyzed to provide a standard basis for interpretation. Surface sensitive total electron yield and bulk sensitive fluorescence yield from the K 2p, P 2p (L{sub 2,3}-edge) and O 1s (K-edge) absorption edges were measured at each process step. Soft X-ray fluorescence was also used to observe changes associated with spectral differences noted in the absorption measurements. Results indicate that annealing at 160 C dehydrates the surface of KDP resulting in a metaphosphate surface composition with K:P:O = 1:1:3.

  19. Soft X-Ray Magnetic Imaging of Focused Ion Beam Lithographically Patterned Fe Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Paul J.; Shen, Tichan H.; Grundy, PhilJ.; Im, Mi Young; Fischer, Peter; Morton, Simon A.; Kilcoyne, Arthur D.L.

    2008-11-09

    We illustrate the potential of modifying the magnetic behavior and structural properties of ferromagnetic thin films using focused ion beam 'direct-write' lithography. Patterns inspired by the split-ring resonators often used as components in meta-materials were defined upon 15 nm Fe films using a 30 keV Ga{sup +} focused ion beam at a dose of 2 x 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. Structural, chemical and magnetic changes to the Fe were studied using transmission soft X-ray microscopy at the ALS, Berkeley CA. X-ray absorption spectra showed a 23% reduction in the thickness of the film in the Ga irradiated areas, but no change to the chemical environment of Fe was evident. X-ray images of the magnetic reversal process show domain wall pinning around the implanted areas, resulting in an overall increase in the coercivity of the film. Transmission electron microscopy showed significant grain growth in the implanted regions.

  20. Characterizing morphology in organic systems with resonant soft X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Joshua H.; Hunt, Adrian; Ade, Harald, E-mail: harald_ade@ncsu.edu

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A brief history of the development of R-SoXS for studying soft matter systems. • A theoretical background and an overview of analysis methodology. • Applications to block copolymers, organic electronics, and biological systems. • A discussion of emerging applications and an outlook on the future of R-SoXS. - Abstract: Resonant soft X-ray scattering (R-SoXS) has proven to be a highly useful technique for studying the morphology of soft matter thin films due to the large intrinsic contrast between organic materials and the anisotropic nature of the resonant electronic state transitions from which the contrast originates. This allows R-SoXS users to measure spatial composition correlations from crystalline and amorphous phases in heterogeneous organic samples, infer relative domain purity, and determine average local molecular ordering correlations. R-SoXS has been used to study the morphology of organic photovoltaics, organic thin film transistors, biological systems, and block copolymer engineering applications. The mesoscopic morphological information compliments molecular packing information determined with hard X-rays, so that complex structure–property relationships can be elucidated over a large range of length scales. Extensions of R-SoXS have also emerged that make use of more advanced sample setups or different experimental geometries than normal transmission, such as θ–2θ reflectivity or grazing incidence.

  1. SXI: The Soft X-ray Imager on Board of the EXIST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Natalucci, L.; Basso, S.; Bazzano, A.; Caraveo, P.; Conconi, P.; Grindlay, J. E.; Pareschi, G.; Ubertini, P.; Uslenghi, M.; Villa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), sensitive in the 0.1-10 keV band, is a X-ray telescope foreseen on board of the EXIST mission. SXI is proposed as a contribution of ASI, the Italian space agency, and it is fully developed by Italian institutes. The current optical design is based on 26 mirror-shells and provides an effective area comparable to one XMM-Newton mirror module up to 3 keV and somewhat lower from 3 to 10 keV. The realization of these shells is based on the well-proven Nichel replication-process technology. We present the optical design of the SXI mirror module and describe its characteristics in term of effective area and imaging capability, summarizing also the characteristics of the full SXI telescope. Acknowledgement: the study of the SXI telescope in Italy is carried out at the INAF-OABr, INAF-IASF_Milano and INAF-IASF_Roma Institutes and is financed by the Italian Space Agency under the ASI contract I/088/06/0.

  2. The soft x-ray imager (SXI) on board the EXIST mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Conconi, P.; Pareschi, G.; Bazzano, A.; Caraveo, P.; Grindlay, J. E.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Uslenghi, M.; Villa, G.

    2009-08-01

    The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) is a mission that has been studied for the NASA Physics of the Cosmos Program. EXIST will continuously survey the full sky by scanning for 2-years (with 2-3 interruptions per day for GRB follow-up) followed by a 3-years pointing phase. The mission includes three instruments: a High Energy coded mask Telescope; a 1.1m aperture optical-IR Telescope; and a Soft X-ray Imager (SXI), sensitive in the 0.1-10 keV band. SXI is proposed as a contribution of ASI-Italy, fully developed by Italian institutes. The current optical design foresees 26 shells providing an effective area comparable to one XMM-Newton mirror module up to 3 keV and somewhat lower from 3 to 10 keV. The realization of these shells is based on the well-proven Nichel replication-process technology. Here we will present the optical design of the SXI mirror module and describe its characteristics in term of effective area and imaging capability, summarizing also the characteristics of the full SXI telescope.

  3. The Science With The Soft X-ray Imager Aboard Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Natalucci, L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Caraveo, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Ghisellini, G.; Grindlay, J. E.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Villa, G.; EXIST Team

    2010-03-01

    We will describe the scientific potential of the SXI instrument on board EXIST. One of the primary objectives is to study with unprecedented sensitivity the most enigmatic high energy sources in the Universe, such as high redshift GRBs, which will be pointed promptly by the Spacecraft by autonomous trigger based on hard X-ray localization on board. The presence of a soft X-ray telescope with an effective area of 950 cm2 in the energy band 0.2-3 keV and extended response up to 10 keV will make it possible broadband studies from 0.1 to 600 keV of all classes of astronomical objecs. In particular, EXIST will be the instrument to investigate AGNs states and spectral components as well as their variability, to study the prompt and afterglow emission of GRBs, located with arcsec position, since the early phases, which will help to constrain the emission models and finally, help the identification of sources in the EXIST hard X-ray survey and the characterization of the transient events detected. In parallel, SXI will also perform surveys: a scanning survey with sky coverage 2pi and limiting flux of 5 × 10-14 cgs.

  4. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of nickel isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal aims to measure the nuclear ground-state spins, moments and mean-square charge radii of $^{56-71}$Ni using collinear laser spectroscopy. This will enable direct measurements of isotopes in the region of shell closure $^{56}$Ni, structural change $^{68}$Ni and monopole migration beyond N = 40. Optical spectroscopy serves as a detailed probe not only of the changing single-particle behaviour, but also for the study of collective properties such as size and shape. Measurements of the most neutron-rich isotopes available at ISOLDE will critically test models which seek to extrapolate the data to the doubly magic region of $^{78}$Ni.

  5. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  6. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M. J., E-mail: may13@llnl.gov; Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.; Thorn, D.; Colvin, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Moore, A.; Blue, B. E. [L-170 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Weaver, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  7. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.; Thorn, D.; Colvin, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Moore, A.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-11-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  8. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soman, M.R., E-mail: m.r.soman@open.ac.uk [e2v centre for electronic imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hall, D.J.; Tutt, J.H.; Murray, N.J.; Holland, A.D. [e2v centre for electronic imaging, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-12-11

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 µm from the current 24 µm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV–1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 µm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  9. Developing a CCD camera with high spatial resolution for RIXS in the soft X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, M. R.; Hall, D. J.; Tutt, J. H.; Murray, N. J.; Holland, A. D.; Schmitt, T.; Raabe, J.; Schmitt, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Super Advanced X-ray Emission Spectrometer (SAXES) at the Swiss Light Source contains a high resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Using the current CCD-based camera system, the energy-dispersive spectrometer has an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of approximately 12,000 at 930 eV. A recent study predicted that through an upgrade to the grating and camera system, the energy resolution could be improved by a factor of 2. In order to achieve this goal in the spectral domain, the spatial resolution of the CCD must be improved to better than 5 μm from the current 24 μm spatial resolution (FWHM). The 400 eV-1600 eV energy X-rays detected by this spectrometer primarily interact within the field free region of the CCD, producing electron clouds which will diffuse isotropically until they reach the depleted region and buried channel. This diffusion of the charge leads to events which are split across several pixels. Through the analysis of the charge distribution across the pixels, various centroiding techniques can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of the X-ray interaction to the sub-pixel level, greatly improving the spatial resolution achieved. Using the PolLux soft X-ray microspectroscopy endstation at the Swiss Light Source, a beam of X-rays of energies from 200 eV to 1400 eV can be focused down to a spot size of approximately 20 nm. Scanning this spot across the 16 μm square pixels allows the sub-pixel response to be investigated. Previous work has demonstrated the potential improvement in spatial resolution achievable by centroiding events in a standard CCD. An Electron-Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) has been used to improve the signal to effective readout noise ratio achieved resulting in a worst-case spatial resolution measurement of 4.5±0.2 μm and 3.9±0.1 μm at 530 eV and 680 eV respectively. A method is described that allows the contribution of the X-ray spot size to be deconvolved from these

  10. AC trapping and high-resolution spectroscopy of ammonia molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, Jacqueline van

    2006-01-01

    Cold molecules are potentially beneficial for several areas of research. They have applications in spectroscopy, collision studies and, for instance, the study of the effects of dipole-dipole interactions in BECs. One method to decelerate and thereby cool down neutral dipolar molecules is to use a

  11. Molecular Chirality: Enantiomer Differentiation by High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Eizi

    2014-06-01

    I have demonstrated that triple resonance performed on a three-rotational-level system of a chiral molecule of C1 symmetry exhibits signals opposite in phase for different enantiomers, thereby making enantiomer differentiation possible by microwave spectroscopy This prediction was realized by Patterson et al. on 1,2-propanediol and 1,3-butanediol. We thus now add a powerful method: microwave spectroscopy to the study of chiral molecules, for which hitherto only the measurement of optical rotation has been employed. Although microwave spectroscopy is applied to molecules in the gaseous phase, it is unprecedentedly superior to the traditional method: polarimeter in resolution, accuracy, sensitivity, and so on, and I anticipate a new fascinating research area to be opened in the field of molecular chirality. More versatile and efficient systems should be invented and developed for microwave spectroscopy, in order to cope well with new applications expected for this method For C2 and Cn (n ≥ 3)chiral molecules, the three-rotational-level systems treated above for C1 molecules are no more available within one vibronic state. It should, however, be pointed out that, if we take into account an excited vibronic state in addition to the ground state, for example, we may encounter many three-level systems. Namely, either one rotational transition in the ground state is combined with two vibronic transitions, or such a rotational transition in an excited state may be connected through two vibronic transitions to a rotational level in the ground state manifold. The racemization obviously plays a crucial role in the study of molecular chirality. However, like many other terms employed in chemistry, this important process has been "defined" only in a vague way, in other words, it includes many kinds of processes, which are not well classified on a molecular basis. I shall mention an attempt to obviate these shortcomings in the definition of racemization and also to clarify the

  12. Determination of osmium isotope abundances by high resolution laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieder, R.; Sorgalla, K.H.; Herr, W.

    1981-01-01

    A new optical method for isotopic abundance determinations based on Laser saturation spectroscopy is described. The technique has been applied on gaseous OsO/sub 4/ at low pressure, using a single mode CO/sub 2/-Laser at lambda = 10,4 ..mu..m. Compared with the linear absorption spectroscopy, the saturation method has the advantage that higher sensitivity is easiliy achieved by phase sensitive detection. As an example radiogenic /sup 187/Os in a molybdenite from S.W. Africa is measured and the age of the ore, determined by the Re/Os-method is (5.3 +- 0.4) x 10/sup 8/ years. Further, the /sup 186/Os(n,..gamma..)/sup 187/Os cross section was evaluated by breeding Os-isotopes from Rhenium in a high flux nuclear reactor. In this case, a cross section ratio R = sigmasub(eff)(/sup 186/Os)/ sigmasub(eff)(/sup 187/Os) = O.245 was obtained. The /sup 186/Os-resonance integral was estimated to be Isub(infinite) = 375 +- 90 b. Certain implications of R, with respect to the age of the universe (duration of the nucleosynthesis) are pointed out.

  13. Complete polarization analysis of high energy soft x-rays by combining a multilayer phase retarder with crystal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maccherozzi, F.; Sawhney, K. J. S.

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a complete polarization analysis of soft x-rays with an energy of 1.1 keV using a free-standing W/B4C multilayer phase retarders and a beryl crystal analyzer. The W/B4C multilayer exhibits five times increase in transmission over that previously reported. The beryl crystal proves to be a suitable analyzer for the polarization analysis with a 10% s-component of reflectivity resulting in an extinction ratio close to 0.002 at 1.1 keV. The combination of multilayer phase retarders and crystal analyzers should open up the field of the soft x-ray polarization analysis in the energy range between 1 keV and 2 keV.

  14. Modeling the focusing efficiency of lobster-eye optics for image shifting depending on the soft x-ray wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Luning; Li, Wei; Wu, Mingxuan; Su, Yun; Guo, Chongling; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Bingxin; Yan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency. These results could be beneficial to optimize parameters of lobster-eye optics in order to realize maximum focusing efficiency.

  15. 53 W average power few-cycle fiber laser system generating soft x rays up to the water window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Klenke, Arno; Demmler, Stefan; Hoffmann, Armin; Gotschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Krebs, Manuel; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    We report on a few-cycle laser system delivering sub-8-fs pulses with 353 μJ pulse energy and 25 GW of peak power at up to 150 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 53 W, which represents the highest average power obtained from any few-cycle laser architecture so far. The combination of both high average and high peak power provides unique opportunities for applications. We demonstrate high harmonic generation up to the water window and record-high photon flux in the soft x-ray spectral region. This tabletop source of high-photon flux soft x rays will, for example, enable coherent diffractive imaging with sub-10-nm resolution in the near future.

  16. First results obtained from the soft x-ray pulse height analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Lin, S Y; Hu, L Q; Duan, Y M; Zhang, J Z; Chen, K Y; Zhong, G Q

    2010-06-01

    An assembly of soft x-ray pulse height analyzer system, based on silicon drift detector (SDD), has been successfully established on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to measure the spectrum of soft x-ray emission (E=1-20 keV). The system, including one 15-channel SDD linear array, is installed on EAST horizontal port C. The time-resolved radial profiles of electron temperature and K(alpha) intensities of metallic impurities have been obtained with a spatial resolution of around 7 cm during a single discharge. It was found that the electron temperatures derived from the system are in good agreement with the values from Thomson scattering measurements. The system can also be applied to the measurement of the long pulse discharge for EAST. The diagnostic system is introduced and some typical experimental results obtained from the system are also presented.

  17. Optical features of a LiF crystal soft X-ray imaging detector irradiated by free electron laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Bolton, Paul; Mitrofanov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Alexander; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yabashi, Makina; Tono, Kensuke; Senba, Yashinori; Togashi, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-13

    Optical features of point defects photoluminescence in LiF crystals, irradiated by soft X-ray pulses of the Free Electron Laser with wavelengths of 17.2 - 61.5 nm, were measured. We found that peak of photoluminescence spectra lies near of 530 nm and are associated with emission of F3+ centers. Our results suggest that redistribution of photoluminescence peak intensity from the red to the green part of the spectra is associated with a shortening of the applied laser pulses down to pico - or femtosecond durations. Dependence of peak intensity of photoluminescence spectra from the soft X-ray irradiation fluence was measured and the absence of quenching phenomena, even at relatively high fluencies was found, which is very important for wide applications of LiF crystal X-ray imaging detectors.

  18. Interaction of soft x-ray laser pulse radiation with aluminum surface: Nano-meter size surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Faenov, Anatoly; Tanaka, Momoko; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Pikuz, Tatiana; Inogamov, Nail; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; Skobelev, Igor; Fortov, Vladimir; Khohlov, Viktor; Shepelev, Vadim; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Imazono, Takashi; Kawachi, Tetsuya [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Graduate School of Humanities and Science, Nara Women' s University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Institute for Computer Aided Design, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 123056 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-11

    Interaction of soft x-ray laser radiation with material and caused modification of the exposed surface has both physical and practical interests. We irradiated the focusing soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses having a wavelength of 13.9 nm and the duration of 7 ps to aluminum (Al) surface. After the SXRL irradiation process, the irradiated Al surface was observed with a scanning electron microscope. The surface modifications caused by SXRL single pulse exposure were clearly seen. In addition, it was found that the conical structures having around 100 nm in diameters were formed in the shallow features. The nano-meter size modified structures at Al surface induced by SXRL pulse is interesting as the newly surface structure. Hence, the SXRL beam would be a candidate for a tool of micromachining. We also provide a thermomechanical modeling of SXRL interaction with Al briefly to explain the surface modification.

  19. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M. B., E-mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J. A.; Johnson, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ∼6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  20. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Joshua J., E-mail: joshuat@slac.stanford.edu; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Hoffmann, Matthias C. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Hwang, Harold Y. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zarem, Alex; Schlotter, William F.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P. [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Staub, Urs [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Johnson, Steven [ETH Zurich, Institute for Quantum Electronics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mitra, Ankush; Swiggers, Michele; Noonan, Peter; Curiel, G. Ivan; Holmes, Michael [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-11

    This paper describes new instrumentation developments at the LCLS for materials studies using THz laser excitation and resonant soft X-ray scattering. This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm{sup −1} electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed.

  1. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, M B; Franz, P; Den Hartog, D J; Goetz, J A; Johnson, J

    2014-09-01

    Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the photodiode. As a specific example, AXUV4BST photodiodes from International Radiation Detectors have a 1.0 μm thick aluminum frame covering 19% of the active area of the photodiode, which attenuates the measured x-ray signal below ~6 keV. This effect has a small systematic impact on the electron temperature calculated from measurements of soft x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from a high-temperature plasma. Although the systematic error introduced by the aluminum frame is only a few percent in typical experimental conditions on the Madison Symmetric Torus, it may be more significant for other instruments that use similar detectors.

  2. Two hump-shaped angular distributions of neutrons and soft X-rays in a small plasma focus device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Morteza

    2017-12-28

    Angular distributions of soft X-rays (SXRs) and neutrons emitted by a small plasma focus device (PFD) were investigated simultaneously using TLD-100 dosimeters and Geiger-Muller activation counters, respectively. The distributions represented two humps with a small dip at the angular position 0° and reduced from the angles of ± 15° and ± 30° for the neutrons and SXRs, respectively. The maximum yield of 2.98 × 108 neutrons per shot of the device was obtained at 13.5kV and 6.5mbar. A time of flight (TOF) of 75.2ns between the hard X-ray and the neutron peaks corresponds to neutrons with energy of 2.67MeV. A similar behavior was observed between the angular distributions of neutron and soft X-ray emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological soft X-ray tomography on beamline 2.1 at the Advanced Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark A; McDermott, Gerry; Cinquin, Bertrand P; Smith, Elizabeth A; Do, Myan; Chao, Weilun L; Naulleau, Patrick P; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2014-11-01

    Beamline 2.1 (XM-2) is a transmission soft X-ray microscope in sector 2 of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. XM-2 was designed, built and is now operated by the National Center for X-ray Tomography as a National Institutes of Health Biomedical Technology Research Resource. XM-2 is equipped with a cryogenic rotation stage to enable tomographic data collection from cryo-preserved cells, including large mammalian cells. During data collection the specimen is illuminated with `water window' X-rays (284-543 eV). Illuminating photons are attenuated an order of magnitude more strongly by biomolecules than by water. Consequently, differences in molecular composition generate quantitative contrast in images of the specimen. Soft X-ray tomography is an information-rich three-dimensional imaging method that can be applied either as a standalone technique or as a component modality in correlative imaging studies.

  4. Biological soft X-ray tomography on beamline 2.1 at the Advanced Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark A.; McDermott, Gerry; Cinquin, Bertrand P.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Do, Myan; Chao, Weilun L.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Beamline 2.1 (XM-2) is a transmission soft X-ray microscope in sector 2 of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. XM-2 was designed, built and is now operated by the National Center for X-ray Tomography as a National Institutes of Health Biomedical Technology Research Resource. XM-2 is equipped with a cryogenic rotation stage to enable tomographic data collection from cryo-preserved cells, including large mammalian cells. During data collection the specimen is illuminated with ‘water window’ X-rays (284–543 eV). Illuminating photons are attenuated an order of magnitude more strongly by biomolecules than by water. Consequently, differences in molecular composition generate quantitative contrast in images of the specimen. Soft X-ray tomography is an information-rich three-dimensional imaging method that can be applied either as a standalone technique or as a component modality in correlative imaging studies. PMID:25343808

  5. Construction and performance of beamline NE1B for circularly polarized soft x rays in the TRISTAN accumulation ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Miyahara, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Kitamura, H.; Muto, S.; Park, S.-Y.; Wang, J.-D.

    1995-02-01

    Beamline BL-NE1B has been constructed at the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN accumulation ring (AR) for applications of circular polarization in the soft x-ray region. Circularly polarized soft x rays are produced by a helical undulator operation mode of an insertion device, EMPW♯NE1. The fundamental harmonic peak can be tuned from 0.25 to 2 keV. The NE1B beamline is equipped with a vertical-dispersion spherical-grating monochromator using the Rowland mounting. A monochromatized circularly polarized photon flux higher than ˜1011 photons/s has been obtained over an energy range from 0.25 to 1.25 keV with an energy resolution (E/ΔE) of around 1500-300. An energy resolution of about 5000 has been achieved at 400 eV with slit widths of 10 and 10 μm.

  6. R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, John; Attwood, David; Byrd, John; Denes, Peter; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Leemans, Wim; Padmore, Howard; Prestemon, Soren; Sannibale, Fernando; Schlueter, Ross; Schroeder, Carl; Staples, John; Venturini, Marco; Warwick, Tony; Wells, Russell; Wilcox, Russell; Zholent, Alexander; Adolphsen, Chris; Arthur, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Cai, Yunhai; Colby, Eric; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Fox, John; Frisch, Josef; Galayda, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Zhirong; Phinney, Nan; Rabedeau, Tom; Raubenheimer, Tor; Reis, David; Schmerge, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; White, Bill; Xiang, Dao

    2009-06-08

    Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft x-ray light source, and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility that is responsive to these requirements is now on the horizon. R&D in some critical areas is needed, however, to demonstrate technical performance, thus reducing technical risks and construction costs. Such a facility most likely will be based on a CW superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on experimental requirements, the individual FELs can be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded, or oscillator mode of operation, including the use of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enhanced harmonic generation (EEHG), harmonic cascade, or other configurations. In this White Paper we identify the overall accelerator R&D needs, and highlight the most important pre-construction R&D tasks required to value-engineer the design configuration and deliverables for such a facility. In Section 1.4 we identify the comprehensive R&D ultimately needed. We identify below the highest-priority requirements for understanding machine performance and reduce risk and costs at this pre-conceptual design stage. Details of implementing the required tasks will be the subject of future evaluation. Our highest-priority R&D program is the injector, which must be capable of delivering a beam with bunches up to a nanocoulomb at MHz repetition rate and with normalized emittance {le} 1 mm {center_dot} mrad. This will require integrated accelerating structure, cathode, and laser systems development. Cathode materials will impact the choice of laser technology in wavelength and energy per pulse, as well as vacuum requirements in the accelerating

  7. Grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. The implementation of this method in the soft X-ray wavelength range necessarily involves gratings as dispersive elements. We study a very compact self-seeding scheme with a grating monochromator originally designed at SLAC, which can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without entrance slit. It covers the spectral range from 300 eV to 1000 eV. The optical system was studied using wave optics method (in comparison with ray tracing) to evaluate the performance of the self-seeding scheme. Our wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations, and errors from each optical element. Wave optics is the only method available, in combination with FEL simulations, for the design of a self-seeding monochromator without exit slit. We show that, without exit slit, the self-seeding scheme is distinguished by the much needed experimental simplicity, and can practically give the same resolving power (about 7000) as with an exit slit. Wave optics is also naturally applicable to calculations of the self-seeding scheme efficiency, which include the monochromator transmittance and the effect of the mismatching between seed beam and electron beam. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 1 TW and that the spectral density for a TW pulse is about two orders of magnitude higher than that for the SASE pulse at saturation.

  8. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  9. Chemical speciation of polyurethane polymers by soft-x-ray spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rightor, E.G. [Dow Chemical, Freeport, TX (United States); Hitchcock, A.P.; Urquhart, S.G. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Polyurethane polymers are a versatile class of materials which have numerous applications in modern life, from automotive body panels, to insulation, to household furnishings. Phase segregation helps to determine the physical properties of several types of polyurethanes. Polymer scientists believe that understanding the connections between formulation chemistry, the chemical nature of the segregated phases, and the physical properties of the resulting polymer, would greatly advance development of improved polyurethane materials. However, the sub-micron size of segregated features precludes their chemical analysis by existing methods, leaving only indirect means of characterizing these features. For the past several years the authors have been developing near edge X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy to study the chemical nature of individual segregated phases. Part of this work has involved studies of molecular analogues and model polymers, in conjunction with quantum calculations, in order to identify the characteristic near edge spectral transitions of important chemical groups. This spectroscopic base is allowing the authors to study phase segregation in polyurethanes by taking advantage of several unique capabilities of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) - high spatial resolution ({approximately} 0.1 {mu}m), high spectral resolution ({approximately}0.1 eV at the C 1s edge), and the ability to record images and spectra with relatively low radiation damage. The beamline 7.0 STXM at ALS is being used to study microtomed sections or cast films of polyurethanes. Based on the pioneering work of Ade, Kirz and collaborators at the NSLS X-1A STXM, it is clear that scanning X-ray transmission microscopy using soft X-rays can provide information about the chemical origin of phase segregation in radiation-sensitive materials on a sub-micron scale. This information is difficult or impossible to obtain by other means.

  10. Design of soft-X-ray tomographic system in WEST using GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, Didier, E-mail: Didier.Mazon@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chernyshova, Maryna [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jiolat, Guillaume [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Czarski, Tomasz [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malard, Philippe [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Jablonski, Slawomir; Figacz, Waldemar; Zagorski, Roman; Kubkowska, Monika [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Street, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Larroque, Sébastien; Verger, Jean-Marc [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); O’Mullane, Martin [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Mlynar, Jan [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM-IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Byszuk, Adrian; Wojenski, Andrzej [Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Interplay between particle transport and MHD in tokamaks might lead to disruption. • Studying such phenomena is essential to achieve stationary discharges. • SXR measurement provides valuable information on particle transport and MHD. • New SXR GEM diagnostic design for the WEST project is presented. • Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector are presented. - Abstract: In metallic tokamaks, the interplay between particle transport and MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) activity might lead to impurities accumulation and finally to disruption. Studying such phenomena is thus essential if stationary discharges are to be achieved. Measuring the soft X-ray (SXR) radiation ([0.1 keV; 20 keV]) of magnetic fusion plasmas is a standard way of accessing valuable information on particle transport and MHD. Generally, like at Tore Supra (TS), the analysis is performed with a 2D tomographic system composed of several cameras equipped with silicon barrier diodes (SBD). On WEST the installation of an upper divertor masks many of the actual TS vertical diodes so that no proper tomography is possible. This paper presents the design of a new SXR diagnostic for the WEST project developed in collaboration with IPPLM (Poland) and the Warsaw University of Technology, based on a triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector. Preliminary simulations performed to size and position the detector and its electronics inside the vertical thimble are also presented, in particular estimation of magnetic field and temperature variation affecting GEM spatial resolution and signal quality. As a conclusion, perspectives about tomographic capabilities of the new system for studying impurity transport are given.

  11. Nanometric deformations of thin Nb layers under a strong electric field using soft x-ray laser interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jamelot, Gérard; Ros, David; Carillon, A.; Rus, Bedrich; Mocek, T.; Kozlova, M.; Prag, A.R; Joyeux, Denis; Phalippou, Daniel; Boussoukaya, M.; Kalmykow, M.; Ballester, F; Jacques, E.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We present measurements of in situ nanometric-resolution topographical modifications of thin niobium layers subjected to strong electric fields. The Nb layers, deposited on a fused silica substrate, are interferometrically flash probed using soft x-ray laser (XRL) at the wavelength of 21.2 nm. Its pulses are reflected by the probed sample under grazing incidence angle, and the information about surface deformation is obtained by a Fresnel wave-front-division interferom...

  12. Application of avalanche photodiode for soft X-ray pulse-height analyses in the Ht-7 tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Shi Yue Jiang; Hu Li Qun; Sun Yan Jun; LiuSheng; Ling Bil

    2002-01-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) has been used as soft X-ray energy pulse-height analysis system for the measurement of the electron temperature on the HT-7 tokamak. The experimental results obtained with the APD with its inferior energy resolution show a little difference compared to the conventional high energy-resolution Si (Li) detector. Both numerical analysis and experimental results prove that the APD is good enough for application of the electron temperature measurement in tokamaks.

  13. Selection of materials for soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) filters for space astronomy and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Forbes R.; Drake, Virginia A.; Sandel, Bill R.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    1994-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the more traditional materials that have been used for Soft X-Ray (SXR) and Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) filters and then discusses several applications where new multilayer combinations of materials are being employed. The new applications include projection lithography and the detection of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) populations from spacecraft. Also briefly discussed is the use of polyimides for spacecraft filters.

  14. High Resolution Brackett α and γ Spectroscopy of Arp 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John, III; Turner, J.; Beck, S. C.; Crosthwaite, L. P.; Meier, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Extreme star forming regions seen in nearby galaxies often consist of young super star clusters (SSCs) that may be the precursors to globular clusters. The method of formation of large clusters such as globular clusters is not well understood since our Galaxy does not currently have massive clusters that are sufficiently young to reflect their birth conditions. How do these young clusters form, evolve, and interact with their gaseous surroundings? Presented here is high spectral resolution Brackett line spectroscopy of the luminous HII regions in the nearby LIRG Arp 299, which is composed of the interacting galaxies NGC 3690 and IC 694. Echelle spectra data were collected using the NIRSPEC (Near Infrared Spectrograph) instrument on the Keck Telescope for the hydrogen recombination lines, Brackett α and γ at λ = 4.05 μm, 2.17 μm respectively. Using custom IDL (Interactive Data Language) procedures, Gaussian profiles are fit to the spectra to determine the velocity dispersion and thus the bulk motions of the hot, ionized gas surrounding these young clusters. The high spectral ( 24000) and spatial (regions; based on its optical appearance we infer that the star formation is likely to occur in the twin gas peaks near the nucleus that are typical of a barred spiral galaxy. In NGC 3690, which is more irregular in appearance, we also do not see strong evidence for an AGN in the line profiles. At all positions the infrared K band extinctions are sizable, ~ 1 magnitude.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy reveals fibrillation inhibition pathways of insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Deckert, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Fibril formation implies the conversion of a protein’s native secondary structure and is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of fibrillation inhibition and fibril dissection requires nanoscale molecular characterization of amyloid structures involved. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has already been used to chemically analyze amyloid fibrils on a sub-protein unit basis. Here, TERS in combination with atomic force microscopy (AFM), and conventional Raman spectroscopy characterizes insulin assemblies generated during inhibition and dissection experiments in the presence of benzonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, quercetin, and β-carotene. The AFM topography indicates formation of filamentous or bead-like insulin self-assemblies. Information on the secondary structure of bulk samples and of single aggregates is obtained from standard Raman and TERS measurements. In particular the high spatial resolution of TERS reveals the surface conformations associated with the specific agents. The insulin aggregates formed under different inhibition and dissection conditions can show a similar morphology but differ in their β-sheet structure content. This suggests different aggregation pathways where the prevention of the β-sheet stacking of the peptide chains plays a major role. The presented approach is not limited to amyloid-related reasearch but can be readily applied to systems requiring extremely surface-sensitive characterization without the need of labels.

  16. Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, J. J.; Clark, D. P.; Chilla, J. L. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Marconi, M. C.

    1996-11-01

    There is significant interest in the demonstration of compact soft x-ray amplifiers capable of generating pulses of substantial energy for applications. This motivates the demonstration of gain media generated by compact devices, that can be successfully scaled in length to reach gain saturation. To date, gain saturation had only been achieved in a few soft x-ray laser lines in plasmas generated by some of the world's largest laser facilities.(B. J. MacGowan et al.), Phys. Fluids B 4, 2326 (1992); A. Carillon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 68, 2917 (1992);B. Rus et al., in AIP Conf. Proc. 332, X-ray lasers 1994, p. 152; S. Wang et al., ibid., p. 293. Previosly we reported large amplification at 46.9 nm in Ne-like argon in a plasma column generated by a fast capillary discharge.(J. J. Rocca et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192 (1994). Herein we report the generation of laser pulse energies up to 30 μJ at 46.9 nm in such discharge and the first clear evidence of gain saturation of a table-top soft x-ray amplifier. Single pass amplification experiments yielded laser pulse energies up to 6 μJ and double pass amplification using an iridium mirror yielded 30 μJ. The observed saturation of the gain and laser pulse energy are in good agreement with the results of radiation transport calculations. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  17. ROSAT Observations of Soft X-ray Emission from the Solar Wind Interaction with the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael

    We analyze the ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray image of the moon taken on 29 June 1990 by examining the radial profile of the surface brightness in three wedges, two wedges (one north and one south) 13-32 degrees off (19 degrees wide) the terminator towards the dark side and one wedge 38 degrees wide centered on the antisolar point. The radial profiles of both the north and the south wedges show substantial limb brightening that is absent in the 38 degree wide antisolar wedge. An analysis of the soft X-ray intensity increase associated with the limb brightening shows that its magnitude is consistent with that expected due to solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) with the tenuous lunar atmosphere based on lunar exospheric models and hybrid simulation results of solar wind access beyond the terminator. Soft X-ray imaging thus can independently infer the total lunar limb column density including all species, a property that before now has not been measured, and provide a large-scale picture of the solar wind-lunar interaction. Because the SWCX signal appears dominated by exospheric species arising from solar wind implantation, this technique can also determine how the exosphere varies with solar wind conditions. Now along with Mars, Venus, and Earth, the moon represents another solar system body at which solar wind charge exchange has been observed.

  18. Grazing incidence reflectivity and total electron yield effects in soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alders, D; Hibma, T; Sawatzky, G.A; Cheung, K.C.; van Dorssen, G.E.; Roper, M.D.; Padmore, H.A.; van der Laan, G.; Vogel, J; Sacchi, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report on a study of grazing incidence absorption and reflection spectra of NiO in the region of the Ni 2p edge. The aim is to evaluate the distortion of the near edge spectrum by the critical angle behavior of individual components within the spectrum. This can be used to improve the separation

  19. A novel method for resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering via photoelectron spectroscopy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakovski, Georgi L; Lin, Ming Fu; Damiani, Daniel S; Schlotter, William F; Turner, Joshua J; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2017-11-01

    A method for measuring resonant inelastic X-ray scattering based on the conversion of X-ray photons into photoelectrons is presented. The setup is compact, relies on commercially available detectors, and offers significant flexibility. This method is demonstrated at the Linac Coherent Light Source with ∼0.5 eV resolution at the cobalt L3-edge, with signal rates comparable with traditional grating spectrometers.

  20. Electronic structure of barium strontium titanate by soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Y. [Mitsubishi Electric Co., Hyogo (Japan); Underwood, J.H.; Gullikson, E.M.; Perera, R.C.C. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Perovskite-type titanates, such as Strontium Titanate (STO), Barium Titanate (BTO), and Lead Titanate (PTO) have been widely studied because they show good electric and optical properties. In recent years, thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) have been paid much attention as dielectrics of dynamic random access memory (DRAM) capacitors. BST is a better insulator with a higher dielectric constant than STO and can be controlled in a paraelectric phase with an appropriate ratio of Ba/Sr composition, however, few studies have been done on the electronic structure of the material. Studies of the electronic structure of such materials can be beneficial, both for fundamental physics research and for improving technological applications. BTO is a famous ferroelectric material with a tetragonal structure, in which Ti and Ba atoms are slightly displaced from the lattice points. On the other hand, BST keeps a paraelectric phase, which means that the atoms are still at the cubic lattice points. It should be of great interest to see how this difference of the local structure around Ti atoms between BTO and BST effects the electronic structure of these two materials. In this report, the authors present the Ti L{sub 2,3} absorption spectra of STO, BTO, and BST measured with very high accuracy in energy of the absorption features.

  1. Soft x-ray properties of the binary millisecond pulsar J0437-4715

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Martin, Christopher; Marshall, Herman L.

    1995-01-01

    We obtained a light curve for the 5.75 ms pulsar J0437-4715 in the 65-120 A range with 0.5 ms time resolution using the Deep Survey instrument on the EUVE satellite. The single-peaked profile has a pulsed fraction of 0. 27 +/- 0.05, similar to the ROSAT data in the overlapping energy band. A combined analysis of the EUVE and ROSAT data is consistent with a power-law spectrum of energy index alpha = 1.2-1.5, intervening column density NH = (5-8) x 10(exp 19)/sq cm, and luminosity 5.0 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s in the 0.1-2. 4 keV band. We also use a bright EUVE/ROSAT source only 4.3 deg from the pulsar, the Seyfert galaxy RX J0437.4-4711 (= EUVE J0437-471 = lES 0435-472), to obtain an independent upper limit on the intervening absorption to the pulsar, NH less than 1.2 x 10(exp 20)/sq cm. Although a blackbody spectrum fails to fit the ROSAT data, two-component spectral fits to the combined EUVE/ROSAT data are used to limit the temperatures and surface areas of thermal emission that might make partial contributions to the flux. A hot polar cap of radius 50-600 m and temperature (1.0-3.3) x 10(exp 6) K could be present. Alternatively, a larger region with T = (4-12) x 10(exp 5) K and area less than 200 sq km, might contribute most of the EUVE and soft X-ray flux, but only if a hotter component were present as well. Any of these temperatures would require some mechanism(s) of surface reheating to be operating in this old pulsar, the most plausible being the impact of accelerated electrons and positrons onto the polar caps. The kinematically corrected spin-down power of PSR J0437-4715 is only 4 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s, which is an order of magnitude less than that of the lowest-luminosity gamma-ray pulsars Geminga and PSR B1055-52. The absence of high-energy gamma-rays from PSR J0437-4715 might signify an inefficient or dead outer gap accelerator, which in turn accounts for the lack of a more luminous reheated surface such as those intermediate-age gamma-ray pulsars may have.

  2. Asymmetric and Stochastic Behavior in Magnetic Vortices Studied by Soft X-ray Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi-Young

    Asymmetry and stochasticity in spin processes are not only long-standing fundamental issues but also highly relevant to technological applications of nanomagnetic structures to memory and storage nanodevices. Those nontrivial phenomena have been studied by direct imaging of spin structures in magnetic vortices utilizing magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy (BL6.1.2 at ALS). Magnetic vortices have attracted enormous scientific interests due to their fascinating spin structures consisting of circularity rotating clockwise (c = + 1) or counter-clockwise (c = -1) and polarity pointing either up (p = + 1) or down (p = -1). We observed a symmetry breaking in the formation process of vortex structures in circular permalloy (Ni80Fe20) disks. The generation rates of two different vortex groups with the signature of cp = + 1 and cp =-1 are completely asymmetric. The asymmetric nature was interpreted to be triggered by ``intrinsic'' Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from the spin-orbit coupling due to the lack of inversion symmetry near the disk surface and ``extrinsic'' factors such as roughness and defects. We also investigated the stochastic behavior of vortex creation in the arrays of asymmetric disks. The stochasticity was found to be very sensitive to the geometry of disk arrays, particularly interdisk distance. The experimentally observed phenomenon couldn't be explained by thermal fluctuation effect, which has been considered as a main reason for the stochastic behavior in spin processes. We demonstrated for the first time that the ultrafast dynamics at the early stage of vortex creation, which has a character of classical chaos significantly affects the stochastic nature observed at the steady state in asymmetric disks. This work provided the new perspective of dynamics as a critical factor contributing to the stochasticity in spin processes and also the possibility for the control of the intrinsic stochastic nature by optimizing the design of

  3. An Experimental Benchmark for Improved Simulation of Absolute Soft X-Ray Emission from Polystyrene Targets Irradiated With the Nike Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, J. L; Busquet, M; Colombant, D. G; Mostovych, A. N; Feldman, U; Klapisch, M; Seely, J. F; Brown, C; Holland, G

    2005-01-01

    Absolutely calibrated, time-resolved spectral intensity measurements of soft x-ray emission from laser-irradiated polystyrene targets are compared to radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include...

  4. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loo, Jr., Billy W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  5. Ultra high resolution molecular beam cars spectroscopy with application to planetary atmospheric molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of high resolution pulsed and continuous wave (CW) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements in pulsed and steady state supersonic expansions were demonstrated. Pulsed molecular beam sources were characterized, and saturation of a Raman transition and, for the first time, the Raman spectrum of a complex molecular cluster were observed. The observation of CW CARS spectra in a molecular expansion and the effects of transit time broadening is described. Supersonic expansion is established as a viable technique for high resolution Raman spectroscopy of cold molecules with resolutions of 100 MH2.

  6. A New Observation of the Quiet Sun Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Stone, Jordan

    2013-03-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable with solar activity. While this is particularly true during solar flares, when emission can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude up to gamma-ray energies, even the so-called "quiet Sun" is bright in soft X-rays (SXRs), as the 1-2 MK ambient plasma of the corona emits significant thermal bremsstrahlung up to 5 keV. However, the actual solar SXR (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include ultra-high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystral spectrometers (e.g. Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g. GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with fair energy resolution ( 0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and XRS on MESSENGER, although they did not extend below 1 keV. We present observations of the quiet Sun SXR emission obtained using a new SXR spectrometer flown on the third SDO/EVE underflight calibration rocket (NASA 36.286). The commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123 silicon drift detector, with an 8-micron Be window and custom aperture, measured the solar SXR emission from 0.5 to >10 keV with 0.15 keV FWHM resolution (though, due to hardware limitations, with only 0.12 keV binning) and 2-sec cadence over 5 minutes on 23 June 2012. Despite the rising solar cycle, activity on 23 June 2012 was abnormally low, with no visible active regions and GOES XRS emission near 2010 levels; we measured no solar counts above 4 keV during the observation period. We compare our X123 measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including the SphinX observations during the deep solar minimum of 2009, and with upper limits of >3 keV quiet Sun emission

  7. Soft-X-Ray-Enhanced Electrostatic Precipitation for Protection against Inhalable Allergens, Ultrafine Particles, and Microbial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettleson, Eric M.; Schriewer, Jill M.; Buller, R. Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of the human lung from infectious agents, allergens, and ultrafine particles is difficult with current technologies. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters remove airborne particles of >0.3 μm with 99.97% efficiency, but they are expensive to maintain. Electrostatic precipitation has been used as an inexpensive approach to remove large particles from airflows, but it has a collection efficiency minimum in the submicrometer size range, allowing for a penetration window for some allergens and ultrafine particles. Incorporating soft X-ray irradiation as an in situ component of the electrostatic precipitation process greatly improves capture efficiency of ultrafine particles. Here we demonstrate the removal and inactivation capabilities of soft-X-ray-enhanced electrostatic precipitation technology targeting infectious agents (Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and poxviruses), allergens, and ultrafine particles. Incorporation of in situ soft X-ray irradiation at low-intensity corona conditions resulted in (i) 2-fold to 9-fold increase in capture efficiency of 200- to 600-nm particles and (ii) a considerable delay in the mean day of death as well as lower overall mortality rates in ectromelia virus (ECTV) cohorts. At the high-intensity corona conditions, nearly complete protection from viral and bacterial respiratory infection was afforded to the murine models for all biological agents tested. When optimized for combined efficient particle removal with limited ozone production, this technology could be incorporated into stand-alone indoor air cleaners or scaled for installation in aircraft cabin, office, and residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. PMID:23263945

  8. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  9. The very soft X-ray emission of X-ray-faint early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, S.; Fabbiano, G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent reanaylsis of Einstein data, and new ROSAT observations, have revealed the presence of at least two components in the X-ray spectra of X-ray faint early-type galaxies: a relatively hard component (kT greater than 1.5 keV), and a very soft component (kT approximately 0.2-0.3 keV). In this paper we address the problem of the nature of the very soft component and whether it can be due to a hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is most likely originated by the collective emission of very soft stellar sources. To this purpose, hydrodynamical evolutionary sequences for the secular behavior of gas flows in ellipticals have been performed, varying the Type Ia supernovae rate of explosion, and the dark matter amount and distribution. The results are compared with the observational X-ray data: the average Einstein spectrum for six X-ray faint early-type galaxies (among which are NGC 4365 and NGC 4697), and the spectrum obtained by the ROSAT pointed observation of NGC 4365. The very soft component could be entirely explained with a hot ISM only in galaxies such as NGC 4697, i.e., when the depth of the potential well-on which the average ISM temperature strongly depends-is quite shallow; in NGC 4365 a diffuse hot ISM would have a temperature larger than that of the very soft component, because of the deeper potential well. So, in NGC 4365 the softest contribution to the X-ray emission comes certainly from stellar sources. As stellar soft X-ray emitters, we consider late-type stellar coronae, supersoft sources such as those discovered by ROSAT in the Magellanic Clouds and M31, and RS CVn systems. All these candidates can be substantial contributors to the very soft emission, though none of them, taken separately, plausibly accounts entirely for its properties. We finally present a model for the X-ray emission of NGC 4365, to reproduce in detail the results of the ROSAT pointed observation, including the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectrum and radial

  10. Measurement of the polarization for soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the BSRF beamline 4B7B

    CERN Document Server

    Zhi-Ying, Guo; Jing-Tao, Zhu; YI-Dong, Zhao; Lei, Zheng; Cai-Hao, Hong; Kun, Tang; Dong-Liang, Yang; Ming-Qi, Cui

    2012-01-01

    Three ultra-short-period W/B4C multilayers (1.244nm, 1.235nm and 1.034nm) have been fabricated and used for polarization measurement at the 4B7B Beamline of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). By rotating analyzer ellipsometry method, the linear polarization degree of light emerging from this beamline has been measured and the circular polarization evaluated for 700eV-860eV. The first soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out at BSRF by positioning the beamline aperture out of the plane of the electron storage ring.

  11. Temporal behavior of unresolved transition array emission in water window soft x-ray spectral region from multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, Thanh-Hung, E-mail: dinh@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dunne, Padraig; O' Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Fujioka, Shinsuke [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Nishikino, Masaharu [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    We have characterized the spectral structure and the temporal history of the laser-produced high-Z multi-charged ion plasmas for the efficient water window soft x-ray sources. Strong unresolved transition array emission was observed due to 4d–4f and 4f–5g transitions from Au, Pb, and Bi plasmas in the 280–700 eV photon energy region. The temporal behavior of the emission was essentially similar of that of the laser pulse with a slight delay between different transitions. These results provide feedback for accurate modeling of the atomic processes with the radiative hydrodynamic simulations.

  12. Probing orbital symmetry in solution: polarization-dependent resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering on liquid micro-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierker, B.; Suljoti, E.; Atak, K.; Lange, K. M.; Engel, N.; Golnak, R.; Dantz, M.; Hodeck, K.; Khan, M.; Kosugi, N.; Aziz, E. F.

    2013-09-01

    Polarization-dependent resonant inelastic x-ray scattering is demonstrated here for liquid acetonitrile, acetone and dimethyl sulfoxide, using the liquid micro-jet technique. Selective excitation to an unoccupied orbital with a specific symmetry at the K-edge x-ray absorption of liquid samples determines the polarization-dependent emission of the occupied states. Considering the well-defined unoccupied molecular orbital configuration and utilizing the results of ab initio molecular orbital calculations, the polarization-dependent anisotropy in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering is discussed in a membrane-free configuration.

  13. Combining THz laser excitation with resonant soft X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joshua J; Dakovski, Georgi L; Hoffmann, Matthias C; Hwang, Harold Y; Zarem, Alex; Schlotter, William F; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Staub, Urs; Johnson, Steven; Mitra, Ankush; Swiggers, Michele; Noonan, Peter; Curiel, G Ivan; Holmes, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the development of new instrumentation at the Linac Coherent Light Source for conducting THz excitation experiments in an ultra high vacuum environment probed by soft X-ray diffraction. This consists of a cantilevered, fully motorized mirror system which can provide 600 kV cm(-1) electric field strengths across the sample and an X-ray detector that can span the full Ewald sphere with in-vacuum motion. The scientific applications motivated by this development, the details of the instrument, and spectra demonstrating the field strengths achieved using this newly developed system are discussed.

  14. Depth-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy in nanostructures via standing-wave excited photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronast, F.; Ovsyannikov, R.; Kaiser, A.; Wiemann, C.; Yang, S.-H.; Locatelli, A.; Burgler, D.E.; Schreiber, R.; Salmassi, F.; Fischer, P.; Durr, H.A.; Schneider, C.M.; Eberhardt, W.; Fadley, C.S.

    2008-11-24

    We present an extension of conventional laterally resolved soft x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy. A depth resolution along the surface normal down to a few {angstrom} can be achieved by setting up standing x-ray wave fields in a multilayer substrate. The sample is an Ag/Co/Au trilayer, whose first layer has a wedge profile, grown on a Si/MoSi2 multilayer mirror. Tuning the incident x-ray to the mirror Bragg angle we set up standing x-ray wave fields. We demonstrate the resulting depth resolution by imaging the standing wave fields as they move through the trilayer wedge structure.

  15. Improvement of cryogenic 3-dimensional observation system of soft x-ray microscope at the SR center of Ritsumeikan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, K.; Usui, K.; Ohigashi, T.; Fujii, H.; Yoshimura, M.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2013-10-01

    The improvements of a soft x-ray microscope beamline (BL-12) at the SR center of Ritsumeikan University are reported. A wedge-shaped slit and Si plane mirror were newly introduced. The better energy resolution was expected and the +2nd order diffraction from the CZP (1.2 nm at 2.4 nm observation) was suppressed. A new sample holding fixture allows the sample to be replaced quickly and accurately. A new sample cooling system allowed a stable cryogenic x-ray imaging.

  16. Polycapillary lenses for soft x-ray transmission in ITER: Model, comparison with experiments, and potential application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, D., E-mail: Didier.Mazon@cea.fr; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Liegeard, C. [Ecole Polytechnique de Paris, Paris (France); Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.; Sirinelli, A. [ITER Organization, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); O’Mullane, M. [Department of Physics SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Dorchies, F. [University Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA, UMR5107, Talence 33405 (France)

    2016-11-15

    Measuring Soft X-Ray (SXR) radiation [0.1 keV; 15 keV] in tokamaks is a standard way of extracting valuable information on the particle transport and magnetohydrodynamic activity. Generally, the analysis is performed with detectors positioned close to the plasma for a direct line of sight. A burning plasma, like the ITER deuterium-tritium phase, is too harsh an environment to permit the use of such detectors in close vicinity of the machine. We have thus investigated in this article the possibility of using polycapillary lenses in ITER to transport the SXR information several meters away from the plasma in the complex port-plug geometry.

  17. High-resolution mirror temperature mapping in GaN-based diode lasers by thermoreflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierścińska, Dorota; Marona, Łucja; Pierściński, Kamil; Wiśniewski, Przemysław; Perlin, Piotr; Bugajski, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    In this paper accurate measurements of temperature distribution on the facet of GaN-based diode lasers are presented as well as development of the instrumentation for high-resolution thermal imaging based on thermoreflectance. It is shown that thermoreflectance can be successfully applied to provide information on heat dissipation in these devices. We demonstrate the quantitative measurements of the temperature profiles and high-resolution temperature maps on the front facet of nitride lasers and prove that thermoreflectance spectroscopy can be considered as the accurate and fast nondestructive tool for investigation of thermally induced degradation modes of GaN lasers.

  18. Characterization of ion-bombardment induced modifications of periodic La/B{sub 4}C-multilayer-mirrors for the reflection of soft X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merschjohann, Fabian; Lass, Maike; Gorholt, Lennart; Sacher, Marc D.; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Molecular and Surface Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Schaefers, Franz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The applicability of reflective optical components for the soft X-Ray region depends on the existence of multilayer-optics. Therefore stacks of alternating layers of two materials with different refractive index are applied. For the photon energy range of 100-190 eV Lanthanum (La) is favoured as the absorber material and Boroncarbide (B{sub 4}C) as the spacer material. Thin periodic layer systems of those materials with double layer periods of 5.6 nm have been produced by UHV Electron Beam Evaporation. The layer thickness is controlled by in-situ X-Ray Reflectometry. The purity and the stoichiometry of the layers has been analyzed by electron beam induced in-situ Auger Spectroscopy. Ion Polishing of each interface should diminish the interface roughness and thus enhance the reflectivity. The modification of the La- and B{sub 4}C-layers due to ion bombardment has been investigated by the in-situ Auger Spectroscopy, ex-situ X-Ray Diffraction and at-wavelength reflectivity measurements by use of Synchrotron radiation at the BESSY II facility. Effects of compaction, mixing, sputter-etching and smoothing have been found. The modifications can be influenced by varying the kinetic energy of the ions and/or the duration of the treatment.

  19. High Resolution FTIR Spectroscopy of Trisulfane Hsssh: a Candidate for Detecting Parity Violation in Chiral Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Sieghard; Bolotova, Irina; Chen, Ziqiu; Fábri, Csaba; Quack, Martin; Seyfang, Georg; Zindel, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    The measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ_{pv}{E} between the enantiomers of chiral molecules is among the major current challenges in high resolution spectroscopy and physical-chemical stereochemistry. Theoretical predictions have recently identified dithiine^{b} and trisulfane as suitable candidates for such experiments. We report the first successful high-resolution analyses of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of trisulfane. A band centered at 861.0292 cm^{-1} can be assigned unambiguously to the chiral trans conformer by means of ground state combination differences in comparison with known pure rotational spectra. A second band near 864.698 cm^{-1} is tentatively assigned to the cis conformer by comparison with theory. M. Quack , Fundamental Symmetries and Symmetry Violations from High-resolution Spectroscopy, Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy, M. Quack and F. Merkt eds.,John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, New York, 2001, vol. 1, ch. 18, pp. 659-722. S. Albert, I. Bolotova, Z. Chen, C. Fábri, L. Horný, M. Quack, G. Seyfang and D. Zindel, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys.18, 21976-21993 (2016). C. Fábri, L. Horný and M. Quack, ChemPhysChem16, 3584-3589 (2015). M. Liedtke, K. M. T. Yamada, G. Winnewisser and J. Hahn, J.Mol.Struct.413, 265-270 (1997).

  20. High-resolution NMR and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy of port wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mathias; Duarte, Iola F; Almeida, Cláudia; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Goodfellow, Brian J; Gil, Ana M; Morris, Gareth A

    2004-06-16

    The use of high-resolution NMR and high-resolution diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) for the characterization of selected Port wine samples of different ages with the aim of identifying changes in composition is described. Conventional 1D and 2D NMR methods enabled the identification of about 35 compounds, including minor components such as some medium-chain alcohols, amino acids, and organic acids. High-resolution (HR) DOSY extended sample characterization, increasing the number of compounds identified and NMR assignments made, by providing information on the relative molecular sizes of the metabolites present. Port wines of different ages were found to differ mainly in their content of (a) organic acids and some amino acids, (b) an unidentified possible disaccharide, and (c) large aromatic species. The relative amount of these last high Mw aromatics is seen to decrease significantly in the oldest wine, as expected from the known formation and precipitation of anthocyanin-based polymers during red wine aging.

  1. Detection of soft X-rays from Alpha Lyrae and Eta Bootis with an imaging X-ray telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Fabricant, D.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Gorenstein, P.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented for observations of Alpha Lyr (Vega) and Eta Boo with an imaging X-ray telescope during two rocket flights. It is found that Vega and Eta Boo are soft X-ray sources with respective luminosities of approximately 3 x 10 to the 28th erg/s (0.15-0.8 keV) and 1 x 10 to the 29th erg/s (0.15-1.5 keV). Surface X-ray luminosities of about 640,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Vega and 300,000 erg/sq cm per sec for Eta Boo are estimated and shown to fall within the range of solar coronal X-ray emission. It is concluded that in view of the substantially larger surface areas of these stars, the relatively large total soft X-ray luminosity (as compared with that of the sun) can in both cases be understood as resulting from a moderately active corona, although the Vega observation is in severe conflict with simple models for X-ray emission from single main-sequence stars.

  2. Long-Duration Soft X-Ray Pulses by XeCl Laser Driven Plasmas and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollanti, S; Di Lazzaro, P; Flora, F; Giordano, G; Letardi, T; Schina, G; Zheng, C E; Filippi, L; Palladino, L; Reale, A; Taglieri, G; Batani, D; Mauri, A; Belli, M; Scafati, A; Reale, L; Albertano, P; Grilli, A; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Cotton, R

    1995-01-01

    We report the characterization of a soft x-ray plasma source generated by a long-pulse XeCl excimer laser system. The output energy is 4 J at a wavelength of 308 nm in a 100-ns pulse. The intensity of radiation on target is estimated to be 4 × 1012 W cm-2. X-ray emission spectra of the plasma have been recorded using a double focusing spatial resolution spectrometer with a spherical mica crystal. From these measurements, the plasma temperature and electron density have been estimated. Various applications of such a plasma source have been investigated. First images of whole intact living cells from our system, imaged using the technique of soft x-ray contact microscopy, utilizing x rays in the "water window" region (280-530 eV), are shown. The suitability of the source for other applications, for example, x-ray lithography and radiation damage studies, to living cells are discussed. Possible improvements to the x-ray source for the various applications are proposed.

  3. Fabrication and Evaluation of Large Area Mo/Si Soft X-Ray Multilayer Mirrors at Indus SR Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large area Mo/Si multilayer (ML mirrors with high reflectivity are fabricated using magnetron sputtering deposition system. Thin film growth is optimized for film roughness, density, and interface quality by changing process parameters through fabrication of thin films. Mo/Si MLs are fabricated with varying thickness ratio, number of layer pairs, and periodicity from 0.3 to 0.45, 5 to 65, and 40 to 100 Å, respectively. The samples are characterized using hard X-ray reflectivity and transmission electron microscopy. Soft X-ray performance tests of MLs are done by soft X-ray reflectivity using Indus-1 synchrotron radiation. ML coating with thickness errors of ~0.03% per layer and interface roughness in the range of 2 to 5 Å has been realized. The lateral variation of the periodicity is controlled within 0.5 Å over the 300×100 mm2 area of the plane substrate by using substrate motion and appropriate masking arrangement. Maximum variation of periodicity from run to run is less than 0.5 Å. Peak reflectivity of ~63% at wavelength of ~127 Å is achieved for incident angle of 71 degree.

  4. Quantitative resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of ultrathin anisotropic organic layers: Simulation and experiment of PTCDA on Au.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, R; Mahne, N; Koshmak, K; Giglia, A; Doyle, B P; Mukherjee, S; Nannarone, S; Pasquali, L

    2016-07-14

    Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity at the carbon K edge, with linearly polarized light, was used to derive quantitative information of film morphology, molecular arrangement, and electronic orbital anisotropies of an ultrathin 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) film on Au(111). The experimental spectra were simulated by computing the propagation of the electromagnetic field in a trilayer system (vacuum/PTCDA/Au), where the organic film was treated as an anisotropic medium. Optical constants were derived from the calculated (through density functional theory) absorption cross sections of the single molecule along the three principal molecular axes. These were used to construct the dielectric tensor of the film, assuming the molecules to be lying flat with respect to the substrate and with a herringbone arrangement parallel to the substrate plane. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity proved to be extremely sensitive to film thickness, down to the single molecular layer. The best agreement between simulation and experiment was found for a film of 1.6 nm, with flat laying configuration of the molecules. The high sensitivity to experimental geometries in terms of beam incidence and light polarization was also clarified through simulations. The optical anisotropies of the organic film were experimentally determined and through the comparison with calculations, it was possible to relate them to the orbital symmetry of the empty electronic states.

  5. Generation of femtosecond soft x-ray pulse by interaction between laser and electron beam in an electron storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, T; Amano, S; Mochizuki, T; Yatsuzaka, M

    2002-01-01

    A femtosecond synchrotron radiation pulse train can be extracted from an electron storage ring by interaction between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam in an undulator. Generation system of a femtosecond soft x-ray pulse by the slicing technique was studied with numerical calculations for its performance, as applicable for the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility at LASTI. The femtosecond electron pulse, that is energy-modulated with a Ti:sapphire laser at a pulse energy of 100 mu J, a pulse width of 150 fs, and repetition frequency of 20 kHz, can be sufficiently separated in a bending magnet. A femtosecond soft x-ray pulse (the critical photon energy of 0.69 keV and a pulse width of 250 fs) is obtained with a collimator (diameter of 800 mu m phi), and it has an average brightness 3 x 10 sup 6 photons/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 /0.1 %BW and an average photon flux 10 sup 5 photons/s/0.1 %BW. (author)

  6. Towards 10 meV resolution: The design of an ultrahigh resolution soft X-ray RIXS spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jarrige, Ignace; Bisogni, Valentina; Coburn, Scott; Leonhardt, William

    2016-11-01

    We present the optical design of the Centurion soft X-ray resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectrometer to be located on the SIX beamline at NSLS-II. The spectrometer is designed to reach a resolving power of 100 000 at 1000 eV at its best resolution. It is also designed to have continuously variable 2θ motion over a range of 112° using a custom triple rotating flange. We have analyzed several possible spectrometer designs capable of reaching the target resolution. After careful analysis, we have adopted a Hettrick-Underwood spectrometer design, with an additional plane mirror to maintain a fixed direction for the outgoing beam. The spectrometer can cancel defocus and coma aberrations at all energies, has an erect focal plane, and minimizes mechanical motions of the detector. When the beamline resolution is accounted for, the net spectral resolution will be 14 meV at 1000 eV. This will open up many low energy excitations to study and will expand greatly the power of soft X-ray RIXS.

  7. Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamental length and times scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter

    2008-08-01

    The magnetic properties of low dimensional solid state matter is of the utmost interest both scientifically as well as technologically. In addition to the charge of the electron which is the base for current electronics, by taking into account the spin degree of freedom in future spintronics applications open a new avenue. Progress towards a better physical understanding of the mechanism and principles involved as well as potential applications of nanomagnetic devices can only be achieved with advanced analytical tools. Soft X-ray microscopy providing a spatial resolution towards 10nm, a time resolution currently in the sub-ns regime and inherent elemental sensitivity is a very promising technique for that. This article reviews the recent achievements of magnetic soft X-ray microscopy by selected examples of spin torque phenomena, stochastical behavior on the nanoscale and spin dynamics in magnetic nanopatterns. The future potential with regard to addressing fundamental magnetic length and time scales, e.g. imaging fsec spin dynamics at upcoming X-ray sources is pointed out.

  8. Limits on the density of neutral gas within 100 parsecs from observations of the soft X-ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juda, M.; Bloch, J.J.; Edwards, B.C.; Mccammon, D.; Sanders, W.T. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Observations are presented in two soft X-ray bands, the Be band (0.077-0.111 keV) and the B-prime (0.105-0.188 keV), for nine directions in the sky. The ratio of count rates in these two bands remains constant as the rates vary by a factor of three, even though the effective interstellar absorption cross sections in the bands differ by a factor of about 3.5. For a model in which the bulk of the observed soft X-ray emission originates in a uniform low-density region surrounding the sun, the constant ratio between the band rates places an upper limit on the amount of neutral material that can be homogeneously mixed with the X-ray-emitting gas. The 2 sigma upper limit on the H I column density over an average path through the local emitting region is 6.6 x 10 to the 18th/sq cm. If the average path length is about 100 pc, then clouds similar to the one in which the sun is embedded could still have a filling factor as large as 25 percent. 24 refs.

  9. Validation of the uncertainty budget for soft X-ray radiant power measurement using a cryogenic radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Scholze, F; Thornagel, R; Ulm, G

    2002-01-01

    The cryogenic radiometer SYRES, a thermal detector based on the electrical substitution principle, has been used as the primary detector standard for radiant power measurement in the ultraviolet, vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral ranges. In order to investigate the possibility of radiant energy being deposited in its absorber cavity without being transformed into heat when detecting soft X-rays, SYRES has been directly compared with the electron storage ring BESSY 1, a primary radiometric source standard of calculable spectral radiant power. To this end, the integral radiant power emitted by the storage ring,into a solid angle defined by a high-precision aperture was measured with SYRES. The experiments were conducted at two nominal energies of the circulating electrons, 800 MeV and 340 MeV, to study the influence of the different spectral distributions of the synchrotron radiation. For the original graphite-coated cavity absorber, significant discrepancies were found which could be traced back to th...

  10. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  11. Soft X-ray therapy of recurrent pterygium - an alternative to {sup 90}Sr eye applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, J.; Flentje, M. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Lieb, W. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Background: Analysis of effectiveness of perioperative 20 kV soft X-ray irradiation in recurrent pterygium as an alternative to postoperative {sup 90}Sr beta irradiation. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000 a total of 65 patients with 81 pterygia were treated with 20 kV X-ray therapy in the course of surgical treatment of recurrent pterygium. Until 1995 simple excision (bare sclera technique) followed by postoperative irradiation (generally four fractions of 5 Gy) was applied, with radiation starting on mean 4 days following surgery (34 cases, mean follow-up 52 months). Since 1995 we have changed our policy to a perioperative regimen starting with a single dose of 7 Gy prior to microsurgical excision with conjunctival autograft and proceeding within 24 hours with 5 Gy single dose to the surgical bed and then every other day to a total dose of 27 Gy (47 cases, mean follow-up 31 months). Recurrence rate was calculated by Kaplan Meier method. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of prognostic factors for recurrence was performed. Results: A total of 19 recurrences were observed, 15 in the historical postoperative group and four in the perioperative group. Actuarial 2- and 5-year recurrence rate is 9% in the ''new treatment group'' compared to 34% and 56% in the historical group (p = 0,001). Only one of the four recurrences among the pre- and postoperatively irradiated group required a new surgical procedure. In this case radiation had been terminated at 17 Gy. Actuarial rate of surgical reintervention was only 2% at 2 and 5 years compared to 28% and 36% in the historical group. In multivariate Cox regression analysis only the new treatment strategy was found to influence control rate significantly. Until now no case of severe side effects like scleral necrosis or thinning, symble-pharon, radiation-induced cataract or glaucoma were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The combination of pre- and postoperative 20 kV X-ray therapy and

  12. Weakly-Correlated Nature of Ferromagnetism in Nonsymmorphic CrO2 Revealed by Bulk-Sensitive Soft-X-Ray ARPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisti, F.; Rogalev, V. A.; Karolak, M.; Paul, S.; Gupta, A.; Schmitt, T.; Güntherodt, G.; Eyert, V.; Sangiovanni, G.; Profeta, G.; Strocov, V. N.

    2017-10-01

    Chromium dioxide CrO2 belongs to a class of materials called ferromagnetic half-metals, whose peculiar aspect is that they act as a metal in one spin orientation and as a semiconductor or insulator in the opposite one. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies motivated by technologically important applications of this material in spintronics, its fundamental properties such as momentum-resolved electron dispersions and the Fermi surface have so far remained experimentally inaccessible because of metastability of its surface, which instantly reduces to amorphous Cr2O3 . In this work, we demonstrate that direct access to the native electronic structure of CrO2 can be achieved with soft-x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy whose large probing depth penetrates through the Cr2O3 layer. For the first time, the electronic dispersions and Fermi surface of CrO2 are measured, which are fundamental prerequisites to solve the long debate on the nature of electronic correlations in this material. Since density functional theory augmented by a relatively weak local Coulomb repulsion gives an exhaustive description of our spectroscopic data, we rule out strong-coupling theories of CrO2 . Crucial for the correct interpretation of our experimental data in terms of the valence-band dispersions is the understanding of a nontrivial spectral response of CrO2 caused by interference effects in the photoemission process originating from the nonsymmorphic space group of the rutile crystal structure of CrO2 .

  13. Contrasting behavior of covalent and molecular carbon allotropes exposed to extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufarová, M.; Hájková, V.; Chalupský, J.; Burian, T.; Vacík, J.; Vorlíček, V.; Vyšín, L.; Gaudin, J.; Medvedev, N.; Ziaja, B.; Nagasono, M.; Yabashi, M.; Sobierajski, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Sinn, H.; Störmer, M.; Koláček, K.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Juha, L.

    2017-12-01

    All carbon materials, e.g., amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings and C60 fullerene thin films, play an important role in short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) research motivated by FEL optics development and prospective nanotechnology applications. Responses of a-C and C60 layers to the extreme ultraviolet (SPring-8 Compact SASE Source in Japan) and soft x-ray (free-electron laser in Hamburg) free-electron laser radiation are investigated by Raman spectroscopy, differential interference contrast, and atomic force microscopy. A remarkable difference in the behavior of covalent (a-C) and molecular (C60) carbonaceous solids is demonstrated under these irradiation conditions. Low thresholds for ablation of a fullerene crystal (estimated to be around 0.15 eV/atom for C60 vs 0.9 eV/atom for a-C in terms of the absorbed dose) are caused by a low cohesive energy of fullerene crystals. An efficient mechanism of the removal of intact C60 molecules from the irradiated crystal due to Coulomb repulsion of fullerene-cage cation radicals formed by the ionizing radiation is revealed by a detailed modeling.

  14. Theory-driven design of high-valence metal sites for water oxidation confirmed using in situ soft X-ray absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueli; Zhang, Bo; de Luna, Phil; Liang, Yufeng; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Han, Lili; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Liu, Min; Dinh, Cao Thang; Regier, Tom; Dynes, James J.; He, Sisi; Xin, Huolin L.; Peng, Huisheng; Prendergast, David; Du, Xiwen; Sargent, Edward H.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. We took the view that generating transition-metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Here, using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal P. We therefore synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics with in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). In situ sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni4+ under low overpotential conditions. The NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO2 and retains its performance following 100 h of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm-2, reducing CO2 into CO and oxidizing H2O to O2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.

  15. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  16. Enhancement of soft X-ray emission from fs laser plasma by using mixture of molecule and atomic gases as cluster jet targets and its application for nanostructure imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, T A; Faenov, A Ya; Fukuda, Y; Kando, M; Kotaki, H; Daito, I; Homma, T; Kawase, K; Kameshima, T; Kawachi, T; Bolton, P; Daido, H; Kimura, T; Tajima, T; Kato, Y; Bulanov, S V [Kansai Photon Science Institute (KPSI), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Kizugawa-city, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Skobelev, I Yu; Gasilov, S V [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldarev, A S; Gasilov, V A, E-mail: faenov.anatoly@jaea.go.j [Institute for Mathematical Modelling, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-01

    Submicron scale clusters, produced by mixture of molecular (CO{sub 2}) and atomic (He) gases expanding from the specifically designed super-sonic nozzle, have been irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses in order to build up a bright debris-free soft X-ray source. Spectroscopy measurements showed that X-ray flux in the strongest oxygen spectral lines (He{sub b}eta at 665.7 eV and L{sub ya}lpha at 653.7 eV) produced by the plasma from gas mixture clusters is 2-8 times larger than in the case of using pure CO{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O clusters as targets and reaches values about 2.8x10{sup 10} ph/(sr centre dot pulse). Lines intensity and spatial dimension were measured from two observation point - along and perpendicular to the laser beam propagation directions. Images of 100 nm thick Mo foils in a wide field of view (cm{sup 2} scale) with high spatial resolution (700 nm) were obtained using LiF crystals as soft X-ray imaging detectors. Agreement between calculated and measured intensity of the image fragment which illustrates overlapping of Mo foil layers confirms accuracy of the plasma parameters measurements.

  17. High-Resolution Conversion Electron Spectroscopy of Valence Electron Configurations (CESVEC) in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    First measurements with the Zurich $\\beta$-spectrometer on sources from ISOLDE have demonstrated that high resolution spectroscopy of conversion electrons from valence shells is feasible.\\\\ \\\\ This makes possible a novel type of electron spectroscopy (CESVEC) on valence-electron configurations of tracer elements in solids. Thus the density of occupied electron states of impurities in solids has been measured for the first time. Such data constitute a stringent test of state-of-the-art calculations of impurity properties. Based on these results, we are conducting a systematic investigation of impurities in group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  18. Soft X-ray variability over the present minimum of solar activity as observed by SphinX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Kordylewski, Z.; Plocieniak, S.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.

    2011-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument designed to observe the Sun in X-rays in the energy range 0.85-15.00 keV. SphinX is incorporated within the Russian TESIS X and EUV telescope complex aboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite which was launched on January 30, 2009 at 13:30 UT from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, northern Russia. Since February, 2009 SphinX has been measuring solar X-ray radiation nearly continuously. The principle of SphinX operation and the content of the instrument data archives is studied. Issues related to dissemination of SphinX calibration, data, repository mirrors locations, types of data and metadata are discussed. Variability of soft X-ray solar flux is studied using data collected by SphinX over entire mission duration.

  19. Generation of high-photon flux-coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Hage, Arvid; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3·10(8) photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10(-9), which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed.

  20. Many-Electron Response of Gas-Phase Fullerene Materials to Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Magrakvelidze, Maia

    2015-06-01

    This article briefly reviews primary theoretical methods employed from the beginning of the century to predict the response of empty fullerenes, fullerenes endohedrally confining varieties of atoms, and few-layer fullerene nanoonions to the external electromagnetic radiations from ultraviolet to soft x-ray frequencies. Comparisons with available measurements are shown wherever possible and the success of the time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA) method is predominantly emphasized. For the ionization process, various effects of the coherence, such as, the plasmon resonances, atom-fullerene dynamical hybridization, many-body correlations based on the interchannel coupling in the continuum, and Auger-intercoulombic hybrid multicenter decays of innershell holes are discussed. Finally, a broad outlook is presented that includes attosecond physics with fullerene materials, photoresponse of non-spherical fullerenes as well as fullerenes with off-centered confinements, the bare ion-impact ionization of fullerenes, and explorations beyond spherical systems to cylindrical carbon-nanotubes.

  1. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dell'Angela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001. We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Sb/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirrors for soft X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopylets, I.A., E-mail: kopil@kpi.kharkov.ua [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Frunze Street 21, 61002 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Kondratenko, V.V.; Zubarev, E.N. [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Frunze Street 21, 61002 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Voronov, D.L.; Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 15R0217, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vishnyakov, E.A.; Ragozin, E.N. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutskii per. 9, 141700 Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Structure characterization of Sb/B{sub 4}C multilayers for soft X-ray optics with a layers thickness from 0.5 nm to 7 nm is reported for the first time. Sb/B{sub 4}C coatings were manufactured via magnetron sputtering. Amorphous and crystalline phases of the layers and the multilayer structure parameters were characterized with the X-ray diffraction data and the TEM data. The Sb/B{sub 4}C multilayers demonstrated long term stability of their parameters and performances. The reached value of the reflectance of the Sb/B{sub 4}C multilayers is 19–28% measured at the near-normal incidence in the wavelength range of 6.64–8.5 nm. The influence of reduced Sb density on the reflectivity is discussed.

  3. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Angela, M; Anniyev, T; Beye, M; Coffee, R; Föhlisch, A; Gladh, J; Kaya, S; Katayama, T; Krupin, O; Nilsson, A; Nordlund, D; Schlotter, W F; Sellberg, J A; Sorgenfrei, F; Turner, J J; Öström, H; Ogasawara, H; Wolf, M; Wurth, W

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  4. Vibration Isolation System for Cryocoolers of Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) Onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoh; Yasuda, Susumu; Ishimura, Kosei; Iwata, Naoko; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoichi; Ogawa, Mina; Sawada, Makoto; Kawano, Taro; Obara, Shingo; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (named Hitomi after launch) is a micro-calorimeter-type spectrometer, installed in a dewar to be cooled at 50 mK. The energy resolution of the SXS engineering model suffered from micro-vibration from cryocoolers mounted on the dewar. This is mitigated for the flight model by introducing vibration isolation systems between the cryocoolers and the dewar. The detector performance of the flight model was verified before launch of the spacecraft in both ambient condition and thermal-vac condition, showing no detectable degradation in energy resolution. The in-orbit performance was also consistent with that on ground, indicating that the cryocoolers were not damaged by launch environment. The design and performance of the vibration isolation system along with the mechanism of how the micro-vibration could degrade the cryogenic detector is shown.

  5. Discovery of the Optical Counterpart of the Soft X-Ray Transient GRO:J0422+32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Shlyapnikov, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical counterpart of the type II Soft X-ray Transient. GRO J0422+32 on 1992 August 15. ten days after the outburst. as well as the optical light curve during the first 100 days after the outburst, making GRO J0422+32 the slowest one in the optical decline. Archival...... plates searches show that the object did not undergo a similar outburst after 1928. Its optical and X-ray evolution is similar to other members of its class. like V616 Mon. V404 Cyg and GRS 1124-68. For these later three there are dynamical evidences that place them among the best black holes candidates...

  6. Very low electron temperature in warm dense matter formed by focused picosecond soft x-ray laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Masahiko, E-mail: ishino.masahiko@jaea.go.jp; Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7, Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pikuz, Tatiana [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13-2, Izhorskaya Street, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Skobelev, Igor [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13-2, Izhorskaya Street, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 31, Kashirskoe Shosse, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Faenov, Anatoly [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 13-2, Izhorskaya Street, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Institute for Academic Initiatives, Osaka University, 1-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inogamov, Nail [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1-A, Akademika Semenova av., Chernogolovka, Moscow Region 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    We investigated the optical emission from the ablating surfaces induced by the irradiations of soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses with the aim of estimation of the maximum electron temperature. No emission signal in the spectral range of 400–800 nm could be observed despite the formation of damage structures on the target surfaces. Hence, we estimated an upper limit for the electron temperature of 0.4–0.7 eV for the process duration of 100–1000 ps. Our results imply that the ablation and/or surface modification by the SXRL is not accompanied by plasma formation but is induced by thermo-mechanical pressure, which is so called a spallative ablation. This spallative ablation process occurs in the low electron temperature region of a non-equilibrium state of warm dense matter.

  7. Design and initial operation of multichord soft x-ray detection arrays on the STOR-M tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C; Niu, T; Morelli, J E; Paz-Soldan, C; Dreval, M; Elgriw, S; Pant, A; Rohraff, D; Trembach, D; Hirose, A

    2008-10-01

    Two miniature pinhole camera arrays for spatially and temporally resolved measurements of soft x-ray emission have been designed and installed on the STOR-M tokamak. Each array consists of a photodiode array, with one array viewing vertically and one viewing horizontally through a plasma cross section. Preamplifiers with fixed gains of 10(5) VA and custom built amplifiers with variable gains are used for signal amplification. Digitizers with 14 bit resolution and 3 MSs sampling rate are used for data acquisition. In the initial operation, an Al foil with a thickness of 1.8 microm installed for one array and Be filter of 7.6 microm installed for the other array are used to test signal strength. Initial tests have identified sawtooth oscillations and 20 kHz fluctuations, which are also detected by Mirnov coils, superimposed on the sawtooth oscillations.

  8. Design and initial operation of multichord soft x-ray detection arrays on the STOR-M tokamaka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Niu, T.; Morelli, J. E.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Dreval, M.; Elgriw, S.; Pant, A.; Rohraff, D.; Trembach, D.; Hirose, A.

    2008-10-01

    Two miniature pinhole camera arrays for spatially and temporally resolved measurements of soft x-ray emission have been designed and installed on the STOR-M tokamak. Each array consists of a photodiode array, with one array viewing vertically and one viewing horizontally through a plasma cross section. Preamplifiers with fixed gains of 105V/A and custom built amplifiers with variable gains are used for signal amplification. Digitizers with 14bit resolution and 3MS/s sampling rate are used for data acquisition. In the initial operation, an Al foil with a thickness of 1.8μm installed for one array and Be filter of 7.6μm installed for the other array are used to test signal strength. Initial tests have identified sawtooth oscillations and 20kHz fluctuations, which are also detected by Mirnov coils, superimposed on the sawtooth oscillations.

  9. Thermodynamic Performance of the 3-Stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; James, Bryan L.; Muench, Theodore; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument[1] on Astro-H[2] will use a 3-stage ADR[3] to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at =1.20 K as the heat sink[4]. In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, the ADR uses a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as its heat sink. In this mode, all three stages operate together to continuously cool the (empty) helium tank and singleshot cool the detectors. The flight instrument - dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics - were integrated in 2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the ADR's operation, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  10. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  11. Interdiffusion in low-temperature annealed amorphous CoMoN/CN compound soft-x-ray optical multilayer mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, H L; He, Z J; Mi, W B; Wu, P; Li, Z Q; Jiang, E Y

    2003-01-01

    Interfacial interdiffusion in dual-facing-target sputtered amorphous CoMoN/CN soft-x-ray optical multilayer mirrors has been investigated quantitatively by monitoring the enhancement of the first-order modulation peak on annealing in the temperature range of 498-548 K. Smaller negative interdiffusivity is quite noticeable by comparing with those of Co/C and CoN/CN systems, signalling that relatively stable interfaces were formed by incorporation of molybdenum. Thermodynamic calculation reveals that the increase of binding enthalpy is the main factor leading to a larger activation energy and hence the smaller interdiffusion coefficient. The results imply that it is possible to further improve the thermal stability of CoN/CN multilayers by doping with refractory metals such as molybdenum.

  12. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Wojeński, A.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Vezinet, D.; Herrmann, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, D.; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  13. Observations of soft X-ray emission and plasma dynamics of a compact capillary discharge operated in xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, J. C.; Wyndham, E. S.; Favre, M.; Chuaqui, H. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-09-15

    We report observations of a low stored energy, low inductance compact capillary discharge operated in xenon. Even though the stored electrical energy is less than 1 J, significant output in the optical windows at 110 and 135 Å is measured. The soft X-ray emission is time-resolved and the conversion energy of the source is obtained. A lower bound to the conversion efficiency at 110 Å ± 2% and 135 Å ± 1% of 3.6% and 1.6% is obtained, respectively. The use of moiré-schlieren optical diagnostic allows the evolution of the line electron density. In particular, we observe a significant degree of compression in a tight on axis pinch as well as radial compression waves. The temporal evolution of the X-ray emission, which occurs during the current reversal and later, is discussed in relation to work in argon discharges and in relation to model calculations.

  14. Applications of High Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; McManus, J. Barry; Nelson, David; Zahniser, Mark; Herndon, Scott C.; Shorter, Joanne; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Jervis, Dylan; Dyroff, Christoph; Kolb, Charles E.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 20 years, high resolution infrared spectroscopy has served as a valuable tool to measure gas-phase concentrations of ambient gas samples. We review recent advances in atmospheric sampling using direct absorption high resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy from the perspective of light sources, detectors, and optical designs. Developments in diode, quantum cascade and interband cascade laser technology have led to thermoelectrically-cooled single-mode laser sources capable of operation between 800 wn and 3100 wn, with 10 mW power. Advances in detector and preamplifier technology have yielded thermoelectriocally-cooled sensors capable of room-temperature operation with extremely high detectivities. Finally, novel spectrometer optical designs have led to robust multipass absorption cells capable of >400 m effective pathlength in a compact package. In combination with accurate spectroscopic databases, these developments have afforded dramatic improvements in measurement sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity. We will present several examples of the applications of high resolution mid-IR spectrometers in real-world field measurements at sampling towers and aboard mobile platforms such as vehicles and airplanes.

  15. A Framework to Combine Low- and High-resolution Spectroscopy for the Atmospheres of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, M.; Line, M.; Bean, J.; Désert, J.-M.; Schwarz, H.

    2017-04-01

    Current observations of the atmospheres of close-in exoplanets are predominantly obtained with two techniques: low-resolution spectroscopy with space telescopes and high-resolution spectroscopy from the ground. Although the observables delivered by the two methods are in principle highly complementary, no attempt has ever been made to combine them, perhaps due to the different modeling approaches that are typically used in their interpretation. Here, we present the first combined analysis of previously published dayside spectra of the exoplanet HD 209458 b obtained at low resolution with HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Spitzer/IRAC and at high resolution with VLT/CRIRES. By utilizing a novel retrieval algorithm capable of computing the joint probability distribution of low- and high-resolution spectra, we obtain tight constraints on the chemical composition of the planet’s atmosphere. In contrast to the WFC3 data, we do not confidently detect H2O at high spectral resolution. The retrieved water abundance from the combined analysis deviates by 1.9σ from the expectations for a solar-composition atmosphere in chemical equilibrium. Measured relative molecular abundances of CO and H2O strongly favor an oxygen-rich atmosphere (C/O exoplanet surveys between the flagship ground- and space-based facilities, which ultimately will be crucial for characterizing potentially habitable planets.

  16. The soft-X-ray emission of Ark 120. XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and the importance of taking the broad view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    , a cutoff power law best explains the soft-X-ray emission. This model likely corresponds to Comptonization of the accretion disc seed UV photons by a population of warm electrons: using Comptonization models, a temperature of similar to 0.3 keV and an optical depth of similar to 13 are found. If the UV......We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the 'bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy, Ark 120, a system in which ionized absorption is absent. The NuSTAR hard-X-ray spectral coverage allows us to constrain different models for the excess soft-X-ray emission. Among phenomenological models...

  17. Optical constants of materials in the EUV/soft x-ray region for multilayer mirror applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, Regina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The response of a given material to an incident electromagnetic wave is described by the energy dependent complex index of refraction n = 1 - δ + iβ. In the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/soft x-ray spectral region, the need for accurate determination of n is driven by activity in areas such as synchrotron based research, EUV/x-ray lithography, x-ray astronomy and plasma applications. Knowledge of the refractive index is essential for the design of the optical components of instruments used in experiments and applications. Moreover, measured values of n may be used to evaluate solid state models for the optical behavior of materials. The refractive index n of Si, Mo and Be is investigated in the EUV/soft x-ray region. In the case of Si, angle dependent reflectance measurements are performed in the energy range 50-180 eV. The optical constants δ, β are both determined by fitting to the Fresnel equations. The results of this method are compared to the values in the 1993 atomic tables. Photoabsorption measurements for the optical constants of Mo are performed on C/Mo/C foils, in the energy range 60-930 eV. Photoabsorption measurements on Be thin films supported on silicon nitride membranes are performed, and the results are applied in the determination of the absorption coefficient of Be in the energy region 111.5-250 eV. The new results for Si and Mo are applied to the calculation of normal incidence reflectivities of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer mirrors. These calculations show the importance of accurate knowledge of δ and β in the prediction and modeling of the performance of multilayer optics.

  18. SINGLE AND DOUBLE PHOTOIONIZATION AND PHOTODISSOCIATION OF TOLUENE BY SOFT X-RAYS IN A CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfredini, T.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M. [Observatório do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fantuzzi, F.; Nascimento, M. A. C. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Wolff, W., E-mail: heloisa@astro.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-04-10

    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their methyl derivatives mainly occurs in the dust shells of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The bands at 3.3 and 3.4 μm, observed in infrared emission spectra of several objects, are attributed C–H vibrational modes in aromatic and aliphatic structures, respectively. In general, the feature at 3.3 μm is more intense than that at 3.4 μm. Photoionization and photodissociation processes of toluene, the precursor of methylated PAHs, were studied using synchrotron radiation at soft X-ray energies around the carbon K edge using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Partial ion yields of a large number of ionic fragments were extracted from single and 2D-spectra, where electron-ion coincidences have revealed the doubly charged parent molecule and several doubly charged fragments containing seven carbon atoms with considerable abundance. Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory were performed in order to elucidate the chemical structure of these stable dicationic species. The survival of the dications subjected to hard inner shell ionization suggests that they could be observed in the interstellar medium, especially in regions where PAHs are detected. The ionization and destruction of toluene induced by X-rays were examined in the T Dra conditions, a carbon-rich AGB star. In this context, a minimum photodissociation radius and the half-life of toluene subjected to the incidence of the soft X-ray flux emitted from a companion white dwarf star were determined.

  19. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States); Perna, Rosalba [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Heng, Kevin, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  20. Protected Plasmonic Nanostructures for High Resolution Chemical Imaging using Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Rebecca; Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), an emerging technique that combines optical microscopy and scanning probe microscopy, provides the sensitivity and selectivity necessary for high-resolution chemical imaging of polymer surfaces. An unprecedented 20 nm lateral resolution for the chemical imaging has been achieved. Unfortunately, the fragile plasmonic structures used to enhance the electric field are prone to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Developing robust noble metal nanostructures with stable plasmonic resonance is essential to reliable high resolution chemical imaging. Covering the metal layer with organic and inorganic ultrathin coatings is being investigated to extend the plasmonic activity of the engineered nanostructures. Addition of an ultrathin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) coating to a silver-coated scanning probe microscopy tip for TERS significantly improves plasmonic structure stability without sacrificing the initial TERS efficiency. This ultrathin coating provides wear resistance and stops chemical degradation responsible for the loss of signal enhancement.

  1. High-resolution in-source laser spectroscopy in perpendicular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, R., E-mail: reinhard.heinke@uni-mainz.de; Kron, T. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany); Raeder, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Reich, T.; Schönberg, P. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Kernchemie (Germany); Trümper, M.; Weichhold, C.; Wendt, K. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Operation of the novel laser ion source unit LIST (Laser Ion Source and Trap), operating at the on-line radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN allowed for the production of ultra-pure beams of exotic isotopes far-off stability as well as direct isobar-free laser spectroscopy, giving access to the study of atomic and nuclear properties of so far inaccessible nuclides. We present a specific upgrade and adaption of the LIST targeted for high resolution spectroscopy with a Doppler-reduced perpendicular atom - laser beam geometry. With this PI-LIST (Perpendicularly Illuminated Laser Ion Source and Trap) setup, experimental linewidths below 100 MHz could be demonstrated in optical laser spectroscopy off-line, applying a pulsed injection-locked high repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser. A dual repeller configuration ensured highest suppression of isobaric interferences and almost background-free measurements on small samples in the order of 10{sup 11} atoms.

  2. High resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy for 3D spin vectorial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Taichi; Miyamoto, Koji; Kimura, Akio; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    Spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) is the excellent tool which can directly observe the band structure of crystals with separating spin-up and -down states. Recent findings of new class of materials possessing strong spin orbit interaction such as Rashba spin splitting systems or topological insulators stimulate to develop new SARPES apparatuses and many sophisticated techniques have been reported recently. Here we report our newly developed a SARPES apparatus for spin vectorial analysis with high precision at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. Highly efficient spin polarimeter utilizing very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) makes high resolution (ΔE Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  3. Study of nuclear physics input-parameters via high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Philipp; Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Spieker, Mark; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    For nucleosynthesis networks of isotopes heavier than those in the iron-peak region, reaction rates are often calculated within the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The accuracy of the predicted cross sections strongly depends on the uncertainties of the nuclear-physics input-parameters. These are nuclear-level densities, γ-ray strength functions, and particle+nucleus optical-model potentials. Here we report on the investigation of statistical properties of nuclei via radiative proton-capture reactions using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy.

  4. An experimental apparatus for diffraction-limites soft x-ray nanofocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merthe, Daniel; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Yuan, Sheng; McKinney, Wayne; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory; Rakawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-10-21

    Realizing the experimental potential of high-brightness, next generation synchrotron and free-electron laser light sources requires the development of reflecting x-ray optics capable of wavefront preservation and high-resolution nano-focusing. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline 5.3.1, we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad slope measurement accuracy for diffraction-limited Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors. The at-wavelength methodology we are developing relies on a series of wavefront-sensing tests with increasing accuracy and sensitivity, including scanning-slit Hartmann tests, grating-based lateral shearing interferometry, and quantitative knife-edge testing. We describe the original experimental techniques and alignment methodology that have enabled us to optimally set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a focused, FWHM spot size of 150 nm, with 1 nm (1.24 keV) photons at 3.7 mrad numerical aperture. The predictions of wavefront measurement are confirmed by the knife-edge testing.The side-profiled elliptically bent mirror used in these one-dimensional focusing experiments was originally designed for a much different glancing angle and conjugate distances. This work demonstrates that high-accuracy, at-wavelength wavefront-slope feedback can be used to optimize the pitch, roll, and mirror-bending forces in situ, using procedures that are deterministic and repeatable.

  5. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  6. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  7. Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of the colossal magnetoresistance compound La1-xSrxMnO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrin, E; Tjeng, LH; deGroot, FMF; Hesper, R; Sawatzky, GA; Moritomo, Y; Tokura, Y

    Soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (SXMCD) measurements are reported on the O K- and Mn L-absorption edges of La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0.15,0.18, and 0.4) single crystals in their ferromagnetic regime. This has been done using a recently developed experimental technique for magnetizing the samples

  8. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes} area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition.

  9. OSA Proceedings of the Topical Meeting on Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Held in Monterey, California on 10-12 April 1991. Volume 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-22

    diameter) field of view. *Visiting Scientist from Department of Physics, Brigham Young Univesity , Salt Lake City, Utah. OSA Proceedings on soft-X-Ray...01651002 from the Ministry of Education , 10. E. Ziegler, Y. Lepetre, S. Joksch, V. Saile, S. Science and Culture, Japan and by the U.S.Department

  10. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to {approx}7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10{sup 12} ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  11. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  12. Weakly-Correlated Nature of Ferromagnetism in Nonsymmorphic CrO_{2} Revealed by Bulk-Sensitive Soft-X-Ray ARPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bisti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium dioxide CrO_{2} belongs to a class of materials called ferromagnetic half-metals, whose peculiar aspect is that they act as a metal in one spin orientation and as a semiconductor or insulator in the opposite one. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies motivated by technologically important applications of this material in spintronics, its fundamental properties such as momentum-resolved electron dispersions and the Fermi surface have so far remained experimentally inaccessible because of metastability of its surface, which instantly reduces to amorphous Cr_{2}O_{3}. In this work, we demonstrate that direct access to the native electronic structure of CrO_{2} can be achieved with soft-x-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy whose large probing depth penetrates through the Cr_{2}O_{3} layer. For the first time, the electronic dispersions and Fermi surface of CrO_{2} are measured, which are fundamental prerequisites to solve the long debate on the nature of electronic correlations in this material. Since density functional theory augmented by a relatively weak local Coulomb repulsion gives an exhaustive description of our spectroscopic data, we rule out strong-coupling theories of CrO_{2}. Crucial for the correct interpretation of our experimental data in terms of the valence-band dispersions is the understanding of a nontrivial spectral response of CrO_{2} caused by interference effects in the photoemission process originating from the nonsymmorphic space group of the rutile crystal structure of CrO_{2}.

  13. The effect of ionizing photons (VUV + soft X-rays) in the equatorial and polar surfaces of the Europa moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Sergio; Alexandre Souza Bergantini, M.

    Europa is the sixth-closest moon of the planet Jupiter, and the smallest of the four Galilean satellites, but still the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System being only slightly smaller than Earth's Moon. Its cold surface is covered mainly by water ice and a small fraction of other molecular frozen species such as CO _{2}, NH _{3}, and SO _{2}. Since Europa has only a very thin O _{2} rich atmosphere, the surface is constantly exposed to space ionizing agents such as UV and soft X-rays photons, electrons and ions. In this work we investigate the effects produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and soft X-rays (and possibly secondary electrons) on the surface of Europa Moon, simulating this way the space weathering and the prebiotic photochemistry induced by solar photons on this moon. The experiments have been performed using a high vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratorio de Astroquimica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator (SGM) beamline in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) at Campinas, Brazil. The beamline was operated in off-focus and white beam mode, which produces a wide band spectral range of photons, mainly from 6 eV up to 1200 eV, with the total average flux at the sample of about 1x10 (14) photons cm (-2) s (-1) . The experiments simulate roughly 10.7 years of solar irradiation (energy delivered) on the Europa surface. In-situ sample analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The samples were produced by the adsorption of a gaseous mixture containing H _{2}O:CO _{2}:NH _{3}:SO _{2} (10:1:1:1) at very low temperature (12 K) and than were slowly heated (2 K/min) to the temperatures in which the irradiation occur, i.e. at 90K and 50K, simulating this way the equatorial and polar regions of the moon. This scenario simulates the cold molecular delivery from comets in the early phases of this Jupiter’s moon. The infrared spectra of irradiated samples have presented the formation

  14. Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design, Characteristics and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K; Stewart, G.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2017-01-01

    medium resolution X-ray spectroscopy of cosmic X-ray sources of various types. It is the most sensitive X-ray instrument aboard the AstroSat. In its first year of operation, SXT has been used to observe objects ranging from active stars, compact binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei...... and clusters of galaxies in order to study its performance and quantify its characteriztics. Here, we present an overview of its design, mechanical hardware, electronics, data modes, observational constraints, pipeline processing and its in-orbit performance based on preliminary results from its...

  15. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  16. Role of screening and angular distributions in resonant soft-x-ray emission of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the present work the authors focus on two particular properties of resonant X-ray emission, namely core hole screening of the excited electron, and anisotropy caused by the polarization of the exciting synchrotron radiation. The screening of the core hole by the excited electron causes energy shifts and intensity variations in resonant spectra compared to the non-resonant case. The linear polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the dipole nature of the absorption process create a preferential alignment selection of the randomly oriented molecules in the case of resonant excitation, producing an anisotropy in the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays. The authors have chosen CO for this study because this molecule has previously served as a showcase for non-resonant X-ray emission, mapping the valence electronic structure differently according to the local selection rules. With the present work they take interest in how this characteristic feature of the spectroscopy is represented in the resonant case.

  17. Applications of soft X-rays in the surface analysis of conversion or passivation films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A.; Charbonnier, M.; Gaillard, F.; Romand, M.; Bador, R.

    Capabilities of low-energy electron-induced X-ray spectroscopy (LEEIXS) for providing detailed qualitative and quantitative information about the first 10 to 1000 Å of a solid surface are described. Trace detection of low Z elements such as B and F in thin films formed on titanium substrates is illustrated. These impurities are incorporated from the electrolytes (H 3BO 3 and H 2SiF 6 solutions respectively) during anodization. The characterization of thin films formed on titanium by chemical conversion in phosphate/fluoride solution is also reported. Chemical bonding information is obtained from the fine structure of the Ti L 2,3 X-ray emission bands. Results prove unambiguously that the main component of the conversion films is not a TiO 2 oxide but rather a TiF 4-like fluoride. In addition LEEIXS has been used for obtaining O and P elemental depth profiles through an anodic film grown on niobium in phosphoric baths. Such an investigation was performed in conjunction with an external step by step chemical etching of the specimen surface. Lastly, the application of LEEIXS to the surface characterization of stainless steels prior and after a passivation treatment is described.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, William K

    2009-03-06

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  19. High-harmonic generation and parametric amplification in the soft X-rays from extended electron trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, J.; Seres, E.; Landgraf, B.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Spielmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report, for the first time, the generation of high-order harmonics in a spectral range between 200 eV and 1 keV with an unusual spectral property: only every 4th (4i + 1, i∈ℵ) harmonic line appears, whereas the usual high-harmonic spectra consist of every odd (2i + 1) harmonic. We attribute this unique property to the quantum path interference of two extended electron trajectories that experience multiple re-scattering. In the well-established theory, electrons emitted via tunnel ionisation are accelerated by a laser field, return to the ion and recombine. The acceleration typically lasts for less than one optical cycle, and the electrons radiate in the extreme ultraviolet range at recombination. In contrast, for extended trajectories, electrons are accelerated over two or more optical cycles. Here, we demonstrate that two sets of trajectories dominate and provide substantial contributions to the generated soft X-ray radiation because they fulfil the resonance condition for X-ray parametric amplification. PMID:24577220

  20. OPTIMISATION OF NEON SXR (SOFT X-RAY YIELD OF THE INTI PLASMA FOCUS MACHINE AT 12 kV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.J.A. FEDERICO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The INTI plasma focus machine is a 3 kJ Mather type plasma focus machine,powered by a single Maxwell capacitor. The system produces remarkable consistent focusing action in neon, making it a suitable source for the production of high energy photons, electrons, ions and neon soft x-rays (SXR [1, 2]. The aim of this paper is to optimise the neon SXR yield of the INTI plasma focus machine operated at 12 kV by parametrically, changing the anode dimensions (radius and length using the Lee Model Code (version RADPFV5.15dd. Results of the optimisation procedures resulted in a neon SXR yield of 6.47 J at 2.5 torr and 12 kV, with a shorter length and a fatter anode radius of 7.9 cm and 1.2 cm respectively. This gives an improvement in the neon SXR yield of 40% when compares to neon SXR yield of 2.74 J at 2.5 torr 12 kV with the present configurations.

  1. The Inclination of the Soft X-Ray Transient A0620-00 and the Mass of its Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Andrew G.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Gelino, Dawn M.; Gou, Lijun

    2010-02-01

    We analyze photometry of the soft X-ray transient A0620 - 00 spanning nearly 30 years, including previously published and previously unpublished data. Previous attempts to determine the inclination of A0620 using subsets of these data have yielded a wide range of measured values of i. Differences in the measured value of i have been due to changes in the shape of the light curve and uncertainty regarding the contamination from the disk. We give a new technique for estimating the disk fraction and find that disk light is significant in all light curves, even in the infrared. We also find that all changes in the shape and normalization of the light curve originate in a variable disk component. After accounting for this disk component, we find that all the data, including light curves of significantly different shapes, point to a consistent value of i. Combining results from many separate data sets, we find i = 51fdg0 ± 0fdg9, implying M = 6.6 ± 0.25 M sun. Using our dynamical model and zero-disk stellar VIH magnitudes, we find d = 1.06 ± 0.12 kpc. Understanding the disk origin of nonellipsoidal variability may assist with making reliable determinations of i in other systems, and the fluctuations in disk light may provide a new observational tool for understanding the three-dimensional structure of the accretion disk.

  2. An Einstein survey of the 1 keV soft X-ray background in the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, John M.; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed 56 Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations within +/- 3 deg of the Galactic plane in order to determine the low-latitude soft X-ray background flux in the 0.56-1.73 keV band. Any detected X-ray point source which fell within our regions of study was removed from the image, enabling us to present maps of the background flux as a function of Galactic latitude along 18 meridians. These maps reveal considerable structure to the background in the Galactic plane on an angular scale of approximately 1 deg. Our results are compared with those of an earlier study of the 1 keV X-ray background along l = 25 deg by Kahn & Caillault. The double-peaked structure they found is not discernible in our results, possibly because of the presence of solar backscattered flux in their data. A model which takes into account contributions to the background by extragalactic and stellar sources, the distribution of both atomic and molecular absorbing material with the Galaxy, the energy dependence of the cross section for absorption of X-rays, and the energy dependence of the detector has been constructed and fitted to these new data to derive constraints on the scale height, temperature, and volume emissivity of the unaccounted-for X-ray-emitting material. The results of this model along l = 25 deg are roughly similar to those of the model of Kahn & Caillault along the same meridian.

  3. Correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray tomography of adherent cells at European synchrotrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Raffaella; Domart, Marie-Charlotte; Duke, Elizabeth; Collinson, Lucy M

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a synchrotron-hosted imaging technique used to analyze the ultrastructure of intact, cryo-prepared cells. Correlation of cryo-fluorescence microscopy and cryo-SXT can be used to localize fluorescent proteins to organelles preserved close to native state. Cryo-correlative light and X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM) is particularly useful for the study of organelles that are susceptible to chemical fixation artifacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. In our recent work, we used cryo-CLXM to characterize GFP-LC3-positive early autophagosomes in nutrient-starved HEK293A cells (Duke et al., 2013). Cup-shaped omegasomes were found to form at "hot-spots" on the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, cryo-SXT image stacks revealed the presence of large complex networks of tubulated mitochondria in the starved cells, which would be challenging to model at this scale and resolution using light or electron microscopy. In this chapter, we detail the cryo-CLXM workflow that we developed and optimized for studying adherent mammalian cells. We show examples of data collected at the three European synchrotrons that currently host cryo-SXT microscopes, and describe how raw cryo-SXT datasets are processed into tomoX stacks, modeled, and correlated with cryo-fluorescence data to identify structures of interest. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. RELATION TO SOFT X-RAY FLARES AND FILAMENT ERUPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, B. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-08-10

    Using high time cadence images from the STEREO EUVI, COR1, and COR2 instruments, we derived detailed kinematics of the main acceleration stage for a sample of 95 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in comparison with associated flares and filament eruptions. We found that CMEs associated with flares reveal on average significantly higher peak accelerations and lower acceleration phase durations, initiation heights, and heights, at which they reach their peak velocities and peak accelerations. This means that CMEs that are associated with flares are characterized by higher and more impulsive accelerations and originate from lower in the corona where the magnetic field is stronger. For CMEs that are associated with filament eruptions we found only for the CME peak acceleration significantly lower values than for events that were not associated with filament eruptions. The flare rise time was found to be positively correlated with the CME acceleration duration and negatively correlated with the CME peak acceleration. For the majority of the events the CME acceleration starts before the flare onset (for 75% of the events) and the CME acceleration ends after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak time (for 77% of the events). In {approx}60% of the events, the time difference between the peak time of the flare SXR flux derivative and the peak time of the CME acceleration is smaller than {+-}5 minutes, which hints at a feedback relationship between the CME acceleration and the energy release in the associated flare due to magnetic reconnection.

  5. In situ observation of dynamic electrodeposition processes by soft x-ray fluorescence microspectroscopy and keyhole coherent diffractive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; Kourousias, George; Gianoncelli, Alessandra

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes two novel in situ microspectroscopic approaches to the dynamic study of electrodeposition processes: x-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping with submicrometric space resolution and keyhole coherent diffractive imaging (kCDI) with nanometric lateral resolution. As a case study, we consider the pulse-plating of nanocomposites with polypyrrole matrix and Mn x Co y O z dispersoids, a prospective cathode material for zinc-air batteries. This study is centred on the detailed measurement of the elemental distributions developing in two representative subsequent growth steps, based on the combination of in situ identical-location XRF microspectroscopy—accompanied by soft-x ray absorption microscopy—and kCDI. XRF discloses space and time distributions of the two electrodeposited metals and kCDI on the one hand allows nanometric resolution and on the other hand provides complementary absorption as well as phase contrast modes. The joint information derived from these two microspectroscopies allows measurement of otherwise inaccessible observables that are a prerequisite for electrodeposition modelling and control accounting for dynamic localization processes.

  6. A compact permanent-magnet system for measuring magnetic circular dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Jun; Suga, Shigemasa; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Niwa, Hideharu; Kiuchi, Hisao; Harada, Yoshihisa

    2017-03-01

    A compact and portable magnet system for measuring magnetic dichroism in resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (SX-RIXS) has been developed at the beamline BL07LSU in SPring-8. A magnetic circuit composed of Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, which realised ∼0.25 T at the center of an 11 mm gap, was rotatable around the axis perpendicular to the X-ray scattering plane. Using the system, a SX-RIXS spectrum was obtained under the application of the magnetic field at an angle parallel, nearly 45° or perpendicular to the incident X-rays. A dedicated sample stage was also designed to be as compact as possible, making it possible to perform SX-RIXS measurements at arbitrary incident angles by rotating the sample stage in the gap between the magnetic poles. This system enables facile studies of magnetic dichroism in SX-RIXS for various experimental geometries of the sample and the magnetic field. A brief demonstration of the application is presented.

  7. Spectroscopic Studies of the Soft X-Ray Radiation from Gas-Puff Z-Pinches on Cobra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; de Grouchy, P. W. L.; Qi, N.; Atoyan, L.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Gas-puff Z-pinch experiments have been conducted on the 0.8-1.2 MA, 100-240 ns pulse duration COBRA pulsed power generator. Triple nozzle gas-puff loads consisting of Ne, Ar and Kr gases in different combination and pressures with pre-ionization were used in the most recent experiments. Photo-conducting diodes (PCDs) and pinhole cameras with different filters were used to study the X-ray timing, intensity and spatial distribution in different energy bands. Spectrographs with spatial and temporal resolution were used to study the soft x-ray radiation from the gas-puff Z-pinches. One spectrograph with two spherically bent mica crystals was used to study radiation with 200 micron spatial resolution and high spectral resolution. An x-ray streak camera with one spherically bent quartz crystal was used to study the x-ray radiation with up to 10 ps temporal resolution. The x-ray spectra were used to estimate spatial and temporal distributions of plasma parameters and determine the intensity of the line and continuum radiation from the Z-pinches plasma. Work supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836.

  8. A camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Alameda, J; Woods, B; Frank, M; Bogan, M J; Barty, A; Boutet, S; Marchesini, S; Hau-Riege, S P; Hajdu, J; Shapiro, D

    2007-09-24

    We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser. The camera consists of a laterally-graded multilayer mirror which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter both for wavelength and angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from non-sample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates on to a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beamstop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the FLASH FEL (i.e. between 6 nm and 60 nm) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32 nm, 16 nm, 13.5 nm, and 4.5 nm. At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH free-electron laser with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.

  9. Forcast of TEXT plasma disruptions using soft X-rays as input signal in a neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucci, A.; Oliveira, K.A.; Tajima, T.

    1998-03-03

    A feed-forward neural network with two hidden layers is used in this work to forecast major and minor disruptive instabilities in TEXT discharges. Using soft X-ray signals as input data, the neural net is trained with one disruptive plasma pulse, and a different disruptive discharge is used for validation. After being properly trained the networks, with the same set of weights. is then used to forecast disruptions in two others different plasma pulses. It is observed that the neural net is able to predict the incoming of a disruption more than 3 ms in advance. This time interval is almost three times longer than the one already obtained previously when magnetic signal from a Mirnov coil was used to feed the neural networks with. To our own eye we fail to see any indication of an upcoming disruption from the experimental data this far back from the time of disruption. Finally, from what we observe in the predictive behavior of our network, speculations are made whether the disruption triggering mechanism would be associated to an increase of the m = 2 magnetic island, that disturbs the central part of the plasma column afterwards or, in face of the results from this work, the initial perturbation would have occurred first in the central part of the plasma column, within the q = 1 magnetic surface, and then the m = 2 MHD mode would be destabilized afterwards.

  10. High performance imaging of relativistic soft X-ray harmonics by sub-micron resolution LiF film detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikuz, Tatiana; Faenov, Anatoly [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Pirozhkov, Alexander; Esirkepov, Timur; Koga, James; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Sergei; Fukuda, Yuji; Hayashi, Yukio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Astapov, Artem; Pikuz, Sergey Jr. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Klushin, Georgy [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nagorskiy, Nikolai; Magnitskiy, Sergei [International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kato, Yoshiaki [The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    The spectrum variation and the coherent properties of the high-order harmonics (HOH) generated by an oscillating electron spikes formed at the joint of the boundaries of a cavity and a bow wave, which are created by a relativistically self-focusing laser in underdense gas jet plasma, are investigated. This new mechanism for HOH generation efficiently produces emission from ultraviolet up to the XUV ''water window'' spectral range. To characterize such source in the wide spectral range a diffraction imaging technique is applied. High spatial resolution EUV and soft X-ray LiF film detector have been used for precise measurements of diffraction patterns. The measurements under observation angle of 8 to the axis of laser beam propagation have been performed. The diffraction patterns were observed on the detector clearly, when the square mesh was placed at the distance of 500 mm from the output of plasma and at the distance of 27.2 mm in front of the detector. It is shown that observed experimental patterns are well consistent with modeled ones for theoretical HOH spectrum, provided by particle-in-cell simulations of a relativistic-irradiance laser pulse interaction with underdense plasma (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of the 3-Stage ADR for the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter; Kimball, Mark; DiPirro, Michael; Bialas, Tom; Sneiderman, Gary; Porter, Scott; Kelley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument on Astro-H will use a 3-stage ADR to cool the microcalorimeter array to 50 mK. In the primary operating mode, two stages of the ADR cool the detectors using superfluid helium at 1.20 K as the heat sink. In the secondary mode, which is activated when the liquid helium is depleted, two of the stages continuously cool the (empty) helium tank using a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson cooler as the heat sink, and the third stage cools the detectors. In the design phase, a high-fidelity model of the ADR was developed in order to predict both the cooling capacity and heat rejection rates in both operating modes. The primary sources of heat flow are from the salt pills, hysteresis heat from the magnets and magnetic shields, and power dissipated by the heat switches. The flight instrument dewar, ADR, detectors and electronics were integrated in mid-2014 and have since undergone extensive performance testing, in part to validate the performance model. This paper will present the thermodynamic performance of the ADR, including cooling capacity, heat rejection to the heat sinks, and various measures of efficiency.

  12. Efficient soft x-ray sources from laser-irradiated gold foam targets with well-controlled impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunsong; Yang, Jiamin; Song, Tianming; Shang, Wanli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Chengwu; Zhu, Tuo; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Zhan, Xiayu; Du, Huabing; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    As an important x-ray source, enhancement of x-ray emissions from laser-produced plasmas is significant for various applications. Due to less expanding kinetic loss, gold foam with low initial density can have an enhanced x-ray conversion efficiency compared with solid-density gold. However, low-Z impurities within gold foam targets will diminish the enhancement remarkably, and should be tightly controlled. This paper presents an experimental study of a high brightness laser plasma soft x-ray source, based on a 0.36 g cm-3 gold foam target with negligible impurities irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses with power density around 3  ×  1014 W cm-2 at the Shenguang II laser facility. A conversion efficiency, from multi-eV to multi-keV, of 51.2 % is achieved in the x-ray emissions—about 21% relative enhancement compared with a solid-density gold target, and the highest conversion efficiency for Au foam planar targets yet. Good agreement has been achieved between the semi-analytical model prediction and the experimental results.

  13. Time-resolved soft-x-ray studies of energy transport in layered and planar laser-driven targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1982-04-19

    New low-energy x-ray diagnostic techniques are used to explore energy-transport processes in laser heated plasmas. Streak cameras are used to provide 15-psec time-resolution measurements of subkeV x-ray emission. A very thin (50 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/) carbon substrate provides a low-energy x-ray transparent window to the transmission photocathode of this soft x-ray streak camera. Active differential vacuum pumping of the instrument is required. The use of high-sensitivity, low secondary-electron energy-spread CsI photocathodes in x-ray streak cameras is also described. Significant increases in sensitivity with only a small and intermittant decrease in dynamic range were observed. These coherent, complementary advances in subkeV, time-resolved x-ray diagnostic capability are applied to energy-transport investigations of 1.06-..mu..m laser plasmas. Both solid disk targets of a variety of Z's as well as Be-on-Al layered-disk targets were irradiated with 700-psec laser pulses of selected intensity between 3 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ and 1 x 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/.

  14. Resonant soft X-ray reflectivity of ultrathin polymer films at the C-edge: A direct approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Gibaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resonant soft X-ray reflectivity (RSXRR in s-polarization is presented with the aim to show how far it is possible to go in the understanding the evolution of the refractive index n(E=1−δ(E−iβ(E of a ultrathin polystyrene film when the RSXRR is measured through the C-edge. We evidence that a direct fit to the data provides a very good estimation of δ(E and β(E in a large range of energies. Nevertheless, at some specific energy close to C-edge we observe that it is not possible to obtain a satisfactory fit to the data though the same formalism is applied to calculate the reflectivity. We show that even though we take into account the energy resolution of the incident beam, we still end up with a poor fit at these energies. Incorporating the strong contribution of 2nd order photons appeared near C-edge we could not eliminate the discrepancy. Probably the data normalisations have some impacts on such discrepancies at some specific energies.

  15. Soft X-ray Tangential Imaging of the NSTX Core Plasma by Means of a MPGD Pin-hole Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Pacella; M. Leigheb; R. Bellazzini; A. Brez; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; R. Kaita; S.A. Sabbagh

    2003-07-24

    A fast X-ray system based on a Micro Pattern Gas Detector has been used, for the first time, to investigate emission from the plasma core of the National Spherical Tokamak eXperiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results presented in this work demonstrate the capability of such a device to measure with a time resolution of the order of 1 ms the curvature and the elongation of the X-ray iso-emissivity contours, under various plasma conditions. Also, comparisons with the magnetic surface structure calculated by the EFIT code show good agreement between reconstructed flux surface and the soft X-ray emissions (SXR) for poloidal beta values up to 0.6. For greater values of beta, X-ray iso-emissivity contours become circular, while magnetic flux surface reconstructions yield elongation 1.5 < k < 2.2. The X-ray images have been acquired with a (statistical) signal to noise ratio (SNR) per pixel of about 30. Thanks to the direct and efficient X-ray conversion and its operation in a photon counting mode, this new diagnostic tool allows the routine investigation of the plasma core with a sampling rate of 1 kHz and extremely high SNR under all experimental conditions in NSTX.

  16. Soft x-ray imaging of intracellular granules of filamentous cyanobacterium generating musty smell in Lake Biwa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, K.; Mizuta, G.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, M.; Ichise, S.; Namba, H.; Kihara, H.

    2013-10-01

    A planktonic blue-green algae, which are currently identified as Phormidium tenue, was observed by a soft x-ray microscopy (XM) for comparing a musty smell generating green strain (PTG) and a non-smell brown strain (PTB). By XM, cells were clearly imaged, and several intracellular granules which could not be observed under a light microscope were visualized. The diameter of granules was about 0.5-1 μm, and one or a few granules were seen in a cell. XM analyses showed that width of cells and sizes of intracellular granules were quite different between PTG and PTB strains. To study the granules observed by XM, transmission in more detail, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and indirect fluorescent-antibody technique (IFA) were applied. By TEM, carboxysomes, thylakoids and polyphosphate granules were observed. IFA showed the presence of carboxysomes. Results lead to the conclusion that intracellular granules observed under XM are carboxysomes or polyphosphate granules. These results demonstrate that soft XM is effective for analyzing fine structures of small organisms such as cyanobacterium, and for discriminating the strains which generates musty smells from others.

  17. Mechanical design and performance evaluation for plane grating monochromator in a soft X-ray microscopy beamline at SSRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xuepeng; Lu, Qipeng

    2015-01-01

    A new monochromator is designed to develop a high performance soft X-ray microscopy beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). But owing to its high resolving power and high accurate spectrum output, there exist many technical difficulties. In the paper presented, as two primary design targets for the monochromator, theoretical energy resolution and photon flux of the beamline are calculated. For wavelength scanning mechanism, primary factors affecting the rotary angle errors are presented, and the measuring results are 0.15'' and 0.17'' for plane mirror and plane grating, which means that it is possible to provide sufficient scanning precision to specific wavelength. For plane grating switching mechanism, the repeatabilities of roll, yaw and pitch angles are 0.08'', 0.12'' and 0.05'', which can guarantee the high accurate switch of the plane grating effectively. After debugging, the repeatability of light spot drift reaches to 0.7'', which further improves the performance of the monochromator. The commissioning results show that the energy resolving power is higher than 10000 at Ar L-edge, the photon flux is higher than 1 × 108 photons/sec/200 mA, and the spatial resolution is better than 30 nm, demonstrating that the monochromator performs very well and reaches theoretical predictions.

  18. Time-Evolution of a White Light Flare: Observations in Optical, Microwave, Soft X-Ray, H alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Li, J.

    2003-12-01

    Since Richard Carrington's 1859 discovery of White Light Flares (WLFs), only fifty other WLFs have been observed. While the predicted frequency was 15.5 (± 4.5) per year for solar cycle 20, the lack of sensitive instruments makes WLFs extremely rare. Past observations suggest that WLFs do not accompany all high-energy events, and that some specific initial conditions and mechanisms produce WLFs. To analyze this claim, we found a WLF by combing through a list of X class events. This X5.6 flare occurred at AR 9415 on April 6th, 2001 (UT 19:14) and was accompanied by a halo CME. After confirming this event to be a WLF using Imaging Vector Magnetograph data, we found microwave, EUV, optical, soft X-ray, and magnetogram data. Our data suggests that this WLF erupted through the same mechanisms as the standard flare models, but was more energetic. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates program.

  19. Soft X-Ray Tomography Reveals Gradual Chromatin Compaction and Reorganization during Neurogenesis In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark A; Clowney, E Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Yen, Angela; Markenscoff-Papadimitriou, Eirene; Colquitt, Bradley; Myllys, Markko; Kellis, Manolis; Lomvardas, Stavros; Larabell, Carolyn A

    2016-11-15

    The realization that nuclear distribution of DNA, RNA, and proteins differs between cell types and developmental stages suggests that nuclear organization serves regulatory functions. Understanding the logic of nuclear architecture and how it contributes to differentiation and cell fate commitment remains challenging. Here, we use soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to image chromatin organization, distribution, and biophysical properties during neurogenesis in vivo. Our analyses reveal that chromatin with similar biophysical properties forms an elaborate connected network throughout the entire nucleus. Although this interconnectivity is present in every developmental stage, differentiation proceeds with concomitant increase in chromatin compaction and re-distribution of condensed chromatin toward the nuclear core. HP1β, but not nucleosome spacing or phasing, regulates chromatin rearrangements because it governs both the compaction of chromatin and its interactions with the nuclear envelope. Our experiments introduce SXT as a powerful imaging technology for nuclear architecture. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmochemistry, Cosmology, and Fundamental Constants High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Damped Lyman-Alpha Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, R.; Reimers, D.; Smette, A.; Garcet, O.; Ledoux, C.; Lopez, S.; Wisotzki, L.

    Spectroscopy of QSO absorption lines provides essential observational input for the study of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies at high redshift. But new observations may indicate that present chemical abundance data are biased due to deficient spectral resolution and unknown selection effects: Recent high-resolution spectra reveal the hitherto unperceived chemical nonuniformity of a molecule-bearing damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system, and the still ongoing H/ESO DLA survey produces convincing evidence for the effect of dust attenuation. We present a revised analysis of the H2-bearing DLA complex toward the QSO HE 0515.4414 showing nonuniform differential depletion of chemical elements onto dust grains, and introduce the H/ESO DLA survey and its implications. Conclusively, we aim at starting an unbiased chemical abundance database established on high-resolution spectroscopic observations. New data to probe the temperature-redshift relation predicted by standard cosmology and to test the constancy of fundamental constants will be potential spin-offs.