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Sample records for high-resolution magic angle

  1. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-12-30

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  2. Chemical profile of beans cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) by 1H NMR - high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS);Perfil quimico de cultivares de feijao (Phaseolus vulgaris) pela tecnica de high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Luciano Morais; Choze, Rafael; Cavalcante, Pedro Paulo Araujo; Santos, Suzana da Costa; Ferri, Pedro Henrique, E-mail: luciano@quimica.ufg.b [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFScar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The application of one-dimensional proton high-resolution magic angle spinning ({sup 1}H HR-MAS) NMR combined with a typical advantages of solid and liquid-state NMR techniques was used as input variables for the multivariate statistical analysis. In this paper, different cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) developed and in development by EMBRAPA - Arroz e Feijao were analyzed by {sup 1}H HR-MAS, which have been demonstrated to be a valuable tool in its differentiation according chemical composition and avoid the manipulation of the samples as used in other techniques. (author)

  3. Crocus sativus Petals: Waste or Valuable Resource? The Answer of High-Resolution and High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Valeria; Parenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele

    2015-09-30

    Intact Crocus sativus petals were studied for the first time by high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, revealing the presence of kinsenoside (2) and goodyeroside A (3), together with 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (4). These findings were confirmed by HR-NMR analysis of the ethanol extract of fresh petals and showed that, even though carried out rapidly, partial hydrolysis of glucopyranosyloxybutanolides occurs during extraction. On the other hand, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (1), which is "NMR-silent" in intact petals, is present in extracts. These results suggest to evaluate the utilization of saffron petals for phytopharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes to exploit a waste product of massive production of commercial saffron and point to the application of HR-MAS NMR for monitoring bioactive compounds directly on intact petals, avoiding the extraction procedure and the consequent hydrolysis reaction.

  4. Exploring high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy for metabonomic analysis of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermathen, Martina; Marzorati, Mattia; Vermathen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Classical liquid-state high-resolution (HR) NMR spectroscopy has proved a powerful tool in the metabonomic analysis of liquid food samples like fruit juices. In this paper the application of (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy to apple tissue is presented probing its potential for metabonomic studies. The (1)H HR-MAS NMR spectra are discussed in terms of the chemical composition of apple tissue and compared to liquid-state NMR spectra of apple juice. Differences indicate that specific metabolic changes are induced by juice preparation. The feasibility of HR-MAS NMR-based multivariate analysis is demonstrated by a study distinguishing three different apple cultivars by principal component analysis (PCA). Preliminary results are shown from subsequent studies comparing three different cultivation methods by means of PCA and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the HR-MAS NMR data. The compounds responsible for discriminating organically grown apples are discussed. Finally, an outlook of our ongoing work is given including a longitudinal study on apples.

  5. Evaluation of Cancer Metabolomics Using ex vivo High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor L. Fuss

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organization (WHO estimates, cancer is responsible for more deaths than all coronary heart disease or stroke worldwide, serving as a major public health threat around the world. High resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS has demonstrated its usefulness in the identification of cancer metabolic markers with the potential to improve diagnosis and prognosis for the oncology clinic, due partially to its ability to preserve tissue architecture for subsequent histological and molecular pathology analysis. Capable of the quantification of individual metabolites, ratios of metabolites, and entire metabolomic profiles, HRMAS MRS is one of the major techniques now used in cancer metabolomic research. This article reviews and discusses literature reports of HRMAS MRS studies of cancer metabolomics published between 2010 and 2015 according to anatomical origins, including brain, breast, prostate, lung, gastrointestinal, and neuroendocrine cancers. These studies focused on improving diagnosis and understanding patient prognostication, monitoring treatment effects, as well as correlating with the use of in vivo MRS in cancer clinics.

  6. Application of High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy to Define the Cell Uptake of MRI Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, Luisella; Alfieri, Goffredo; Biondi, Luca; De Miranda, Mario; Paleari, Lino; Ghelli, Stefano

    2002-06-01

    A new method, based on proton high-resolution magic-angle spinning ( 1H HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy, has been employed to study the cell uptake of magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (MRI-CAs). The method was tested on human red blood cells (HRBC) and white blood cells (HWBC) by using three gadolinium complexes, widely used in diagnostics, Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA, and Gd-DOTA, and the analogous complexes obtained by replacing Gd(III) with Dy(III), Nd(III), and Tb(III) (i.e., complexes isostructural to the ones of gadolinium but acting as shift agents). The method is based on the evaluation of the magnetic effects, line broadening, or induced lanthanide shift (LIS) caused by these complexes on NMR signals of intra- and extracellular water. Since magnetic effects are directly linked to permeability, this method is direct. In all the tests, these magnetic effects were detected for the extracellular water signal only, providing a direct proof that these complexes are not able to cross the cell membrane. Line broadening effects (i.e., the use of gadolinium complexes) only allow qualitative evaluations. On the contrary, LIS effects can be measured with high precision and they can be related to the concentration of the paramagnetic species in the cellular compartments. This is possible because the HR-MAS technique provides the complete elimination of bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift and the differentiation of extra- and intracellular water signals. Thus with this method, the rapid quantification of the MRI-CA amount inside and outside the cells is actually feasible.

  7. A High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR Study of the Enantiodiscrimination of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA by an Immobilized Polysaccharide-Based Chiral Phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Barreiro

    Full Text Available This paper reports the investigation of the chiral interaction between 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA enantiomers and an immobilized polysaccharide-based chiral phase. For that, suspended-state high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS NMR was used. 1H HR-MAS longitudinal relaxation time and Saturation Transfer Difference (STD NMR titration experiments were carried out yielding information at the molecular level of the transient diastereoisomeric complexes of MDMA enantiomers and the chiral stationary phase. The interaction of the enantiomers takes place through the aromatic moiety of MDMA and the aromatic group of the chiral selector by π-π stacking for both enantiomers; however, a stronger interaction was observed for the (R-enantiomer, which is the second one to elute at the chromatographic conditions.

  8. 1H High Resolution Magic-Angle Coil Spinning (HR-MACS µNMR Metabolic Profiling of whole Saccharomyces cervisiae cells: A Demonstrative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eWong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The low sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR is its prime shortcoming compared to other analytical methods for metabolomic studies. It relies on large sample volume (30–50 µl for HR-MAS for rich metabolic profiling, hindering high-throughput screening especially when the sample requires a labor-intensive preparation or is a sacred specimen. This is indeed the case for some living organisms. This study evaluates a 1H HR-MAS approach for metabolic profiling of small volume (250 nl whole bacterial cells, Saccharomyces cervisiae, using an emerging micro-NMR technology: high-resolution magic-angle coil spinning (HR-MACS. As a demonstrative study for whole cells, we perform two independent metabolomics studies identifying the significant metabolites associated with osmotic stress and aging.

  9. Towards real-time metabolic profiling of a biopsy specimen during a surgical operation by 1H high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotto Martial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Providing information on cancerous tissue samples during a surgical operation can help surgeons delineate the limits of a tumoral invasion more reliably. Here, we describe the use of metabolic profiling of a colon biopsy specimen by high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate tumoral invasion during a simulated surgical operation. Case presentation Biopsy specimens (n = 9 originating from the excised right colon of a 66-year-old Caucasian women with an adenocarcinoma were automatically analyzed using a previously built statistical model. Conclusions Metabolic profiling results were in full agreement with those of a histopathological analysis. The time-response of the technique is sufficiently fast for it to be used effectively during a real operation (17 min/sample. Metabolic profiling has the potential to become a method to rapidly characterize cancerous biopsies in the operation theater.

  10. Metabolomics by Proton High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Tomato Plants Treated with Two Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Pierluigi; Vinale, Francesco; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Pascale, Alberto; Lorito, Matteo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2016-05-11

    Trichoderma fungi release 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1) and harzianic acid (2) secondary metabolites to improve plant growth and health protection. We isolated metabolites 1 and 2 from Trichoderma strains, whose different concentrations were used to treat seeds of Solanum lycopersicum. The metabolic profile in the resulting 15 day old tomato leaves was studied by high-resolution magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR) spectroscopy directly on the whole samples without any preliminary extraction. Principal component analysis (PCA) of HRMAS NMR showed significantly enhanced acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content accompanied by variable amount of amino acids in samples treated with both Trichoderma secondary metabolites. Seed germination rates, seedling fresh weight, and the metabolome of tomato leaves were also dependent upon doses of metabolites 1 and 2 treatments. HRMAS NMR spectroscopy was proven to represent a rapid and reliable technique for evaluating specific changes in the metabolome of plant leaves and calibrating the best concentration of bioactive compounds required to stimulate plant growth.

  11. Multinuclear solid-state high-resolution and C-13 -{Al-27} double-resonance magic-angle spinning NMR studies on aluminum alkoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, A.; Prins, R.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Eck, E.R.H. van; Kentgens, A.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of Al-27 magic-angle spinning (MAS)/multiple quantum (MQ)-MAS, C-13-H-1 CPMAS, and C-13-{Al-27} transfer of population in double-resonance (TRAPDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for the structural elucidation of the aluminum alkoxides aluminum ethoxide, aluminum

  12. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite

    OpenAIRE

    Hanana, H.; Simon, G.; Kervarec, N.; Cérantola, S.

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Its toxicity in mollusks strongly affects their performance and survival. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of TBT toxicity in clam Ruditapes decussatus by evaluating the metabolic responses of heart tissues, using high-resolution magic angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR), after exposure to TBT (10−9, 10−6 and 10−4 M) during 24 h and 72 h. Results show that response...

  13. High-resolution magic angle spinning 1H-NMR spectroscopy studies on the renal biochemistry in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) and the effects of arsenic (As3+) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J L; Walker, L; Shore, R F; Nicholson, J K

    2001-06-01

    1. High-resolution magic angle spinning (MAS) 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to study renal metabolism and the toxicity of As3+, a common environmental contaminant, in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), a wild species of rodent. 2. Following a 14-day exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of As2O3 (28 mg kg(-1) feed), voles displayed tissue damage at autopsy. MAS 1H spectra indicated abnormal lipid profiles in these samples. 3. Tissue necrosis was also evident from measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient of water in the intact tissue using MAS 1H diffusion-weighted spectroscopy, its first application to toxicology. 4. Comparison of renal tissue from the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) exposed to identical exposure levels of As3+ suggested that the bank vole is particularly vulnerable to As3+ toxicity.

  14. High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectroscopies Distinguish Metabolome and Structural Properties of Maize Seeds from Plants Treated with Different Fertilizers and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Pierluigi; Cozzolino, Vincenza; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2018-03-21

    Both high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) NMR spectroscopies were applied here to identify the changes of metabolome, morphology, and structural properties induced in seeds (caryopses) of maize plants grown at field level under either mineral or compost fertilization in combination with the inoculation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The metabolome of intact caryopses was examined by HRMAS-NMR, while the morphological aspects, endosperm properties and seed water distribution were investigated by MRI. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to evaluate 1 H CPMG (Carr-Purcel-Meiboom-Gill) HRMAS spectra as well as several MRI-derived parameters ( T 1 , T 2 , and self-diffusion coefficients) of intact maize caryopses. PCA score-plots from spectral results indicated that both seeds metabolome and structural properties depended on the specific field treatment undergone by maize plants. Our findings show that a combination of multivariate statistical analyses with advanced and nondestructive NMR techniques, such as HRMAS and MRI, enables the evaluation of the effects induced on maize caryopses by different fertilization and management practices at field level. The spectroscopic approach adopted here may become useful for the objective appraisal of the quality of seeds produced under a sustainable agriculture.

  15. Structural Masquerade of Plesiomonas shigelloides Strain CNCTC 78/89 O-Antigen-High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR Reveals the Modified d-galactan I of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucieklak, Karolina; Koj, Sabina; Pawelczyk, Damian; Niedziela, Tomasz

    2017-11-29

    The high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS NMR) analysis of Plesiomonas shigelloides 78/89 lipopolysaccharide directly on bacteria revealed the characteristic structural features of the O -acetylated polysaccharide in the NMR spectra. The O -antigen profiles were unique, yet the pattern of signals in the, spectra along with their ¹H, 13 C chemical shift values, resembled these of d-galactan I of Klebsiella pneumoniae . The isolated O- specific polysaccharide (O-PS) of P. shigelloides strain CNCTC 78/89 was investigated by ¹H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The analyses demonstrated that the P. shigelloides 78/89 O- PS is composed of →3)-α-d-Gal p -(1→3)-β-d-Gal f 2OAc-(1→ disaccharide repeating units. The O- acetylation was incomplete and resulted in a microheterogeneity of the O- antigen. This O- acetylation generates additional antigenic determinants within the O- antigen, forms a new chemotype, and contributes to the epitopes recognized by the O- serotype specific antibodies. The serological cross-reactivities further confirmed the inter-specific structural similarity of these O- antigens.

  16. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanana, H; Simon, G; Kervarec, N; Cérantola, S

    2014-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a highly toxic pollutant present in many aquatic ecosystems. Its toxicity in mollusks strongly affects their performance and survival. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of TBT toxicity in clam Ruditapes decussatus by evaluating the metabolic responses of heart tissues, using high-resolution magic angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR), after exposure to TBT (10 -9 , 10 -6 and 10 -4 M) during 24 h and 72 h. Results show that responses of clam heart tissue to TBT exposure are not dose dependent. Metabolic profile analyses indicated that TBT 10 -6 M, contrary to the two other doses tested, led to a significant depletion of taurine and betaine. Glycine levels decreased in all clam groups treated with the organotin. It is suggested that TBT abolished the cytoprotective effect of taurine, betaine and glycine thereby inducing cardiomyopathie. Moreover, results also showed that TBT induced increase in the level of alanine and succinate suggesting the occurrence of anaerobiosis particularly in clam group exposed to the highest dose of TBT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that TBT is a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on clam and this organotin may affect different pathways depending to the used dose. The main finding of this study was the appearance of an original metabolite after TBT treatment likely N-glycine-N'-alanine. It is the first time that this molecule has been identified as a natural compound. Its exact role is unknown and remains to be elucidated. We suppose that its formation could play an important role in clam defense response by attenuating Ca 2+ dependent cell death induced by TBT. Therefore this compound could be a promising biomarker for TBT exposure.

  17. New magic angle bumps and magic translation bumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.

    1983-01-01

    SLC beams of opposite charge can be transversely deflected in the same direction by RF fields in the accelerating cavities caused by girder tilts, coupler-asymmetries, or manufacturing errors. A symmetric deflection can be corrected by a magic angle bump if the deflection is located adjacent to one of the linac quadrupoles. However, if the deflection is located between quadrupoles, two magic angle bumps or a magic angle bump and a magic translation bump are needed for the correction. Several examples of translation bumps are included. A new magic angle bump is also presented which is longitudinally compressed and has significantly reduced particle excursions. Finally, if new correctors are added midway along the girders so that the number of correctors are doubled, then the longitudinal extent and the maximum particle excursion of these new magic bumps can be further reduced

  18. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Dahye; Yun, Mijin; Choi, Ji Soo; Park, Vivian Youngjean; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Joon; Koo, Ja Seung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Suhkmann; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters. Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years) with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1) were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US), 2) were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) 3) underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), and 4) had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER), maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters. In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites showed

  19. Metabolomics of Breast Cancer Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Correlations with 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haesung Yoon

    Full Text Available Our goal in this study was to find correlations between breast cancer metabolites and conventional quantitative imaging parameters using high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and to find breast cancer subgroups that show high correlations between metabolites and imaging parameters.Between August 2010 and December 2013, we included 53 female patients (mean age 49.6 years; age range 32-75 years with a total of 53 breast lesions assessed by the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. They were enrolled under the following criteria: breast lesions larger than 1 cm in diameter which 1 were suspicious for malignancy on mammography or ultrasound (US, 2 were pathologically confirmed to be breast cancer with US-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB 3 underwent 3 Tesla MRI with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT, and 4 had an attainable immunohistochemistry profile from CNB. We acquired spectral data by HR-MAS MRS with CNB specimens and expressed the data as relative metabolite concentrations. We compared the metabolites with the signal enhancement ratio (SER, maximum standardized FDG uptake value (SUV max, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, and histopathologic prognostic factors for correlation. We calculated Spearman correlations and performed a partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA to further classify patient groups into subgroups to find correlation differences between HR-MAS spectroscopic values and conventional imaging parameters.In a multivariate analysis, the PLS-DA models built with HR-MAS MRS metabolic profiles showed visible discrimination between high and low SER, SUV, and ADC. In luminal subtype breast cancer, compared to all cases, high SER, ADV, and SUV were more closely clustered by visual assessment. Multiple metabolites were correlated with SER and SUV in all cases. Multiple metabolites

  20. The influence of flip angle on the magic angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Blacksin, M.F.; Karimi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of flip angle with gradient sequences on the ''magic angle effect''. We characterized the magic angle effect in various gradient echo sequences and compared the signal- to-noise ratios present on these sequences with the signal-to-noise ratios of spin echo sequences.Design. Ten normal healthy volunteers were positioned such that the flexor hallucis longus tendon remained at approximately at 55 to the main magnetic field (the magic angle). The tendon was imaged by a conventional spin echo T1- and T2-weighted techniques and by a series of gradient techniques. Gradient sequences were altered by both TE and flip angle. Signal-to-noise measurements were obtained at segments of the flexor hallucis longus tendon demonstrating the magic angle effect to quantify the artifact. Signal-to-noise measurements were compared and statistical analysis performed. Similar measurements were taken of the anterior tibialis tendon as an internal control.Results and conclusions. We demonstrated the magic angle effect on all the gradient sequences. The intensity of the artifact was affected by both the TE and flip angle. Low TE values and a high flip angle demonstrated the greatest magic angle effect. At TE values less than 30 ms, a high flip angle will markedly increase the magic angle effect. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen and deuterium NMR of solids by magic-angle spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, R.R.

    1982-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large specral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, β/sub m/ = Arccos (3/sup -1/2/), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of β. A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when H/sub D/ was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in internal motion. In the general case of large H/sub D/, isotropic spectra were obtained by dilution of 1 H with 2 H combined with magic angle rotation. The resolution obtained represents the practical limit for proton NMR of solids

  2. Effects of angling and manual handling on pike behaviour investigated by high-resolution positional telemetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Aarestrup, Kim; Berg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Human disturbances such as angling and manual handling may have long-term effects on the behaviour of pike, Esox lucius L., an ecologically important species. Using continuous high-resolution positional telemetry, this study compared the swimming activity of handled and unhandled pike in a small...

  3. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and asp...

  4. Fallspeed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in freefall

    OpenAIRE

    T. J. Garrett; C. Fallgatter; K. Shkurko; D. Howlett

    2012-01-01

    We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in freefall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) captures high resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fallspeed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fallspeed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a sel...

  5. Characterization of zeolites by magic-angle-spinning NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.; Ernst, H.; Freude, D.; Hunger, M.; Pfeifer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) has been used to study structure defects in TPA/ZSM-5, the dealumination process caused by hydrothermal treatment and acid leaching of zeolites, the influence of Lewis sites upon water as a probe molecule, the boron incorporation into the ZSM-5 framework, and the acid sites and structure defects in SAPO-5. The nuclei under study are 1 H, 11 B, 27 Al, 29 Si, and 31 P. 24 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 table

  6. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi [Richland, WA; Wind, Robert A [Kennewick, WA; Minard, Kevin R [Kennewick, WA; Majors, Paul D [Kennewick, WA

    2011-11-22

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  7. Fall speed measurement and high-resolution multi-angle photography of hydrometeors in free fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Garrett

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a new instrument for imaging hydrometeors in free fall. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC captures high-resolution photographs of hydrometeors from three angles while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Based on the stereoscopic photographs captured over the two months of continuous measurements obtained at a high altitude location within the Wasatch Front in Utah, we derive statistics for fall speed, hydrometeor size, shape, orientation and aspect ratio. From a selection of the photographed hydrometeors, an illustration is provided for how the instrument might be used for making improved microwave scattering calculations. Complex, aggregated snowflake shapes appear to be more strongly forward scattering, at the expense of reduced back-scatter, than heavily rimed graupel particles of similar size.

  8. High resolution iridocorneal angle imaging system by axicon lens assisted gonioscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Shinde, Anant; Fu, Chan Yiu; Jeesmond Hong, Xun Jie; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-07-01

    Direct visualization and assessment of the iridocorneal angle (ICA) region with high resolution is important for the clinical evaluation of glaucoma. However, the current clinical imaging systems for ICA do not provide sufficient structural details due to their poor resolution. The key challenges in achieving high quality ICA imaging are its location in the anterior region of the eye and the occurrence of total internal reflection due to refractive index difference between cornea and air. Here, we report an indirect axicon assisted gonioscopy imaging probe with white light illumination. The illustrated results with this probe shows significantly improved visualization of structures in the ICA including TM region, compared to the current available tools. It could reveal critical details of ICA and expected to aid management by providing information that is complementary to angle photography and gonioscopy.

  9. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission Studies on Quasi-Particle Dynamics in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leem, C.S.

    2010-06-02

    We obtained the spectral function of the graphite H point using high resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The extracted width of the spectral function (inverse of the photo-hole lifetime) near the H point is approximately proportional to the energy as expected from the linearly increasing density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy. This is well accounted by our electron-phonon coupling theory considering the peculiar electronic DOS near the Fermi level. And we also investigated the temperature dependence of the peak widths both experimentally and theoretically. The upper bound for the electron-phonon coupling parameter is 0.23, nearly the same value as previously reported at the K point. Our analysis of temperature dependent ARPES data at K shows that the energy of phonon mode of graphite has much higher energy scale than 125K which is dominant in electron-phonon coupling.

  10. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to ∼7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10 12 ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  11. Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators with demanded low uncertainties using single reading head angle encoders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yandayan, Tanfer; Akgoz, S Asli; Asar, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of high-resolution electronic autocollimators is carried out in TUBITAK UME using an angle comparator to ensure direct traceability to the SI unit of plane angle, radian (rad). The device is a specially designed air-bearing rotary table fitted with a commercially available angular encoder utilizing a single reading head. It is shown that high-resolution electronic autocollimators in the large measurement range (e.g. ±1000 arcsec) can be calibrated with an expanded uncertainty of 0.035 arcsec (k = 2) in conventional dimensional laboratory conditions, applying good measurement strategy for single reading head angle encoders and taking simple but smart precautions. Description of the angle comparator is presented with various test results derived using different high-precision autocollimators, and a detailed uncertainty budget is given for the calibration of a high-resolution electronic autocollimator. (paper)

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Applications: Proton NMR In Biological Objects Subjected To Magic Angle Spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Proton NMR in Biological Objects Submitted to Magic Angle Spinning, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition (Paul J. Worsfold, Alan Townshend and Colin F. Poole, eds.), Elsevier, Oxford 6:333-342. Published January 1, 2005. Proposal Number 10896

  13. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission investigation of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sanhita; Kumari, Spriha; Raj, Satyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic structure of potassium and phosphate tungsten bronzes. • Origin of transport anomalies in bronzes. • Flat segments of Fermi surfaces are connected by a nesting vector, q. • Nesting driven charge-density wave is responsible for the anomalies. - Abstract: We have performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and density functional ab initio theoretical calculation to study the electronic structure of potassium (K_0_._2_5WO_3) and phosphate (P_4W_1_2O_4_4) tungsten bronzes. We have experimentally determined the band dispersions and Fermi surface topology of these bronzes and compared with our theoretical calculations and a fair agreement has been seen between them. Our experimental as well as theoretical investigation elucidates the origin of transport anomalies in these bronzes. The Fermi surfaces of these bronzes consist of flat patches, which can be connected with each other by a constant nesting wave vector, q. The scattering wave vectors found from diffraction measurements match with these nesting vectors and the anomalies in the transport properties of these bronzes can be well explained by the evolution of charge-density wave with a partial nesting between the flat segments of the Fermi surfaces.

  14. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  15. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS NMR) for Studies of Reactive Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    spectroscopy (NMR) Self- decontaminating fabric Reactive fabric...reactions of reagents including chemical weapons on materials like concrete, soil , and sand, as well as reactive polymers.3,4,5,6,7 There are...sample. The rotor and cap can be cleaned by rinsing with solvent or decontamination solution and reused. 12.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND CALCULATIONS 12.1

  16. A method of incident angle estimation for high resolution spectral recovery in filter-array-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheolsun; Lee, Woong-Bi; Ju, Gun Wu; Cho, Jeonghoon; Kim, Seongmin; Oh, Jinkyung; Lim, Dongsung; Lee, Yong Tak; Lee, Heung-No

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in miniature spectrometers for research and development. Especially, filter-array-based spectrometers have advantages of low cost and portability, and can be applied in various fields such as biology, chemistry and food industry. Miniaturization in optical filters causes degradation of spectral resolution due to limitations on spectral responses and the number of filters. Nowadays, many studies have been reported that the filter-array-based spectrometers have achieved resolution improvements by using digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. The performance of the DSP-based spectral recovery highly depends on the prior information of transmission functions (TFs) of the filters. The TFs vary with respect to an incident angle of light onto the filter-array. Conventionally, it is assumed that the incident angle of light on the filters is fixed and the TFs are known to the DSP. However, the incident angle is inconstant according to various environments and applications, and thus TFs also vary, which leads to performance degradation of spectral recovery. In this paper, we propose a method of incident angle estimation (IAE) for high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers. By exploiting sparse signal reconstruction of the L1- norm minimization, IAE estimates an incident angle among all possible incident angles which minimizes the error of the reconstructed signal. Based on IAE, DSP effectively provides a high resolution spectral recovery in the filter-array-based spectrometers.

  17. Magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy. January 1978-May 1988 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1978-May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the principles and applications of magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in high-resolution spectra analysis of solids. Magic-angle spinning NMR is a very powerful spectrographic technique for the study of structures, dynamics, and reactivity of solids, and polcrystalline and amorphous solids. Studies of various materials are presented, including zeolites, organic compounds and polymers, liquid crystals, silicate and borate glasses, and alumina and oxide films. Applications in conductive polymers, biological systems, and organic matrixes of composite materials are presented. (Contains 89 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Structure Determination of Proteins from Pseudocontact Shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianping; Pilla, Kala Bharath; Li, Qingfeng; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Su, Xuncheng; Huber, Thomas; Yang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Magic angle spinning solid-state NMR is a unique technique to study atomic-resolution structure of biomacromolecules which resist crystallization or are too large to study by solution NMR techniques. However, difficulties in obtaining sufficient number of long-range distance restraints using dipolar coupling based spectra hamper the process of structure determination of proteins in solid-state NMR. In this study it is shown that high-resolution structure of proteins in solid phase can be determined without the use of traditional dipolar-dipolar coupling based distance restraints by combining the measurements of pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) with Rosetta calculations. The PCSs were generated by chelating exogenous paramagnetic metal ions to a tag 4-mercaptomethyl-dipicolinic acid, which is covalently attached to different residue sites in a 56-residue immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G (GB1). The long-range structural restraints with metal-nucleus distance of up to ∼20 Å are quantitatively extracted from experimentally observed PCSs, and these are in good agreement with the distances back-calculated using an X-ray structure model. Moreover, we demonstrate that using several paramagnetic ions with varied paramagnetic susceptibilities as well as the introduction of paramagnetic labels at different sites can dramatically increase the number of long-range restraints and cover different regions of the protein. The structure generated from solid-state NMR PCSs restraints combined with Rosetta calculations has 0.7 Å root-mean-square deviation relative to X-ray structure. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Structure Determination of Proteins from Pseudocontact Shifts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianping

    2013-06-05

    Magic angle spinning solid-state NMR is a unique technique to study atomic-resolution structure of biomacromolecules which resist crystallization or are too large to study by solution NMR techniques. However, difficulties in obtaining sufficient number of long-range distance restraints using dipolar coupling based spectra hamper the process of structure determination of proteins in solid-state NMR. In this study it is shown that high-resolution structure of proteins in solid phase can be determined without the use of traditional dipolar-dipolar coupling based distance restraints by combining the measurements of pseudocontact shifts (PCSs) with Rosetta calculations. The PCSs were generated by chelating exogenous paramagnetic metal ions to a tag 4-mercaptomethyl-dipicolinic acid, which is covalently attached to different residue sites in a 56-residue immunoglobulin-binding domain of protein G (GB1). The long-range structural restraints with metal-nucleus distance of up to ∼20 Å are quantitatively extracted from experimentally observed PCSs, and these are in good agreement with the distances back-calculated using an X-ray structure model. Moreover, we demonstrate that using several paramagnetic ions with varied paramagnetic susceptibilities as well as the introduction of paramagnetic labels at different sites can dramatically increase the number of long-range restraints and cover different regions of the protein. The structure generated from solid-state NMR PCSs restraints combined with Rosetta calculations has 0.7 Å root-mean-square deviation relative to X-ray structure. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Sealed magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance probe and process for spectroscopy of hazardous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Herman M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Townsend, Mark R.; Ewing, James R.

    2016-06-14

    A magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is described that includes double containment enclosures configured to seal and contain hazardous samples for analysis. The probe is of a modular design that ensures containment of hazardous samples during sample analysis while preserving spin speeds for superior NMR performance and convenience of operation.

  1. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, David W.; Sears, Jesse A.; Turcu, Romulus V. F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2017-12-05

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  2. Phosphorus-doped thin silica films characterized by magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.J.; Skibsted, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of 31P and 29Si have been achieved for a thin silica film doped with only 1.8% 31P and deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on a pure silicon wafer. The observation of a symmetric 31P chemical shift tensor is consistent...

  3. Note on sideband intensities in one-dimensional magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Well, van H.F.J.M.; Vankan, J.M.J.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is well known that in the NMR spectra of solid samples spinning at the magic angle centrebands and sidebands occur. The centrebands are found at the isotropic value of the chemical shift and the sidebands are found at integral multiples of the spinning frequency as long as the spinning frequency

  4. Devices and process for high-pressure magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, David W; Sears, Jr., Jesse A; Turcu, Romulus V.F.; Rosso, Kevin M; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2014-04-08

    A high-pressure magic angle spinning (MAS) rotor is detailed that includes a high-pressure sample cell that maintains high pressures exceeding 150 bar. The sample cell design minimizes pressure losses due to penetration over an extended period of time.

  5. Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements Using Schwalbe's Line with High Resolution Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bing; Francis, Brian A.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Zhang, Xinbo; Jiang, Chunhui; Cleary, Catherine; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the angle opening distance at Schwalbe's line (AOD-SL) and determine its value in anterior chamber angle assessment. Methods Horizontal scans of the nasal and temporal anterior chamber angles in glaucoma subjects were performed by 830 nm wavelength Fourier-domain OCT. Images were graded by two ophthalmologists who assessed the visibility of Schwalbe’s line (SL), anterior limbus (AL), scleral spur (SS), and angle recess (AR). AOD-SL was measured with computer calipers. SL was manually identified by the termination of the corneal endothelium. Gonioscopy was used to classify anterior chamber angles according to a modified Shaffer system. Spearman's rho analysis was performed to assess correlation between AOD-SL and modified Shaffer grade. A cut-off value of AOD-SL for diagnosing occludable angles (modified Shaffer grade ≤1) was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Results Thirty-five glaucoma subjects (65 eyes) were enrolled. SL, AL, AR, and SS were visible by OCT in 97.7%, 99.2%, 87.3%, and 80.8% of eyes, respectively. Nasal and temporal AOD-SLs were 322.6 ± 200.2 µm and 341.4 ± 197.4 µm, respectively. Correlation coefficients between AOD-SL and modified Shaffer grade were 0.80 (nasal) and 0.81 (temporal). The diagnostic cut-off value of AOD-SL for occludable angles was 290 µm. The areas under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity values were 0.90, 0.80, 0.87 (nasal) and 0.90, 0.85, 0.77 (temporal). Conclusions The measurement of AOD-SL by Fourier-domain OCT is highly correlated with gonioscopy and may be a useful noncontact method of assessing angle closure risk. PMID:22827999

  6. Comparative study of rare earth hexaborides using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramankutty, S.V., E-mail: s.v.ramankutty@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Huang, Y.K.; Zwartsenberg, B. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Massee, F. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bay, T.V. [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Golden, M.S., E-mail: m.s.golden@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Frantzeskakis, E., E-mail: e.frantzeskakis@uva.nl [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, Institute of Physics (IoP), University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • ARPES electronic structure study of rare-earth (RE) hexaborides SmB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6}. • Increasing RE valence Yb[II], Sm[II/III], Ce[III] increases d-band occupancy. • YbB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6} posses 2D states at E{sub F}, whereas the Fermi surface of CeB{sub 6} is 3D. • ARPES, LEED and STM data prove structural relaxation of the SmB{sub 6}(001) surface. - Abstract: Strong electron correlations in rare earth hexaborides can give rise to a variety of interesting phenomena like ferromagnetism, Kondo hybridization, mixed valence, superconductivity and possibly topological characteristics. The theoretical prediction of topological properties in SmB{sub 6} and YbB{sub 6} has rekindled the scientific interest in the rare earth hexaborides, and high-resolution ARPES has been playing a major role in the debate. The electronic band structure of the hexaborides contains the key to understand the origin of the different phenomena observed, and much can be learned by comparing the experimental data from different rare earth hexaborides. We have performed high-resolution ARPES on the (001) surfaces of YbB{sub 6}, CeB{sub 6} and SmB{sub 6}. On the most basic level, the data show that the differences in the valence of the rare earth element are reflected in the experimental electronic band structure primarily as a rigid shift of the energy position of the metal 5d states with respect to the Fermi level. Although the overall shape of the d-derived Fermi surface contours remains the same, we report differences in the dimensionality of these states between the compounds studied. Moreover, the spectroscopic fingerprint of the 4f states also reveals considerable differences that are related to their coherence and the strength of the d–f hybridization. For the SmB{sub 6} case, we use ARPES in combination with STM imaging and electron diffraction to reveal time dependent changes in the structural symmetry of the highly debated SmB{sub 6

  7. A high resolution position sensitive X-ray MWPC for small angle X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Stephenson, R.; Tappern, G.J.

    1981-02-01

    A small sealed-off delay line readout MWPC X-ray detector has been designed and built for small angle X-ray diffraction applications. Featuring a sensitive area of 100 mm x 25 mm it yields a spatial resolution of 0.13 mm (standard deviation) with a high rate capability and good quantum efficiency for copper K radiation. (author)

  8. Angular difference feature extraction for urban scene classification using ZY-3 multi-angle high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Huijun; Gong, Jianya

    2018-01-01

    Spaceborne multi-angle images with a high-resolution are capable of simultaneously providing spatial details and three-dimensional (3D) information to support detailed and accurate classification of complex urban scenes. In recent years, satellite-derived digital surface models (DSMs) have been increasingly utilized to provide height information to complement spectral properties for urban classification. However, in such a way, the multi-angle information is not effectively exploited, which is mainly due to the errors and difficulties of the multi-view image matching and the inaccuracy of the generated DSM over complex and dense urban scenes. Therefore, it is still a challenging task to effectively exploit the available angular information from high-resolution multi-angle images. In this paper, we investigate the potential for classifying urban scenes based on local angular properties characterized from high-resolution ZY-3 multi-view images. Specifically, three categories of angular difference features (ADFs) are proposed to describe the angular information at three levels (i.e., pixel, feature, and label levels): (1) ADF-pixel: the angular information is directly extrapolated by pixel comparison between the multi-angle images; (2) ADF-feature: the angular differences are described in the feature domains by comparing the differences between the multi-angle spatial features (e.g., morphological attribute profiles (APs)). (3) ADF-label: label-level angular features are proposed based on a group of urban primitives (e.g., buildings and shadows), in order to describe the specific angular information related to the types of primitive classes. In addition, we utilize spatial-contextual information to refine the multi-level ADF features using superpixel segmentation, for the purpose of alleviating the effects of salt-and-pepper noise and representing the main angular characteristics within a local area. The experiments on ZY-3 multi-angle images confirm that the proposed

  9. Discrete magic angle turning system, apparatus, and process for in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi [Richland, WA; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Hoyt, David W [Richland, WA; Wind, Robert A [Kennewick, WA

    2009-05-19

    Described are a "Discrete Magic Angle Turning" (DMAT) system, devices, and processes that combine advantages of both magic angle turning (MAT) and magic angle hopping (MAH) suitable, e.g., for in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or imaging. In an exemplary system, device, and process, samples are rotated in a clockwise direction followed by an anticlockwise direction of exactly the same amount. Rotation proceeds through an angle that is typically greater than about 240 degrees but less than or equal to about 360 degrees at constant speed for a time applicable to the evolution dimension. Back and forth rotation can be synchronized and repeated with a special radio frequency (RF) pulse sequence to produce an isotropic-anisotropic shift 2D correlation spectrum. The design permits tubes to be inserted into the sample container without introducing plumbing interferences, further allowing control over such conditions as temperature, pressure, flow conditions, and feed compositions, thus permitting true in-situ investigations to be carried out.

  10. Microfabricated inserts for magic angle coil spinning (MACS wireless NMR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Badilita

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the "magic angle" of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning - MAS, accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds.

  11. Characterization of lithium coordination sites with magic-angle spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimovich, A.; Goldbourt, A.

    2015-05-01

    Lithium, in the form of lithium carbonate, is one of the most common drugs for bipolar disorder. Lithium is also considered to have an effect on many other cellular processes hence it possesses additional therapeutic as well as side effects. In order to quantitatively characterize the binding mode of lithium, it is required to identify the interacting species and measure their distances from the metal center. Here we use magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR to study the binding site of lithium in complex with glycine and water (LiGlyW). Such a compound is a good enzyme mimetic since lithium is four-coordinated to one water molecule and three carboxylic groups. Distance measurements to carbons are performed using a 2D transferred echo double resonance (TEDOR) MAS solid-state NMR experiment, and water binding is probed by heteronuclear high-resolution proton-lithium and proton-carbon correlation (wPMLG-HETCOR) experiments. Both HETCOR experiments separate the main complex from impurities and non-specifically bound lithium species, demonstrating the sensitivity of the method to probe the species in the binding site. Optimizations of the TEDOR pulse scheme in the case of a quadrupolar nucleus with a small quadrupole coupling constant show that it is most efficient when pulses are positioned on the spin-1/2 (carbon-13) nucleus. Since the intensity of the TEDOR signal is not normalized, careful data analysis that considers both intensity and dipolar oscillations has to be performed. Nevertheless we show that accurate distances can be extracted for both carbons of the bound glycine and that these distances are consistent with the X-ray data and with lithium in a tetrahedral environment. The lithium environment in the complex is very similar to the binding site in inositol monophosphatase, an enzyme associated with bipolar disorder and the putative target for lithium therapy. A 2D TEDOR experiment applied to the bacterial SuhB gene product of this enzyme was designed

  12. Magic-Angle-Spinning NMR Magnet Development: Field Analysis and Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voccio, John; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Ling, Jiayin; Kim, Youngjae; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2013-01-01

    We are currently working on a program to complete a 1.5 T/75 mm RT bore magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance magnet. The magic-angle-spinning magnet comprises a z-axis 0.866-T solenoid and an x-axis 1.225-T dipole, each to be wound with NbTi wire and operated at 4.2 K in persistent mode. A combination of the fields creates a 1.5-T field pointed at 54.74 degrees (magic angle) from the rotation (z) axis. In the first year of this 3-year program, we have completed magnetic analysis and design of both coils. Also, using a winding machine of our own design and fabrication, we have wound several prototype dipole coils with NbTi wire. As part of this development, we have repeatedly made successful persistent NbTi-NbTi joints with this multifilamentary NbTi wire. PMID:24058275

  13. Sensitivity and Resolution Enhanced Solid-State NMR for Paramagnetic Systems and Biomolecules under Very Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    KAUST Repository

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments

  14. Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Fatemi, Valla; Fang, Shiang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has been studied extensively for decades, but is still not well understood. This lack of theoretical understanding has motivated the development of experimental techniques for studying such behaviour, such as using ultracold atom lattices to simulate quantum materials. Here we report the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity—which cannot be explained by weak electron–phonon interactions—in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two sheets of graphene that are twisted relative to each other by a small angle. For twist angles of about 1.1°—the first ‘magic’ angle—the electronic band structure of this ‘twisted bilayer graphene’ exhibits flat bands near zero Fermi energy, resulting in correlated insulating states at half-filling. Upon electrostatic doping of the material away from these correlated insulating states, we observe tunable zero-resistance states with a critical temperature of up to 1.7 kelvin. The temperature–carrier-density phase diagram of twisted bilayer graphene is similar to that of copper oxides (or cuprates), and includes dome-shaped regions that correspond to superconductivity. Moreover, quantum oscillations in the longitudinal resistance of the material indicate the presence of small Fermi surfaces near the correlated insulating states, in analogy with underdoped cuprates. The relatively high superconducting critical temperature of twisted bilayer graphene, given such a small Fermi surface (which corresponds to a carrier density of about 1011 per square centimetre), puts it among the superconductors with the strongest pairing strength between electrons. Twisted bilayer graphene is a precisely tunable, purely carbon-based, two-dimensional superconductor. It is therefore an ideal material for investigations of strongly correlated phenomena, which could lead to insights into the physics of high

  15. Magic angle and height quantization in nanofacets on SiC(0001) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Keisuke; Iwata, Jun-Ichi; Oshiyama, Atsushi [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-02-03

    We report on the density-functional calculations that provide microscopic mechanism of the facet formation on the SiC (0001) surface. We first identify atom-scale structures of single-, double-, and quad-bilayer steps and find that the single-bilayer (SB) step has the lowest formation energy. We then find that the SB steps are bunched to form a nanofacet with a particular angle relative to the (0001) plane (magic facet angle) and with a discretized height along the (0001) direction (height quantization). We also clarify a microscopic reason for the self-organization of the nanofacet observed experimentally.

  16. Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning of uniformly labeled solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong

    2015-07-01

    Spin-locking and cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning are investigated for uniformly (13)C and (15)N labeled solids. In particular, the interferences from chemical shift anisotropy, and (1)H heteronuclear and (13)C homonuclear dipolar couplings are identified. The physical origin of these interferences provides guidelines for selecting the best (13)C and (15)N polarization transfer rf fields. Optimal settings for both the zero- and double-quantum cross-polarization transfer mechanisms are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; Neumann-Cosel, Peter von; Tamii, Atsushi

    2017-09-01

    Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF) in nuclei in an energy range of about 5-23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method) allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) crucial for the modelling of (n,γ) and (γ,n) reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  18. Gamma strength functions and level densities from high-resolution inelastic proton scattering at very forward angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic proton scattering at energies of a few 100 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ provides a novel method to measure gamma strength functions (GSF in nuclei in an energy range of about 5–23 MeV. The experiments provide not only the E1 but also the M1 part of the GSF. The latter is poorly known in heavy nuclei. A case study of 208Pb indicates that the systematics proposed for the M1-GSF in RIPL-3 needs to be substantially revised. Comparison with gamma decay data (e.g. from the Oslo method allows to test the generalised Brink-Axel (BA hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR crucial for the modelling of (n,γ and (γ,n reactions in astrophysical reaction networks. A fluctuation analysis of the high-resolution data also provides a direct measure of level densities in the energy region well above the neutron threshold, where hardly any experimental information is available.

  19. 1H MAS NMR (magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) techniques for the quantitative determination of hydrogen types in solid catalysts and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gordon J; Afeworki, Mobae; Calabro, David C; Chase, Clarence E; Smiley, Randolph J

    2004-06-01

    Distinct hydrogen species are present in important inorganic solids such as zeolites, silicoaluminophosphates (SAPOs), mesoporous materials, amorphous silicas, and aluminas. These H species include hydrogens associated with acidic sites such as Al(OH)Si, non-framework aluminum sites, silanols, and surface functionalities. Direct and quantitative methodology to identify, measure, and monitor these hydrogen species are key to monitoring catalyst activity, optimizing synthesis conditions, tracking post-synthesis structural modifications, and in the preparation of novel catalytic materials. Many workers have developed several techniques to address these issues, including 1H MAS NMR (magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance). 1H MAS NMR offers many potential advantages over other techniques, but care is needed in recognizing experimental limitations and developing sample handling and NMR methodology to obtain quantitatively reliable data. A simplified approach is described that permits vacuum dehydration of multiple samples simultaneously and directly in the MAS rotor without the need for epoxy, flame sealing, or extensive glovebox use. We have found that careful optimization of important NMR conditions, such as magnetic field homogeneity and magic angle setting are necessary to acquire quantitative, high-resolution spectra that accurately measure the concentrations of the different hydrogen species present. Details of this 1H MAS NMR methodology with representative applications to zeolites, SAPOs, M41S, and silicas as a function of synthesis conditions and post-synthesis treatments (i.e., steaming, thermal dehydroxylation, and functionalization) are presented.

  20. Efficient dipolar double quantum filtering under magic angle spinning without a (1)H decoupling field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Joseph M; Rienstra, Chad M

    2016-08-01

    We present a systematic study of dipolar double quantum (DQ) filtering in (13)C-labeled organic solids over a range of magic-angle spinning rates, using the SPC-n recoupling sequence element with a range of n symmetry values from 3 to 11. We find that efficient recoupling can be achieved for values n⩾7, provided that the (13)C nutation frequency is on the order of 100kHz or greater. The decoupling-field dependence was investigated and explicit heteronuclear decoupling interference conditions identified. The major determinant of DQ filtering efficiency is the decoupling interference between (13)C and (1)H fields. For (13)C nutation frequencies greater than 75kHz, optimal performance is observed without an applied (1)H field. At spinning rates exceeding 20kHz, symmetry conditions as low as n=3 were found to perform adequately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity enhancement by multiple-contact cross-polarization under magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya, J; Hirschinger, J

    2017-08-01

    Multiple-contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) is applied to powder samples of ferrocene and l-alanine under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions. The method is described analytically through the density matrix formalism. The combination of a two-step memory function approach and the Anderson-Weiss approximation is found to be particularly useful to derive approximate analytical solutions for single-contact Hartmann-Hahn CP (HHCP) and MC-CP dynamics under MAS. We show that the MC-CP sequence requiring no pulse-shape optimization yields higher polarizations at short contact times than optimized adiabatic passage through the HH condition CP (APHH-CP) when the MAS frequency is comparable to the heteronuclear dipolar coupling, i.e., when APHH-CP through a single sideband matching condition is impossible or difficult to perform. It is also shown that the MC-CP sideband HH conditions are generally much broader than for single-contact HHCP and that efficient polarization transfer at the centerband HH condition can be reintroduced by rotor-asynchronous multiple equilibrations-re-equilibrations with the proton spin bath. Boundary conditions for the successful use of the MC-CP experiment when relying on spin-lattice relaxation for repolarization are also examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomolecular solid state NMR with magic-angle spinning at 25K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2008-12-01

    A magic-angle spinning (MAS) probe has been constructed which allows the sample to be cooled with helium, while the MAS bearing and drive gases are nitrogen. The sample can be cooled to 25K using roughly 3 L/h of liquid helium, while the 4-mm diameter rotor spins at 6.7 kHz with good stability (+/-5 Hz) for many hours. Proton decoupling fields up to at least 130 kHz can be applied. This helium-cooled MAS probe enables a variety of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments on biomolecular solids and other materials at low temperatures, with signal-to-noise proportional to 1/T. We show examples of low-temperature (13)C NMR data for two biomolecular samples, namely the peptide Abeta(14-23) in the form of amyloid fibrils and the protein HP35 in frozen glycerol/water solution. Issues related to temperature calibration, spin-lattice relaxation at low temperatures, paramagnetic doping of frozen solutions, and (13)C MAS NMR linewidths are discussed.

  3. DRAMAtic transforms in magic angle spinning recoupling NMR: The Bessel function pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Russell; Hancock, Jason; Siemens, Mark; Jarrell, Harold; Siminovitch, David

    2005-07-01

    In magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR recoupling experiments, the extraction of multiple couplings or a coupling distribution from the observed dephasing signals remains a challenging problem. At least for REDOR experiments, the REDOR transform solves this problem, enabling the simultaneous measurement of multiple dipolar couplings. Focusing on the quadrupolar dephasing observed in QUADRAMA experiments as a representative example, we demonstrate that the same analytical form used for the mathematical description of REDOR dephasing also describes the dephasing observed in a wide variety of MAS NMR recoupling experiments. This fact immediately extends REDOR transform techniques to a much broader suite of recoupling experiments than had previously been realized, including those of DRAMA, MELODRAMA and QUADRAMA. As an illustration, we use the DRAMAtic transform to provide the first inversion of a QUADRAMA dephasing signal to extract the quadrupole coupling distribution. Using a complete elliptic integral of the first kind, we further develop a novel expression for the Pake-spun powder patterns of the corresponding recoupled lineshapes. Our methods and results reinforce the central role that Bessel functions can play in simplifying the integrals that define both the dephasing signals in the time domain, and their Fourier transforms in the frequency domain.

  4. Magic-angle spinning NMR of a class I filamentous bacteriophage virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Gili; Morag, Omry; Goldbourt, Amir

    2011-08-11

    The fd bacteriophage is a filamentous virus that is widely used for bio- and nanotechnology applications ranging from phage display to battery materials. The possibility of obtaining a detailed description of its structural properties regardless of its state is therefore essential not only for understanding its physical arrangement and its bacterial infection process but also for many other applications. Here we present a study of the fd phage by magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR. While current structures rely on a Y21M mutant, experiments performed on a strain bearing a wild-type capsid report on high symmetry of the phage and lack of explicit subunit polymorphism. Chemical shift analysis confirmed that the coat protein mostly consists of a rigid right-handed curved α-helix (residues 6-47 of 50), preceded by a flexible loop-structured N-terminus. We were able to qualitatively assign the resonances belonging to the DNA, including the deoxyribose sugars and the thymine bases. These chemical shifts are consistent with base stacking and a C2'-endo/C3'-exo sugar pucker. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Selectively dispersed isotope labeling for protein structure determination by magic angle spinning NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, Matthew T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Belenky, Marina [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States); Sivertsen, Astrid C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory (United States); Griffin, Robert G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry (United States); Herzfeld, Judith, E-mail: herzfeld@brandeis.edu [Brandeis University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The power of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy derives from its site-specific access to chemical, structural and dynamic information. However, the corresponding multiplicity of interactions can be difficult to tease apart. Complimentary approaches involve spectral editing on the one hand and selective isotope substitution on the other. Here we present a new 'redox' approach to the latter: acetate is chosen as the sole carbon source for the extreme oxidation numbers of its two carbons. Consistent with conventional anabolic pathways for the amino acids, [1-{sup 13}C] acetate does not label {alpha} carbons, labels other aliphatic carbons and the aromatic carbons very selectively, and labels the carboxyl carbons heavily. The benefits of this labeling scheme are exemplified by magic angle spinning spectra of microcrystalline immunoglobulin binding protein G (GB1): the elimination of most J-couplings and one- and two-bond dipolar couplings provides narrow signals and long-range, intra- and inter-residue, recoupling essential for distance constraints. Inverse redox labeling, from [2-{sup 13}C] acetate, is also expected to be useful: although it retains one-bond couplings in the sidechains, the removal of CA-CO coupling in the backbone should improve the resolution of NCACX spectra.

  6. NMR longitudinal relaxation enhancement in metal halides by heteronuclear polarization exchange during magic-angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmyreva, Anna A. [Center for Magnetic Resonance, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Safdari, Majid; Furó, István [Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Dvinskikh, Sergey V., E-mail: sergeid@kth.se [Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Laboratory of Biomolecular NMR, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-14

    Orders of magnitude decrease of {sup 207}Pb and {sup 199}Hg NMR longitudinal relaxation times T{sub 1} upon magic-angle-spinning (MAS) are observed and systematically investigated in solid lead and mercury halides MeX{sub 2} (Me = Pb, Hg and X = Cl, Br, I). In lead(II) halides, the most dramatic decrease of T{sub 1} relative to that in a static sample is in PbI{sub 2}, while it is smaller but still significant in PbBr{sub 2}, and not detectable in PbCl{sub 2}. The effect is magnetic-field dependent but independent of the spinning speed in the range 200–15 000 Hz. The observed relaxation enhancement is explained by laboratory-frame heteronuclear polarization exchange due to crossing between energy levels of spin-1/2 metal nuclei and adjacent quadrupolar-spin halogen nuclei. The enhancement effect is also present in lead-containing organometal halide perovskites. Our results demonstrate that in affected samples, it is the relaxation data recorded under non-spinning conditions that characterize the local properties at the metal sites. A practical advantage of fast relaxation at slow MAS is that spectral shapes with orientational chemical shift anisotropy information well retained can be acquired within a shorter experimental time.

  7. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-06-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 221 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 233, that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period after

  8. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 2 21 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 2 33 , that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period

  9. Solid-state 13C magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy characterization of particle size structural variations in synthetic nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state 13 C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy has been used to quantify the different carbon species observed in synthetically produced nanodiamonds. Two different diamond-like carbon species were observed using 13 C MAS NMR, which have been attributed to a highly ordered crystalline diamond phase and a disordered crystalline diamond phase. The relative ratio of these different diamond phases was found to vary with the particle size of the nanodiamond materials

  10. Sensitivity and Resolution Enhanced Solid-State NMR for Paramagnetic Systems and Biomolecules under Very Fast Magic Angle Spinning

    KAUST Repository

    Parthasarathy, Sudhakar

    2013-09-17

    Recent research in fast magic angle spinning (MAS) methods has drastically improved the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy of biomolecules and materials in solids. In this Account, we summarize recent and ongoing developments in this area by presenting (13)C and (1)H solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on paramagnetic systems and biomolecules under fast MAS from our laboratories. First, we describe how very fast MAS (VFMAS) at the spinning speed of at least 20 kHz allows us to overcome major difficulties in (1)H and (13)C high-resolution SSNMR of paramagnetic systems. As a result, we can enhance both sensitivity and resolution by up to a few orders of magnitude. Using fast recycling (∼ms/scan) with short (1)H T1 values, we can perform (1)H SSNMR microanalysis of paramagnetic systems on the microgram scale with greatly improved sensitivity over that observed for diamagnetic systems. Second, we discuss how VFMAS at a spinning speed greater than ∼40 kHz can enhance the sensitivity and resolution of (13)C biomolecular SSNMR measurements. Low-power (1)H decoupling schemes under VFMAS offer excellent spectral resolution for (13)C SSNMR by nominal (1)H RF irradiation at ∼10 kHz. By combining the VFMAS approach with enhanced (1)H T1 relaxation by paramagnetic doping, we can achieve extremely fast recycling in modern biomolecular SSNMR experiments. Experiments with (13)C-labeled ubiquitin doped with 10 mM Cu-EDTA demonstrate how effectively this new approach, called paramagnetic assisted condensed data collection (PACC), enhances the sensitivity. Lastly, we examine (13)C SSNMR measurements for biomolecules under faster MAS at a higher field. Our preliminary (13)C SSNMR data of Aβ amyloid fibrils and GB1 microcrystals acquired at (1)H NMR frequencies of 750-800 MHz suggest that the combined use of the PACC approach and ultrahigh fields could allow for routine multidimensional SSNMR analyses of proteins at the 50-200 nmol level. Also, we briefly discuss the

  11. New possibility for high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear particles entering CR-39 at selected dip angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Hunyadi, I.; Hafez, A.F. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete); Espinosa, G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Fisica)

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear reaction studies a differentiation of the reaction products according to their type and energy is generally required. At right angle of incidence a particle identification method based on the relation between the track diameter and particle energy can be well applied to plastic track detectors of low registration sensitivity. We have tried to extend this 'track-diameter method' to the high-sensitivity CR-39 sheets by selecting special incident angles for particle detection. The utility of such a measuring procedure, called 'track-size method', is presented for alpha and proton spectroscopy. A theory is developed to calculate at arbitrary angles the main parameters affecting the energy resolving power of the 'track-size method', namely the critical layer thickness (which has to be removed from the detector surface for track-induction) and the depth and minor axis of etch-pits.

  12. A high resolution, high counting rate bidimensional, MWPC imaging detector for small angle X-ray diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.; Sawyer, E.C.; Stephenson, R.

    1981-07-01

    The performance is reported of a 200 mm x 200 mm X-ray imaging MWPC aimed at applications in small angle X-ray diffraction and scattering. With quantum energies of approximately 8 keV high spatial resolution (+- 0.5 mm x +- 0.14 mm) with a capability for data taking at >approximately 350 kHz is reported. The detection efficiency is approximately 75% and the detector operates as a sealed unit with a long lifetime. (author)

  13. Chemical Shifts of the Carbohydrate Binding Domain of Galectin-3 from Magic Angle Spinning NMR and Hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Jodi; Gupta, Rupal; Yehl, Jenna; Lu, Manman; Case, David A; Gronenborn, Angela M; Akke, Mikael; Polenova, Tatyana

    2018-03-22

    Magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy is uniquely suited to probe the structure and dynamics of insoluble proteins and protein assemblies at atomic resolution, with NMR chemical shifts containing rich information about biomolecular structure. Access to this information, however, is problematic, since accurate quantum mechanical calculation of chemical shifts in proteins remains challenging, particularly for 15 N H . Here we report on isotropic chemical shift predictions for the carbohydrate recognition domain of microcrystalline galectin-3, obtained from using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, implemented using an automated fragmentation approach, and using very high resolution (0.86 Å lactose-bound and 1.25 Å apo form) X-ray crystal structures. The resolution of the X-ray crystal structure used as an input into the AF-NMR program did not affect the accuracy of the chemical shift calculations to any significant extent. Excellent agreement between experimental and computed shifts is obtained for 13 C α , while larger scatter is observed for 15 N H chemical shifts, which are influenced to a greater extent by electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and solvation.

  14. Angularly-resolved elastic scatter from single particles collected over a large solid angle and with high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aptowicz, Kevin B; Chang, Richard K

    2005-01-01

    Elastic light scattering from a single non-spherical particle of various morphologies has been measured simultaneously with a large angular range (90 deg. < θ < 165 deg. and 0 deg. < φ < 360 deg.) and with high angular resolution (1024 pixels in θ and 512 pixels in φ). Because the single-shot laser pulse is short (pulse duration of 70 ns), the tumbling and flowing particle can be treated as frozen in space. The large angle two-dimensional angular optical scattering (hereafter referred to as LA TAOS) intensity pattern, I(θ,φ), has been measured for a variety of particle morphology, such as the following: (1) single polystyrene latex (PSL) sphere; (2) cluster of PSL spheres; (3) single Bacillus subtilis (BG) spore; (4) cluster of BG spores; (5) dried aggregates of bio-aerosols as well as background clutter aerosols. All these measurements were made using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser (0.532 μm). Islands structures in the LA TAOS patterns seem to be the prominent feature. Efforts are being made to extract metrics from these islands and compare them to theoretical results based on the T-matrix method

  15. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  16. Large-grazing-angle, multi-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope as the front end to a high-resolution streak camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX - a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  17. Large-Grazing-Angle, Multi-Image Kirkpatrick-Baez Microscope as the Front End to a High-Resolution Streak Camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2003-01-01

    (B204)A new, high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX-a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al./Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function (MTF) over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  18. 27Al Magic Angle Spinning–Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) Analyses Applied to Historical Mortars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Brus, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2013), s. 153-164 ISSN 1558-3058 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : mortars * magic angle spinning –nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) in solid state * alumina-silicates Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 0.714, year: 2013 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15583058.2011.624253

  19. High-pressure, high-temperature magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance devices and processes for making and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Hu, Mary Y.; Townsend, Mark R.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2015-10-06

    Re-usable ceramic magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR rotors constructed of high-mechanic strength ceramics are detailed that include a sample compartment that maintains high pressures up to at least about 200 atmospheres (atm) and high temperatures up to about least about 300.degree. C. during operation. The rotor designs minimize pressure losses stemming from penetration over an extended period of time. The present invention makes possible a variety of in-situ high pressure, high temperature MAS NMR experiments not previously achieved in the prior art.

  20. MUSIC - Multifunctional stereo imaging camera system for wide angle and high resolution stereo and color observations on the Mars-94 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Jahn, H.; Sandau, R.; Walter, I.; Driescher, H.

    1990-10-01

    Objectives of the multifunctional stereo imaging camera (MUSIC) system to be deployed on the Soviet Mars-94 mission are outlined. A high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and wide-angle opto-electronic stereo scanner (WAOSS) are combined in terms of hardware, software, technology aspects, and solutions. Both HRSC and WAOSS are push-button instruments containing a single optical system and focal plates with several parallel CCD line sensors. Emphasis is placed on the MUSIC system's stereo capability, its design, mass memory, and data compression. A 1-Gbit memory is divided into two parts: 80 percent for HRSC and 20 percent for WAOSS, while the selected on-line compression strategy is based on macropixel coding and real-time transform coding.

  1. Orientation-dependent changes in MR signal intensity of articular cartilage: a manifestation of the ``magic angle`` effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, F.K.; Bolze, X.; Felsenberg, D.; Wolf, K.J. [Department of Radiology, Benjamin Franklin University Hospital, Free University Berlin, D-12200 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance (MR) imaging pattern of normal hyaline articular cartilage in the knee joint with regard to the contribution of the ``magic angle`` effect to the MR signal. Design. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were imaged in a standard supine position in a 1.5-T unit using spin echo and gradient echo sequences. Nine volunteers were reimaged with the knee flexed. The signal behavior of the hyaline cartilage of the femoral condyles was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The extended and flexed positions of the nine volunteers were compared. Results. A superficial and a deep hyperintense layer and a hypointense middle cartilage layer were observed. Segments of increased signal intensity were visible along the condyles; a magic angle effect on signal intensity was evident in the hypointense middle layer with both gradient echo and spin echo images. Conclusion. The MR signal behavior of hyaline cartilage is influenced by the alignment of the collagen fibers within the cartilage in relation to the magnetic field. Failure to recognize this effect may lead to inaccurate diagnosis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 17 refs.

  2. Floquet-Magnus expansion for general N-coupled spins systems in magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane; Charpentier, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical perturbative approach for describing the NMR spectrum of strongly dipolar-coupled spin systems under fast magic-angle spinning. Our treatment is based on two approaches: the Floquet approach and the Floquet-Magnus expansion. The Floquet approach is well known in the NMR community as a perturbative approach to get analytical approximations. Numerical procedures are based on step-by-step numerical integration of the corresponding differential equations. The Floquet-Magnus expansion is a perturbative approach of the Floquet theory. Furthermore, we address the " γ -encoding" effect using the Floquet-Magnus expansion approach. We show that the average over " γ " angle can be performed for any Hamiltonian with γ symmetry.

  3. Effect of Cleaving Temperature on the Surface and Bulk Fermi Surface of Sr2RuO4 Investigated by High Resolution Angle-Resolved Photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan-Yu; Zhang Wen-Tao; Weng Hong-Ming; Zhao Lin; Liu Hai-Yun; Jia Xiao-Wen; Liu Guo-Dong; Dong Xiao-Li; Zhang Jun; Dai Xi; Fang Zhong; Zhou Xing-Jiang; Mao Zhi-Qiang; Chen Chuang-Tian; Xu Zu-Yan

    2012-01-01

    High resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements are carried out to systematically investigate the effect of cleaving temperature on the electronic structures and Fermi surfaces of Sr 2 RuO 4 . Unlike previous reports, which found that a high cleaving temperature can suppress the surface Fermi surface, we find that the surface Fermi surface remains obvious and strong in Sr 2 RuO 4 cleaved at high temperature, even at room temperature. This indicates that cleaving temperature is not a key effective factor in suppressing surface bands. On the other hand, the bulk bands can be enhanced in an aged surface of Sr 2 RuO 4 that has been cleaved and held for a long time. We have also carried out laser ARPES measurements on Sr 2 RuO 4 by using a vacuum ultra-violet laser (photon energy at 6.994 eV) and found an obvious enhancement of bulk bands even for samples cleaved at low temperature. This information is important for realizing an effective approach to manipulating and detecting the surface and bulk electronic structure of Sr 2 RuO 4 . In particular, the enhancement of bulk sensitivity, along with the super-high instrumental resolution of VUV laser ARPES, will be advantageous in investigating fine electronic structure and superconducting properties of Sr 2 RuO 4 in the future. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Focal spot size reduction using asymmetric collimation to enable reduced anode angles with a conventional angiographic x-ray tube for use with high resolution detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, M.; Shankar, A.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Ionita, C. N.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

    2017-03-01

    The high-resolution requirements for neuro-endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) necessitate the use of a small focal-spot size; however, the maximum tube output limits for such small focal-spot sizes may not enable sufficient x-ray fluence after attenuation through the human head to support the desired image quality. This may necessitate the use of a larger focal spot, thus contributing to the overall reduction in resolution. A method for creating a higher-output small effective focal spot based on the line-focus principle has been demonstrated and characterized. By tilting the C-arm gantry, the anode-side of the x-ray field-of-view is accessible using a detector placed off-axis. This tilted central axis diminishes the resultant focal spot size in the anode-cathode direction by the tangent of the effective anode angle, allowing a medium focal spot to be used in place of a small focal spot with minimal losses in resolution but with increased tube output. Images were acquired of two different objects at the central axis, and with the C-arm tilted away from the central axis at 1° increments from 0°-7°. With standard collimation settings, only 6° was accessible, but using asymmetric extended collimation a maximum of 7° was accessed for enhanced comparisons. All objects were positioned perpendicular to the anode-cathode direction and images were compared qualitatively. The increasing advantage of the off-axis focal spots was quantitatively evidenced at each subsequent angle using the Generalized Measured-Relative Object Detectability metric (GM-ROD). This anode-tilt method is a simple and robust way of increasing tube output for a small field-of-view detector without diminishing the overall apparent resolution for neuro-EIGIs.

  5. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Kanmi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., 13C and 15N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., 1H and 19F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in 1H detected 2D 1H{l_brace}13C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional 13C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear 1H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5m$\\bar{x}$, PMLG5mm$\\bar{x}$x and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based

  6. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonagamba, T.J.

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120 0 C to +160 0 C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author)

  7. Principles of high resolution NMR in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mehring, Michael

    1983-01-01

    The field of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has developed at a fascinating pace during the last decade. It always has been an extremely valuable tool to the organic chemist by supplying molecular "finger print" spectra at the atomic level. Unfortunately the high resolution achievable in liquid solutions could not be obtained in solids and physicists and physical chemists had to live with unresolved lines open to a wealth of curve fitting procedures and a vast amount of speculations. High resolution NMR in solids seemed to be a paradoxon. Broad structure­ less lines are usually encountered when dealing with NMR in solids. Only with the recent advent of mUltiple pulse, magic angle, cross-polarization, two-dimen­ sional and multiple-quantum spectroscopy and other techniques during the last decade it became possible to resolve finer details of nuclear spin interactions in solids. I have felt that graduate students, researchers and others beginning to get involved with these techniques needed a book which trea...

  8. Permanent magnet assembly producing a strong tilted homogeneous magnetic field: towards magic angle field spinning NMR and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Dimitris; Hugon, Cédric; Guiga, Angelo; Aubert, Guy; Cazaux, Sandrine; Hardy, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    We introduce a cylindrical permanent magnet design that generates a homogeneous and strong magnetic field having an arbitrary inclination with respect to the axis of the cylinder. The analytical theory of 3 D magnetostatics has been applied to this problem, and a hybrid magnet structure has been designed. This structure contains two magnets producing a longitudinal and transverse component for the magnetic field, whose amplitudes and homogeneities can be fully controlled by design. A simple prototype has been constructed using inexpensive small cube magnets, and its magnetic field has been mapped using Hall and NMR probe sensors. This magnet can, in principle, be used for magic angle field spinning NMR and MRI experiments allowing for metabolic chemical shift profiling in small living animals. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. On the use of ultracentrifugal devices for routine sample preparation in biomolecular magic-angle-spinning NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Boatz, Jennifer C; Wheeler, Travis B; van der Wel, Patrick C A

    2017-03-01

    A number of recent advances in the field of magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR have enabled its application to a range of biological systems of ever increasing complexity. To retain biological relevance, these samples are increasingly studied in a hydrated state. At the same time, experimental feasibility requires the sample preparation process to attain a high sample concentration within the final MAS rotor. We discuss these considerations, and how they have led to a number of different approaches to MAS NMR sample preparation. We describe our experience of how custom-made (or commercially available) ultracentrifugal devices can facilitate a simple, fast and reliable sample preparation process. A number of groups have since adopted such tools, in some cases to prepare samples for sedimentation-style MAS NMR experiments. Here we argue for a more widespread adoption of their use for routine MAS NMR sample preparation.

  10. Instrumentation for cryogenic magic angle spinning dynamic nuclear polarization using 90L of liquid nitrogen per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Brice J; Pahng, Seong Ho; Alaniva, Nicholas; Sesti, Erika L; Rand, Peter W; Saliba, Edward P; Scott, Faith J; Choi, Eric J; Barnes, Alexander B

    2017-10-01

    Cryogenic sample temperatures can enhance NMR sensitivity by extending spin relaxation times to improve dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and by increasing Boltzmann spin polarization. We have developed an efficient heat exchanger with a liquid nitrogen consumption rate of only 90L per day to perform magic-angle spinning (MAS) DNP experiments below 85K. In this heat exchanger implementation, cold exhaust gas from the NMR probe is returned to the outer portion of a counterflow coil within an intermediate cooling stage to improve cooling efficiency of the spinning and variable temperature gases. The heat exchange within the counterflow coil is calculated with computational fluid dynamics to optimize the heat transfer. Experimental results using the novel counterflow heat exchanger demonstrate MAS DNP signal enhancements of 328±3 at 81±2K, and 276±4 at 105±2K. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the use of ultracentrifugal devices for routine sample preparation in biomolecular magic-angle-spinning NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Boatz, Jennifer C. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Structural Biology (United States); Wheeler, Travis B. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Cell Biology (United States); Wel, Patrick C. A. van der, E-mail: vanderwel@pitt.edu [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Structural Biology (United States)

    2017-03-15

    A number of recent advances in the field of magic-angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR have enabled its application to a range of biological systems of ever increasing complexity. To retain biological relevance, these samples are increasingly studied in a hydrated state. At the same time, experimental feasibility requires the sample preparation process to attain a high sample concentration within the final MAS rotor. We discuss these considerations, and how they have led to a number of different approaches to MAS NMR sample preparation. We describe our experience of how custom-made (or commercially available) ultracentrifugal devices can facilitate a simple, fast and reliable sample preparation process. A number of groups have since adopted such tools, in some cases to prepare samples for sedimentation-style MAS NMR experiments. Here we argue for a more widespread adoption of their use for routine MAS NMR sample preparation.

  12. Resonance Assignments and Secondary Structure Analysis of Dynein Light Chain 8 by Magic-angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shangjin; Butterworth, Andrew H.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Yan, Si; Lightcap, Christine M.; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2011-08-04

    Dynein light chain LC8 is the smallest subunit of the dynein motor complex and has been shown to play important roles in both dynein-dependent and dynein-independent physiological functions via its interaction with a number of its binding partners. It has also been linked to pathogenesis including roles in viral infections and tumorigenesis. Structural information for LC8-target proteins is critical to understanding the underlying function of LC8 in these complexes. However, some LC8-target interactions are not amenable to structural characterization by conventional structural biology techniques owing to their large size, low solubility, and crystallization difficulties. Here, we report magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of the homodimeric apo-LC8 protein as a first effort in addressing more complex, multi-partner, LC8-based protein assemblies. We have established site-specific backbone and side-chain resonance assignments for the majority of the residues of LC8, and show TALOS+-predicted torsion angles ø and ψ in close agreement with most residues in the published LC8 crystal structure. Data obtained through these studies will provide the first step toward using MAS NMR to examine the LC8 structure, which will eventually be used to investigate protein–protein interactions in larger systems that cannot be determined by conventional structural studies.

  13. Measurements of relative chemical shift tensor orientations in solid-state NMR: new slow magic angle spinning dipolar recoupling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurd, Andrew P S; Titman, Jeremy J

    2009-08-28

    Solid-state NMR experiments can be used to determine conformational parameters, such as interatomic distances and torsion angles. The latter can be obtained from measurements of the relative orientation of two chemical shift tensors, if the orientation of these with respect to the surrounding bonds is known. In this paper, a new rotor-synchronized magic angle spinning (MAS) dipolar correlation experiment is described which can be used in this way. Because the experiment requires slow MAS rates, a novel recoupling sequence, designed using symmetry principles, is incorporated into the mixing period. This recoupling sequence is based in turn on a new composite cyclic pulse referred to as COAST (for combined offset and anisotropy stabilization). The new COAST-C7(2)(1) sequence is shown to give good theoretical and experimental recoupling efficiency, even when the CSA far exceeds the MAS rate. In this regime, previous recoupling sequences, such as POST-C7(2)(1), exhibit poor recoupling performance. The effectiveness of the new method has been explored by a study of the dipeptide L-phenylalanyl-L-phenylalanine.

  14. In vivo and ex vivo high-resolution ¹H NMR in biological systems using low-speed magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2006-11-30

    Metabolism refers to the network of interacting chemical processes that constitute (and define) cell life and provide the chemical energy and materials required for all work at the cellular and whole-organism levels. These processes take the form of metabolic pathways, an interdependent network of chemical reactions that is regulated by catalytic enzymes. Metabolites are chemical compounds that participate as reactants (substrates), intermediate compounds, or byproducts in a cellular metabolic pathway, and include carbon compounds with a molecular weight typically in the range 100-1000, which are usually present as solutes in the cytoplasm. Four broad classes of such metabolites can be distinguished [Alberts et al 1989]: sugars, the food molecules of the cell; fatty acids, present as droplets of triglyceride molecules in the cells and serving as energy resources, and as phospholipids present in the cell membranes; amino acids, the subunits of proteins; and nucleotides, the subunits of RNA and DNA, that can also act as carriers of chemical energy (adenosine triphosphate, i.e. ATP). Metabolomics involves characterizing the metabolic composition of a single cell type measured under defined physiological conditions and can be considered as analogous to genomics or proteomics [Lindon et al 2003]. Metabonomics involves quantitative studies of the changes in the metabolic profiles of living systems in response to patho-physiological stimuli or genetic modification [Nicholson et al 1999, Lindon 2003]. Metabolic changes are the earliest cellular response to environmental or physiological changes such as toxin exposure or disease state, so a snapshot of the various metabolite concentrations within cells, tissues, or biofluids, and how these concentrations change under different physiological, pharmacological and toxicological conditions provides valuable information that is complementary to gene expression and proteomic studies. Hence metabol(n)omics may be capable of, e.g., detecting and diagnosing a disease or evaluating the efficacy of therapy in an early stage, and provide powerful new tools for gaining insight into functional biology.

  15. High-resolution magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy of metabolic changes in rabbit lens after treatment with dexamethasone combined with UVB exposure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seather, O.; Risa, O.; Čejková, Jitka; Krane, J.; Midelfart, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 242, - (2004), s. 1000-1007 ISSN 0721-832X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : HR-MAS 1H NMR Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2004

  16. Pf1 bacteriophage hydration by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeyev, Ivan V.; Bahri, Salima; McDermott, Ann E., E-mail: aem5@columbia.edu [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 3000 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Day, Loren A. [Public Health Research Institute, Rutgers University, 225 Warren St., Newark, New Jersey 07103 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    High resolution two- and three-dimensional heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy ({sup 1}H–{sup 13}C, {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C–{sup 13}C HETCOR) has provided a detailed characterization of the internal and external hydration water of the Pf1 virion. This long and slender virion (2000 nm × 7 nm) contains highly stretched DNA within a capsid of small protein subunits, each only 46 amino acid residues. HETCOR cross-peaks have been unambiguously assigned to 25 amino acids, including most external residues 1–21 as well as residues 39–40 and 43–46 deep inside the virion. In addition, the deoxyribose rings of the DNA near the virion axis are in contact with water. The sets of cross-peaks to the DNA and to all 25 amino acid residues were from the same hydration water {sup 1}H resonance; some of the assigned residues do not have exchangeable side-chain protons. A mapping of the contacts onto structural models indicates the presence of water “tunnels” through a highly hydrophobic region of the capsid. The present results significantly extend and modify results from a lower resolution study, and yield a comprehensive hydration surface map of Pf1. In addition, the internal water could be distinguished from external hydration water by means of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. The internal water population may serve as a conveniently localized magnetization reservoir for structural studies.

  17. High-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance evidence of phase transition of Rb,Cs-intercalated single-walled nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, M.

    2011-09-06

    We present 13 C high-resolution magic-angle-turning (MAT) and magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance data of Cs and Rb intercalated single walled carbon nanotubes. We find two distinct phases at different intercalation levels. A simple charge transfer is applicable at low intercalation level. The new phase at high intercalation level is accompanied by a hybridization of alkali (s) orbitals with the carbon (sp2) orbitals of the single walled nanotubes, which indicate bundle surface sites is the most probable alkali site.

  18. Low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization with helium-cooled samples and nitrogen-driven magic-angle spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent; Tycko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We describe novel instrumentation for low-temperature solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS), focusing on aspects of this instrumentation that have not been described in detail in previous publications. We characterize the performance of an extended interaction oscillator (EIO) microwave source, operating near 264 GHz with 1.5 W output power, which we use in conjunction with a quasi-optical microwave polarizing system and a MAS NMR probe that employs liquid helium for sample cooling and nitrogen gas for sample spinning. Enhancement factors for cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals in the 100-200 range are demonstrated with DNP at 25K. The dependences of signal amplitudes on sample temperature, as well as microwave power, polarization, and frequency, are presented. We show that sample temperatures below 30K can be achieved with helium consumption rates below 1.3 l/h. To illustrate potential applications of this instrumentation in structural studies of biochemical systems, we compare results from low-temperature DNP experiments on a calmodulin-binding peptide in its free and bound states. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier, but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly (13)C-labeled l-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly (13)C-labeled amino acids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Magic angle spinning NMR below 6 K with a computational fluid dynamics analysis of fluid flow and temperature gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesti, Erika L.; Alaniva, Nicholas; Rand, Peter W.; Choi, Eric J.; Albert, Brice J.; Saliba, Edward P.; Scott, Faith J.; Barnes, Alexander B.

    2018-01-01

    We report magic angle spinning (MAS) up to 8.5 kHz with a sample temperature below 6 K using liquid helium as a variable temperature fluid. Cross polarization 13C NMR spectra exhibit exquisite sensitivity with a single transient. Remarkably, 1H saturation recovery experiments show a 1H T1 of 21 s with MAS below 6 K in the presence of trityl radicals in a glassy matrix. Leveraging the thermal spin polarization available at 4.2 K versus 298 K should result in 71 times higher signal intensity. Taking the 1H longitudinal relaxation into account, signal averaging times are therefore predicted to be expedited by a factor of >500. Computer assisted design (CAD) and finite element analysis were employed in both the design and diagnostic stages of this cryogenic MAS technology development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models describing temperature gradients and fluid flow are presented. The CFD models bearing and drive gas maintained at 100 K, while a colder helium variable temperature fluid stream cools the center of a zirconia rotor. Results from the CFD were used to optimize the helium exhaust path and determine the sample temperature. This novel cryogenic experimental platform will be integrated with pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization and electron decoupling to interrogate biomolecular structure within intact human cells.

  1. Powder-XRD and (14) N magic angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of some metal nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempgens, Pierre; Britton, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Some metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN, InN, GaN, Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 ) have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (14) N magic angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 , no (14) N NMR signal was observed. Low speed (νr  = 2 kHz for TiN, ZrN, and GaN; νr  = 1 kHz for InN) and 'high speed' (νr  = 15 kHz for TiN; νr  = 5 kHz for ZrN; νr  = 10 kHz for InN and GaN) MAS NMR experiments were performed. For TiN, ZrN, InN, and GaN, powder-XRD was used to identify the phases present in each sample. The number of peaks observed for each sample in their (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectrum matches perfectly well with the number of nitrogen-containing phases identified by powder-XRD. The (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectra are symmetric and dominated by the quadrupolar interaction. The envelopes of the spinning sidebands manifold are Lorentzian, and it is concluded that there is a distribution of the quadrupolar coupling constants Qcc 's arising from structural defects in the compounds studied. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  3. Two-Dimensional Micro-/Nanoradian Angle Generator with High Resolution and Repeatability Based on Piezo-Driven Double-Axis Flexure Hinge and Three Capacitive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinran Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a two-dimensional micro-/nanoradian angle generator (2D-MNAG that achieves high angular displacement resolution and repeatability using a piezo-driven flexure hinge for two-dimensional deflections and three capacitive sensors for output angle monitoring and feedback control. The principal error of the capacitive sensor for precision microangle measurement is analyzed and compensated for; so as to achieve a high angle output resolution of 10 nrad (0.002 arcsec and positioning repeatability of 120 nrad (0.024 arcsec over a large angular range of ±4363 μrad (±900 arcsec for the 2D-MNAG. The impact of each error component, together with the synthetic error of the 2D-MNAG after principal error compensation are determined using Monte Carlo simulation for further improvement of the 2D-MNAG.

  4. Two-Dimensional Micro-/Nanoradian Angle Generator with High Resolution and Repeatability Based on Piezo-Driven Double-Axis Flexure Hinge and Three Capacitive Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinran; Zhu, Fan; Wang, Chao; Yu, Yang; Shi, Jian; Qi, Xue; Yuan, Feng; Tan, Jiubin

    2017-11-19

    This study presents a two-dimensional micro-/nanoradian angle generator (2D-MNAG) that achieves high angular displacement resolution and repeatability using a piezo-driven flexure hinge for two-dimensional deflections and three capacitive sensors for output angle monitoring and feedback control. The principal error of the capacitive sensor for precision microangle measurement is analyzed and compensated for; so as to achieve a high angle output resolution of 10 nrad (0.002 arcsec) and positioning repeatability of 120 nrad (0.024 arcsec) over a large angular range of ±4363 μrad (±900 arcsec) for the 2D-MNAG. The impact of each error component, together with the synthetic error of the 2D-MNAG after principal error compensation are determined using Monte Carlo simulation for further improvement of the 2D-MNAG.

  5. Measurements of angles of the normal auditory ossicles relative to the reference plane and image reconstruction technique for obtaining optimal sections of the ossicles in high-resolution multiplanar reconstruction using a multislice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Naoko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Takasu, Akihiko; Naito, Kensei

    2005-01-01

    Using high-resolution isotropic volume data obtained by 0.5 mm, 4-row multislice CT, cross-sectional observation of the auditory ossicles is possible from any desired direction without difficulty in high-resolution multiplanar reconstruction (HR-MPR) images, also distortion-free three-dimensional images of the ossicles are generated in three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) images. We measured angles of fifty normal ossicles relative to the reference plane, which has been defined as a plane through the bilateral infraorbital margins to the middle portion of the external auditory canal. Based on the results of angle measurement, four optimal sections of the ossicles for efficient viewing to the ossicular chain were identified. To understand the position of the angle measurement and the four sections, the ossicles and the reference plane were reconstructed in the 3D-CT images. As the result of observation of the ossicles and the reference plane, the malleus was parallel to the incudal long process and perpendicular to the reference plane. As the results of angle measurement, the mean angle of the tympanic portion of the facial nerve relative to the reference plane in the sagittal plane was found to be 17 deg, and the mean angle of the stapedial crura relative to the reference plane in the sagittal plane was found to be 6 deg. The mean angle of the stapes relative to the reference plane in the coronal plane was 44 deg, and the mean angle of the incudal long process relative to the stapes in the coronal plane was 89 deg. In 80% of ears, the stapes extended straight from the incudal long process. Image reconstruction technique for viewing four sections of the ossicles was investigated. Firstly, the image of the malleal head and the incudal short process was identified in the axial plane. Secondly, an image of the malleus along the malleal manubrium was reconstructed in the coronal plane. Thirdly, the image of the incudal long process was seen immediately behind the malletis image

  6. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  7. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission studies of high Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong.

    1990-01-01

    An angle-resolved photoemission study of the normal and superconducting states in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 was performed. Measurements in the normal state show bands dispersing through the Fermi level from at least 350 meV below E F . The Fermi level crossings are consistant with local-density band calculation, including a point calculated to be of Bi-O character. Additional measurements were made where bands crossed the Fermi level between 100 and 250K, along with measurements on an adjacent Pt foil. The Fermi edges of both materials agree to within the noise. Below the Fermi level, the spectra show correlation effects on the form of an increased effective mass. The shape of the spectra can be explained by a lifetime-broadened photohole and secondary electrons. The effective inverse photohole lifetime is linear in energy. A superconducting gap has been measured at a number of points where there is density at the Fermi level in the normal state. By proper modeling, a gap of 24 meV was obtained for all these points, including points of Cu-O and Bi-O character respectively, according to band calculation. The lack of gap anisotropy in the basal plane suggests that pinning in this material is not d-wave pairing

  8. Magic and Magical Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børch, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The article argues that where as Harry POtter lacks the " sense of the numinous" found in Tolkien and Pratchett, it has a special magic that plays upon the fantastic potential of language. Everyday language is full of metaphors, personifications, and strata of archaic beliefs; it has diversified...

  9. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  10. Magic Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article examines several readily available "magic tricks" which base their "trickery" on physics principles, and questions the use of the word "magic" in the 21st century, both in popular children's science and in everyday language. (Contains 18 figures.)

  11. An NMR thermometer for cryogenic magic-angle spinning NMR: The spin-lattice relaxation of 127I in cesium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Riddhiman; Concistrè, Maria; Johannessen, Ole G.; Beckett, Peter; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; al-Mosawi, Maitham; Beduz, Carlo; Yang, Yifeng; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2011-10-01

    The accurate temperature measurement of solid samples under magic-angle spinning (MAS) is difficult in the cryogenic regime. It has been demonstrated by Thurber et al. (J. Magn. Reson., 196 (2009) 84-87) [10] that the temperature dependent spin-lattice relaxation time constant of 79Br in KBr powder can be useful for measuring sample temperature under MAS over a wide temperature range (20-296 K). However the value of T1 exceeds 3 min at temperatures below 20 K, which is inconveniently long. In this communication, we show that the spin-lattice relaxation time constant of 127I in CsI powder can be used to accurately measure sample temperature under MAS within a reasonable experimental time down to 10 K.

  12. Cross polarization with phase and amplitude modulation of radio frequency fields in NMR-experiments with sample rotation at magic angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvinskij, S.V.; Chizhik, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    One analyzes cross polarization of nuclei within a rotating system of coordinates as applied to the NMR-experiments with a specimen rotation under the magic angle. One worded a concept of simultaneous phase and amplitude modulation according to which the Hamiltonian form of the restored dipole interaction persisted if inversion of difference of radiofrequency field amplitudes occurred simultaneously with phase inversion. One presents a theoretical substantiation in terms of the average Hamiltonian theory. The concept is demonstrated both experimentally and by means of numerical analysis for a number of special cases. Phase periodic inversion in cross polarized experiments is shown to result into practically important advantage of suppression of interactions of chemical shift and influence of effects of coarse adjustment of radiofrequency field parameters [ru

  13. Creating Magic Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Betty Clayton

    1990-01-01

    One method of making magic squares using a prolongated square is illustrated. Discussed are third-order magic squares, fractional magic squares, fifth-order magic squares, decimal magic squares, and even magic squares. (CW)

  14. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  15. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  17. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  18. High resolution spectroscopy in solids by nuclear magnetic resonance; Espectroscopia de alta resolucao em solidos por ressonancia magnetica nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonagamba, T J

    1991-07-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for High Resolution Spectroscopy in Solids are described. Also the construction project of a partially home made spectrometer and its applications in the characterization of solid samples are shown in detail. The high resolution spectrometer used is implemented with the double resonance multiple pulses sequences and magic angle spinning (MAS) and can be used with solid and liquid samples. The maximum spinning frequency for the MAS experiment is in excess of 5 Khz, the double resonance sequences can be performed with any type of nucleus, in the variable temperature operating range with nitrogen gas: -120{sup 0} C to +160{sup 0} C, and is fully controlled by a Macintosh IIci microcomputer. (author).

  19. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  20. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We report solid state 13 C and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, 1 H and cross-polarized 13 C NMR signals from 15 N, 13 C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T 1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations

  1. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  2. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  3. Measurement of sample temperatures under magic-angle spinning from the chemical shift and spin-lattice relaxation rate of 79Br in KBr powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determination of sample temperatures in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) can be problematic, particularly because frictional heating and heating by radio-frequency irradiation can make the internal sample temperature significantly different from the temperature outside the MAS rotor. This paper demonstrates the use of (79)Br chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation rates in KBr powder as temperature-dependent parameters for the determination of internal sample temperatures. Advantages of this method include high signal-to-noise, proximity of the (79)Br NMR frequency to that of (13)C, applicability from 20 K to 320 K or higher, and simultaneity with adjustment of the MAS axis direction. We show that spin-lattice relaxation in KBr is driven by a quadrupolar mechanism. We demonstrate a simple approach to including KBr powder in hydrated samples, such as biological membrane samples, hydrated amyloid fibrils, and hydrated microcrystalline proteins, that allows direct assessment of the effects of frictional and radio-frequency heating under experimentally relevant conditions.

  4. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, Kent R., E-mail: thurberk@niddk.nih.gov; Tycko, Robert [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  5. Crystalline phase of sodium germanate system determined by x-ray diffraction and 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, R.; Holland, D.; Dupree, R.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline products of sodium germanate glasses system with composition from 10 mol% to 50 mol% Na 2 O have been investigated using 23 Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fitting of the 23 Na NMR spectra of the crystalline phases concerning different crystallographically sodium atom in sodium germanate system are reasonably reproducible as observed by the spectra obtained. The line shape simulations of the 23 Na NMR spectra yielded NMR quadrupolar parameters such as nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (C Q ), asymmetry parameters (η), and isotropic chemical shifts (δ i ). 23 Na NMR isotropic chemical shift may also provide further information on the structural environment of the sodium atom. A simple correlation between structure and NMR parameters to be tested can be used to probe the structure of sodium germanate glasses. The experimental 23 Na chemical shifts correlate well with an empirical shift parameter based on the total oxygen-cation bond valence and Na-O distances of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of the sodium cation. In this study the different phases in the sodium germanate system were identified. These results show that 23 Na NMR can provide examples of the types of structural information for sodium germanate system. (Author)

  6. Q(n) species distribution in K2O.2SiO2 glass by 29Si magic angle flipping NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael C; Kaseman, Derrick C; Parvani, Sahar M; Sanders, Kevin J; Grandinetti, Philip J; Massiot, Dominique; Florian, Pierre

    2010-05-06

    Two-dimensional magic angle flipping (MAF) was employed to measure the Q((n)) distribution in a (29)Si-enriched potassium disilicate glass (K(2)O.2SiO(2)). Relative concentrations of [Q((4))] = 7.2 +/- 0.3%, [Q((3))] = 82.9 +/- 0.1%, and [Q((2))] = 9.8 +/- 0.6% were obtained. Using the thermodynamic model for Q((n)) species disproportionation, these relative concentrations yield an equilibrium constant k(3) = 0.0103 +/- 0.0008, indicating, as expected, that the Q((n)) species distribution is close to binary in the potassium disilicate glass. A Gaussian distribution of isotropic chemical shifts was observed for each Q((n)) species with mean values of -82.74 +/- 0.03, -91.32 +/- 0.01, and -101.67 +/- 0.02 ppm and standard deviations of 3.27 +/- 0.03, 4.19 +/- 0.01, and 5.09 +/- 0.03 ppm for Q((2)), Q((3)), and Q((4)), respectively. Additionally, nuclear shielding anisotropy values of zeta =-85.0 +/- 1.3 ppm, eta = 0.48 +/- 0.02 for Q((2)) and zeta = -74.9 +/- 0.2 ppm, eta = 0.03 +/- 0.01 for Q((3)) were observed in the potassium disilicate glass.

  7. Atomic-resolution structure of the CAP-Gly domain of dynactin on polymeric microtubules determined by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Si; Guo, Changmiao; Hou, Guangjin; Zhang, Huilan; Lu, Xingyu; Williams, John Charles; Polenova, Tatyana

    2015-11-24

    Microtubules and their associated proteins perform a broad array of essential physiological functions, including mitosis, polarization and differentiation, cell migration, and vesicle and organelle transport. As such, they have been extensively studied at multiple levels of resolution (e.g., from structural biology to cell biology). Despite these efforts, there remain significant gaps in our knowledge concerning how microtubule-binding proteins bind to microtubules, how dynamics connect different conformational states, and how these interactions and dynamics affect cellular processes. Structures of microtubule-associated proteins assembled on polymeric microtubules are not known at atomic resolution. Here, we report a structure of the cytoskeleton-associated protein glycine-rich (CAP-Gly) domain of dynactin motor on polymeric microtubules, solved by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We present the intermolecular interface of CAP-Gly with microtubules, derived by recording direct dipolar contacts between CAP-Gly and tubulin using double rotational echo double resonance (dREDOR)-filtered experiments. Our results indicate that the structure adopted by CAP-Gly varies, particularly around its loop regions, permitting its interaction with multiple binding partners and with the microtubules. To our knowledge, this study reports the first atomic-resolution structure of a microtubule-associated protein on polymeric microtubules. Our approach lays the foundation for atomic-resolution structural analysis of other microtubule-associated motors.

  8. Development of a high-resolution soft x-ray (30--1500 eV) beamline at the Advanced Light Source and its use for the study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.

    1996-02-01

    ALS Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 is for high resolution spectroscopy, with circularly polarized light. Fixed included-angle SGM uses three gratings for 30--1500 eV photons; circular polarization is produced by an aperture for selecting the beam above or below the horizontal plane. Photocurrent from upper and lower jaws of entrance slit sets a piezoelectric drive feedback loop on the vertically deflecting mirror for stable beam. End station has a movable platform. With photomeission data from Stanford, structure of c(2x2)P/Fe(100) was determined using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS). Multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations indicate that P atoms adsorb in fourfold hollow sites 1.02A above the first Fe layer. Self-consistent-field Xα scattered wave calculation confirm that the Fe 1 -Fe 2 space is contracted for S/Fe but not for P/Fe; comparison is made to atomic N and O on Fe(100). Final-state effects on ARPEFS curves used literature data from the S 1s and 2p core levels of c(2x2)S/Ni(001); a generalized Ramsauer-Townsend splitting is present in the 1s but not 2p data. An approximate method for analyzing ARPEFS data from a non-s initial state using only the higher-ell partial wave was tested successfully. ARPEFS data from clean surfaces were collected normal to Ni(111) (3p core levels) and 5 degree off-normal from Cu(111)(3s, 3p). Fourier transforms (FT) resemble adsorbate systems, showing backscattering signals from atoms up to 4 layers below emitters. 3p FTs show scattering from 6 nearest neighbors in the same crystal layer as the emitters. MSSW calulation indicate that Cu 3p photoemission is mostly d-wave. FTs also indicate double-scattering and single-scattering from laterally distant atoms; calculations indicate that the signal is dominated by photoemission from the first 2 crystal layers

  9. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  10. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  11. Cs/CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl) epitaxial heteronanocrystals with magic-angle stable/metastable grain boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumeng; Fan, Baolu; Wu, Wenhui; Fan, Jiyang

    2017-05-01

    Metal-semiconductor heteronanostructures are crucial building blocks of nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the lattice misfit remains a challenge in constructing heteronanostructures. Perovskite nanocrystals are superior candidates for constructing nanodevices owing to excellent optical, ferroelectric, and superconducting properties. We report the epitaxial growth of lattice-matched Cs/CsPbBr3 metal-semiconductor heteronanocrystals in a liquid medium. The well-crystallized ultrathin Cs layers grow epitaxially on the surfaces of colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, forming heteronanocrystals with interface diameters of several nanometers. Most of them are pseudomorphic with coherent interfaces free from dislocations, and the others exhibit discrete high-angle grain boundaries. The model based on the calculation of the elastic potential energy of the epilayer and analysis of the near-coincidence sites explains well the experimental result. The analysis shows that the excellent lattice match between the metal and the semiconductor ensures the ideal epitaxial-growth of both Cs/CsPbBr3 and Cs/CsPbCl3 heteronanocrystals. Such metal/semiconductor heteronanocrystals pave the way for developing perovskite-based nanodevices.

  12. Feminine Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly, Lynne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Having been introduced to magic by my father, I have adapted the classic methods to work in my role as a mature female teacher. Using performance and mysterious narrative, intriguing props and playing on my femininity, the classic magician routines have served me well when performing for teenagers. Reworking the classic routines in this way ensures that a school magic club for teenagers serves the various needs of both male and female students.

  13. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive, quantitative, reproducible, untargeted and unbiased method that requires no or minimal sample preparation, and is one of the leading analytical tools for metabonomics research [1-3]. The easy quantification and the no need of prior knowledge about compounds present in a sample associated with NMR are advantageous over other techniques [1,4]. 1H NMR is especially attractive because protons are present in virtually all metabolites and its NMR sensitivity is high, enabling the simultaneous identification and monitoring of a wide range of low molecular weight metabolites.

  14. Evaluation of toxicological effects induced by tributyltin in clam Ruditapes decussatus using high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of metabolic responses in heart tissue and detection of a novel metabolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hanana

    2014-01-01

    The main finding of this study was the appearance of an original metabolite after TBT treatment likely N-glycine-N′-alanine. It is the first time that this molecule has been identified as a natural compound. Its exact role is unknown and remains to be elucidated. We suppose that its formation could play an important role in clam defense response by attenuating Ca2+ dependent cell death induced by TBT. Therefore this compound could be a promising biomarker for TBT exposure.

  15. Spectral editing at ultra-fast magic-angle-spinning in solid-state NMR: facilitating protein sequential signal assignment by HIGHLIGHT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Songlin; Matsuda, Isamu; Long, Fei; Ishii, Yoshitaka, E-mail: yishii@uic.edu [University of Illinois at Chicago, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This study demonstrates a novel spectral editing technique for protein solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to simplify the spectrum drastically and to reduce the ambiguity for protein main-chain signal assignments in fast magic-angle-spinning (MAS) conditions at a wide frequency range of 40–80 kHz. The approach termed HIGHLIGHT (Wang et al., in Chem Comm 51:15055–15058, 2015) combines the reverse {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N-isotope labeling strategy and selective signal quenching using the frequency-selective REDOR pulse sequence under fast MAS. The scheme allows one to selectively observe the signals of “highlighted” labeled amino-acid residues that precede or follow unlabeled residues through selectively quenching {sup 13}CO or {sup 15}N signals for a pair of consecutively labeled residues by recoupling {sup 13}CO–{sup 15}N dipolar couplings. Our numerical simulation results showed that the scheme yielded only ∼15 % loss of signals for the highlighted residues while quenching as much as ∼90 % of signals for non-highlighted residues. For lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein, the 2D {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C{sub α} correlation and 2D {sup 13}C{sub α}/{sup 13}CO correlation SSNMR spectra by the HIGHLIGHT approach yielded signals only for six residues following and preceding the unlabeled lysine residues, respectively. The experimental dephasing curves agreed reasonably well with the corresponding simulation results for highlighted and quenched residues at spinning speeds of 40 and 60 kHz. The compatibility of the HIGHLIGHT approach with fast MAS allows for sensitivity enhancement by paramagnetic assisted data collection (PACC) and {sup 1}H detection. We also discuss how the HIGHLIGHT approach facilitates signal assignments using {sup 13}C-detected 3D SSNMR by demonstrating full sequential assignments of lysine-reverse-labeled micro-crystalline GB1 protein (∼300 nmol), for which data collection required only 11 h. The HIGHLIGHT approach offers valuable

  16. Mummies & Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jeanne E.

    1989-01-01

    Covers the cultural and aesthetic significance of Egyptian mummies, as explained in an exhibition at Boston's Museum of Fine Arts. The display, "Mummies & Magic: The Funerary Arts of Ancient Egypt," allowed for restoration work which did much to advance modern knowledge of Egyptian culture and funerary art. (LS)

  17. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  18. MAGIC highlights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Coto Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present generation of Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs has greatly improved our knowledge on the Very High Energy (VHE side of our Universe. The MAGIC IACTs operate since 2004 with one telescope and since 2009 as a two telescope stereoscopic system. I will outline a few of our latest and most relevant results: the discovery of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at VHE, recently found to extend up to 400 GeV and along the “bridge” of the light curve, the measurement of the Crab nebula spectrum over three decades of energy, the discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the PWN 3C 58, the very rapid emission of IC 310, in addition to dark matter studies. The results that will be described here and the planned deep observations in the next years will pave the path for the future generation of IACTs.

  19. High resolution crystal calorimetry at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneegans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Lebeau, M.; Vivargent, M.

    1991-01-01

    The search for Higgs bosons above Lep200 reach could be one of the main tasks of the future pp and ee colliders. In the intermediate mass region, and in particular in the range 80-140 GeV/c 2 , only the 2-photon decay mode of a Higgs produced inclusively or in association with a W, gives a good chance of observation. A 'dedicated' very high resolution calorimeter with photon angle reconstruction and pion identification capability should detect a Higgs signal with high probability. A crystal calorimeter can be considered as a conservative approach to such a detector, since a large design and operation experience already exists. The extensive R and D needed for finding a dense, fast and radiation hard crystal, is under way. Guide-lines for designing an optimum calorimeter for LHC are discussed and preliminary configurations are given. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  1. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  2. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  3. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  4. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  5. High-resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR of membranes: why sonicate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.; Bowers, J.L.; Forbes, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have obtained high-field (11.7-T) proton and carbon-13 Fourier transform (FT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of egg lecithin and egg lecithin-chloresterol (1:1) multibilayers, using magic-angle sample spinning (MASS) techniques, and sonicated egg lecithin and egg lecithin-cholesterol (1:1) vesicles, using conventional FT NMR methods. Resolution of the proton and carbon-13 MASS NMR spectra of the pure egg lecithin samples is essentially identical with that of sonicated samples, but spectra of the unsonicated lipid, using MASS, can be obtained very much faster than with the more dilute, sonicated systems. With the 1:1 lecithin-cholesterol system, proton MASS NMR spectra are virtually identical with conventional FT spectra of sonicated samples, while the 13 C NMR, the authors demonstrate that most 13 C nuclei in the cholesterol moiety can be monitored, even though these same nuclei are essentially invisible, i.e., are severely broadened, in the corresponding sonicated systems. In addition, 13 C MASS NMR spectra can again be recorded much faster than with sonicated samples, due to concentration effects. Taken together, these results strongly suggest there will seldom be need in the future to resort to ultransonic disruption of lipid bilayer membranes in order to obtain high-resolution proton or carbon-13 NMR spectra

  6. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar nuclei in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    1998-01-01

    After a brief review of existing methods in high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, the manipulation of multi-quantum coherencies by radiofrequency pulses is studied. Results are then applied to the determination of optimal conditions for performing the recently introduced multiple-quantum magic-angle experiment (MQMAS). The principles of this new method, the different pulse sequences and the data processing are described in detail. Applications on aluminum hydrates and cement pastes show the improvements of this new technique over the previous ones. In a second part, after an investigation of the Floquet theory, a new formalism has been devised for studying the behavior of a spin submitted to a strong quadrupolar interaction and radiofrequency field in a rotating sample. This formalism is then applied to a quantitative study of the phenomenon of rotational induced adiabatic transfer of coherencies (RIACT). The extension of our theoretical approach to two-dimensional experiments provides a powerful tool for quantitative analyses of MQMAS spectra. Agreement between experimental data and simulations demonstrates the reliability of our approach. Preliminary results concerning the application of MQMAS spectroscopy, using our simulation programs, to structural study of amorphous materials are presented. The third and last part presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of dipolar order in a rotating sample. Two theoretical models are described, the first for the slow spinning speed regime where an adiabatic approximation can be made, and the second for the fast spinning speed regime. (author)

  7. The Versatile Magic Square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gale A.

    2003-01-01

    Demonstrates the transformations that are possible to construct a variety of magic squares, including modifications to challenge students from elementary grades through algebra. Presents an example of using magic squares with students who have special needs. (YDS)

  8. Perception, Illusion, and Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a psychology course in which magical illusions were used for teaching the principles of sensation and perception. Students read psychological, philosophical, historical, and magical literature on illusion, performed a magical illusion, and analyzed the illusion in terms of the psychological principles involved. (Author/KC)

  9. Magic among the Trobrianders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    to a classic area of research on magic, namely the Trobriand garden magic, as described by anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski. In the conclusion, results from this analysis will be related to long-standing problems and theoretical positions in the study of magic outlined in the introduction to the paper....

  10. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  11. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenhao Wan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  12. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  13. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  14. Study of solid chemical evolution in torrefaction of different biomasses through solid-state "1"3C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Alonso, Elvira; Dupont, Capucine; Heux, Laurent; Da Silva Perez, Denilson; Commandre, Jean-Michel; Gourdon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare mass loss and chemical evolution of the solid phase, versus time, during dynamic torrefaction of different types of biomass. For this purpose, two experiments, ThermoGravimetric Analysis and solid-state "1"3C Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, were run on four representative biomasses. Overall mass loss and chemical evolution of the solid phase were followed, respectively, as a function of temperature and time. Thanks to this coupled information, it was shown that the knowledge of both solid mass loss and chemical evolution is necessary to characterize torrefaction severity. Moreover, biomasses containing higher proportions of xylan lost mass faster than those containing lower proportions. Lignin showed a protecting role towards cellulose, which would lead to a faster degradation of non-woody biomasses in comparison with woody biomasses. Three parameters would have an influence on solid chemical evolution during torrefaction: xylan content in hemicellulose, lignin content in biomass, and cellulose crystallinity. - Highlights: • Torrefaction of four biomasses was studied with TGA and solid-state NMR. • Both solid mass loss and chemical evolution characterize torrefaction severity. • Biomasses containing a higher proportion of xylan lose mass faster. • Lignin shows a stronger protecting role in degradation of woody biomasses. • Xylan, lignin and crystalline cellulose values influence solid chemical evolution.

  15. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  16. A Magic Book Out of Magic Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋媛

    2007-01-01

    Harry Potter books are great successes, enjoyed by readers' all over the world. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is the debut of the sequel books,which is about magic and the magical life a little boy- Harry Potter, a born wizard.People are always curious and eager to discover the secrets of magic, to meet the end of the heroes' fates, but not many of them pay attention to the book's language. Actually, I think it is the skillful use and application of language that make the book outstanding. Therefore, this paper mainly discusses the language features of Harry Potter and Philosopher's Stone from these four aspects: speech sounds, choice of vocabulary, sentence structures and figures of speech, aiming at exploring and revealing the charms of the magic book.

  17. Concept for a new high resolution high intensity diffractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhr, U [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A concept of a new time-of-flight powder-diffractometer for a thermal neutral beam tube at SINQ is presented. The design of the instrument optimises the contradictory conditions of high intensity and high resolution. The high intensity is achieved by using many neutron pulses simultaneously. By analysing the time-angle-pattern of the detected neutrons an assignment of the neutrons to a single pulse is possible. (author) 3 figs., tab., refs.

  18. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  19. Nano-Mole Scale Side-Chain Signal Assignment by 1H-Detected Protein Solid-State NMR by Ultra-Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Stereo-Array Isotope Labeling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Songlin

    2015-04-09

    We present a general approach in 1H-detected 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR) for side-chain signal assignments of 10-50 nmol quantities of proteins using a combination of a high magnetic field, ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ~80 kHz, and stereo-array-isotope-labeled (SAIL) proteins [Kainosho M. et al., Nature 440, 52–57, 2006]. First, we demonstrate that 1H indirect detection improves the sensitivity and resolution of 13C SSNMR of SAIL proteins for side-chain assignments in the ultra-fast MAS condition. 1H-detected SSNMR was performed for micro-crystalline ubiquitin (~55 nmol or ~0.5mg) that was SAIL-labeled at seven isoleucine (Ile) residues. Sensitivity was dramatically improved by 1H-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR by factors of 5.4-9.7 and 2.1-5.0, respectively, over 13C-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR and 1D 13C CPMAS, demonstrating that 2D 1H-detected SSNMR offers not only additional resolution but also sensitivity advantage over 1D 13C detection for the first time. High 1H resolution for the SAIL-labeled side-chain residues offered reasonable resolution even in the 2D data. A 1H-detected 3D 13C/13C/1H experiment on SAIL-ubiquitin provided nearly complete 1H and 13C assignments for seven Ile residues only within ~2.5 h. The results demonstrate the feasibility of side-chain signal assignment in this approach for as little as 10 nmol of a protein sample within ~3 days. The approach is likely applicable to a variety of proteins of biological interest without any requirements of highly efficient protein expression systems.

  20. Nano-Mole Scale Side-Chain Signal Assignment by 1H-Detected Protein Solid-State NMR by Ultra-Fast Magic-Angle Spinning and Stereo-Array Isotope Labeling

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Songlin; Parthasarathy, Sudhakar; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Endo, Yuki; Nemoto, Takahiro; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Asakura, Tetsuo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune; Ishii, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    We present a general approach in 1H-detected 13C solid-state NMR (SSNMR) for side-chain signal assignments of 10-50 nmol quantities of proteins using a combination of a high magnetic field, ultra-fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) at ~80 kHz, and stereo-array-isotope-labeled (SAIL) proteins [Kainosho M. et al., Nature 440, 52–57, 2006]. First, we demonstrate that 1H indirect detection improves the sensitivity and resolution of 13C SSNMR of SAIL proteins for side-chain assignments in the ultra-fast MAS condition. 1H-detected SSNMR was performed for micro-crystalline ubiquitin (~55 nmol or ~0.5mg) that was SAIL-labeled at seven isoleucine (Ile) residues. Sensitivity was dramatically improved by 1H-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR by factors of 5.4-9.7 and 2.1-5.0, respectively, over 13C-detected 2D 1H/13C SSNMR and 1D 13C CPMAS, demonstrating that 2D 1H-detected SSNMR offers not only additional resolution but also sensitivity advantage over 1D 13C detection for the first time. High 1H resolution for the SAIL-labeled side-chain residues offered reasonable resolution even in the 2D data. A 1H-detected 3D 13C/13C/1H experiment on SAIL-ubiquitin provided nearly complete 1H and 13C assignments for seven Ile residues only within ~2.5 h. The results demonstrate the feasibility of side-chain signal assignment in this approach for as little as 10 nmol of a protein sample within ~3 days. The approach is likely applicable to a variety of proteins of biological interest without any requirements of highly efficient protein expression systems.

  1. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  2. When "Holiday Magic" Hurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Claims that religious messages in public school are not acceptable and are hurtful to kids who do not subscribe to the beliefs expressed in those messages. Describes the author's personal experience in helping a teacher transform the script for "Christmas Magic" into the more inclusive "Holiday Magic." (RS)

  3. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  4. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  5. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  6. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  7. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  8. MAGIC user's group software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G.; Ludeking, L.; McDonald, J.; Nguyen, K.; Goplen, B.

    1990-01-01

    The MAGIC User's Group has been established to facilitate the use of electromagnetic particle-in-cell software by universities, government agencies, and industrial firms. The software consists of a series of independent executables that are capable of inter-communication. MAGIC, SOS, μ SOS are used to perform electromagnetic simulations while POSTER is used to provide post-processing capabilities. Each is described in the paper. Use of the codes for Klystrode simulation is discussed

  9. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  10. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  11. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  12. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  13. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  14. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  15. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  16. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  17. Overview of MAGIC results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Javier; MAGIC Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17-m diameter Cherenkov telescopes, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, in the Canary island La Palma (Spain). MAGIC performs astronomical observations of gamma-ray sources in the energy range between 50 GeV and 10 TeV. The first MAGIC telescope has been operating since 2004, and in 2009 the system was completed with the second one. During 2011 and 2012 the electronics for the readout system were fully upgraded, and the camera of the first telescope replaced. After that, no major hardware interventions are foreseen in the next years, and the experiment has undertaken a final period of steady astronomical observations. MAGIC studies particle acceleration in the most violent cosmic environments, such as active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, supernova remnants or binary systems. In addition, it addresses some fundamental questions of Physics, such as the origin of Galactic cosmic rays and the nature of dark matter. Moreover, by observing the gamma-ray emission from sources at cosmological distances, we measure the intensity and evolution of the extragalactic background radiation, and perform tests of Lorentz Invariance. In this paper I present the status and some of the latest results of the MAGIC gamma-ray telescopes.

  18. A Note on Magic Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Horace E.

    1974-01-01

    A method for generating 3x3 magic squares is developed. A series of questions relating to these magic squares is posed. An invesitgation using matrix methods is suggested with some questions for consideration. (LS)

  19. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  20. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  1. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  2. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  3. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  4. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  5. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  6. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  7. The magic of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric Temple

    1991-01-01

    From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics

  8. Theory of magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosov, V.G.; Kamchatnov, A.M.

    A consistent theory of the shell and magic oscillations of the masses of spherical nuclei is developed on the basis of the Fermi liquid concept of the energy spectrum of nuclear matter. A ''magic'' relationship between the system's dimensions and the limiting momentum of the quasi-particle distribution is derived; an integer number of the de Broglie half-waves falls on the nuclear diameter. An expression for the discontinuity in the nucleon binding energy in the vicinity of a magic nucleus is obtained. The role of the residual interaction is analyzed. It is shown that the width of the Fermi-surface diffuseness due to the residual interaction is proportional to the squared vector of the quasi-particle orbital angular momentum. The values of the corresponding proportionality factors (the coupling constant for quasi particles) are determined from the experimental data for 52 magic nuclei. The rapid drop of the residual interaction with increasing nuclear size is demonstrated. (7 figures, 3 tables) (U.S.)

  9. Magic, Morals and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Warren R.

    2010-01-01

    Magic has to do with the supernatural and the unnatural. It is indifferent to natural law and science and is aloof from scientific inquiry. Its existence depends upon unquestioning faith. Granted such faith, it is extraordinarily potent. If it does not move mountains, it convinces the faithful that it can. It can damage health and perhaps, restore…

  10. The magic metal uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    ''Magic Metal'' was the first in a range of programmes for the younger secondary student. It is a very simple explanation of how a nuclear reactor works, of the basics of fission and compares nuclear with other fuels. The concepts employed were developed using classroom trials. (author)

  11. Magical Ideation and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Leonard; Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Administered the Eckblad and Chapman (1983) Magical Ideation Scale to groups of paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics and control subjects. Schizophrenics scored significantly higher than nonschizophrenic patients (mainly cases of affective disorder) and normal control subjects. Discusses theoretical and prognostic utility of this finding.…

  12. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  13. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  14. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  15. High-resolution computer-aided moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.

    1991-12-01

    This paper presents a high resolution computer assisted moire technique for the measurement of displacements and strains at the microscopic level. The detection of micro-displacements using a moire grid and the problem associated with the recovery of displacement field from the sampled values of the grid intensity are discussed. A two dimensional Fourier transform method for the extraction of displacements from the image of the moire grid is outlined. An example of application of the technique to the measurement of strains and stresses in the vicinity of the crack tip in a compact tension specimen is given.

  16. SPIRAL2/DESIR high resolution mass separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtukian-Nieto, T., E-mail: kurtukia@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver B.C., V6T 2A3 (Canada); Blank, B.; Chiron, T. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Davids, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Delalee, F. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Duval, M. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); El Abbeir, S.; Fournier, A. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Université de Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Méot, F. [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Serani, L. [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Université Bordeaux 1-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Stodel, M.-H.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    DESIR is the low-energy part of the SPIRAL2 ISOL facility under construction at GANIL. DESIR includes a high-resolution mass separator (HRS) with a designed resolving power m/Δm of 31,000 for a 1 π-mm-mrad beam emittance, obtained using a high-intensity beam cooling device. The proposed design consists of two 90-degree magnetic dipoles, complemented by electrostatic quadrupoles, sextupoles, and a multipole, arranged in a symmetric configuration to minimize aberrations. A detailed description of the design and results of extensive simulations are given.

  17. Laboratory of High resolution gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Giber F, J.; Rivas C, I.; Reyes A, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Nuclear Experimentation of the Nuclear Systems Management requests the collaboration of the Engineering unit for the supervision of the execution of the work of the High resolution Gamma spectrometry and low bottom laboratory, using the hut of the sub critic reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. This laboratory has the purpose of determining the activity of special materials irradiated in nuclear power plants. In this report the architecture development, concepts, materials and diagrams for the realization of this type of work are presented. (Author)

  18. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  19. An original acquisition chain for the TOHR High Resolution Tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinot, Laurent

    1999-01-01

    The framework of this work is part of a new approach of emission tomography adapted to small animals. The principle of our tomographic system TOHR (French acronym for High Resolution Tomograph) is based on the use of large solid angle and high resolution focusing collimators each mounted in front of a detection module of high efficiency. With a first-generation acquisition chain we were able to characterize TOHR, however, to take fully advantage of the TOHR possibilities, a completely new acquisition scheme had to be designed. This system, being the main topic of this work, makes use of temporal information. The detection of a particle that entered the detector is translated into temporal logical signals. These signals pass into a time coding circuitry and the coded results are transferred in a digital processor. According to the initial terms of delivery, the developed acquisition chain steers the detection of events dependent on the deposited energy and time of arrival. The latter is done by coincidence measurements. All elements are mounted on a special board included into a PC unit and a dedicated program controls the whole system. First experiments showed up the interest of the new acquisition unit for other application in physics or medical imaging

  20. High-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennycook, S.J.; Jesson, D.E.

    1992-03-01

    The high-resolution imaging of crystalline materials in the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is reviewed with particular emphasis on the conditions under which an incoherent image can be obtained. It is shown that a high-angle annular detector can be used to break the coherence of the imaging process, in the transverse plane through the geometry of the detector, or in three dimensions if multiphonon diffuse scattering is detected. In the latter case, each atom can be treated as a highly independent source of high-angle scattering. The most effective fast electron states are therefore tightly bound s-type Bloch states. Furthermore, they add constructively for each incident angle in the coherent STEM probe, so that s states are responsible for practically the entire image contrast. Dynamical effects are largely removed, and almost perfect incoherent imaging is achieved. s states are relatively insensitive to neighboring strings, so that incoherent imaging is maintained for superlattice and interfaces, and supercell calculations are unnecessary. With an optimum probe profile, the incoherent image represents a direct image of the crystal projection, with compositional sensitivity built in through the strong dependence of the scattering cross sections on atomic number Z

  1. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  2. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  3. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  4. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  5. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  6. Neurochemical Changes after Acute Binge Toluene Inhalation in Adolescent and Adult Rats: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; McMechan, Andrew P.; Irtenkauf, Susan; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant abuse in young people is a growing public health concern. We reported previously that acute toluene intoxication in young rats, using a pattern of exposures that approximate abuse patterns of inhalant use in humans, significantly altered neurochemical measures in select brain regions. In this study, adolescent and young adult rats were exposed similarly to an acute (2 × 15 min), high dose (8000 − 12000 ppm) of toluene and high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS 1H-MRS) was used to assess neurochemical profiles of tissue samples from a number of brain regions collected immediately following solvent exposure. The current investigation focused on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds, creatine, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine. Contrary to our predictions, no significant alterations were found in levels of NAA, choline, creatine, glutamate, or glutamine in adolescent animals. In contrast to these minimal effects in adolescents, binge toluene exposure altered several neurochemical parameters in young adult rats, including decreased levels of choline and GABA in the frontal cortex and striatum and lowered glutamine and NAA levels in the frontal cortex. One of the more robust findings was a wide-ranging increase in lactate after toluene exposure in adult animals, an effect not observed in adolescents. These age-dependent effects of toluene are distinct from those reported previously in juvenile rats and suggest a developmental difference in vulnerability to the effects of inhalants. Specifically, the results suggest that the neurochemical response to toluene in adolescents is attenuated compared to adults, and imply an association between these neurochemical differences and age-influenced differences in solvent abuse in humans. PMID:19628036

  7. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 (micro)m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  8. High resolution CT of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Harumi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1991-02-01

    The emergence of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s has greatly contributed to diagnostic radiology. The brain was the first organ examined with CT, followed by the abdomen. For the chest, CT has also come into use shortly after the introduction in the examination of the thoracic cavity and mediastinum. CT techniques were, however, of limited significance in the evaluation of pulmonary diseases, especially diffuse pulmonary diseases. High-resolution CT (HRCT) has been introduced in clinical investigations of the lung field. This article is designed to present chest radiographic and conventional tomographic interpretations and to introduce findings of HRCT corresponding to the same shadows, with a summation of the significance of HRCT and issues of diagnostic imaging. Materials outlined are tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, bronchopneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, lymphangitic carcinomatosis, sarcoidosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, and pulmonary emphysema. Finally, an overview of basic investigations evolved from HRCT is given. (N.K.) 140 refs.

  9. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  10. A high resolution jet analysis for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, S.

    1992-11-01

    A high resolution multijet analysis of hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilation at a C.M.S. energy of 91.2 GeV is described. Hadronic events produced in e + e - annihilations are generated using the Monte Carlo program JETSET7.3 with its two options: Matrix Element (M.E.) and Parton Showers (P.S.). The shower option is used with its default parameter values while the M.E. option is used with an invariant mass cut Y CUT =0.01 instead of 0.02. This choice ensures a better continuity in the evolution of the event shape variables. (K.A.) 3 refs.; 26 figs.; 1 tab

  11. High Resolution Displays Using NCAP Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, A. Brian; Jones, Phil; White, Larry

    1989-07-01

    Nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) liquid crystals have been found useful for high information content video displays. NCAP materials are liquid crystals which have been encapsulated in a polymer matrix and which have a light transmission which is variable with applied electric fields. Because NCAP materials do not require polarizers, their on-state transmission is substantially better than twisted nematic cells. All dimensional tolerances are locked in during the encapsulation process and hence there are no critical sealing or spacing issues. By controlling the polymer/liquid crystal morphology, switching speeds of NCAP materials have been significantly improved over twisted nematic systems. Recent work has combined active matrix addressing with NCAP materials. Active matrices, such as thin film transistors, have given displays of high resolution. The paper will discuss the advantages of NCAP materials specifically designed for operation at video rates on transistor arrays; applications for both backlit and projection displays will be discussed.

  12. High resolution VUV facility at INDUS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Saraswathy, P.; Rao, P.M.R.; Mishra, A.P.; Kartha, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) generated in the electron storage rings is an unique source for the study of atomic and molecular spectroscopy especially in the vacuum ultra violet region. Realizing the potential of this light source, efforts are in progress to develop a beamline facility at INDUS-1 to carry out high resolution atomic and molecular spectroscopy. This beam line consists of a fore-optic which is a combination of three cylindrical mirrors. The mirrors are so chosen that SR beam having a 60 mrad (horizontal) x 6 mrad (vertical) divergence is focussed onto a slit of a 6.65 metre off-plane spectrometer in Eagle Mount equipped with horizontal slit and vertical dispersion. The design of the various components of the beam line is completed. It is decided to build the spectrometer as per the requirements of the user community. Details of the various aspects of the beam line will be presented. (author). 3 figs

  13. High-resolution CT of airway reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, C.J.; Brown, R.H.; Hirshman, C.A.; Mitzner, W.; Zerhouni, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of airway reactivity has generally been limited to experimental nonimaging models. This authors of this paper used high-resolution CT (HRCT) to evaluate airway reactivity and to calculate airway resistance (Raw) compared with lung resistance (RL). Ten anesthetized and ventilated dogs were investigated with HRCT (10 contiguous 2-mm sections through the lower lung lobes) during control state, following aerosol histamine challenge, and following posthistamine hyperinflation. The HRCT scans were digitized, and areas of 10 airways per dog (diameter, 1-10 mm) were measured with a computer edging process. Changes in airway area and Raw (calculated by 1/[area] 2 ) were measured. RL was assessed separately, following the same protocol. Data were analyzed by use of a paired t-test with significance at p < .05

  14. High resolution tomography using analog coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Chesler, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    As part of a 30-year program in the development of positron instrumentation, the authors have developed a high resolution bismuth germanate (BGO) ring tomography (PCR) employing 360 detectors and 90 photomultiplier tubes for one plane. The detectors are shaped as trapezoid and are 4 mm wide at the front end. When assembled, they form an essentially continuous cylindrical detector. Light from a scintillation in the detector is viewed through a cylindrical light pipe by the photomultiplier tubes. By use of an analog coding scheme, the detector emitting light is identified from the phototube signals. In effect, each phototube can identify four crystals. PCR is designed as a static device and does not use interpolative motion. This results in considerable advantage when performing dynamic studies. PCR is the positron tomography analog of the γ-camera widely used in nuclear medicine

  15. High-resolution CT of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewen, Yang; Kodama, Takao; Tono, Tetsuya; Ochiai, Reiji; Kiyomizu, Kensuke; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yano, Takanori; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1997-01-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of thirty-two patients (60 ears) with the clinical diagnosis of fenestral otosclerosis were evaluated retrospectively. HRCT was performed with 1-mm-thick targeted sections and 1-mm (36 ears) or 0.5-mm (10 ears) intervals in the semiaxial projection. Seven patients (14 ears) underwent helical scanning with a 1-mm slice thickness and 1-mm/sec table speed. Forty-five ears (75%) were found to have one or more otospongiotic or otosclerotic foci on HRCT. In most instances (30 ears), the otospongiotic foci were found in the region of the fissula ante fenestram. No significant correlations between CT findings and air conduction threshold were observed. We found a significant relationship between lesions of the labyrinthine capsule and sensorineural hearing loss. We conclude that HRCT is a valuable modality for diagnosing otosclerosis, especially when otospongiotic focus is detected. (author)

  16. High resolution CT in pulmonary sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spina, Juan C.; Curros, Marisela L.; Gomez, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Chacon, Carolina; Guerendiain, G.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the particular advantages of High Resolution CT (HRCT) for the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Material and Methods: A series of fourteen patients, (4 men and 10 women; mean age 44,5 years) with thoracic sarcoidosis. All patients were studied using HRCT and diagnosis was confirmed for each case. Confidence intervals were obtained for different disease manifestations. Results: The most common findings were: lymph node enlargement (n=14 patients), pulmonary nodules (n=13), thickening of septa (n=6), peribronquial vascular thickening (n=5) pulmonary pseudo mass (n=5) and signs of fibrosis (n=4). The stage most commonly observed was stage II. It is worth noting that no cases of pleural effusion or cavitations of pulmonary lesions were observed. Conclusions: In this series, confidence interval overlapping for lymph node enlargement, single pulmonary nodules and septum thickening, allows to infer that their presence in a young adult, with few clinical symptoms, forces to rule out first the possibility of sarcoidosis. (author)

  17. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensammar, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report here very early results of high resolution (5x10 3 - 4x10 4 ) infrared spectroscopy (1 - 2.5 μm) of different symbiotic stars (T CrB, RW Hya, CI Cyg, PU Vul) observed with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the 3.60m Canada France Hawaii Telescope. These stars are usually considered as interacting binaries and only little details are known about the nature of their cool component. CO absorption lines are detected for the four stars. Very different profiles of hydrogen Brackett γ and helium 10830 A lines are shown for CI Cyg observed at different phases, while Pu Vul shows very intense emission lines

  19. GRANULOMETRIC MAPS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mering

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of land cover mapping from satellite images using granulometric analysis is presented here. Discontinuous landscapes such as steppian bushes of semi arid regions and recently growing urban settlements are especially concerned by this study. Spatial organisations of the land cover are quantified by means of the size distribution analysis of the land cover units extracted from high resolution remotely sensed images. A granulometric map is built by automatic classification of every pixel of the image according to the granulometric density inside a sliding neighbourhood. Granulometric mapping brings some advantages over traditional thematic mapping by remote sensing by focusing on fine spatial events and small changes in one peculiar category of the landscape.

  20. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy of fish muscle, eggs and small whole fish via Hadamard-encoded intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy has become an important technique for tissue studies. Since tissues are in semisolid-state, their high-resolution (HR spectra cannot be obtained by conventional NMR spectroscopy. Because of this restriction, extraction and high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR MAS are widely applied for HR NMR spectra of tissues. However, both of the methods are subject to limitations. In this study, the feasibility of HR (1H NMR spectroscopy based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC technique is explored using fish muscle, fish eggs, and a whole fish as examples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intact salmon muscle tissues, intact eggs from shishamo smelt and a whole fish (Siamese algae eater are studied by using conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, Hadamard-encoded iMQC sequence, and HR MAS. RESULTS: When we use the conventional 1D one-pulse sequence, hardly any useful spectral information can be obtained due to the severe field inhomogeneity. By contrast, HR NMR spectra can be obtained in a short period of time by using the Hadamard-encoded iMQC method without shimming. Most signals from fatty acids and small metabolites can be observed. Compared to HR MAS, the iMQC method is non-invasive, but the resolution and the sensitivity of resulting spectra are not as high as those of HR MAS spectra. CONCLUSION: Due to the immunity to field inhomogeneity, the iMQC technique can be a proper supplement to HR MAS, and it provides an alternative for the investigation in cases with field distortions and with samples unsuitable for spinning. The acquisition time of the proposed method is greatly reduced by introduction of the Hadamard-encoded technique, in comparison with that of conventional iMQC method.

  1. A game magically circling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2011-01-01

    This chapter analyses the relationship between players, the game world, and the ordinary world in alternative reality games (ARGs) and location-based games (LBGs). These games use technology to create a game world in the everyday scene. The topic of this chapter is the concept of the 'magic circle......', which defines the relationship between play and the ordinary world, and how this concept relates to a new kind of game....

  2. A silicon microstrip detector in a magnetic spectrometer for high-resolution electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenhardt, A.W.; Bonnes, U.; Burda, O.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Platz, M.; Richter, A.; Watzlawik, S.

    2006-01-01

    A silicon microstrip detector was developed as focal plane detector of the 169.7 deg. magic angle double-focussing spectrometer at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC). It allows experiments with minimum ionizing electrons at data rates up to 100 kHz, utilizing the maximum resolution of the spectrometer achievable in dispersion-matching mode

  3. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar nuclei in solids; Resonance magnetique nucleaire haute-resolution des noyaux quadrupolaires dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpentier, Th

    1998-10-23

    After a brief review of existing methods in high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, the manipulation of multi-quantum coherencies by radiofrequency pulses is studied. Results are then applied to the determination of optimal conditions for performing the recently introduced multiple-quantum magic-angle experiment (MQMAS). The principles of this new method, the different pulse sequences and the data processing are described in detail. Applications on aluminum hydrates and cement pastes show the improvements of this new technique over the previous ones. In a second part, after an investigation of the Floquet theory, a new formalism has been devised for studying the behavior of a spin submitted to a strong quadrupolar interaction and radiofrequency field in a rotating sample. This formalism is then applied to a quantitative study of the phenomenon of rotational induced adiabatic transfer of coherencies (RIACT). The extension of our theoretical approach to two-dimensional experiments provides a powerful tool for quantitative analyses of MQMAS spectra. Agreement between experimental data and simulations demonstrates the reliability of our approach. Preliminary results concerning the application of MQMAS spectroscopy, using our simulation programs, to structural study of amorphous materials are presented. The third and last part presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of dipolar order in a rotating sample. Two theoretical models are described, the first for the slow spinning speed regime where an adiabatic approximation can be made, and the second for the fast spinning speed regime. (author)

  4. Uniform isotope labeling of a eukaryotic seven-transmembrane helical protein in yeast enables high-resolution solid-state NMR studies in the lipid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Ying; Shi Lichi; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Brown, Leonid S.

    2011-01-01

    Overexpression of isotope-labeled multi-spanning eukaryotic membrane proteins for structural NMR studies is often challenging. On the one hand, difficulties with achieving proper folding, membrane insertion, and native-like post-translational modifications frequently disqualify bacterial expression systems. On the other hand, eukaryotic cell cultures can be prohibitively expensive. One of the viable alternatives, successfully used for producing proteins for solution NMR studies, is yeast expression systems, particularly Pichia pastoris. We report on successful implementation and optimization of isotope labeling protocols, previously used for soluble secreted proteins, to produce homogeneous samples of a eukaryotic seven-transmembrane helical protein, rhodopsin from Leptosphaeria maculans. Even in shake-flask cultures, yields exceeded 5 mg of purified uniformly 13 C, 15 N-labeled protein per liter of culture. The protein was stable (at least several weeks at 5°C) and functionally active upon reconstitution into lipid membranes at high protein-to-lipid ratio required for solid-state NMR. The samples gave high-resolution 13 C and 15 N solid-state magic angle spinning NMR spectra, amenable to a detailed structural analysis. We believe that similar protocols can be adopted for challenging mammalian targets, which often resist characterization by other structural methods.

  5. Qutrit magic state distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E; Campbell, Earl T

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation. (paper)

  6. Science meets magic: photonic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ekmel

    2012-05-01

    The word "magic" is usually associated with movies, fiction, children stories, etc. but seldom with the natural sciences. Recent advances in metamaterials have changed this notion, in which we can now speak of "almost magical" properties that scientists could only dream about only a decade ago. In this article, we review some of the recent "almost magical" progress in the field of meta-materials.

  7. MAGIC: conoscere i mari italiani e individuarne i geo-rischi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bosman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MAGIC project: Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts MAGIC Project is funded by the Italian Civil Protection  Department (DPC to produce a bathymetric database as reference for compiling maps (1:50.000 of marine geo-hazard. During its 5-year life span (2007-2012, MAGIC will allow the acquisition of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry along the Italian continental margins and will involve the entire Italian scientific community currently active in the field of Marine Geology. More than 73.000 nautical miles of multibeam data will be analyzed, allowing comparison of geological features produced by sedimentary and tectonic processes (i.e. volcanic events, submarine landslide, active faulting. The main objective of MAGIC is to furnish the DPC  accurate depiction of superficial geology and relatedgeo-hazard on the most sensitive and hazard-prone areas.

  8. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  9. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  10. Laser radar cross-section estimation from high-resolution image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osche, G R; Seeber, K N; Lok, Y F; Young, D S

    1992-05-10

    A methodology for the estimation of ladar cross sections from high-resolution image data of geometrically complex targets is presented. Coherent CO(2) laser radar was used to generate high-resolution amplitude imagery of a UC-8 Buffalo test aircraft at a range of 1.3 km at nine different aspect angles. The average target ladar cross section was synthesized from these data and calculated to be sigma(T) = 15.4 dBsm, which is similar to the expected microwave radar cross sections. The aspect angle dependence of the cross section shows pronounced peaks at nose on and broadside, which are also in agreement with radar results. Strong variations in both the mean amplitude and the statistical distributions of amplitude with the aspect angle have also been observed. The relative mix of diffuse and specular returns causes significant deviations from a simple Lambertian or Swerling II target, especially at broadside where large normal surfaces are present.

  11. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  12. High resolution computed tomography of positron emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Jackson, H.G.

    1976-10-01

    High resolution computed transaxial radionuclide tomography has been performed on phantoms containing positron-emitting isotopes. The imaging system consisted of two opposing groups of eight NaI(Tl) crystals 8 mm x 30 mm x 50 mm deep and the phantoms were rotated to measure coincident events along 8960 projection integrals as they would be measured by a 280-crystal ring system now under construction. The spatial resolution in the reconstructed images is 7.5 mm FWHM at the center of the ring and approximately 11 mm FWHM at a radius of 10 cm. We present measurements of imaging and background rates under various operating conditions. Based on these measurements, the full 280-crystal system will image 10,000 events per sec with 400 μCi in a section 1 cm thick and 20 cm in diameter. We show that 1.5 million events are sufficient to reliably image 3.5-mm hot spots with 14-mm center-to-center spacing and isolated 9-mm diameter cold spots in phantoms 15 to 20 cm in diameter

  13. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  14. High resolution CT of temporal bone trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Eun Kyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic studies of the temporal bone following head trauma are indicated when there is cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea or rhinorrhoea, hearing loss, or facial nerve paralysis. Plain radiography displays only 17-30% of temporal bone fractures and pluridirectional tomography is both difficult to perform, particularly in the acutely ill patient, and less satisfactory for the demonstration of fine fractures. Consequently, high resolution CT is the imaging method of choice for the investigation of suspected temporal bone trauma and allows special resolution of fine bony detail comparable to that attainable by conventional tomography. Eight cases of temporal bone trauma examined at Korea General Hospital April 1985 through May 1986. The results were as follows: Seven patients (87%) suffered longitudinal fractures. In 6 patients who had purely conductive hearing loss, CT revealed various ossicular chain abnormality. In one patient who had neuro sensory hearing loss, CT demonstrated intract ossicular with a fracture nearing lateral wall of the lateral semicircular canal. In one patient who had mixed hearing loss, CT showed complex fracture.

  15. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  16. High-resolution CCD imaging alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. L.; Acker, D. E.

    1992-08-01

    High resolution CCD color cameras have recently stimulated the interest of a large number of potential end-users for a wide range of practical applications. Real-time High Definition Television (HDTV) systems are now being used or considered for use in applications ranging from entertainment program origination through digital image storage to medical and scientific research. HDTV generation of electronic images offers significant cost and time-saving advantages over the use of film in such applications. Further in still image systems electronic image capture is faster and more efficient than conventional image scanners. The CCD still camera can capture 3-dimensional objects into the computing environment directly without having to shoot a picture on film develop it and then scan the image into a computer. 2. EXTENDING CCD TECHNOLOGY BEYOND BROADCAST Most standard production CCD sensor chips are made for broadcast-compatible systems. One popular CCD and the basis for this discussion offers arrays of roughly 750 x 580 picture elements (pixels) or a total array of approximately 435 pixels (see Fig. 1). FOR. A has developed a technique to increase the number of available pixels for a given image compared to that produced by the standard CCD itself. Using an inter-lined CCD with an overall spatial structure several times larger than the photo-sensitive sensor areas each of the CCD sensors is shifted in two dimensions in order to fill in spatial gaps between adjacent sensors.

  17. High resolution simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Komura, K.

    2006-01-01

    High resolution (2-3 hrs) simultaneous measurements of airborne radionuclides, 212 Pb, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have been performed by using extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory. We have measured above radionuclides at three monitoring points viz, 1) Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL) Kanazawa University, 2) Shishiku Plateau (640 m MSL) located about 8 km from LLRL to investigate vertical difference of activity levels, and 3) Hegura Island (10 m MSL) located about 50 km from Noto Peninsula in the Sea of Japan to evaluate the influences of Asian continent or mainland of Japan on the variation to the activity levels. Variations of short-lived 212 Pb concentration showed noticeable time lags between at LLRL and at Shishiku Plateau. These time lags might be caused by change of height of a planetary boundary layer. On the contrary, variations of long-lived 210 Pb and 7 Be showed simultaneity at three locations because of homogeneity of these concentrations all over the area. (author)

  18. High resolution remote sensing of water surface patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodget, A.; Visser, F.; Maddock, I.; Carbonneau, P.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of in-stream habitat availability within fluvial environments in the UK traditionally includes the mapping of patterns which appear on the surface of the water, known as 'surface flow types' (SFTs). The UK's River Habitat Survey identifies ten key SFTs, including categories such as rippled flow, upwelling, broken standing waves and smooth flow. SFTs result from the interaction between the underlying channel morphology, water depth and velocity and reflect the local flow hydraulics. It has been shown that SFTs can be both biologically and hydraulically distinct. SFT mapping is usually conducted from the river banks where estimates of spatial coverage are made by eye. This approach is affected by user subjectivity and inaccuracies in the spatial extent of mapped units. Remote sensing and specifically the recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) may now offer an alternative approach for SFT mapping, with the capability for rapid and repeatable collection of very high resolution imagery from low altitudes, under bespoke flight conditions. This PhD research is aimed at investigating the mapping of SFTs using high resolution optical imagery (less than 10cm) collected from a helicopter-based UAS flown at low altitudes (less than 100m). This paper presents the initial findings from a series of structured experiments on the River Arrow, a small lowland river in Warwickshire, UK. These experiments investigate the potential for mapping SFTs from still and video imagery of different spatial resolutions collected at different flying altitudes and from different viewing angles (i.e. vertical and oblique). Imagery is processed using 3D mosaicking software to create orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM). The types of image analysis which are tested include a simple, manual visual assessment undertaken in a GIS environment, based on the high resolution optical imagery. In addition, an object-based image analysis approach which makes use of the

  19. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  20. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  1. Garden Gnomes: Magical or Tacky?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Garden gnomes: magical or tacky? Well, art is in the eye of the beholder, and for the author's advanced seventh-grade art class, garden gnomes are magical. Gnomes have a very long history, dating back to medieval times. A fairytale describes them as brownie-like creatures that are nocturnal helpers. In this article, the author describes how her…

  2. Business, Anthropology, and Magical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2014-01-01

    —encompassing related concepts of alchemy, animism, and enchantmen—is reflected in other business practices, which have developed their own parallel and interlocking systems of magic. Certain forms of capitalism, the—fashion, for example, or finance—may be analysed as a field of magical systems....

  3. A new approach to magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čvorović Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the example of traditional practices of magic to suggest ways to incorporate cultural behaviors within the evolutionary paradigm. The first suggestion is to restrict hypotheses to only identifiable variables. This means avoiding the temptation of following the nonevolutionary social sciences in the practice of basing explanations on unverifiable guesses about what beliefs (or memes in evolutionary jargon may or may not inhabit people's brains. In contrast with previous explanations that magical practices result from beliefs and memes whose primarily purpose is to reduce anxiety, we propose that magic is a form of communication that promotes cooperation and often avoids anti-social behavior. This effect of increased cooperation could explain why traditional forms of magic have probably existed and had significant positive consequences for the participants. To be effective as a means of communication, magical rituals must specify both the content of the message and the receiver of the message. Although the content of the communicative message differs with different types of magic, all magical acts serve a purpose to influence the behavior of the party involved and that is the most significant identifiable effect of such behavior. An advantage of this approach over many previous explanations of magic is that because it focuses on identifiable phenomena, the definitions and explanations used in this approach can be falsified.

  4. High resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutron-rich $^{76,77,78}$Cu isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083035

    In this work, nuclear magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments, nuclear spins and changes in the mean-squared charge radii of radioactive copper isotopes are presented. Reaching up to $^{78}$Cu ($Z=29$, $N=49$), produced at rates of only 10 particles per second, these measurements represent the most exotic laser spectroscopic investigations near the doubly-magic and very exotic $^{78}$Ni ($Z=28$,$N=50$) to date. This thesis outlines the technical developments and investigations of laser-atom interactions that were performed during this thesis. These developments were crucial for establishing a high-resolution, high sensitivity collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy experiment at ISOLDE, CERN. This thesis furthermore provides a detailed description of the analysis tools that were implemented and applied to extract the nuclear observables from the experimental data. The results were compared to several large-scale shell model calculations, and provide deep insight into the structure of $^{78}$N...

  5. Zeolites - a high resolution electron microscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredsson, V.

    1994-10-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate a number of zeolites (EMT, FAU, LTL, MFI and MOR) and a member of the mesoporous M41S family. The electron optical artefact, manifested as a dark spot in the projected centre of the large zeolite channels, caused by insufficient transfer of certain reflections in the objective lens has been explained. The artefact severely hinders observation of materials confined in the zeolite channels and cavities. It is shown how to circumvent the artefact problem and how to image confined materials in spite of disturbance caused by the artefact. Image processing by means of a Wiener filter has been applied for removal of the artefact. The detailed surface structure of FAU has been investigated. Comparison of experimental micrographs with images simulated using different surface models indicates that the surface can be terminated in different ways depending on synthesis methods. The dealuminated form of FAU (USY) is covered by an amorphous region. Platinum incorporated in FAU has a preponderance to aggregate in the (111) twin planes, probably due to a local difference in cage structure with more spacious cages. It is shown that platinum is intra-zeolitic as opposed to being located on the external surface of the zeolite crystal. This could be deduced from tomography of ultra-thin sections among observations. HRTEM studies of the mesoporous MCM-41 show that the pores have a hexagonal shape and also supports the mechanistic model proposed which involves a cooperative formation of a mesophase including the silicate species as well as the surfactant. 66 refs, 24 figs

  6. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  7. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  8. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  9. Novel high resolution tactile robotic fingertips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Jankovics, Vince; Gorsic, Matija

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel robotic fingertip based on piezoresistive rubber that can sense pressure tactile stimuli with a high spatial resolution over curved surfaces. The working principle is based on a three-layer sandwich structure (conductive electrodes on top and bottom and piezoresistive...... with specialized data acquisition electronics that acquire 500 frames per second provides rich information regarding contact force, shape and angle for bio- inspired robotic fingertips. Furthermore, a model of estimating the force of contact based on values of the cells is proposed....

  10. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SHALLOW WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Steinbacher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD, authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river

  11. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  12. Refinement procedure for the image alignment in high-resolution electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houben, L.; Bar Sadan, M.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution electron tomography from a tilt series of transmission electron microscopy images requires an accurate image alignment procedure in order to maximise the resolution of the tomogram. This is the case in particular for ultra-high resolution where even very small misalignments between individual images can dramatically reduce the fidelity of the resultant reconstruction. A tomographic-reconstruction based and marker-free method is proposed, which uses an iterative optimisation of the tomogram resolution. The method utilises a search algorithm that maximises the contrast in tomogram sub-volumes. Unlike conventional cross-correlation analysis it provides the required correlation over a large tilt angle separation and guarantees a consistent alignment of images for the full range of object tilt angles. An assessment based on experimental reconstructions shows that the marker-free procedure is competitive to the reference of marker-based procedures at lower resolution and yields sub-pixel accuracy even for simulated high-resolution data. -- Highlights: → Alignment procedure for electron tomography based on iterative tomogram contrast optimisation. → Marker-free, independent of object, little user interaction. → Accuracy competitive with fiducial marker methods and suited for high-resolution tomography.

  13. High resolution time integration for SN radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2009-01-01

    First-order, second-order, and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the discrete ordinates (S N ) equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first-order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second-order schemes in hyperbolic partial differential equations. The high resolution method achieves these properties by nonlinearly adapting the time stencil to use a first-order method in regions where oscillations could be created. We employ a quasi-linear solution scheme to solve the nonlinear equations that arise from the high resolution method. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second-order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first-order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first-order and matches or exceeds the second-order method

  14. DNA oligonucleotide conformations: high resolution NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellema, J.-R.

    1984-01-01

    The present work describes a DNA double-helix model, which is well comparable with the models derived from fibre-diffraction studies. The model has a mononucleotide repeat with torsion angles in accordance with average geometries as derived from 1 H NMR studies. Special attention was paid to reduce the number of short H-H nonbonding contacts, which are abundantly present in the 'classical' fibre-diffraction models. Chapter 3 describes the first complete assignment of a 1 H NMR spectrum of a DNA tetramer, d(TAAT). Preliminary conformational data derived from the spectral parameters recorded at 27 0 C are given. A more detailed analysis employing temperature-dependence studies is given in Chapter 4. (Auth.)

  15. High-resolution lattice-spacing comparator using SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Ando, Masami

    2004-01-01

    A novel lattice spacing measurement using a high-resolution self-reference d-spacing comparator has been described. Self selection of monochromatic synchrotron x-rays by a monolithic double channel-cut-crystal monochromator (MDCM) comprising silicon 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 reflections may lead to a stable, highly-collimated and narrow bandwidth beam. Also if utilizing 2,6,4 and 6,2,4 Bragg planes of a silicon sample, the interval between two associated Bragg peaks for the X-rays with wavelength of 0.13438 nm can be extremely small, so that the diffraction angle can be determined with high precision and the traveling time from one peak to the other can be marvelously reduced by the order of at least three compared to the established classical methods such as the Bond method. Thus this so-called self-reference comparator method can dramatically save measurement time and provide an absolute measurement on the basis of the x-ray wavelength of the MDCM, therefore a lattice spacing measurement with uncertainty of 10 -8 , for the 1mm 2 area on a silicon crystal within measurement time of a few ten seconds and has been achieved. (author)

  16. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.; Lee, H.R.; McNulty, I.; Zalensky, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5 microm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼ 6,000 angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼ 1,000 angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution, bringing it down to ∼ 1,200 angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  17. Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by ∼5μm. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between -50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to ∼6000 Angstrom, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of ∼1000 Angstrom. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution bringing it down to ∼1200 Angstrom overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range

  18. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria y Administracion

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2{pi} solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  19. Montecarlo simulation for a new high resolution elemental analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa S, Rodolfo; Brusa, Daniel; Riveros, Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Full text. Spectra generated by binary, ternary and multielement matrixes when irradiated by a variable energy photon beam are simulated by means of a Monte Carlo code. Significative jumps in the counting rate are shown when the photon energy is just over the edge associated to each element, because of the emission of characteristic X rays. For a given associated energy, the net height of these jumps depends mainly on the concentration and of the sample absorption coefficient. The spectra were obtained by a monochromatic energy scan considering all the emitted radiation by the sample in a 2π solid angle, associating a single multichannel spectrometer channel to each incident energy (Multichannel Scaling (MCS) mode). The simulated spectra were made with Monte Carlo simulation software adaptation of the package called PENELOPE (Penetration and Energy Loss of Positrons and Electrons in matter). The results show that it is possible to implement a new high resolution spectroscopy methodology, where a synchrotron would be an ideal source, due to the high intensity and ability to control the energy of the incident beam. The high energy resolution would be determined by the monochromating system and not by the detection system and not by the detection system, which would basicalbe a photon counter. (author)

  20. MAGIC: THE GATHERING APUSOVELLUS ANDROIDILLE

    OpenAIRE

    Isopahkala, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyönä oli omavalintainen android-sovellus Magic: The Gathering –korttipelille. Tavoitteena oli toteuttaa akkuystävällinen apusovellus kyseistä peliä pelaaville käyttäen android studiota. Työssä tutustutaan javaan, androidiin sekä android studioon, niiden historiaan sekä ominaisuuksiin. Magic: The Gathering:iin tutustutaan perustasolla. Opinnäytetyö keskittyy sovellukseen, sen luomiseen, koodauskieleen sekä alustaan. Tarkoituksena ei ole opettaa pelaamaan Magic: The Gatheringiä. Th...

  1. Magical Realities in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken

    2013-01-01

    The field of interaction design is littered with examples of artefacts, which seemingly do not adhere to well-known physical causalities and our innate expectations of how artefacts should behave in the world, thereby creating the impression of a magic reality; where things can float in mid-air, ...... to reflect upon the magical realities constructed by technological artefacts......The field of interaction design is littered with examples of artefacts, which seemingly do not adhere to well-known physical causalities and our innate expectations of how artefacts should behave in the world, thereby creating the impression of a magic reality; where things can float in mid...

  2. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  3. High resolution time integration for Sn radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoreson, Greg; McClarren, Ryan G.; Chang, Jae H.

    2008-01-01

    First order, second order and high resolution time discretization schemes are implemented and studied for the S n equations. The high resolution method employs a rate of convergence better than first order, but also suppresses artificial oscillations introduced by second order schemes in hyperbolic differential equations. All three methods were compared for accuracy and convergence rates. For non-absorbing problems, both second order and high resolution converged to the same solution as the first order with better convergence rates. High resolution is more accurate than first order and matches or exceeds the second order method. (authors)

  4. Magic Coset Decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciatori, Sergio L; Marrani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting a "mixed" non-symmetric Freudenthal-Rozenfeld-Tits magic square, two types of coset decompositions are analyzed for the non-compact special K\\"ahler symmetric rank-3 coset E7(-25)/[(E6(-78) x U(1))/Z_3], occurring in supergravity as the vector multiplets' scalar manifold in N=2, D=4 exceptional Maxwell-Einstein theory. The first decomposition exhibits maximal manifest covariance, whereas the second (triality-symmetric) one is of Iwasawa type, with maximal SO(8) covariance. Generalizations to conformal non-compact, real forms of non-degenerate, simple groups "of type E7" are presented for both classes of coset parametrizations, and relations to rank-3 simple Euclidean Jordan algebras and normed trialities over division algebras are also discussed.

  5. High-efficiency transmision neutron polarizer for high-resolution double crystal diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, A.; Krist, T.; Mezei, F.; Gordeev, G.; Ibrayev, B.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient transmission geometry neutron polarizer for the high-resolution double crystal diffractometer at HMI (λ=4.8 A) is described. A polarization of about 94% was achieved and the polarized neutron beam intensity amounts to 40% of the nonpolarized beam intensity. This opens up wide possibilities for the study of magnetic small-angle scattering for extremely small momentum transfer (Q∝10 -5 A -1 ). (orig.)

  6. Experimental demonstration of high resolution three-dimensional x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Trebes, J.E.; Brase, J.M.; Yorkey, T.J.; Levesque, R.; Szoke, H.; Anderson, E.H.; Jacobsen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Tomographic x-ray holography may make possible the imaging of biological objects at high resolution in three dimensions. We performed a demonstration experiment with soft x-rays to explore the feasibility of this technique. Coherent 3.2-nm undulator radiation was used to record Fourier transform holograms of a microfabricated test object from various illumination angles. The holograms were numerically reconstructed according to the principles of diffraction tomography, yielding images of the object that are well resolved in three dimensions

  7. Status of the MAGIC telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, Pierre; Carmona, Emiliano; Schweizer, Thomas; Sitarek, Julian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg Institut, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    MAGIC is a system of two 17-m Cherenkov telescopes located on La Palma (Canary islands),sensitive to gamma-rays above 30 GeV. It has been recently upgraded by a second telescope which strongly improves the sensitivity, particularly at low energy. Here we present the status of the MAGIC telescopes and an overview of the recent results obtained in single or stereoscopic mode. We also discuss the real performance of the new stereoscopic system based on Crab Nebula observations.

  8. Scalable Algorithms for Large High-Resolution Terrain Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Thomas; Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the technology required to perform typical GIS computations on very large high-resolution terrain models has matured enough to be ready for use by practitioners. We also demonstrate the impact that high-resolution data has on common problems. To our knowledge, so...

  9. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Schnopper, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the perfection of state-of-the-art multilayers are presented. Data were obtained using a triple-axis perfect-crystal X-ray diffractometer. Measurements reveal large-scale figure errors in the substrate. A high-resolution triple-axis set up is required...

  10. Achieving sensitive, high-resolution laser spectroscopy at CRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, R. P. de [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Lynch, K. M., E-mail: kara.marie.lynch@cern.ch [EP Department, CERN, ISOLDE (Switzerland); Wilkins, S. G. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the CRIS collaboration

    2017-11-15

    The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment, located at the ISOLDE facility, has recently performed high-resolution laser spectroscopy, with linewidths down to 20 MHz. In this article, we present the modifications to the beam line and the newly-installed laser systems that have made sensitive, high-resolution measurements possible. Highlights of recent experimental campaigns are presented.

  11. High resolution UV spectroscopy and laser-focused nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myszkiewicz, G.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis combines two at first glance different techniques: High Resolution Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIF) of small aromatic molecules and Laser Focusing of atoms for Nanofabrication. The thesis starts with the introduction to the high resolution LIF technique of small aromatic

  12. High resolution NMR spectroscopy of synthetic polymers in bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorski, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of high-resolution NMR of solid polymers; High-resolution NMR of glassy amorphous polymers; Carbon-13 solid-state NMR of semicrystalline polymers; Conformational analysis of polymers of solid-state NMR; High-resolution NMR studies of oriented polymers; High-resolution solid-state NMR of protons in polymers; and Deuterium NMR of solid polymers. This work brings together the various approaches for high-resolution NMR studies of bulk polymers into one volume. Heavy emphasis is, of course, given to 13C NMR studies both above and below Tg. Standard high-power pulse and wide-line techniques are not covered

  13. STUDY OF POSTERIOR FOSSA TUMORS BY HIGH RESOLUTION MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is the imaging modality used for the assessment of infratentorial neoplasms. Although Computed Tomography (CT provides better demonstration of small or subtle calcifications within tumors. OBJECTIVES Study is done to assess the potential of MRI in characterisation of different tumors in posterior fossa by evaluating various unenhanced and gadolinium enhanced sequences and to compare high resolution FSE MRI sequences with routine FSE MRI sequences in diagnosing posterior fossa brain tumors. Also correlate findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Pathological diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 52 patients were diagnosed by CT brain as having posterior fossa brain for a year of 2 years were included in the study. In all studies MR imaging was performed with a clinical 1.5 T system (General electrical medical systems. A dedicated phased-array coil was used. RESULTS The age group ranged from 1 year to 60 years, majority were between 1 to 20 years (39%. Slight male preponderance was seen (males 29, females 23. Commonest tumor encountered in our study was vestibular schwannoma. DWI alone can differentiate different pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors. One case of pilocytic astrocytoma showed solid lesion instead of typical cystic lesion with mural nodule. One case AT-RT showed 2 lesions one in cerebrum, one in CP angle. Common feature being intra-axial lesion involving cerebellum. MRI was able to predict diagnosis in 50 of the 52 tumors. CONCLUSION Magnetic Resonance Imaging was found to be a highly sensitive imaging procedure and method of choice for posterior fossa brain tumors.

  14. High-resolution computed tomography findings in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Rosana Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Unit of Radiology; Capone, Domenico; Ferreira Neto, Armando Leao [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: The present study was aimed at characterizing main lung changes observed in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis by means of high-resolution computed tomography. Materials and Methods: High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with proven disease diagnosed by open lung biopsy, immunohistochemistry studies and/or extrapulmonary manifestations were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Small rounded, thin-walled cystic lesions were observed in the lung of all the patients. Nodules with predominantly peripheral distribution over the lung parenchyma were observed in 75% of the patients. The lesions were diffusely distributed, predominantly in the upper and middle lung fields in all of the cases, but involvement of costophrenic angles was observed in 25% of the patients. Conclusion: Comparative analysis of high-resolution computed tomography and chest radiography findings demonstrated that thinwalled cysts and small nodules cannot be satisfactorily evaluated by conventional radiography. Because of its capacity to detect and characterize lung cysts and nodules, high-resolution computed tomography increases the probability of diagnosing pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. (author)

  15. Abject Magic: Reasoning Madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Troy

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the representation of magic and madness in Justine Larbalestier's "Magic or Madness" trilogy (2005-2007). Throughout the series, magic is constructed as an abject and disabling force that threatens to disable magic-wielders, either through madness or death. Despite being represented as a ubiquitous force, the…

  16. Evidence for radiation induced crosslinking in polytetrafluoroethylene by means of high-resolution solid-state 19F high-speed MAS NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Etsuko; Sugisawa, Hisashi; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Seguchi, Tadao; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    1999-01-01

    Radiation effects on molecular structure of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied by high-resolution solid-state 19 F high speed magic angle spinning (HS MAS) NMR spectroscopy. Samples used for the NMR studies were prepared by electron beam irradiation of PTFE with a wide range of irradiation doses from 0.5-10 MGy in the molten state at 340 deg. C under oxygen-free atmosphere. While the non-irradiated PTFE displayed only an intense peak of the internal CF 2 , several new signals corresponding to CF 3 , CF 2 and CF groups were observed for the PTFE which was high temperature irradiated at 340 deg. C in oxygen-free atmosphere (hti-PTFE). Intensities of these new signals increased with an increase of irradiation dose. The present solid-state 19 F HS MAS NMR studies provide not only the first experimental evidence regarding the existence of crosslinking structure in hti-PTFE, directly detected as the CF signal, but also the crosslinking density which can be estimated from a proportion of the CF versus total fluorine signal intensities. The higher the irradiation dose, the higher the crosslinking density; hti-PTFE with 10 MGy contains one crosslinking site per approximately 24 CF 2 groups, while the hti-PTFE with 5 MGy contains one crosslinking site per approximately 36 CF 2 groups. Further, G value of crosslinking (G(x)) was estimated from the signal intensities of 19 F HS MAS NMR spectra. The highest G(x)-value, 1.85, was observed for the 2MGy hti-PTFE sample, suggesting that crosslinking of PTFE is formed most efficaciously with 2 MGy irradiation in the molten state at 340 deg. C under oxygen-free atmosphere

  17. Refinement procedure for the image alignment in high-resolution electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, L; Bar Sadan, M

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution electron tomography from a tilt series of transmission electron microscopy images requires an accurate image alignment procedure in order to maximise the resolution of the tomogram. This is the case in particular for ultra-high resolution where even very small misalignments between individual images can dramatically reduce the fidelity of the resultant reconstruction. A tomographic-reconstruction based and marker-free method is proposed, which uses an iterative optimisation of the tomogram resolution. The method utilises a search algorithm that maximises the contrast in tomogram sub-volumes. Unlike conventional cross-correlation analysis it provides the required correlation over a large tilt angle separation and guarantees a consistent alignment of images for the full range of object tilt angles. An assessment based on experimental reconstructions shows that the marker-free procedure is competitive to the reference of marker-based procedures at lower resolution and yields sub-pixel accuracy even for simulated high-resolution data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Finding All Solutions to the Magic Hexagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jason; Karabegov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a systematic approach is given for solving a magic star puzzle that usually is accomplished by trial and error or "brute force." A connection is made to the symmetries of a cube, thus the name Magic Hexahedron.

  19. Nuclear physics: Unexpected doubly-magic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with a 'magic' number of both protons and neutrons, dubbed doubly magic, are particularly stable. The oxygen isotope 24 O has been found to be one such nucleus - yet it lies just at the limit of stability

  20. Possible GRB Observation with the MAGIC Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.

    2001-08-01

    The MAGIC Telescope, with its reflecting parabolic dish of 17 m of diameter and its careful design of a robust, lightweight, alto-azimuthal mount, is an ideal detector for GRB phenomena. The telescope is an air Cherenkov telescope that, even in the first phase, equipped with standard PMTs, can reach an energy threshold below 30 GeV. The threshold is going to drop well below 10 GeV in the envisaged second phase, when chamber PMTs will be substituted by high quantum efficiency APDs. The telescope can promptly respond to GRB alerts coming, for instance, from GCN, and can reposition itself in less than 30 seconds, 20 seconds being the time to turn half a round for the azimuth bearing. In this report, the effective area of the detector as a function of energy and zenith angle is taken into account, in order to evaluate the expected yearly occurrence and the response to different kinds of GRBs.

  1. A Forward-Looking High-Resolution GPR System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kositsky, Joel; Milanfar, Peyman

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) system was designed to help define the optimal radar parameters needed for the efficient standoff detection of buried and surface-laid antitank mines...

  2. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel; Rietmann, Max; Galvez, Percy; Ampuero, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step

  3. Impact of high resolution land surface initialization in Indian summer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The direct impact of high resolution land surface initialization on the forecast bias in a regional climate model in recent years ... surface initialization using a regional climate model. ...... ization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Clim. Appl.

  4. Textural Segmentation of High-Resolution Sidescan Sonar Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalcic, Maria; Bibee, Dale

    1995-01-01

    .... The high resolution of the 455 kHz sonar imagery also provides much information about the surficial bottom sediments, however their acoustic scattering properties are not well understood at high frequencies...

  5. NOAA High-Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Analysis Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive covers two high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products developed using an optimum interpolation (OI) technique. The analyses have a...

  6. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  7. NanoComposite Polymers for High Resolution Near Infrared Detectors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop nanocomposite materials with tuned refractive index in the near infra red spectral range as an index-matched immersion lens for high resolution infra-red...

  8. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  9. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  10. High-resolution MRI in detecting subareolar breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peifen; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Kanemaki, Yoshihide; Okamoto, Kyoko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Mamoru; Maeda, Ichiro

    2007-06-01

    Because subareolar breast abscess has a high recurrence rate, a more effective imaging technique is needed to comprehensively visualize the lesions and guide surgery. We performed a high-resolution MRI technique using a microscopy coil to reveal the characteristics and extent of subareolar breast abscess. High-resolution MRI has potential diagnostic value in subareolar breast abscess. This technique can be used to guide surgery with the aim of reducing the recurrence rate.

  11. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri; Gholamreza Hamsi; Tayeb Ramim

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM) of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed...

  12. Volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2004-01-01

    We developed a volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) protocol that provides combined inspiratory and expiratory volumetric imaging of the lung without increasing radiation exposure, and conducted a preliminary feasibility assessment of this protocol to evaluate diffuse lung disease with small airway abnormalities. The volumetric expiratory high-resolution CT increased the detectability of the conducting airway to the areas of air trapping (P<0.0001), and added significant information about extent and distribution of air trapping (P<0.0001)

  13. Developing Visual Editors for High-Resolution Haptic Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuartielles, David; Göransson, Andreas; Olsson, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our iterative work in developing visual editors for creating high resolution haptic patterns to be used in wearable, haptic feedback devices. During the past four years we have found the need to address the question of how to represent, construct and edit high...... resolution haptic patterns so that they translate naturally to the user’s haptic experience. To solve this question we have developed and tested several visual editors...

  14. Estimation of the distribution of Tabebuia guayacan (Bignoniaceae) using high-resolution remote sensing imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Wright, Joseph; Feng, Ji-Lu; Li, Peijun; Chong, Mei Mei; Bohlman, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments.

  15. Far-field high resolution effects and manipulating of electromagnetic waves based on transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, XueBin; Zang, XiaoFei; Li, Zhou; Shi, Cheng; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing

    2015-05-01

    Based on the transformation optics (TO) and the effective medium theory (EMT), a new illusion media with homogeneous and isotropic materials is proposed to realize the far-field high resolution effects. When two point sources with the separation distance of λ0 / 4 are covered with the illusion media (λ0 is the free-space wavelength), the corresponding far-field pattern is equivalent to the case of two point sources with the separation distance larger than λ0 / 2 in free space, leading to the far-field high resolution effects (in free space, the separation distance of λ0 / 4 is less than half-wavelength, and thus the two point sources cannot be distinguished from each other). Furthermore, such illusion media can be applied to design tunable high-directivity antenna and an angle-dependent floating carpet cloak. Full wave simulations are carried out to verify the performance of our device.

  16. The potential of high resolution ultrasonic in-situ methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of geomechanical assessment of final repository underground openings the knowledge of geophysical rock parameters are of importance. Ultrasonic methods proved to be good geophysical tools to provide appropriate high resolution parameters for the characterisation of rock. In this context the detection and characterisation of rock heterogeneities at different scales, including the Excavation Damaged/disturbed Zone (EDZ/EdZ) features, play an important role. Especially, kinematic and dynamic parameters derived from ultrasonic measurements can be linked very close to rock mechanic investigations and interpretations. BGR uses high resolution ultrasonic methods, starting with emitted frequencies of about 1 kHz (seismic) and going up to about 100 kHz. The method development is going on and appropriate research and investigations are performed since many years at different European radioactive waste disposal related underground research laboratories in different potential host rocks. The most frequented are: Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland (Opalinus Clay, OPA), Underground Research Laboratory Meuse/Haute- Marne, France (Callovo-Oxfordian, COX), Underground Research Facility Mol, Belgium (Boom Clay, BC), Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden (granites), Rock Laboratory Grimsel, Switzerland (granites) and Asse salt mine, Germany (rock salt). The methods can be grouped into borehole based methods and noninvasive methods like refraction and reflection methods, which are performed in general from the drift wall. Additionally, as a combination of these both methods a sort of vertical seismic profiling (VSP) is applied. The best qualified method, or a combination of methods, have to be chosen according to the scientific questions and the local site conditions. The degree of spatial resolution of zones of interest or any kind of anomaly depends strongly on the distance of these objects to the ultrasonic

  17. Magical attachment: Children in magical relations with hospital clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Linge

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to achieve a theoretical understanding of several different-age children's experiences of magic relations with hospital clowns in the context of medical care, and to do so using psychological theory and a child perspective. The method used was qualitative and focused on nine children. The results showed that age was important to consider in better understanding how the children experienced the relation with the hospital clowns, how they described the magical aspects of the encounter and how they viewed the importance of clown encounters to their own well-being. The present theoretical interpretation characterized the encounter with hospital clowns as a magical safe area, an intermediate area between fantasy and reality. The discussion presented a line of reasoning concerning a magical attachment between the child and the hospital clowns, stating that this attachment: a comprised a temporary relation; b gave anonymity; c entailed reversed roles; and d created an emotional experience of boundary-transcending opportunities.

  18. MAGIC MOORE-PENROSE INVERSES AND PHILATELIC MAGIC SQUARES WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE DANIELS–ZLOBEC MAGIC SQUARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Lok Chu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We study singular magic matrices in which the numbers in the rows and columns and in the two main diagonals all add up to the same sum. Our interest focuses on such magic matrices for which the Moore–Penrose inverse is also magic. Special attention is given to the “Daniels–Zlobec magic square’’ introduced by the British magician and television performer Paul Daniels (b. 1938 and considered by Zlobec (2001; see also Murray (1989, pp. 30–32. We introduce the concept of a “philatelic magic square” as a square arrangement of images of postage stamps so that the associated nominal values form a magic square. Three philatelic magic squares with stamps especially chosen for Sanjo Zlobec are presented in celebration of his 70th birthday; most helpful in identifying these stamps was an Excel checklist by Männikkö (2009.

  19. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a grid resolution of 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs. Catalogues and the EMODnet DTM are published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal including a versatile DTM viewing and downloading service. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM). This continues gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry data are included to fill gaps in coverage of the coastal zones. The extra data and composite DTMs will increase the coverage of the European seas and its coastlines, and provide input for producing an EMODnet DTM with a common resolution of 1/16 arc minutes. The Bathymetry Viewing and Download service will be upgraded to provide a multi-resolution map and including 3D viewing. The higher resolution DTMs will also be used to determine best-estimates of the European coastline for a range of tidal levels (HAT, MHW, MSL, Chart Datum, LAT), thereby making use of a tidal model for Europe. Extra challenges will be `moving to the

  20. It's magic: a unique practice management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven

    2003-11-15

    For thousands of years prior to the advent of modern dentistry, magic has been used to entertain, impress, and motivate individuals. Today's dental professionals are using the concept of The Magic of a Healthy Smile through their use of modern clinical techniques and as a means for practice marketing, patient education, and the reduction of patient stress and fear. This article describes how dentists/magicians have incorporated magic into their practices and the benefits of this useful patient management strategy. A script of the "Happy Tooth Magic Show" and resources for dentists to create their own dental magic show are provided.

  1. A method for generating high resolution satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for satellite remote sensing data with both high spatial and temporal resolution in many applications. But it still is a challenge to simultaneously improve spatial resolution and temporal frequency due to the technical limits of current satellite observation systems. To this end, much R&D efforts have been ongoing for years and lead to some successes roughly in two aspects, one includes super resolution, pan-sharpen etc. methods which can effectively enhance the spatial resolution and generate good visual effects, but hardly preserve spectral signatures and result in inadequate analytical value, on the other hand, time interpolation is a straight forward method to increase temporal frequency, however it increase little informative contents in fact. In this paper we presented a novel method to simulate high resolution time series data by combing low resolution time series data and a very small number of high resolution data only. Our method starts with a pair of high and low resolution data set, and then a spatial registration is done by introducing LDA model to map high and low resolution pixels correspondingly. Afterwards, temporal change information is captured through a comparison of low resolution time series data, and then projected onto the high resolution data plane and assigned to each high resolution pixel according to the predefined temporal change patterns of each type of ground objects. Finally the simulated high resolution data is generated. A preliminary experiment shows that our method can simulate a high resolution data with a reasonable accuracy. The contribution of our method is to enable timely monitoring of temporal changes through analysis of time sequence of low resolution images only, and usage of costly high resolution data can be reduces as much as possible, and it presents a highly effective way to build up an economically operational monitoring solution for agriculture, forest, land use investigation

  2. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.T.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids

  3. Dynamic-angle spinning and double rotation of quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.T. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei is complicated by the coupling of the electric quadrupole moment of the nucleus to local variations in the electric field. The quadrupolar interaction is a useful source of information about local molecular structure in solids, but it tends to broaden resonance lines causing crowding and overlap in NMR spectra. Magic- angle spinning, which is routinely used to produce high resolution spectra of spin-{1/2} nuclei like carbon-13 and silicon-29, is incapable of fully narrowing resonances from quadrupolar nuclei when anisotropic second-order quadrupolar interactions are present. Two new sample-spinning techniques are introduced here that completely average the second-order quadrupolar coupling. Narrow resonance lines are obtained and individual resonances from distinct nuclear sites are identified. In dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) a rotor containing a powdered sample is reoriented between discrete angles with respect to high magnetic field. Evolution under anisotropic interactions at the different angles cancels, leaving only the isotropic evolution of the spin system. In the second technique, double rotation (DOR), a small rotor spins within a larger rotor so that the sample traces out a complicated trajectory in space. The relative orientation of the rotors and the orientation of the larger rotor within the magnetic field are selected to average both first- and second-order anisotropic broadening. The theory of quadrupolar interactions, coherent averaging theory, and motional narrowing by sample reorientation are reviewed with emphasis on the chemical shift anisotropy and second-order quadrupolar interactions experienced by half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei. The DAS and DOR techniques are introduced and illustrated with application to common quadrupolar systems such as sodium-23 and oxygen-17 nuclei in solids.

  4. Magic While They are Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne Mae

    1974-01-01

    Magic squares are used both as a vehicle for arithmetic drill and the development of mathematical concepts for second-grade students. By searching for patterns within the squares, additional number concepts are developed along with the concept of symmetry. (JP)

  5. Magical Realism and its European Essence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ebadi Asayesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical realism is known with its oxymoronic characteristic, magic plus realism. It became known with the boom of the magical realist novel in the 1960s in Latin America and became globally recognized from 1980 onwards. However, it is mostly forgotten that it had started its journey from Europe. The term “magic realism” first appeared in German philosophy in 1798 in Novalis’ notebook. Then, it entered art criticism in 1925 through Roh’s essay and developed in Italy through by Bontempelli. Later, after transformation and formation, magical realism appeared in the novels as a popular mode first in Latin America and then worldwide. The present study charts the path and discusses the development of magical realism from its commencement in Europe. In addition to presenting the views of Novalis, Roh and Bontempelli on initiating the term, it compares their views to show what characteristic in their views inspires today’s magic realism.

  6. Simulation study for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry with mesh type collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sungwoo; Kang, Hanbyeol; Shin, Jungki; Park, Iljin

    2014-01-01

    An alpha particle spectrometry with a mesh type collimator plays a crucial role in identifying specific radionuclide in a radioactive source collected from the atmosphere or environment. The energy resolution is degraded without collimation because particles with a high angle have a longer path to travel in the air. Therefore, collision with the background increases. The collimator can cut out particles which traveling at a high angle. As a result, an energy distribution with high resolution can be obtained. Therefore, the mesh type collimator is simulated for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry. In conclusion, the collimator can improve resolution. With collimator, the collimator is a role of cutting out particles with a high angle, so, low energy tail and broadened energy distribution can be reduced. The mesh diameter is found out as an important factor to control resolution and counting efficiency. Therefore, a target particle, for example, 235 U, can be distinguished by a detector with a collimator under a mixture of various nuclides, for example: 232 U, 238 U, and 232 Th

  7. High-resolution altitude profiles of the atmospheric turbulence with PML at the Sutherland Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala, L.; Ziad, A.; Fanteï-Caujolle, Y.; Crawford, S. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Borgnino, J.; Blary, F.; Nickola, M.; Pickering, T.

    2017-05-01

    With the prospect of the next generation of ground-based telescopes, the extremely large telescopes, increasingly complex and demanding adaptive optics systems are needed. This is to compensate for image distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence and fully take advantage of mirrors with diameters of 30-40 m. This requires a more precise characterization of the turbulence. The Profiler of Moon Limb (PML) was developed within this context. The PML aims to provide high-resolution altitude profiles of the turbulence using differential measurements of the Moon limb position to calculate the transverse spatio-angular covariance of the angle of arrival fluctuations. The covariance of differential image motion for different separation angles is sensitive to the altitude distribution of the seeing. The use of the continuous Moon limb provides a large number of separation angles allowing for the high-resolution altitude of the profiles. The method is presented and tested with simulated data. Moreover, a PML instrument was deployed at the Sutherland Observatory in South Africa in 2011 August. We present here the results of this measurement campaign.

  8. High resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentine, Fernando P P; Herbella, Fernando A M; Silva, Luciana C; Patti, Marco G

    2011-12-01

    The pathophysiology of esophageal epiphrenic diverticula is still uncertain even though a concomitant motility disorder is found in the majority of patients in different series. High resolution manometry may allow detection of motor abnormalities in a higher number of patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula compared with conventional manometry. This study aims to evaluate the high resolution manometry findings in patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula. Nine individuals (mean age 63 ± 10 years, 4 females) with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula underwent high resolution manometry. A single diverticulum was observed in eight patients and multiple diverticula in one. Visual analysis of conventional tracings and color pressure plots for identification of segmental abnormalities was performed by two researchers experienced in high resolution manometry. Upper esophageal sphincter was normal in all patients. Esophageal body was abnormal in eight patients; lower esophageal sphincter was abnormal in seven patients. Named esophageal motility disorders were found in seven patients: achalasia in six, diffuse esophageal spasm in one. In one patient, a segmental hypercontractile zone was noticed with pressure of 196 mm Hg. High resolution manometry demonstrated motor abnormalities in all patients with esophageal epiphrenic diverticula.

  9. Magic and the aesthetic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Leon

    2002-01-01

    The aesthetic illusion is the subjective experience that the content of a work of art is reality. It has an intrinsic relation to magic, an intrapsychic maneuver oriented toward modification and control of the extraspyschic world, principally through ego functioning. Magic is ontogenetically and culturally archaic, expresses the omnipotence inherent in primary narcissism, and operates according to the logic of the primary process. Magic is a constituent of all ego functioning, usually latent in later development. It may persist as an archaic feature or may be evoked regressively in global or circumscribed ways. It causes a general disinhibition of instincts and impulses attended by a sense of confidence, exhiliration, and exuberance. The aesthetic illusion is a combination of illusions: (1) that the daydream embodied by the work of art is the beholder's own, the artist being ignored, and (2) that the artistically described protagonist is a real person with a real "world." The first illusion arises through the beholder's emotional-instinctual gratification from his or her own fantasy-memory constellations; the second comes about because the beholder, by taking the protagonist as proxy, mobilizes the subjective experience of the imaginary protagonist's "reality." The first illusion is necessary for the second to take place; the second establishes the aesthetic illusion proper. Both illusions are instances of magic. Accordingly, the aesthetic illusion is accompanied by a heady experience of excitement and euphoria. The relation among the aesthetic illusion, magic, and enthusiasm is illustrated by an analytic case, J. D. Salinger's "The Laughing Man," Woody Allen's Play It Again, Sam, Don Quixote, and the medieval Cult of the Saints.

  10. A high resolution electron microscopy investigation of curvature in multilayer graphite sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhenxia; Hu Jun; Wang Wenmin; Yu Guoqing

    1998-01-01

    Here the authors report a carbon sample generated by ultrasonic wave high oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in ethanol, water or ethanol-water mixed solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed many multilayer graphite sheets with a total curved angle that is multiples of θ 0 (= 30 degree C). Close examination of the micrographs showed that the curvature is accomplished by bending the lattice planes. A possible explanation for the curvature in multilayer graphite sheets is discussed based on the conformation of graphite symmetry axes and the formation of sp 3 -like line defects in the sp 2 graphitic network

  11. High resolution neutron spectroscopy - a tool for the investigation of dynamics of polymers and soft matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monkenbusch, M.; Richter, D.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron scattering, with the ability to vary the contrast of molecular items by hydrogen/deuterium exchanges, is an invaluable tool for soft matter research. Besides the structural information on the mesoscopic scale that is obtained by diffraction methods like small angle neutron scattering, the slow dynamics of molecular motion on mesoscopic scale is accessible by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. The basic features of neutron backscattering spectroscopy, and in particular neutron spin-echo spectroscopy, are presented, in combination with illustrations of results from polymer melt dynamics to protein dynamics which are obtained by these techniques. (authors)

  12. A high-resolution multiwire area detector for X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqi, A R; Andrews, H [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK). Lab. of Molecular Biology

    1989-11-10

    A high-resolution multiwire area detector has been developed for recording X-ray scattering from biological specimens. The detector is 100x100 mm{sup 2} and, under the present operating conditions, has a spatial resolution of about 250 {mu}m in both directions. The detector is set up on a double-mirror focusing camera on a rotating anode X-ray generator and has been used in a number of small-angle experiments, two of which are described in this paper. (orig.).

  13. High-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yujin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of the development of high-resolution SPECT for small-animal imaging. A pinhole collimator has been used for high-resolution animal SPECT to provide better spatial resolution and detection efficiency in comparison with a parallel-hole collimator. The theory of imaging characteristics of the pinhole collimator is presented and the designs of the pinhole aperture are discussed. The detector technologies used for the development of small-animal SPECT and the recent advances are presented. The evolving trend of small-animal SPECT is toward a multi-pinhole and a multi-detector system to obtain a high resolution and also a high detection efficiency. (authors)

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  15. 1024 matrix image reconstruction: usefulness in high resolution chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Chong, Se Min; Sung, Yon Mi; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    We tried to evaluate whether high resolution chest CT with a 1,024 matrix has a significant advantage in image quality compared to a 512 matrix. Each set of 512 and 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans with both 0.625 mm and 1.25 mm slice thickness were obtained from 26 patients. Seventy locations that contained twenty-four low density lesions without sharp boundary such as emphysema, and forty-six sharp linear densities such as linear fibrosis were selected; these were randomly displayed on a five mega pixel LCD monitor. All the images were masked for information concerning the matrix size and slice thickness. Two chest radiologists scored the image quality of each ar rowed lesion as follows: (1) undistinguishable, (2) poorly distinguishable, (3) fairly distinguishable, (4) well visible and (5) excellently visible. The scores were compared from the aspects of matrix size, slice thickness and the different observers by using ANOVA tests. The average and standard deviation of image quality were 3.09 (± .92) for the 0.625 mm x 512 matrix, 3.16 (± .84) for the 0.625 mm x 1024 matrix, 2.49 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 512 matrix, and 2.35 (± 1.02) for the 1.25 mm x 1024 matrix, respectively. The image quality on both matrices of the high resolution chest CT scans with a 0.625 mm slice thickness was significantly better than that on the 1.25 mm slice thickness (ρ < 0.001). However, the image quality on the 1024 matrix high resolution chest CT scans was not significantly different from that on the 512 matrix high resolution chest CT scans (ρ = 0.678). The interobserver variation between the two observers was not significant (ρ = 0.691). We think that 1024 matrix image reconstruction for high resolution chest CT may not be clinical useful

  16. High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer HRPT for Thermal Neutrons at SINQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Koch, M.; Koennecke, M.; Pomjakushin, V.; Schefer, J.; Schlumpf, N.

    1999-01-01

    The new neutron powder diffractometer at the Swiss continuous spallation neutron source SINQ is designed as a flexible instrument for high resolution [best values δd/d: ( -3 with d = lattice spacing in the high resolution or high intensity modes, respectively]. It uses large scattering angles 2Θ M = 120 deg or 90 deg of the monochromator, a 28 cm high, vertically focusing wafer type Ge(hkk) monochromator and a position-sensitive 3 He detector(3.6 bar) produced by Cerca at Romans, France. It has 1600 (25x64) detectors with an angular separation of 0.1 deg and includes modern electronics developed by E. Berruyer, Cerca and PSI. The SICS software of PSI controls the instrument with a server running on an unix workstation and clients written in Java through the TCP/IP network. The design principles and first experiences are presented. The interdisciplinary applications of HRPT will permit high-resolution refinement of chemical and magnetic structures as well as phase analysis including the detection of defects and internal microstrain. In particular real-time investigations of chemical or structural changes and of magnetic phase transitions in crystalline, quasicrystalline, amorphous and liquid samples including technically interesting new materials are possible. (author)

  17. High Grazing Angle and High Resolution Sea Clutter: Correlation and Polarisation Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    the azimuthal correlation. The correlation between the HH and VV sea clutter data is low. A CA-CFAR ( cell average constant false-alarm rate...to calculate the power spectra of correlation profiles. The frequency interval of the traditional Discrete Fourier Transform is NT1 Hz, where N and...sea spikes, the Entropy-Alpha decomposition of sea spikes is shown in Figure 30. The process first locates spikes using a cell -average constant false

  18. Assessment of engineered surfaces roughness by high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontard, L.C., E-mail: lionelcg@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11510 (Spain); López-Castro, J.D.; González-Rovira, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Química Inorgánica, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Laboratorio de Corrosión, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Vázquez-Martínez, J.M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); Varela-Feria, F.M. [Servicio de Microscopía Centro de Investigación, Tecnología e Innovación (CITIUS), Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 4b, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Marcos, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real 11519 (Spain); and others

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • We describe a method to acquire a high-angle tilt series of SEM images that is symmetrical respect to the zero tilt of the sample stage. The method can be applied in any SEM microscope. • Using the method, high-resolution 3D SEM photogrammetry can be applied on planar surfaces. • 3D models of three surfaces patterned with grooves are reconstructed with high resolution using multi-view freeware photogrammetry software as described in LC Gontard et al. Ultramicroscopy, 2016. • From the 3D models roughness parameters are measured • 3D SEM high-resolution photogrammetry is compared with two conventional methods used for roughness characetrization: stereophotogrammetry and contact profilometry. • It provides three-dimensional information with high-resolution that is out of reach for any other metrological technique. - Abstract: We describe a methodology to obtain three-dimensional models of engineered surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and multi-view photogrammetry (3DSEM). For the reconstruction of the 3D models of the surfaces we used freeware available in the cloud. The method was applied to study the surface roughness of metallic samples patterned with parallel grooves by means of laser. The results are compared with measurements obtained using stylus profilometry (PR) and SEM stereo-photogrammetry (SP). The application of 3DSEM is more time demanding than PR or SP, but it provides a more accurate representation of the surfaces. The results obtained with the three techniques are compared by investigating the influence of sampling step on roughness parameters.

  19. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  20. Dye laser light for high-resolution classical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissler, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    The test run with the bubble chamber HOLEBC in October 1981 offered the opportunity of checking the usefulness of de-speckled dye laser light for illumination purposes in high-resolution classical dark field photography of small bubble chambers. (orig./HSI)

  1. High-resolution seismic imaging of the Sohagpur Gondwana basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of the high-resolution seismic data depends mainly on the data ..... metric rift geometry. Based on the .... Biswas S K 2003 Regional tectonic framework of the .... Sheth H C, Ray J S, Ray R, Vanderkluysen L, Mahoney J. J, Kumar A ...

  2. Pulmonary Gaucher's disease: high-resolution computed tomographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, A.; Berkmen, Y.M.; Goekmen, E.

    1995-01-01

    CT findings in pulmonary Gaucher's disease have not been previously reported. Chest radiograph of a patient with pulmonary involvement in type I Gaucher's disease proven by biopsy showed linear and reticulo-nodular opacities. High-resolution CT demonstrated thickening of the interlobular septa and between four and six small nodules within secondary lobules, probably each corresponding to an acinus. (orig.)

  3. High resolution techniques using scanning proton microprobe (SPM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Saint, A.; Prawer, S.; Laird, J.S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Bardos, R.A.; Moorhead, G.F.; Taylor, G.N.; Stuart, S.A.; Howard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The very high resolution (down to 50 nm) achieved with low beam currents (fA) in a scanning ion microprobe have lead to many nondestructive techniques of microanalysis. This paper discusses recent developments and applications in the use of 3-D STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) Tomography, channeling STIM and IBIC (ion beam induced charge). (orig.)

  4. Structure Identification in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopic Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Kling, Jens; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2014-01-01

    A connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties is expected for almost all material systems. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is a technique offering insight into the atomic structure, but the analysis of large image series can be time consuming. The present ...

  5. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy: High-resolution melting curve analysis as an affordable diagnostic mutation scanning tool in a South African cohort. ... Genetic screening for D/BMD in South Africa currently includes multiple ligase-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for exonic deletions and duplications and linkage ...

  6. Role of land state in a high resolution mesoscale model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences · Resonance – Journal of Science ... Land surface characteristics; high resolution mesoscale model; Uttarakhand ... to predict realistic location, timing, amount,intensity and distribution of rainfall ... region embedded within two low pressure centers over Arabian Seaand Bay of Bengal.

  7. A high resolution powder diffractometer using focusing optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: siruguri@csr.ernet.in. Abstract. In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of a new high resolution neutron powder diffractometer that has been installed at the Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. The instrument employs novel design concepts like the use of bent, perfect crystal monochromator ...

  8. Application of high resolution SNP arrays in patients with congenital ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    clinical experience in implementing whole-genome high-resolution SNP arrays to investigate 33 patients with syndromic and .... Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database (OMIM, ..... of damaged mitochondria through either autophagy or mito- ..... malformations: associations with maternal and infant character- istics in a ...

  9. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  10. Yeast expression proteomics by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Tobias C; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Mann, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    -translational controls contribute majorly to regulation of protein abundance, for example in heat shock stress response. The development of new sample preparation methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry and novel bioinfomatic tools close this gap and allow the global quantitation of the yeast proteome under different...

  11. High resolution satellite imagery : from spies to pipeline management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, S. [Canadian Geomatic Solutions Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Farrell, M. [TransCanada Transmission, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The launch of Space Imaging's IKONOS satellite in September 1999 has opened the door for corridor applications. The technology has been successfully implemented by TransCanada PipeLines in mapping over 1500 km of their mainline. IKONOS is the world's first commercial high resolution satellite which collects data at 1-meter black/white and 4-meter multi-spectral. Its use is regulated by the U.S. government. It is the best source of high resolution satellite image data. Other sources include the Indian Space Agency's IRS-1 C/D satellite and the Russian SPIN-2 which provides less reliable coverage. In addition, two more high resolution satellites may be launched this year to provide imagery every day of the year. IKONOS scenes as narrow as 5 km can be purchased. TransCanada conducted a pilot study to determine if high resolution satellite imagery is as effective as ortho-photos for identifying population structures within a buffer of TransCanada's east line right-of-way. The study examined three unique segments where residential, commercial, industrial and public features were compared. It was determined that IKONOS imagery is as good as digital ortho-photos for updating structures from low to very high density areas. The satellite imagery was also logistically easier than ortho-photos to acquire. This will be even more evident when the IKONOS image archives begins to grow. 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Novel techniques in VUV high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubachs, W.M.G.; Salumbides, E.J.; Eikema, K.S.E.; de Oliveira, N.; Nahon, L.

    2014-01-01

    Novel VUV sources and techniques for VUV spectroscopy are reviewed. Laser-based VUV sources have been developed via non-linear upconversion of laser pulses in the nanosecond (ns), the picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) domain, and are applied in high-resolution gas phase spectroscopic studies.

  13. High resolution X-ray diffraction studies on unirradiated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-resolution X-ray diffraction technique, employing a three-crystal monochromator–collimator combination is used to study the irradiation induced defects in flux grown Sr-hexaferrite crystals irradiated with 50 MeV Li3+ ion beams at room temperature with a fluence value of 1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The diffraction curves of the ...

  14. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  15. Pattern of interstitial lung disease detected by high resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diffuse lung diseases constitute a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) is the recommended imaging technique in the diagnosis, assessment and followup of these diseases. Objectives: To describe the pattern of HRCT findings in patients with ...

  16. A multi-channel high-resolution time recorder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lingyun; Yang Xiaojun; Song Kezhu; Wang Yanfang

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-channel and high-speed time recorder system, which was originally designed to work in the experiments of quantum cryptography research. The novelty of the system is that all the hardware logic is performed by only one FPGA. The system can achieve several desirable features, such as simplicity, high resolution and high processing speed. (authors)

  17. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  18. Remote parallel rendering for high-resolution tiled display walls

    KAUST Repository

    Nachbaur, Daniel; Dumusc, Raphael; Bilgili, Ahmet; Hernando, Juan; Eilemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. We present a complete, robust and simple to use hardware and software stack delivering remote parallel rendering of complex geometrical and volumetric models to high resolution tiled display walls in a production environment. We describe the setup and configuration, present preliminary benchmarks showing interactive framerates, and describe our contributions for a seamless integration of all the software components.

  19. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references

  20. High resolution and high speed positron emission tomography data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgiss, S.G.; Byars, L.G.; Jones, W.F.; Casey, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution positron emission tomography (PET) requires many detectors. Thus, data collection systems for PET must have high data rates, wide data paths, and large memories to histogram the events. This design uses the VMEbus to cost effectively provide these features. It provides for several modes of operation including real time sorting, list mode data storage, and replay of stored list mode data

  1. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  2. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  3. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364164794; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  4. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping of Martian Terraced Fan Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, J. M.; Patterson, A. B.; Smith, S. D.; Robbins, N. N.

    2018-06-01

    This abstract documents our initial progress (year 1) mapping terraced fan features on Mars. Our objective is to investigate the role of fluids during fan formation and produce the first high-resolution geologic map (1:18k) of a terraced fan.

  5. Magical Formulae for Market Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Sörbom, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    Markets are often portrayed as being organized by way of rationalized knowledge, objective reasoning, and the fluctuations of demand and supply. In parallel, and often mixed with this modality of knowledge, magical beliefs and practices are prevalent. Business leaders, management consultants......, and financial advisors are often savvy in the art of creatively blending the ‘objective facts’ of markets with magical formulae, rites, and imaginaries of the future. This article looks at the World Economic Forum's yearly Davos meeting as a large-scale ritual that engages senior executives of global...... corporations, top-level politicians, and civil society leaders to contribute to the overall aim of ‘improving the world’. The Davos gathering has become a vital part of the business calendar, just as much for the intensity of its networking as for the declarations of action from the speakers’ podiums...

  6. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Compact High Resolution SANS using very cold neutrons (VCN-SANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.; Yamada, M.; Iwashita, Y.; Geltenbort, P.; Bleuel, M.; Shimizu, H.

    2011-01-01

    SANS (Small Angle Neutron Scattering) is a popular method for elucidation of nano-scale structures. However science continually challenges SANS for higher performance, prompting exploration of ever-more exotic and expensive technologies. We propose a compact high resolution SANS, using very cold neutrons, magnetic focusing lens and a wide-angle spherical detector. This system will compete with modern 40 m pinhole SANS in one tenth of the length, matching minimum Q, Q-resolution and dynamic range. It will also probe dynamics using the MIEZE method. Our prototype lens (a rotating permanent-magnet sextupole), focuses a pulsed neutron beam over 3-5 nm wavelength and has measured SANS from micelles and polymer blends. (authors)

  8. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammoto Takeo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries.

  9. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  10. Innovative diffraction gratings for high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.

  11. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of nickel isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal aims to measure the nuclear ground-state spins, moments and mean-square charge radii of $^{56-71}$Ni using collinear laser spectroscopy. This will enable direct measurements of isotopes in the region of shell closure $^{56}$Ni, structural change $^{68}$Ni and monopole migration beyond N = 40. Optical spectroscopy serves as a detailed probe not only of the changing single-particle behaviour, but also for the study of collective properties such as size and shape. Measurements of the most neutron-rich isotopes available at ISOLDE will critically test models which seek to extrapolate the data to the doubly magic region of $^{78}$Ni.

  12. Penggunaan magic dalam politik lokal di Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatullah Humaeni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Village-head elections frequently become unhealthy competitions among the candidate. They employ various ways to win the election, including using magical means. This article aims to explain social phenomena occur in local politics in the use of magic village-head elections in rural Banten; particularly in two sub-districts, Ciomas and Padarincang. It tries to answer several main research questions: (1 why do the candidates make use of magic during the village election process?; (2 what kinds of magic used by the candidates; (3 How does magic influence the winning chance of village head elections? (4 and how is the process of the magic usage during the village election process?. This article is the result of a field research using ethnographical method based on anthropological perspective. To analyze the data, the researcher uses structural-functional approach. Library research, participant-observation, and depth-interview are methods used to collect the data. Based on the result of field research, it can be concluded that almost all of the candidates in these two sub-districts made use of magic in order to win the village head elections. They visit several magicians and made use of their super natural powers for their own purposes. They believed that magical power possessed by these magicians could influence their winning chance in the village-head elections. Various fundamental reasons also become an important consideration why the candidates need to use magic in local politics process.

  13. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-01-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R work value of 18.7% and an R free of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6 5 , the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle

  14. Professional Expertise in Magic – Reflecting on professional expertise in magic:An interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli eRissanen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.

  15. High resolution color imagery for orthomaps and remote sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricker, Peter [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (Switzerland); Gallo, M. Guillermo [Leica Geosystems GIS and Mapping, LLC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The ADS40 Airborne Digital Pushbroom Sensor is currently the only commercial sensor capable of acquiring color and false color strip images in the low decimeter range at the same high resolution as the black and white stereo images. This high resolution of 12,000 pixels across the entire swath and 100% forward overlap in the image strips result in high quality DSM's, True Ortho's and at the same time allow unbiased remote sensing applications due to color strip images unchanged by pan-sharpening. The paper gives details on how the pushbroom sensor achieves these seemingly difficult technical challenges. It describes how a variety of mapping applications benefit from this sensor, a sensor which acts as a satellite pushbroom sensor within the airborne environment. (author)

  16. Ring artifact correction for high-resolution micro CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriakou, Yiannis; Prell, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A

    2009-01-01

    In high-resolution micro CT using flat detectors (FD), imperfect or defect detector elements may cause concentric-ring artifacts due to their continuous over- or underestimation of attenuation values, which often disturb image quality. We here present a dedicated image-based ring artifact correction method for high-resolution micro CT, based on median filtering of the reconstructed image and working on a transformed version of the reconstructed images in polar coordinates. This post-processing method reduced ring artifacts in the reconstructed images and improved image quality for phantom and in in vivo scans. Noise and artifacts were reduced both in transversal and in multi-planar reformations along the longitudinal axis. (note)

  17. High resolution radar satellite imagery analysis for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Christian; Eineder, Michael [German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Department of SAR Signal Processing, Wessling, (Germany); Rezniczek, Arnold [UBA GmbH, Herzogenrath, (Germany); Niemeyer, Irmgard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institue of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Juelich, (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For monitoring nuclear sites, the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery shows essential promises. Unlike optical remote sensing instruments, radar sensors operate under almost all weather conditions and independently of the sunlight, i.e. time of the day. Such technical specifications are required both for continuous and for ad-hoc, timed surveillance tasks. With Cosmo-Skymed, TerraSARX and Radarsat-2, high-resolution SAR imagery with a spatial resolution up to 1m has recently become available. Our work therefore aims to investigate the potential of high-resolution TerraSAR data for nuclear monitoring. This paper focuses on exploiting amplitude of a single acquisition, assessing amplitude changes and phase differences between two acquisitions, and PS-InSAR processing of an image stack.

  18. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  19. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  20. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes

  1. Automated data processing of high-resolution mass spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    of the massive amounts of data. We present an automated data processing method to quantitatively compare large numbers of spectra from the analysis of complex mixtures, exploiting the full quality of high-resolution mass spectra. By projecting all detected ions - within defined intervals on both the time...... infusion of crude extracts into the source taking advantage of the high sensitivity, high mass resolution and accuracy and the limited fragmentation. Unfortunately, there has not been a comparable development in the data processing techniques to fully exploit gain in high resolution and accuracy...... infusion analyses of crude extract to find the relationship between species from several species terverticillate Penicillium, and also that the ions responsible for the segregation can be identified. Furthermore the process can automate the process of detecting unique species and unique metabolites....

  2. Towards high-resolution positron emission tomography for small volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Some arguments are made regarding the medical usefulness of high spatial resolution in positron imaging, even if limited to small imaged volumes. Then the intrinsic limitations to spatial resolution in positron imaging are discussed. The project to build a small-volume, high resolution animal research prototype (SHARP) positron imaging system is described. The components of the system, particularly the detectors, are presented and brief mention is made of data acquisition and image reconstruction methods. Finally, some preliminary imaging results are presented; a pair of isolated point sources and 18 F in the bones of a rabbit. Although the detector system is not fully completed, these first results indicate that the goals of high sensitivity and high resolution (4 mm) have been realized. (Auth.)

  3. High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kuehne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

    2009-01-01

    Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 μm could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

  4. SRS station 16.3: high-resolution applications

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, B M; Golshan, M; Moore, M; Reid, J; Kowalski, G

    2001-01-01

    Station 16.3 is a high-resolution X-ray diffraction beamline at Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source. The data presented demonstrate the high-resolution available on the station utilising the recently commissioned four-reflection Si 1 1 1 monochromator and three-reflection Si 1 1 1 analyser. For comparison, a reciprocal space map of the two-bounce Si 1 1 1 monochromator and two-bounce analyser is also shown. Operation of the station is illustrated with examples for silicon, and for diamond. Lattice parameter variations were measured with accuracies in the part per million range and lattice tilts at the arc second level (DuMond, Phys. Rev. 52 (1937) 872).

  5. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance studies of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jiri

    2002-03-25

    The combination of advanced high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with high-pressure capability represents a powerful experimental tool in studies of protein folding. This review is organized as follows: after a general introduction of high-pressure, high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of proteins, the experimental part deals with instrumentation. The main section of the review is devoted to NMR studies of reversible pressure unfolding of proteins with special emphasis on pressure-assisted cold denaturation and the detection of folding intermediates. Recent studies investigating local perturbations in proteins and the experiments following the effects of point mutations on pressure stability of proteins are also discussed. Ribonuclease A, lysozyme, ubiquitin, apomyoglobin, alpha-lactalbumin and troponin C were the model proteins investigated.

  6. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  7. Precision crystal alignment for high-resolution electron microscope imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.J.; Beeching, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    One of the more difficult tasks involved in obtaining quality high-resolution electron micrographs is the precise alignment of a specimen into the required zone. The current accepted procedure, which involves changing to diffraction mode and searching for symmetric point diffraction pattern, is insensitive to small amounts of misalignment and at best qualitative. On-line analysis of the fourier space representation of the image, both for determining and correcting crystal tilt, is investigated. 8 refs., 42 figs

  8. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  9. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  10. Constraining Stochastic Parametrisation Schemes Using High-Resolution Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H. M.; Dawson, A.; Palmer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Stochastic parametrisations are used in weather and climate models as a physically motivated way to represent model error due to unresolved processes. Designing new stochastic schemes has been the target of much innovative research over the last decade. While a focus has been on developing physically motivated approaches, many successful stochastic parametrisation schemes are very simple, such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) multiplicative scheme `Stochastically Perturbed Parametrisation Tendencies' (SPPT). The SPPT scheme improves the skill of probabilistic weather and seasonal forecasts, and so is widely used. However, little work has focused on assessing the physical basis of the SPPT scheme. We address this matter by using high-resolution model simulations to explicitly measure the `error' in the parametrised tendency that SPPT seeks to represent. The high resolution simulations are first coarse-grained to the desired forecast model resolution before they are used to produce initial conditions and forcing data needed to drive the ECMWF Single Column Model (SCM). By comparing SCM forecast tendencies with the evolution of the high resolution model, we can measure the `error' in the forecast tendencies. In this way, we provide justification for the multiplicative nature of SPPT, and for the temporal and spatial scales of the stochastic perturbations. However, we also identify issues with the SPPT scheme. It is therefore hoped these measurements will improve both holistic and process based approaches to stochastic parametrisation. Figure caption: Instantaneous snapshot of the optimal SPPT stochastic perturbation, derived by comparing high-resolution simulations with a low resolution forecast model.

  11. High-Resolution Imaging of Colliding and Merging Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Brad

    1991-07-01

    We propose to obtain high-resolution images, using the WF/PC, of two colliding and merging galaxies (i.e., NGC 4038/4039 = "The Antennae" and NGC 7252 ="Atoms-for-Peace Galaxy". Our goal is to use HST to make critical observations of each object in order to gain a better understanding of the various phases of the merger process. Our primary objective is to determine whether globular clusters are formed during mergers\\?

  12. PROFIL-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  13. Profil-360 high resolution steam generator tube profilometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution profilometry system, PROFIL 360, has been developed to assess the condition of steam generator tubes and rapidly produce the data to evaluate the potential for developing in-service leaks. The probe has an electromechanical sensor in a rotating head. This technique has been demonstrated in the field, saving tubes that would have been plugged with the go-gauge criterion and indicating plugging other high-risk candidates that might otherwise not have been removed from service

  14. Tuberculous otitis media: findings on high-resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungenschmid, D.; Buchberger, W.; Schoen, G.; Schoepf, R.; Mihatsch, T.; Birbamer, G.; Wicke, K.

    1993-01-01

    We describe two cases of tuberculous otitis media studied with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Findings included extensive soft tissue densities with fluid levels in the tympanic cavity, the antrum, the mastoid and petrous air cells. Multifocal bony erosions and reactive bone sclerosis were seen as well. CT proved valuable for planning therapy by accurately displaying the involvement of the various structures of the middle and inner ear. However, the specific nature of the disease could only be presumed. (orig.)

  15. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  16. Creating the High-Resolution Settlement Layer - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, A.

    2017-12-01

    Facebook publishes the High-resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL: https://ciesin.columbia.edu/data/hrsl/) in collaboration with Columbia University's CIESIN institute and the World Bank. So far, data for 13 countries have been published over the past nine months. HRSL data for Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, The Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda are available for download. We will present a status update and report on lessons learned.

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission s...

  18. High resolution atomic spectra of rare earths : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution studies of atomic spectra of neodymium and gadolinium are being carried out on a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The present progress report concerns work done on new assignments as well as confirmation of recently assigned electronic configurations and evaluation of isotope shifts of energy levels which have been possible from the isotope shift data obtained for several transitions of NdI, NdII and GdI, GdII respectively. (author)

  19. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors

  20. Detectors for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Tomography is the technique of producing a photographic image of an opaque specimen by transmitting a beam of x-rays or gamma rays through the specimen onto an adjacent photographic film. The image results from variations in thickness, density, and chemical composition, of the specimen. This technique is used to study the metabolism of the human brain. This article examines the design of equipment used for high resolution dynamic positron emission tomography. 27 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  1. High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry: A Time Motion Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C Sadowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: High-resolution manometry (HRM of the esophagus is a new technique that provides a more precise assessment of esophageal motility than conventional techniques. Because HRM measures pressure events along the entire length of the esophagus simultaneously, clinical procedure time should be shorter because less catheter manipulation is required. According to manufacturer advertising, the new HRM system is more accurate and up to 50% faster than conventional methods.

  2. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid o......-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  3. Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Oeystein E.; Owens, Catherine M.; Sebire, Neil J.; Jaffe, Adam

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis is crucial for correct management; however, several entities with the same HRCT findings are recognized. (orig.)

  4. Acute pulmonary injury: high-resolution CT and histopathological spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, E T; Torrealba, J M

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury usually causes hypoxaemic respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although diffuse alveolar damage is the hallmark of ARDS, other histopathological patterns of injury, such as acute and fibrinoid organising pneumonia, can be associated with acute respiratory failure. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia can also cause acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure and mimic ARDS. This pictorial essay reviews the high-resolution CT findings of acute lung injury and the correlative histopathological findings. PMID:23659926

  5. Aspects of pulmonary histiocytosis X on high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.S.S.; Castro Lessa Angela, M.T. de; Angelo Junior, J.R.L.; Silva, F.M.D.; Kavakama, J.; Carvalho, C.R.R. de; Cerri, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disease that occurs in young adults and presents with nodules and cysts, mainly in upper lobes, with consequent pulmonary fibrosis. These pulmonary changes are virtually pathognomonic findings on high resolution computed tomography, that allows estimate the area of the lung involved and distinguish histiocytosis X from other disorders that also produces nodules and cysts. (author). 10 refs, 2 tabs, 6 figs

  6. COST EFFECTIVE AND HIGH RESOLUTION SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION USING HYDRAULIC TOMOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    objective of this project is to provide the DoD and its remediation contractors with the HT technology for delineating the spatial distribution of...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hydraulic Tomography ( HT ) is a high-resolution...performance of subsurface remedial actions at environmental sites. The good technical performance and cost-effectiveness of HT have been demonstrated in

  7. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  8. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  9. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Center, 855 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  10. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, F.; Ono, A.; Ando, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Ishii, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Sato, H.; Kira, A.; Otabe, M.; Mori, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with acute Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with acute S. milleri pneumonia who had undergone high-resolution CT chest examinations between January 2004 and March 2010 were retrospectively identified. Twenty-seven patients with concurrent infections were excluded. The final study group comprised 33 patients (25 men, 8 women; aged 20–88 years, mean 63.1 years) with S. milleri infection. The patients' clinical findings were assessed. Parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes, and pleural effusion were evaluated on high-resolution CT. Results: Underlying conditions included malignancy (n = 15), a smoking habit (n = 11), and diabetes mellitus (n = 8). CT images of all patients showed abnormal findings, including ground-glass opacity (n = 24), bronchial wall thickening (n = 23), consolidation (n = 17), and cavities (n = 7). Pleural effusion was found in 18 patients, and complex pleural effusions were found in seven patients. Conclusion: Pulmonary infection caused by S. milleri was observed mostly in male patients with underlying conditions such as malignancy or a smoking habit. The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities

  11. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  12. The high resolution shear wave seismic reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.J.; Clark, J.C.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents the state-of-the-art of the high resolution S-wave reflection technique. Published and unpublished literature has been reviewed and discussions have been held with experts. Result is to confirm that the proposed theoretical and practical basis for identifying aquifer systems using both P- and S-wave reflections is sound. Knowledge of S-wave velocity and P-wave velocity is a powerful tool for assessing the fluid characteristics of subsurface layers. Material properties and lateral changes in material properties such as change from clay to sand, can be inferred from careful dual evaluation of P and S-wave records. The high resolution S-wave reflection technique has seen its greatest application to date as part of geotechnical studies for building foundations in the Far East. Information from this type of study has been evaluated and will be incorporated in field studies. In particular, useful information regarding S-wave sources, noise suppression and recording procedures will be incorporated within the field studies. Case histories indicate that the best type of site for demonstrating the power of the high resolution S-wave technique will be in unconsolidated soil without excessive structural complexities. More complex sites can form the basis for subsequent research after the basic principles of the technique can be established under relatively uncomplicated conditions

  13. Pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings in 114 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Ward, Suzanne; Heyneman, Laura; Mueller, Nestor L.; Johkoh, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the high-resolution CT appearances of different types of pneumonia. The high-resolution CT scans obtained in 114 patients (58 immunocompetent, 59 immunocompromised) with bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, viral, fungal, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonias were analyzed retrospectively by two independent observers for presence, pattern, and distribution of abnormalities. Areas of air-space consolidation were not detected in patients with viral pneumonia and were less frequently seen in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (2 of 22 patients, 9%) than in bacterial (30 of 35, 85%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 of 28, 79%), and fungal pneumonias (15 of 20, 75%; p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the prevalence or distribution of consolidation between bacterial, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and fungal pneumonias. Extensive symmetric bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation were present in 21 of 22 (95%) patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and were not seen in other pneumonias except in association with areas of consolidation and nodules. Centrilobular nodules were present less commonly in bacterial pneumonia (6 of 35 patients, 17%) than in Mycoplasma pneumoniae (24 of 28, 96%), viral (7 of 9, 78%), or fungal (12 of 20, 92%) pneumonia (p<0.01). Except for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, which often have a characteristic appearance, high-resolution CT is of limited value in the differential diagnosis of the various types of infective pneumonia. (orig.)

  14. The demonstration of the auditory ossicles by high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, G.A.S.; Boulay, G.H. du; Phelps, P.D.; Pullicino, P.

    1979-01-01

    The high resolution CT scanning system introduced by EMI in 1978 has added a new dimension to computerised tomography in otology. The apparatus used for this study was an EMI CT 5005 body scanner adapted for head and neck scanning and incorporating a high resolution facility. The latter has proved most advantageous in areas of relatively high differential absorption, so that its application to the demonstration of abnormalities in the petrous temporal bone, and in particular middle ear disease, has been very rewarding. Traumatic ossicular disruptions may now be demonstrated and the high contrast of CT often shows them better than conventional hypocycloidal tomography. The stapes is also better visualised and congenital abnormalities of its superstructure have been recorded. These studies have been achieved with a very acceptable level of radiation to the eye, lens and cornea and the technique is clearly a rival to conventional pluridirectional tomography in the assessment of the petrous temporal bone. With further design improvements high resolution CT could completely replace existing techniques. (orig.) [de

  15. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs

  16. Toward high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of microscopic liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Mark C.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Chen, Ying; Reardon, Patrick N.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Khbeis, Michael; Irish, Duane; Mueller, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding limitation of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is the requirement for samples to have macroscopic dimensions. Commercial probes, for example, are designed for volumes of at least 5 mL, in spite of decades of work directed toward the goal of miniaturization. Progress in miniaturizing inductive detectors has been limited by a perceived need to meet two technical requirements: (1) minimal separation between the sample and the detector, which is essential for sensitivity, and (2) near-perfect magnetic-field homogeneity at the sample, which is typically needed for spectral resolution. The first of these requirements is real, but the second can be relaxed, as we demonstrate here. By using pulse sequences that yield high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous field, we eliminate the need for near-perfect field homogeneity and the accompanying requirement for susceptibility matching of microfabricated detector components. With this requirement removed, typical imperfections in microfabricated components can be tolerated, and detector dimensions can be matched to those of the sample, even for samples of volume << 5 uL. Pulse sequences that are robust to field inhomogeneity thus enable small-volume detection with optimal sensitivity. We illustrate the potential of this approach to miniaturization by presenting spectra acquired with a flat-wire detector that can easily be scaled to subnanoliter volumes. In particular, we report high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of an alanine sample of volume 500 pL.

  17. Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

    1987-07-01

    Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Algebra Magic Tricks: Algecadabra! Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ronald

    This resource book contains 20 magic tricks based on the properties of whole numbers that are intended to spark the interest and imagination of students. Following each activity, students are asked to write about their discoveries and to create their own magic tricks. A matrix of skills for all the activities and lists of the materials required…

  19. Algebra Magic Tricks: Algecadabra! Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ronald

    This resource book contains 15 magic tricks based on the properties of whole numbers that are intended to spark the interest and imagination of students. Following each activity, students are asked to write about their discoveries and to create their own magic tricks. A matrix of skills for all the activities and lists of the materials required…

  20. Towards high resolution ^1H NMR spectra of tannin colloidal aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel, M.; Glories, Y.; Pianet, I.; Dufourc, E. J.

    1999-10-01

    The time dependent colloidal formation of tannins in hydro-alcoholic medium has been studied by 1H-NMR. Line broadening observed with time can be cancelled by making use of magic angle sample spinning (MASS) thus yielding sharp lines that allow structural studies. We used as an example catechin, a constitutive monomer of Bordeaux young red wine tannins. Chemical shift variations of polyphenol protons allow monitoring the time course of aggregation. La formation de tanins colloïdaux au cours du temps, en milieu hydroalcoolique, a été suivie par RMN-^1H. Un élargissement marqué des résonances est observé et peut être supprimé par la rotation de l'échantillon à l'angle magique ce qui ouvre tout un champ d'études structurales sur ces composés colloïdaux. L'exemple proposé est celui de la catéchine, monomère constitutif de tannins présents en grande quantité dans les vins rouges jeunes de Bordeaux. Des variations du déplacement chimique de certains protons polyphénoliques permettent de suivre l'évolution temporelle de l'agrégation.

  1. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...... which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate than eye pointing....

  2. Global Monitoring of Mountain Glaciers Using High-Resolution Spotlight Imaging from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Green, J. J.; Bills, B. G.; Goguen, J.; Ansar, A.; Knight, R. L.; Hallet, B.; Scambos, T. A.; Thompson, L. G.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers around the world are retreating rapidly, contributing about 20% to present-day sea level rise. Numerous studies have shown that mountain glaciers are sensitive to global environmental change. Temperate-latitude glaciers and snowpack provide water for over 1 billion people. Glaciers are a resource for irrigation and hydroelectric power, but also pose flood and avalanche hazards. Accurate mass balance assessments have been made for only 280 glaciers, yet there are over 130,000 in the World Glacier Inventory. The rate of glacier retreat or advance can be highly variable, is poorly sampled, and inadequately understood. Liquid water from ice front lakes, rain, melt, or sea water and debris from rocks, dust, or pollution interact with glacier ice often leading to an amplification of warming and further melting. Many mountain glaciers undergo rapid and episodic events that greatly change their mass balance or extent but are sparsely documented. Events include calving, outburst floods, opening of crevasses, or iceberg motion. Spaceborne high-resolution spotlight optical imaging provides a means of clarifying the relationship between the health of mountain glaciers and global environmental change. Digital elevation models (DEMs) can be constructed from a series of images from a range of perspectives collected by staring at a target during a satellite overpass. It is possible to collect imagery for 1800 targets per month in the ×56° latitude range, construct high-resolution DEMs, and monitor changes in high detail over time with a high-resolution optical telescope mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Snow and ice type, age, and maturity can be inferred from different color bands as well as distribution of liquid water. Texture, roughness, albedo, and debris distribution can be estimated by measuring bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF) and reflectance intensity as a function of viewing angle. The non-sun-synchronous orbit

  3. Assessment of Atmospheric Algorithms to Retrieve Vegetation in Natural Protected Areas Using Multispectral High Resolution Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Marcello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise mapping of vegetation covers in semi-arid areas is a complex task as this type of environment consists of sparse vegetation mainly composed of small shrubs. The launch of high resolution satellites, with additional spectral bands and the ability to alter the viewing angle, offers a useful technology to focus on this objective. In this context, atmospheric correction is a fundamental step in the pre-processing of such remote sensing imagery and, consequently, different algorithms have been developed for this purpose over the years. They are commonly categorized as imaged-based methods as well as in more advanced physical models based on the radiative transfer theory. Despite the relevance of this topic, a few comparative studies covering several methods have been carried out using high resolution data or which are specifically applied to vegetation covers. In this work, the performance of five representative atmospheric correction algorithms (DOS, QUAC, FLAASH, ATCOR and 6S has been assessed, using high resolution Worldview-2 imagery and field spectroradiometer data collected simultaneously, with the goal of identifying the most appropriate techniques. The study also included a detailed analysis of the parameterization influence on the final results of the correction, the aerosol model and its optical thickness being important parameters to be properly adjusted. The effects of corrections were studied in vegetation and soil sites belonging to different protected semi-arid ecosystems (high mountain and coastal areas. In summary, the superior performance of model-based algorithms, 6S in particular, has been demonstrated, achieving reflectance estimations very close to the in-situ measurements (RMSE of between 2% and 3%. Finally, an example of the importance of the atmospheric correction in the vegetation estimation in these natural areas is presented, allowing the robust mapping of species and the analysis of multitemporal variations

  4. High resolution solar observations from first principles to applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoni, Angelo P.

    2009-10-01

    The expression "high-resolution observations" in Solar Physics refers to the spatial, temporal and spectral domains in their entirety. High-resolution observations of solar fine structure are a necessity to answer many of the intriguing questions related to solar activity. However, a researcher building instruments for high-resolution observations has to cope with the fact that these three domains often have diametrically opposed boundary conditions. Many factors have to be considered in the design of a successful instrument. Modern post-focus instruments are more closely linked with the solar telescopes that they serve than in past. In principle, the quest for high-resolution observations already starts with the selection of the observatory site. The site survey of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) under the stewardship of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) has identified Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) as one of the best sites for solar observations. In a first step, the seeing characteristics at BBSO based on the data collected for the ATST site survey are described. The analysis will aid in the scheduling of high-resolution observations at BBSO as well as provide useful information concerning the design and implementation of a thermal control system for the New Solar Telescope (NST). NST is an off-axis open-structure Gregorian-style telescope with a 1.6 m aperture. NST will be housed in a newly constructed 5/8-sphere ventilated dome. With optics exposed to the surrounding air, NST's open-structure design makes it particularly vulnerable to the effects of enclosure-related seeing. In an effort to mitigate these effects, the initial design of a thermal control system for the NST dome is presented. The goal is to remediate thermal related seeing effects present within the dome interior. The THermal Control System (THCS) is an essential component for the open-telescope design of NST to work. Following these tasks, a calibration routine for the

  5. A subspace approach to high-resolution spectroscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Fan; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-04-01

    To accelerate spectroscopic imaging using sparse sampling of (k,t)-space and subspace (or low-rank) modeling to enable high-resolution metabolic imaging with good signal-to-noise ratio. The proposed method, called SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation, exploits a unique property known as partial separability of spectroscopic signals. This property indicates that high-dimensional spectroscopic signals reside in a very low-dimensional subspace and enables special data acquisition and image reconstruction strategies to be used to obtain high-resolution spatiospectral distributions with good signal-to-noise ratio. More specifically, a hybrid chemical shift imaging/echo-planar spectroscopic imaging pulse sequence is proposed for sparse sampling of (k,t)-space, and a low-rank model-based algorithm is proposed for subspace estimation and image reconstruction from sparse data with the capability to incorporate prior information and field inhomogeneity correction. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated using both computer simulations and phantom studies, which produced very encouraging results. For two-dimensional spectroscopic imaging experiments on a metabolite phantom, a factor of 10 acceleration was achieved with a minimal loss in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the long chemical shift imaging experiments and with a significant gain in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the accelerated echo-planar spectroscopic imaging experiments. The proposed method, SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation, is able to significantly accelerate spectroscopic imaging experiments, making high-resolution metabolic imaging possible. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Landslide detection using very high-resolution satellite imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Yuzo; Konishi, Tomohisa

    2012-10-01

    The heavy rain induced by the 12th typhoon caused landslide disaster at Kii Peninsula in the middle part of Japan. We propose a quick response method for landslide disaster mapping using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imageries. Especially, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is effective because it has the capability of all weather and day/night observation. In this study, multi-temporal COSMO-SkyMed imageries were used to detect the landslide areas. It was difficult to detect the landslide areas using only backscatter change pattern derived from pre- and post-disaster COSMOSkyMed imageries. Thus, the authors adopted a correlation analysis which the moving window was selected for the correlation coefficient calculation. Low value of the correlation coefficient reflects land cover change between pre- and post-disaster imageries. This analysis is effective for the detection of landslides using SAR data. The detected landslide areas were compared with the area detected by EROS-B high resolution optical image. In addition, we have developed 3D viewing system for geospatial visualizing of the damaged area using these satellite image data with digital elevation model. The 3D viewing system has the performance of geographic measurement with respect to elevation height, area and volume calculation, and cross section drawing including landscape viewing and image layer construction using a mobile personal computer with interactive operation. As the result, it was verified that a quick response for the detection of landslide disaster at the initial stage could be effectively performed using optical and SAR very high resolution satellite data by means of 3D viewing system.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on high resolution computed microtomography (CMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to determine the status of the field, to define instrumental and computational requirements, and to establish minimum specifications required by possible users. The most important message sent by implementers was the remainder that CMT is a tool. It solves a wide spectrum of scientific problems and is complementary to other microscopy techniques, with certain important advantages that the other methods do not have. High-resolution CMT can be used non-invasively and non-destructively to study a variety of hierarchical three-dimensional microstructures, which in turn control body function. X-ray computed microtomography can also be used at the frontiers of physics, in the study of granular systems, for example. With high-resolution CMT, for example, three-dimensional pore geometries and topologies of soils and rocks can be obtained readily and implemented directly in transport models. In turn, these geometries can be used to calculate fundamental physical properties, such as permeability and electrical conductivity, from first principles. Clearly, use of the high-resolution CMT technique will contribute tremendously to the advancement of current R and D technologies in the production, transport, storage, and utilization of oil and natural gas. It can also be applied to problems related to environmental pollution, particularly to spilling and seepage of hazardous chemicals into the Earth's subsurface. Applications to energy and environmental problems will be far-ranging and may soon extend to disciplines such as materials science--where the method can be used in the manufacture of porous ceramics, filament-resin composites, and microelectronics components--and to biomedicine, where it could be used to design biocompatible materials such as artificial bones, contact lenses, or medication-releasing implants. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  9. Geological survey by high resolution electrical survey on granite areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Naoyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an Integral part of the geological survey in 'The study of the regions ground water flow system' that we are carrying out with Tono Geoscience Center, we proved the relation between the uncontinuation structure such as lineament in the base rock and resistivity structure (resistivity distribution), for the purpose of that confirms the efficacy of the high resolution electrical survey as geological survey, we carried out high resolution electrical survey on granite area. We obtained the following result, by the comparison of resistivity distribution with established geological survey, lineament analysis and investigative drilling. 1. The resistivity structure of this survey area is almost able to classify it into the following four range. 1) the low resistivity range of 50-800 Ωm, 2) The resistivity range like the middle of 200-2000 Ωm, 3) The high resistivity range of 2000 Ωm over, 4) The low resistivity range of depth of the survey line 400-550 section. 2. The low resistivity range of 4) that correspond with the established geological data is not admitted. 3. It was confirmed that resistivity structure almost correspond to geological structure by the comparison with the established data. 4. The small-scale low resistivity area is admitted in the point equivalent to the lineament position of established. 5. We carried out it with the simulation method about the low resistivity range of 4). As a result, it understood that it has the possibility that the narrow ratio low resistivity area is shown as the wide ratio resistivity range in the analysis section. In the survey in this time, it is conceivable that the resistivity distribution with the possibility of the unhomogeneous and uncontinuation structure of the base rock is being shown conspicuously, the efficacy of the high resolution resistivity survey as geological survey on granite was shown. (author)

  10. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessing temporomandibular joint disc position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaceanu, Daniel; Lenghel, Lavinia Manuela; Bolog, Nicolae; Popa Stanila, Roxana; Buduru, Smaranda; Leucuta, Daniel Corneliu; Rotar, Horatiu; Baciut, Mihaela; Baciut, Grigore

    2018-02-04

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography (US) in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacements. A number of 74 patients (148 TMJs) with signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders, were included in this study. All patients received US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both TMJs 1 to 5 days after the clinical examination. MRI examinations were performed using 1.5 T MRI equipment (Siemens Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen). Ultrasonographic examination was performed on a Hitachi EUB 8500 (Hitachi Medical Corp., Tokyo, Japan) scanner with L 54 M6.5-13 MHz linear transducer. MRI depicted 68 (45.95%) normal joints, 47 (31.76%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 34 (22.97%) with degenerative changes. US detected 78 (52.7%) normal joints, 37 (25%) with disc displacement with reduction, 33 (22.3%) with disc displacement without reduction and 21 (14.19%) with degenerative changes. Compared to MRI, US showed a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 87.88%, accuracy of 90.32%, a positive predictive value of 87.1% and a negative predictive value of 93.55% for overall diagnosis of disc displacement. The Youden index was 0.81. Based on our results, high-resolution ultrasonography showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in the diagnosis of TMJ disc displacement. It could be a valuable imaging technique in assessing TMJ disc position. The diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasonography depends strictly on the examiner's skills and on the equipment used.

  11. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting

    OpenAIRE

    Dunker, Tim; Hauglin, Harald; Rønningen, Ole Petter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic...

  12. High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) particle-identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, J.C.; Spencer, J.E.; Whitten, C.A.

    1977-08-01

    The functions of the particle-identification system (PIDS) designed for the High Resolution Spectrometer facility (HRS) at LAMPF are described, together with the mechanical layout, counter hardware, and associated electronics. The system was designed for easy use and to be applicable to currently proposed experiments at HRS. The several strobe signals that can be generated correspond to different event types or characteristics, and logic configuration and timing can be remotely controlled by computer. Concepts of discrete pattern recognition and multidimensional, analog pulse discrimination are used to distinguish between different event types

  13. Computing with high-resolution upwind schemes for hyperbolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarthy, S.R.; Osher, S.; California Univ., Los Angeles)

    1985-01-01

    Computational aspects of modern high-resolution upwind finite-difference schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are examined. An operational unification is demonstrated for constructing a wide class of flux-difference-split and flux-split schemes based on the design principles underlying total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. Consideration is also given to TVD scheme design by preprocessing, the extension of preprocessing and postprocessing approaches to general control volumes, the removal of expansion shocks and glitches, relaxation methods for implicit TVD schemes, and a new family of high-accuracy TVD schemes. 21 references

  14. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs-Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events.

  15. Free radicals. High-resolution spectroscopy and molecular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, E.

    1983-01-01

    High-resolution, high-sensitivity spectroscopy using CW laser and microwave sources has been applied to free radicals and transient molecules to establish their existence and to explore their properties in detail. The radicals studied were mainly generated by discharge-induced reactions. A few molecules are used as typical examples to illustrate the results so far obtained. The molecular and electronic structures of free radicals, intramolecular motions of large amplitudes in some labile molecules, and metastable electronic states of carbenes are given special emphasis. The significance of the present spectroscopic results in other related fields such as astronomy and atmospheric chemistry is stressed. 4 figures, 3 tables

  16. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  17. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  18. High resolution skin colorimetry, strain mapping and mechanobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, C; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Schreder, A; Docquier, V; Piérard, G E

    2010-08-01

    Skin colours are notoriously different between individuals. They are governed by ethnicities and phototypes, and further influenced by a variety of factors including photoexposures and sustained mechanical stress. Indeed, mechanobiology is a feature affecting the epidermal melanization. High-resolution epiluminescence colorimetry helps in deciphering the effects of forces generated by Langer's lines or relaxed skin tension lines on the melanocyte activity. The same procedure shows a prominent laddering pattern of melanization in striae distensae contrasting with the regular honeycomb pattern in the surrounding skin.

  19. Diesel characterization by high-resolution mass spectrometry - gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldrich, C.A

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry-gas chromatography is combined with the HC22 method in order to obtain detailed information about the chemical composition of diesel and the distribution of different compound types in terms of its final boiling temperature from a single analysis. The total time elapsed from sample injection and signal processing to obtain final results is 90 minutes. This fact makes this methodology a new and very important tool for the decision making process concerning the most suitable final boiling temperature and the type of treatment of the product in order to obtain diesel that fulfills the international standards. The consistency and repeatability of the experimental results are demonstrated

  20. New detector developments for high resolution positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Pichler, B.; Lorenz, E.

    1998-01-01

    The strength of quantitative, functional imaging using positron emission tomography, specially in small animals, is limited due to the spatial resolution. Therefore, various tomograph designs employing new scintillators, light sensors, or coincidence electronic are investigated to improve resolution without losses in sensitivity. Luminous scintillators with short light decay time in combination with novel readout schemes using photomultipliers or semiconductor detectors are currently tested by several groups and are implemented in tomographs for small animals. This review summarises the state of development in high resolution positron emission tomography with a detailed description of a system incorporating avalanche photodiode arrays and small scintillation crystals. (orig.) [de

  1. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.

    2008-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R and D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented

  2. High-resolution neutron-diffraction measurements to 8 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, C. L.; Fortes, A. D.; Ridley, C. J.; Wood, I. G.; Dobson, D. P.; Funnell, N. P.; Gibbs, A. S.; Goodway, C. M.; Sadykov, R.; Knight, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the capability to measure high-resolution neutron powder diffraction data to a pressure of at least 8 kbar. We have used the HRPD instrument at the ISIS neutron source and a piston-cylinder design of pressure cell machined from a null-scattering titanium zirconium alloy. Data were collected under hydrostatic conditions from an elpasolite perovskite La?NiMnO?; by virtue of a thinner cell wall on the incident-beam side of the cell, it was possible to obtain data in the instrument's highest resolution back-scattering detector banks up to a maximum pressure of 8.5 kbar.

  3. Diagnosis of cholesteatoma by high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Ogata, Noboru; Asada, Keiko; Watanabe, Katsushi; Tohno, Tetsuya; Makino, Kohji

    1988-01-01

    Three normal volunteers and 57 patients with cholesteatoma were examined by high resolution computed tomography. Serial sections were made through the temporal bone at the nasaly inclined position of 30 degree to the orbitomeatal line (semiaxial plane ; SAP). The findings of temporal bone structures in normal subjects were evaluated in SAP and axial plane (OM). Although the both planes showed good visualization, SAP showed both the eustachian tube and tympanic cavity in one slice. In cholesteatoma soft tissue masses in the tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells and Eustachian tube were demonstrated clearly by SAP. (author)

  4. High resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy with 67Zn in metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potzel, W.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer experiments on metallic systems are described where the high resolution 93.3 keV resonance in 67 Zn is used. In the first part, the Cu-Zn alloy system is investigated and the high energy resolution of this Moessbauer transition is employed to determine small changes of the s-electron density at the 67 Zn nucleus when the Zn concentration is changed. In the second part, Zn metal is taken as an example to demonstrate that the 93.3 keV transition is also extremely sensitive to small changes of lattice dynamical effects. 7 refs., 18 figs. (author)

  5. Evaluation of high-resolution CT after tympanoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, T.; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, Y.; Tanaka, F.; Okuno, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the condition of the middle ear cavity following tympanoplasty which is always of great interest to radiologists and otosurgeons. This study consisted of 21 patients who had various types of tympanoplasty (types I-IV) for chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma by using high-resolution CT (HRCT). HRCT following tympanoplasty was a valuable method for assessing the middle ear aeration and the state of ossicular reconstruction, including stapes prosthesis, although in some cases of soft-tissue mass in the middle ear it was necessary to correlate with clinical findings in order to differentiate between granulation and recurrence

  6. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  7. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  8. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  9. High-resolution seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Peter, Daniel

    2017-03-13

    High-resolution seismic wave simulations often require local refinements in numerical meshes to accurately capture e.g. steep topography or complex fault geometry. Together with explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time step size for ground-motion simulations due to numerical stability conditions. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time stepping scheme to adapt the time step to the element size, allowing nearoptimal time steps everywhere in the mesh. This can potentially lead to significantly faster simulation runtimes.

  10. High resolution resistivity measurements at the Down Ampney research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Jackson, P.D.; Rainsbury, M.; Raines, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new high resolution resistivity surveying method is described for fault detection and characterisation. The resolution is shown to be significantly higher than conventional apparent resistivity profiling when applied to geological discontinuities such as faults. Nominal fault locations have been determined to an accuracy of 0.5 m, as proven by drilling. Two dimensional profiling and image enhancement of the resulting 2-D data set indicated the possibility of subsidiary fractures and/or lateral changes within the clay to clay' fault zone. The increased resolution allows greater confidence to be placed on both the fault detection and lateral perturbations derived from processed resistance and resistivity images. (Author)

  11. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 34 (2017), 1-18, č. článku 343002. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8E15B010; GA ČR(CZ) GC14-16963J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic- force microscopy * scanning tunneling microscope * on-surface synthesis * single-molecule * AFM * STM * high resolution * molecules * surfaces Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.649, year: 2016

  12. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...... successfully in terms of the many-body theory of Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis. The 4d spectrum agrees well with predictions based on a relativistic-augmented-plane-wave band-structure calculation....

  13. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  14. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  15. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy in light antiprotonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Borchert, G L; Augsburger, M A; Castelli, C M; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Elble, M; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Nelms, N; Rashid, K; Schult, O W B; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    2000-01-01

    At the LEAR facility, CERN, antiprotonic L alpha transitions in light elements have been investigated with a focussing crystal spectrometer. The high resolution of the experiment allowed for the first time to resolve in pH/pH the 2/sup 3/P/sub 0/ state from the close-lying states 2/sup 3/P/sub 2/, 2/sup 1/P/sub 1/, and 2/sup 3/P /sub 1/. In pD the corresponding transitions were found to be more than an order of magnitude broader. To a large extent the results for pH support the meson exchange model. (15 refs).

  16. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE GEOMETRIC CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Xia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high resolution satellite with the longer focal length and the larger aperture has been widely used in georeferencing of the observed scene in recent years. The consistent end to end model of high resolution remote sensing satellite geometric chain is presented, which consists of the scene, the three line array camera, the platform including attitude and position information, the time system and the processing algorithm. The integrated design of the camera and the star tracker is considered and the simulation method of the geolocation accuracy is put forward by introduce the new index of the angle between the camera and the star tracker. The model is validated by the geolocation accuracy simulation according to the test method of the ZY-3 satellite imagery rigorously. The simulation results show that the geolocation accuracy is within 25m, which is highly consistent with the test results. The geolocation accuracy can be improved about 7 m by the integrated design. The model combined with the simulation method is applicable to the geolocation accuracy estimate before the satellite launching.

  17. FPscope: a field-portable high-resolution microscope using a cellphone lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Siyuan; Guo, Kaikai; Nanda, Pariksheet; Shiradkar, Radhika; Zheng, Guoan

    2014-10-01

    The large consumer market has made cellphone lens modules available at low-cost and in high-quality. In a conventional cellphone camera, the lens module is used to demagnify the scene onto the image plane of the camera, where image sensor is located. In this work, we report a 3D-printed high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscope, termed FPscope, which uses a cellphone lens in a reverse manner. In our platform, we replace the image sensor with sample specimens, and use the cellphone lens to project the magnified image to the detector. To supersede the diffraction limit of the lens module, we use an LED array to illuminate the sample from different incident angles and synthesize the acquired images using the Fourier ptychographic algorithm. As a demonstration, we use the reported platform to acquire high-resolution images of resolution target and biological specimens, with a maximum synthetic numerical aperture (NA) of 0.5. We also show that, the depth-of-focus of the reported platform is about 0.1 mm, orders of magnitude longer than that of a conventional microscope objective with a similar NA. The reported platform may enable healthcare accesses in low-resource settings. It can also be used to demonstrate the concept of computational optics for educational purposes.

  18. High resolution through-the-wall radar image based on beamspace eigenstructure subspace methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo-Sun; Amin, Moeness G.

    2008-04-01

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a challenging problem, even if the wall parameters and characteristics are known to the system operator. Proper target classification and correct imaging interpretation require the application of high resolution techniques using limited array size. In inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR), signal subspace methods such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) are used to obtain high resolution imaging. In this paper, we adopt signal subspace methods and apply them to the 2-D spectrum obtained from the delay-andsum beamforming image. This is in contrast to ISAR, where raw data, in frequency and angle, is directly used to form the estimate of the covariance matrix and array response vector. Using beams rather than raw data has two main advantages, namely, it improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and can correctly image typical indoor extended targets, such as tables and cabinets, as well as point targets. The paper presents both simulated and experimental results using synthesized and real data. It compares the performance of beam-space MUSIC and Capon beamformer. The experimental data is collected at the test facility in the Radar Imaging Laboratory, Villanova University.

  19. Magical mathematics the mathematical ideas that animate great magic tricks

    CERN Document Server

    Diaconis, Persi

    2012-01-01

    Magical Mathematics reveals the secrets of amazing, fun-to-perform card tricks--and the profound mathematical ideas behind them--that will astound even the most accomplished magician. Persi Diaconis and Ron Graham provide easy, step-by-step instructions for each trick, explaining how to set up the effect and offering tips on what to say and do while performing it. Each card trick introduces a new mathematical idea, and varying the tricks in turn takes readers to the very threshold of today's mathematical knowledge. For example, the Gilbreath Principle--a fantastic effect where the cards remain in control despite being shuffled--is found to share an intimate connection with the Mandelbrot set. Other card tricks link to the mathematical secrets of combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, topology, the Riemann hypothesis, and even Fermat's last theorem.

  20. Fast high-resolution MR imaging using the snapshot-FLASH MR sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaei, D.; Haase, A.; Henrich, D.; Duhmke, E.

    1990-01-01

    Snapshot, fast low-angle short (FLASH) MR imaging using an accelerated FLASH-MR sequence provides MR images with measuring times far below 1 second. The short TE of this sequence prevents susceptibility artifacts in gradient-echo imaging. In this paper variations of the sequence are shown that provide high resolution images with T1-weighted IR, T2-weighted SE, and chemical shift (CHESS) contrast sequences. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A whole-body 2-T system (Bruker-Medizintechnik) were used in combination with a 60-cm gradient system (providing gradient strength of 5 mT/m) to study healthy volunteers. The measuring time for a 256 x 256 image matrix was 800 msec. This sequence has been used in combination with T1-weighted IR, T2-weighted SE, and CHESS variations

  1. Radiological Shielding Design for the Neutron High-Resolution Backscattering Spectrometer EMU at the OPAL Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersez Tunay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shielding for the neutron high-resolution backscattering spectrometer (EMU located at the OPAL reactor (ANSTO was designed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 5-1.60. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies, such as the neutron pre-monochromator bunker with sliding cylindrical block shields to accommodate a range of neutron take-off angles, and in the experimental area - shielding of neutron focusing guides, choppers, flight tube, backscattering monochromator, and additional shielding elements inside the Scattering Tank. These shielding assemblies meet safety and engineering requirements and cost constraints. The neutron dose rates around the EMU instrument were reduced to < 0.5 µSv/h and the gamma dose rates to a safe working level of ≤ 3 µSv/h.

  2. Radiological Shielding Design for the Neutron High-Resolution Backscattering Spectrometer EMU at the OPAL Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersez, Tunay; Esposto, Fernando; Souza, Nicolas R. de

    2017-09-01

    The shielding for the neutron high-resolution backscattering spectrometer (EMU) located at the OPAL reactor (ANSTO) was designed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 5-1.60. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies, such as the neutron pre-monochromator bunker with sliding cylindrical block shields to accommodate a range of neutron take-off angles, and in the experimental area - shielding of neutron focusing guides, choppers, flight tube, backscattering monochromator, and additional shielding elements inside the Scattering Tank. These shielding assemblies meet safety and engineering requirements and cost constraints. The neutron dose rates around the EMU instrument were reduced to < 0.5 µSv/h and the gamma dose rates to a safe working level of ≤ 3 µSv/h.

  3. Wide Band and Wide Azimuth Beam Effect on High-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive corner reflectors and active transponders are often used as man-made reference targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR radiometric calibration, With the emergence of new radar systems and the increasing demand for greater accuracy, wide-band and wide-beam radars challenge the hypothesis that the Radar Cross Section (RCS of reference targets is constant. In this study, the FEKO electromagnetic simulation software is used to obtain the change curve of the target RCS as a function of frequency and aspect angle while incorporating high-resolution point-target SAR simulation, and quantitatively analyzing the effect of the modulation effect on SAR images. The simulation results suggest that the abovementioned factors affect the SAR calibration by more than 0.2 dB within a fractional bandwidth greater than 10% or azimuth beam width of more than 20°, which must be corrected in the data processing.

  4. A design for a high resolution very-low-Q time-of flight diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    The design of a high resolution view low-Q time of flight diffractometer was motivated by the anticipated need to perform small-angle neutron scattering measurements at far lower momentum transfer and higher precision than currently available at either pulsed or steady state sources. In addition, it was recognized that flexibility in the configuration of the instrument and ease in which data is acquired are important. The design offers two configurations, a high intensity/very low Q geometry employing a focusing mirror and a medium to high Q-precision/low Q configuration using standard pinhole collimation geometry. The quality of the mirror optics is very important to the performance of the high intensity/very low Q configuration. We believe that the necessary technology exists to fabricate the high quality mirror optics required for the instrument

  5. High resolution multiplexed functional imaging in live embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongli; Zhou, Weibin; Peng, Leilei

    2017-02-01

    Fourier multiplexed fluorescence lifetime imaging (FmFLIM) scanning laser optical tomography (FmFLIM-SLOT) combines FmFLIM and Scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) to perform multiplexed 3D FLIM imaging of live embryos. The system had demonstrate multiplexed functional imaging of zebrafish embryos genetically express Foster Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) sensors. However, previous system has a 20 micron resolution because the focused Gaussian beam diverges quickly from the focused plane, makes it difficult to achieve high resolution imaging over a long projection depth. Here, we present a high-resolution FmFLIM-SLOT system with achromatic Bessel beam, which achieves 3 micron resolution in 3D deep tissue imaging. In Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT, multiple laser excitation lines are firstly intensity modulated by a Michelson interferometer with a spinning polygon mirror optical delay line, which enables Fourier multiplexed multi-channel lifetime measurements. Then, a spatial light modulator and a prism are used to transform the modulated Gaussian laser beam to an achromatic Bessel beam. The achromatic Bessel beam scans across the whole specimen with equal angular intervals as sample rotated. After tomography reconstruction and the frequency domain lifetime analysis method, both the 3D intensity and lifetime image of multiple excitation-emission can be obtained. Using Bessel-FmFLIM-SLOT system, we performed cellular-resolution FLIM tomography imaging of live zebrafish embryo. Genetically expressed FRET sensors in these embryo will allow non-invasive observation of multiple biochemical processes in vivo.

  6. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  7. Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Dianna; Hansen, Lise Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) is an in-tube, PCR-based method to detect methylation levels at specific loci of interest. A unique primer design facilitates a high sensitivity of the assays enabling detection of down to 0.1-1% methylated alleles in an unmethylated background.Primers for MS-HRM assays are designed to be complementary to the methylated allele, and a specific annealing temperature enables these primers to anneal both to the methylated and the unmethylated alleles thereby increasing the sensitivity of the assays. Bisulfite treatment of the DNA prior to performing MS-HRM ensures a different base composition between methylated and unmethylated DNA, which is used to separate the resulting amplicons by high resolution melting.The high sensitivity of MS-HRM has proven useful for detecting cancer biomarkers in a noninvasive manner in urine from bladder cancer patients, in stool from colorectal cancer patients, and in buccal mucosa from breast cancer patients. MS-HRM is a fast method to diagnose imprinted diseases and to clinically validate results from whole-epigenome studies. The ability to detect few copies of methylated DNA makes MS-HRM a key player in the quest for establishing links between environmental exposure, epigenetic changes, and disease.

  8. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-R. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  9. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Song, K.S.; Lim, T.H.; Im, J.G.; Seo, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. High-resolution computed tomography was obtained in 25 patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene (derived from shark liver oil). Diagnosis was based on biopsy (n = 9), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8), or sputum cytology and clinical findings (n = 8). The clinical history of taking squalene was confirmed in all patients. The CT findings were classified into three patterns: diffuse ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. Distribution of the abnormalities, duration of taking squalene, predisposing factors for aspiration, and route of administration were analyzed. Ten patients showed diffuse ground-glass opacity pattern. Seven of 10 patients had predisposing conditions such as unconsciousness, pharyngeal dysmotility, or motor disturbances, and 6 patients had a recent history of taking large amount of squalene through nasal route. Seven patients who had consolidation pattern had a history of taking squalene for several months and did not have any predisposing factor. All of the 5 patients who had a pattern of interstitial abnormalities had a history of taking squalene longer than 1 year and showed segmental distribution of interstitial thickening with interposing ground-glass opacities. Three patients simultaneously had two different patterns at different lobes of the lung. The HRCT findings of lipoid pneumonia are ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial abnormalities. These HRCT findings with appropriate inquiries could be useful for diagnosis of exogeneous lipoid pneumonia. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative analysis of cholesteatoma using high resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-three cases of adult cholesteatoma, including 52 cases of pars flaccida type cholesteatoma and 21 of pars tensa type cholesteatoma, were examined using high resolution computed tomography, in both axial (lateral semicircular canal plane) and coronal sections (cochlear, vestibular and antral plane). These cases were classified into two subtypes according to the presence of extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum. Sixty cases of chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) were also examined as controls. Various locations of the middle ear cavity were measured in terms of size in comparison with pars flaccida type cholesteatoma, pars tensa type cholesteatoma and COM. The width of the attic was significantly larger in both pars flaccida type and pars tensa type cholesteatoma than in COM. With pars flaccida type cholesteatoma there was a significantly larger distance between the malleus and lateral wall of the attic than with COM. In contrast, the distance between the malleus and medial wall of the attic was significantly larger with pars tensa type cholesteatoma than with COM. With cholesteatoma extending into the antrum, regardless of the type of cholesteatoma, there were significantly larger distances than with COM at the following sites: the width and height of the aditus ad antrum, and the width, height and anterior-posterior diameter of the antrum. However, these distances were not significantly different between cholesteatoma without extension into the antrum and COM. The hitherto demonstrated qualitative impressions of bone destruction in cholesteatoma were quantitatively verified in detail using high resolution computed tomography. (author)

  11. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  12. Characterization of ceramic archaeological by high resolution X ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Alessandra C.; Freitas, Renato; Calza, Cristiane F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Lima, Inaya, E-mail: alecastro@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Carvalho, Daniele D.; Gaspar, Maria D. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of ceramic fragments is a very important area of research in art and archeometry area because it enables a greater understanding of how ancient civilizations behave and what were their traditions and customs. Petrography and chemical analyses are commonly used, but these techniques are destructive, which is not interesting for this type of sample. Through the exchange of multidisciplinary scientific knowledge and new partnerships, high resolution X-ray microtomography has been introduced in archaeological area as a great possibility of 3D inspection in a non-destructive way. The goal of this work is to investigate the internal microstructures of four samples of archeological ceramic, from the Archaeological Site of Macacu - RJ. The X-ray microtomography were performed in a high resolution setup, and can be used to infer the nature of organic temper even with all plant remains completely burnt out during the firing process and also to ensure the homogeneity of samples envisaged for geochemical analyses, especially with respect to the distribution of chemically diverse fabric compounds. In this way this study intends to contribute to our understanding of the archaeological and historical formations of this region. (author)

  13. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  14. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  15. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de; Marchiori, Edson; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  16. Peculiar velocity effects in high-resolution microwave background experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challinor, Anthony; Leeuwen, Floor van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the impact of peculiar velocity effects due to the motion of the solar system relative to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on high resolution CMB experiments. It is well known that on the largest angular scales the combined effects of Doppler shifts and aberration are important; the lowest Legendre multipoles of total intensity receive power from the large CMB monopole in transforming from the CMB frame. On small angular scales aberration dominates and is shown here to lead to significant distortions of the total intensity and polarization multipoles in transforming from the rest frame of the CMB to the frame of the solar system. We provide convenient analytic results for the distortions as series expansions in the relative velocity of the two frames, but at the highest resolutions a numerical quadrature is required. Although many of the high resolution multipoles themselves are severely distorted by the frame transformations, we show that their statistical properties distort by only an insignificant amount. Therefore, the cosmological parameter estimation is insensitive to the transformation from the CMB frame (where theoretical predictions are calculated) to the rest frame of the experiment

  17. Image thresholding in the high resolution target movement monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Randy H.; Watkins, Steve E.; Jones, Tristan H.; Apel, Derek B.; Bairineni, Deepti

    2009-03-01

    Image thresholding in the High Resolution Target Movement Monitor (HRTMM) is examined. The HRTMM was developed at the Missouri University of Science and Technology to detect and measure wall movements in underground mines to help reduce fatality and injury rates. The system detects the movement of a target with sub-millimeter accuracy based on the images of one or more laser dots projected on the target and viewed by a high-resolution camera. The relative position of the centroid of the laser dot (determined by software using thresholding concepts) in the images is the key factor in detecting the target movement. Prior versions of the HRTMM set the image threshold based on a manual, visual examination of the images. This work systematically examines the effect of varying threshold on the calculated centroid position and describes an algorithm for determining a threshold setting. First, the thresholding effects on the centroid position are determined for a stationary target. Plots of the centroid positions as a function of varying thresholds are obtained to identify clusters of thresholds for which the centroid position does not change for stationary targets. Second, the target is moved away from the camera in sub-millimeter increments and several images are obtained at each position and analyzed as a function of centroid position, target movement and varying threshold values. With this approach, the HRTMM can accommodate images in batch mode without the need for manual intervention. The capability for the HRTMM to provide automated, continuous monitoring of wall movement is enhanced.

  18. A high resolution pneumatic stepping actuator for harsh reactor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippetts, Thomas B.; Evans, Paul S.; Riffle, George K.

    1993-01-01

    A reactivity control actuator for a high-power density nuclear propulsion reactor must be installed in close proximity to the reactor core. The energy input from radiation to the actuator structure could exceed hundreds of W/cc unless low-cross section, low-absorptivity materials are chosen. Also, for post-test handling and subsequent storage, materials should not be used that are activated into long half-life isotopes. Pneumatic actuators can be constructed from various reactor-compatible materials, but conventional pneumatic piston actuators generally lack the stiffness required for high resolution reactivity control unless electrical position sensors and compensated electronic control systems are used. To overcome these limitations, a pneumatic actuator is under development that positions an output shaft in response to a series of pneumatic pulses, comprising a pneumatic analog of an electrical stepping motor. The pneumatic pulses are generated remotely, beyond the strong radiation environment, and transmitted to the actuator through tubing. The mechanically simple actuator uses a nutating gear harmonic drive to convert motion of small pistons directly to high-resolution angular motion of the output shaft. The digital nature of this actuator is suitable for various reactor control algorithms but is especially compatible with the three bean salad algorithm discussed by Ball et al. (1991).

  19. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grkovski, Milan, E-mail: milan.grkovski@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Brzezinski, Karol [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Cindro, Vladimir [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Clinthorne, Neal H. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kagan, Harris [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lacasta, Carlos [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Mikuž, Marko [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Solaz, Carles [IFIC/CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Studen, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Weilhammer, Peter [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Žontar, Dejan [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-07-11

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm{sup 2} pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2–4.8 mm) filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm)

  20. The development of high resolution silicon x-ray microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, F. S.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently we have produced x-ray microcalorimeters with resolving powers approaching 2000 at 5.9 keV using a spare XRS microcalorimeter array. We attached 400 um square, 8 um thick HgTe absorbers using a variety of attachment methods to an XRS array and ran the detector array at temperatures between 40 and 60 mK. The best results were for absorbers attached using the standard XRS absorber-pixel thermal isolation scheme utilizing SU8 polymer tubes. In this scenario we achieved a resolution of 3.2 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. Substituting a silicon spacer for the SU8 tubes also yielded sub-4eV results. In contrast, absorbers attached directly to the thermistor produced significant position dependence and thus degraded resolution. Finally, we tested standard 640um-square XRS detectors at reduced bias power at 50mK and achieved a resolution of 3.7eV, a 50% improvement over the XRS flight instrument. Implanted silicon microcalorimeters are a mature flight-qualified technology that still has a substantial phase space for future development. We will discuss these new high resolution results, the various absorber attachment schemes, planned future improvements, and, finally, their relevance to future high resolution x-ray spectrometers including Constellation-X.

  1. High resolution muon computed tomography at neutrino beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suerfu, B.; Tully, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has an indispensable role in constructing 3D images of objects made from light materials. However, limited by absorption coefficients, X-rays cannot deeply penetrate materials such as copper and lead. Here we show via simulation that muon beams can provide high resolution tomographic images of dense objects and of structures within the interior of dense objects. The effects of resolution broadening from multiple scattering diminish with increasing muon momentum. As the momentum of the muon increases, the contrast of the image goes down and therefore requires higher resolution in the muon spectrometer to resolve the image. The variance of the measured muon momentum reaches a minimum and then increases with increasing muon momentum. The impact of the increase in variance is to require a higher integrated muon flux to reduce fluctuations. The flux requirements and level of contrast needed for high resolution muon computed tomography are well matched to the muons produced in the pion decay pipe at a neutrino beam facility and what can be achieved for momentum resolution in a muon spectrometer. Such an imaging system can be applied in archaeology, art history, engineering, material identification and whenever there is a need to image inside a transportable object constructed of dense materials

  2. High resolution tsunami inversion for 2010 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T.-R.; Ho, T.-C.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inverting high-resolution vertical seafloor displacement from tsunami waveforms. An inversion method named "SUTIM" (small unit tsunami inversion method) is developed to meet this goal. In addition to utilizing the conventional least-square inversion, this paper also enhances the inversion resolution by Grid-Shifting method. A smooth constraint is adopted to gain stability. After a series of validation and performance tests, SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. Based upon data quality and azimuthal distribution, we select tsunami waveforms from 6 GLOSS stations and 1 DART buoy record. In total, 157 sub-faults are utilized for the high-resolution inversion. The resolution reaches 10 sub-faults per wavelength. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks and waveforms at each gauge location with very good agreement. The inversion result shows that the source profile features a non-uniform distribution of the seafloor displacement. The highly elevated vertical seafloor is mainly concentrated in two areas: one is located in the northern part of the epicentre, between 34° S and 36° S; the other is in the southern part, between 37° S and 38° S.

  3. High resolution and simultaneous monitoring of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Komura, K.

    2005-01-01

    By using 11 extremely low background Ge detectors at Ogoya Underground Laboratory, it became possible to investigate temporal variations of airborne 212 Pb (T 1/2 =10.6 h) along with 210 Pb and 7 Be with order of magnitude higher time resolution. Then, we have measured airborne nuclides at three monitoring points, (1) roof of our laboratory (LLRL; 40 m ASL), (2) Shinshiku Plateau (640 m ASL) located about 8 km from LLRL as a comparison of vertical distribution, and (3) Hegura Island (10 m ASL) at about 50 km from Wajima located north of Noto Peninsula facing on the Sea of Japan (about 180 km to the north-northeast of LLRL), to investigate influence of Asian continent. Airborne nuclides were collected by high volume air samplers at intervals of a few hours at either two or three points simultaneously. In the same manner, high resolution monitoring was carried out also at the time of passage of typhoon and cold front. In this study, we observed drastic temporal variations of airborne radionuclides and correlations of multiple monitoring points. The results indicate that high resolution and simultaneous monitoring is very useful to understand dynamic state of variations of airborne nuclides due to short and long-term air-mass movement. (author)

  4. Improved self-control system for the DR1 high resolution focusing neutron crystal diffractometer operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, I; Florescu, V.

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade new principles for the design of high-resolution configurations for crystal neutron diffractometry have been developed leading to the concept of Q-space high-resolution configuration which proved to be an alternative to the existing conventional configuration. The characteristics of such a focusing configuration are the use of open beam geometry (absence of the Soller collimators), use of the bent crystals in asymmetric reflection as monochromators and the rotation of the sample during the diffraction pattern raise, to fulfill the focusing conditions. High-resolution is obtained with no collimators by controlling the curvature and reflectivity of bent monochromators. At the sample position the beam width is rather wide offering the possibility to use wide plate-like samples with a significant raise of intensity; still high-resolution can be obtained by rotating the sample to get the focusing condition (to compensate the sample width contribution to the line-width) for each value of the scattering angle. This paper aims to clarify in which conditions such a Q-space focusing configuration, particularly that existing at INR Pitesti, can be used for stress determinations. Taking account of the characteristics of such measurements, it is quite obvious that the sample cannot be placed in focusing position appearing a limitation of the dimension of the sample region for which stress determinations are made, if we want still to have a reasonable good resolution. This can be done by using corresponding diaphragms in front of the sample holder but, if an optimal use of the available neutron beam is desired, a real-space focusing at sample position is required. For a two crystals monochromators unit the conditions to get real-space focusing were extensively analyzed by M. Popovici and W.B.Yelon. For the case of a single crystal monochromator, though such instruments are used at HMI Berlin or NRI Rez, a real space focusing is not possible to be achieved

  5. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Illumination invariant feature point matching for high-resolution planetary remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Zeng, Hai; Hu, Han

    2018-03-01

    Despite its success with regular close-range and remote-sensing images, the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm is essentially not invariant to illumination differences due to the use of gradients for feature description. In planetary remote sensing imagery, which normally lacks sufficient textural information, salient regions are generally triggered by the shadow effects of keypoints, reducing the matching performance of classical SIFT. Based on the observation of dual peaks in a histogram of the dominant orientations of SIFT keypoints, this paper proposes an illumination-invariant SIFT matching method for high-resolution planetary remote sensing images. First, as the peaks in the orientation histogram are generally aligned closely with the sub-solar azimuth angle at the time of image collection, an adaptive suppression Gaussian function is tuned to level the histogram and thereby alleviate the differences in illumination caused by a changing solar angle. Next, the suppression function is incorporated into the original SIFT procedure for obtaining feature descriptors, which are used for initial image matching. Finally, as the distribution of feature descriptors changes after anisotropic suppression, and the ratio check used for matching and outlier removal in classical SIFT may produce inferior results, this paper proposes an improved matching procedure based on cross-checking and template image matching. The experimental results for several high-resolution remote sensing images from both the Moon and Mars, with illumination differences of 20°-180°, reveal that the proposed method retrieves about 40%-60% more matches than the classical SIFT method. The proposed method is of significance for matching or co-registration of planetary remote sensing images for their synergistic use in various applications. It also has the potential to be useful for flyby and rover images by integrating with the affine invariant feature detectors.

  7. High-resolution whole-brain diffusion MRI at 7T using radiofrequency parallel transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Auerbach, Edward J; Vu, An T; Moeller, Steen; Lenglet, Christophe; Schmitter, Sebastian; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Yacoub, Essa; Uğurbil, Kâmil

    2018-03-30

    Investigating the utility of RF parallel transmission (pTx) for Human Connectome Project (HCP)-style whole-brain diffusion MRI (dMRI) data at 7 Tesla (7T). Healthy subjects were scanned in pTx and single-transmit (1Tx) modes. Multiband (MB), single-spoke pTx pulses were designed to image sagittal slices. HCP-style dMRI data (i.e., 1.05-mm resolutions, MB2, b-values = 1000/2000 s/mm 2 , 286 images and 40-min scan) and data with higher accelerations (MB3 and MB4) were acquired with pTx. pTx significantly improved flip-angle detected signal uniformity across the brain, yielding ∼19% increase in temporal SNR (tSNR) averaged over the brain relative to 1Tx. This allowed significantly enhanced estimation of multiple fiber orientations (with ∼21% decrease in dispersion) in HCP-style 7T dMRI datasets. Additionally, pTx pulses achieved substantially lower power deposition, permitting higher accelerations, enabling collection of the same data in 2/3 and 1/2 the scan time or of more data in the same scan time. pTx provides a solution to two major limitations for slice-accelerated high-resolution whole-brain dMRI at 7T; it improves flip-angle uniformity, and enables higher slice acceleration relative to current state-of-the-art. As such, pTx provides significant advantages for rapid acquisition of high-quality, high-resolution truly whole-brain dMRI data. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Development Of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status And Perspectives. HRMS Coupled With A Laser Dilatometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalas L.B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent achievements in the development of low-frequency high-resolution mechanical spectroscopy (HRMS are briefly reported. It is demonstrated that extremely low values of the loss angle, ϕ, (tanϕb = 1×10−5 can be measured as a function of frequency, and the precision in estimation of the dynamic modulus is better than 1×10−5 in arbitrary units. Three conditions must be fulfilled to obtain high resolution in subresonant and resonant mechanical loss measurements: (1 noise in stress and elastic strain signals must be lower than 70 dB, (2 high quality of stress and strain signals must be tested both in the frequency- and time-domains, and (3 the estimation of the mechanical loss and modulus must be verified by at least two different computing methods operating in the frequency- and time-domains. It is concluded that phase measurements in the subresonant domain are no longer determined by precision in estimation of the loss angle. Recent developments in high-resolution resonant mechanical loss measurements stem from the application of advanced nonparametric and parametric computing methods and algorithms to estimate the logarithmic decrement and the elastic modulus from exponentially damped free decaying oscillations embedded in experimental noise.

  9. A Magic-Real Gap in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dayer, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In 1925, German art critic Franz Roh formalized the notion of Magic Realism (magischer Realismus) as a celebration of everyday life. In Italian literature, the same notion was explored in the works of Massimo Bontempelli. But it was the architect Friedrich Kiesler who imported the notion...... into architecture, stating that ‘Magic Architecture ... holds the balance between the two extremes of man’, his ‘desire for the machine’ and technology on the one hand, his ‘denial of science’ on the other. This paper follows the development of the notion of Magic Realism throughout the twentieth century...

  10. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with

  11. A PICTORIAL PRESENTATION OF ESOPHAGEAL HIGH RESOLUTION MANOMETRY CURRENT PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafraia, Fernanda M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Kalluf, Julia R; Patti, Marco G

    2017-01-01

    High resolution manometry is the current technology used to the study of esophageal motility and is replacing conventional manometry in important centers for esophageal motility with parameters used on esophageal motility, following the Chicago Classification. This classification unifies high resolution manometry interpretation and classifies esophageal disorders. This review shows, in a pictorial presentation, the new parameters established by the Chicago Classification, version 3.0, aimed to allow an easy comprehension and interpretation of high resolution manometry. Esophageal manometries performed by the authors were reviewed to select illustrative tracings representing Chicago Classification parameters. The parameters are: Esophagogastric Morphology, that classifies this junction according to its physiology and anatomy; Integrated Relaxation Pressure, that measures the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; Distal Contractile Integral, that evaluates the contraction vigor of each wave; and, Distal Latency, that measures the peristalsis velocity from the beginning of the swallow to the epiphrenic ampulla. Clinical applications of these new concepts is still under evaluation. Mostrar, de forma pictórica, os novos parâmetros compilados na versão 3.0 da Classificação de Chicago, buscando facilitar a compreensão e interpretação da manometria de alta resolução. Foram revistas as manometrias da casuística dos autores e selecionados os traçados representativos dos parâmetros da Classificação de Chicago. Entre os parâmetros apresentados foram considerados a Morfologia da Transição Gastroesofágica, que classifica o segmento de acordo com sua fisiologia e anatomia; a Integral da Pressão de Relaxamento, que mede o relaxamento do esfíncter esofagiano inferior; a Integral Contrátil Distal, que avalia o vigor contrátil da onda peristáltica; e, a Latência Distal, que mede o tempo da peristalse, desde o início da deglutição até a ampola epifr

  12. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delouille

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO, InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed

  13. [Extraction of buildings three-dimensional information from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi

    2010-05-01

    The demand for accurate and up-to-date spatial information of urban buildings is becoming more and more important for urban planning, environmental protection, and other vocations. Today's commercial high-resolution satellite imagery offers the potential to extract the three-dimensional information of urban buildings. This paper extracted the three-dimensional information of urban buildings from QuickBird imagery, and validated the precision of the extraction based on Barista software. It was shown that the extraction of three-dimensional information of the buildings from high-resolution satellite imagery based on Barista software had the advantages of low professional level demand, powerful universality, simple operation, and high precision. One pixel level of point positioning and height determination accuracy could be achieved if the digital elevation model (DEM) and sensor orientation model had higher precision and the off-Nadir View Angle was relatively perfect.

  14. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  15. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  16. Unattented mode monitoring of high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.G.R.; Van Dyck, P.; Debraix, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope Monitoring System (IMS) for unattended spectrum acquisition is described. This consists of a simple low cost flexible software package running on a Compaq 80386 and controlling up to 4 Canberra Packard System 100 multi-channel analyzer (MCA) cards. The IMS permits the independent configuration of each of the 4 MCA cards for different monitoring cycles and for different spectrum acquisition cycles each being based upon different trigger criteria. In this way IMS is able to automatically identify events, time tag them, and acquire and store valid spectra corresponding to those event. An additional feature of IMS permits to run a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) software package for the determination of plutonium isotopic compositions in batch mode. One particular application is discussed which consists of 4 high resolution gamma-ray detector systems connected together to the IMS for unattended spectrum acquisition. The off-line batch mode analysis of the spectra using MGA is also discussed

  17. High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.

  18. High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of single cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Strohm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High resolution ultrasound and photoacoustic images of stained neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes from a blood smear were acquired using a combined acoustic/photoacoustic microscope. Photoacoustic images were created using a pulsed 532 nm laser that was coupled to a single mode fiber to produce output wavelengths from 532 nm to 620 nm via stimulated Raman scattering. The excitation wavelength was selected using optical filters and focused onto the sample using a 20× objective. A 1000 MHz transducer was co-aligned with the laser spot and used for ultrasound and photoacoustic images, enabling micrometer resolution with both modalities. The different cell types could be easily identified due to variations in contrast within the acoustic and photoacoustic images. This technique provides a new way of probing leukocyte structure with potential applications towards detecting cellular abnormalities and diseased cells at the single cell level.

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION ATMOSPHERIC ENSEMBLE MODELING AT SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Werth, D.; Chiswell, S.; Etherton, B.

    2011-05-10

    The High-Resolution Mid-Atlantic Forecasting Ensemble (HME) is a federated effort to improve operational forecasts related to precipitation, convection and boundary layer evolution, and fire weather utilizing data and computing resources from a diverse group of cooperating institutions in order to create a mesoscale ensemble from independent members. Collaborating organizations involved in the project include universities, National Weather Service offices, and national laboratories, including the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The ensemble system is produced from an overlapping numerical weather prediction model domain and parameter subsets provided by each contributing member. The coordination, synthesis, and dissemination of the ensemble information are performed by the Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI) at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. This paper discusses background related to the HME effort, SRNL participation, and example results available from the RENCI website.

  20. Precision Viticulture from Multitemporal, Multispectral Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandylakis, Z.; Karantzalos, K.

    2016-06-01

    In order to exploit efficiently very high resolution satellite multispectral data for precision agriculture applications, validated methodologies should be established which link the observed reflectance spectra with certain crop/plant/fruit biophysical and biochemical quality parameters. To this end, based on concurrent satellite and field campaigns during the veraison period, satellite and in-situ data were collected, along with several grape samples, at specific locations during the harvesting period. These data were collected for a period of three years in two viticultural areas in Northern Greece. After the required data pre-processing, canopy reflectance observations, through the combination of several vegetation indices were correlated with the quantitative results from the grape/must analysis of grape sampling. Results appear quite promising, indicating that certain key quality parameters (like brix levels, total phenolic content, brix to total acidity, anthocyanin levels) which describe the oenological potential, phenolic composition and chromatic characteristics can be efficiently estimated from the satellite data.

  1. High-Resolution Characterization of UMo Alloy Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kovarik, Libor [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arey, Bruce W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    This report highlights the capabilities and procedure for high-resolution characterization of UMo fuels in PNNL. Uranium-molybdenum (UMo) fuel processing steps, from casting to forming final fuel, directly affect the microstructure of the fuel, which in turn dictates the in-reactor performance of the fuel under irradiation. In order to understand the influence of processing on UMo microstructure, microstructure characterization techniques are necessary. Higher-resolution characterization techniques like transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are needed to interrogate the details of the microstructure. The findings from TEM and APT are also directly beneficial for developing predictive multiscale modeling tools that can predict the microstructure as a function of process parameters. This report provides background on focused-ion-beam–based TEM and APT sample preparation, TEM and APT analysis procedures, and the unique information achievable through such advanced characterization capabilities for UMo fuels, from a fuel fabrication capability viewpoint.

  2. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTRUM OF HCl{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doménech, J. L.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I. [Molecular Physics Department, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Drouin, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Cernicharo, J., E-mail: jl.domenech@csic.es [Molecular Astrophysics Group, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-20

    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl{sup +}, has been recently identified in space from Herschel 's spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimeter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration–rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, IR observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers, as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule.

  3. Measuring large-scale social networks with high resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Stopczynski

    Full Text Available This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics for a densely connected population of 1000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. The paper is concluded with early results from data analysis, illustrating the importance of multi-channel high-resolution approach to data collection.

  4. Application of the Oslo method to high resolution gamma spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Humby, P.

    2015-10-01

    Hauser-Feshbach statistical model is a widely used tool for calculation of the reaction cross section, in particular for astrophysical processes. The HF model requires as an input an optical potential, gamma-strength function (GSF) and level density (LD) to properly model the statistical properties of the nucleus. The Oslo method is a well established technique to extract GSFs and LDs from experimental data, typically used for gamma-spectra obtained with scintillation detectors. Here, the first application of the Oslo method to high-resolution data obtained using the Ge detectors of the STARLITER setup at TAMU is discussed. The GSFs and LDs extracted from (p,d) and (p,t) reactions on 152154 ,Sm targets will be presented.

  5. Highly sensitive high resolution Raman spectroscopy using resonant ionization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owyoung, A.; Esherick, P.

    1984-05-01

    In recent years, the introduction of stimulated Raman methods has offered orders of magnitude improvement in spectral resolving power for gas phase Raman studies. Nevertheless, the inherent weakness of the Raman process suggests the need for significantly more sensitive techniques in Raman spectroscopy. In this we describe a new approach to this problem. Our new technique, which we call ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopy (IDSRS), combines high-resolution SRS with highly-sensitive resonant laser ionization to achieve an increase in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude. The excitation/detection process involves three sequential steps: (1) population of a vibrationally excited state via stimulated Raman pumping; (2) selective ionization of the vibrationally excited molecule with a tunable uv source; and (3) collection of the ionized species at biased electrodes where they are detected as current in an external circuit

  6. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  7. High resolution X-ray tomography for stationary multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, D.; Reinecke, N.; Petritsch, G.; Mewes, D.

    1998-01-01

    The high resolution which can be obtained by computer assisted tomography is used to investigate the liquid distribution and void fraction in random and structured packing. With a spatial resolution of 0.4x0.4mm 2 it is possible even to detect thin liquid films on structured packings. The experimental set-up consists of a custom-built second generation tomograph. The imaged object consists of a column filled with either a random ceramic packing of spheres or a structured metal packing. The liquid and void fraction distribution in random and structured packings with a quiescent gaseous phase is visualized. The water/air system is used. The liquid distributor consists of a perforated plate. The experimental hold-up values averaged over the column cross-section are in good agreement with empirical equations. (author)

  8. Fast iterative segmentation of high resolution medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Various applications in positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) require segmentation of 20 to 60 high resolution images of size 256x256 pixels in 3-9 seconds per image. This places particular constraints on the design of image segmentation algorithms. This paper examines the trade-offs in segmenting images based on fitting a density function to the pixel intensities using curve-fitting versus the maximum likelihood method. A quantized data representation is proposed and the EM algorithm for fitting a finite mixture density function to the quantized representation for an image is derived. A Monte Carlo evaluation of mean estimation error and classification error showed that the resulting quantized EM algorithm dramatically reduces the required computation time without loss of accuracy

  9. High resolution capacitance detection circuit for rotor micro-gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Ren

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for rotor position detection of micro-gyroscopes include common exciting electrodes (single frequency and common sensing electrodes (frequency multiplex, but they have encountered some problems. So we present a high resolution and low noise pick-off circuit for micro-gyroscopes which utilizes the time multiplex method. The detecting circuit adopts a continuous-time current sensing circuit for capacitance measurement, and its noise analysis of the charge amplifier is introduced. The equivalent output noise power spectral density of phase-sensitive demodulation is 120 nV/Hz1/2. Tests revealed that the whole circuitry has a relative capacitance resolution of 1 × 10−8.

  10. Automated high-resolution NMR with a sample changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.G.; Johnson, R.D.; Philson, S.B.; Strouse, J.; McEnroe, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    Within the past two years, it has become possible to obtain high-resolution NMR spectra using automated commercial instrumentation. Software control of all spectrometer functions has reduced most of the tedious manual operations to typing a few computer commands or even making selections from a menu. Addition of an automatic sample changer is the next natural step in improving efficiency and sample throughput; it has a significant (and even unexpected) impact on how NMR laboratories are run and how it is taught. Such an instrument makes even sophisticated experiments routine, so that people with no previous exposure to NMR can run these experiments after a training session of an hour or less. This A/C Interface examines the impact of such instrumentation on both the academic and the industrial laboratory

  11. DETECTION OF BARCHAN DUNES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Azzaoui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden’s J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  12. High resolution computed tomography of the post partum pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, D.B.; Hasso, A.N.; Thompson, J.R.; Davidson, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eight volunteer post partum female patients were examined with high resolution computed tomography during the week immediately after delivery. All patients received high dose (40-70 gm) intravenous iodine contrast administration. The scans were examined for pituitary gland height, shape and homogeneity. All of the patients had enlarged glands by the traditional standards (i.e. gland height of 8 mm or greater). The diaphragma sellae in every call bulged upward with a convex domed appearance. The glands were generally inhomogeneous. One gland had a 4 mm focal well defined area of decreased attenuation. Two patients who were studied again months later had glands which had returned to ''normal'' size. The enlarged, upwardly convex pituitary gland appears to be typical and normal for the recently post partum period. (orig.)

  13. High-resolution sonography in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbiati, L.; De Pra, L.; Rizzatto, G.; Derchi, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, caused by the compression on the median nerve under the transverse carpal ligament, has multiple causes and clinical presentations. One hundred eighteen patients with carpal tunnel sydrome underwent high-resolution US which demonstrated unpalpable cystic masses in 25 patients (lobulated stalked synovial cysts in 19 and retrotendinous cysts in six, all confirmed at surgery), and diffuse thickening and decreased echogenicity of the tendon sheaths in 87 patients, suggesting tenosynovitis (confirmed at surgery in 64). In six patients simple encasement of muscle bellies in the carpal tunnel was shown. US can delineate the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome, suggest the need for surgery, and aid the surgeon in locating the lesion to be removed

  14. Feasibility tests of a high resolution sampling radial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.

    1985-01-01

    The design concept and results of feasibility tests for a vertex detector intended for use in the TPC-PEP4/9 experiment are presented. The detector is based on a slow radial drift in dimethyl ether. High resolution localization of the avalanches at the sense wire is accomplished with nearby pickup wires and the utilization of waveform sampling electronics. The avalanche angular coordinate measurements, combined with knowledge of the electric field distribution and drift velocity permit reconstruction of the trajectory using essentially all track information. Measurements with a test chamber constructed to study characteristics of avalanche localization indicate that the recoverable track information in one centimeter of dimethyl ether at 1.5 atm is equivalent to 30 measurements of 40 μm accuracy. (orig.)

  15. Sparse Representation Denoising for Radar High Resolution Range Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radar high resolution range profile has attracted considerable attention in radar automatic target recognition. In practice, radar return is usually contaminated by noise, which results in profile distortion and recognition performance degradation. To deal with this problem, in this paper, a novel denoising method based on sparse representation is proposed to remove the Gaussian white additive noise. The return is sparsely described in the Fourier redundant dictionary and the denoising problem is described as a sparse representation model. Noise level of the return, which is crucial to the denoising performance but often unknown, is estimated by performing subspace method on the sliding subsequence correlation matrix. Sliding window process enables noise level estimation using only one observation sequence, not only guaranteeing estimation efficiency but also avoiding the influence of profile time-shift sensitivity. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the return, leading to a high-quality profile.

  16. Neutron spin echo and high resolution inelastic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of neutrons spin echo (NSE) technique are considered. It is shown that the basis of NSE principle is a single step measurement of the change of the neutron velocity in the scattering process. The backscattering soectroscopy and the NSE techniques are compared. The NSF spectrometer is described. It is shown that 0.5 MeV energy resolution achieved in the NSE experiment is about 40 times superior to those achieved by the other techniques. The NSE technique has the unique feature that provides high resolution in neutron energy change independently of the monochromatization of the beam. The NSE instrument not only covers a wider dynamic range on a pulsed source that on a continuous one, but also collects data more efficiently

  17. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F H

    1987-12-01

    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given.

  18. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglbauer, R.; Schurawitzki, H.; Eichler, I.; Goetz, M.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution CT (HRCT) was performed in 24 children (median age 57.9 months) suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). In 23 patients (one examination unacceptable because of motion artifacts) the most frequent finding was bronchial wall thickening, shown in 21 patients (91%), followed by bronchiectasis in 15 patients (65%). Less frequent findings were mucus plugging and patchy consolidations, which could be demonstrated in 11 patients each (48%). Findings were classified using a CT scoring system and including only irreversible pulmonary changes; a statistically significant correlation with lung function tests could be established. HRCT to date seems to be the most valuable method to determine extent and severity of lung involvement in children with CF and should therefore be routinely used for the staging of this disease. (orig.)

  19. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  20. Porous silicon phantoms for high-resolution scintillation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Francia, G. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Scafe, R. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: scafe@casaccia.enea.it; De Vincentis, G. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); La Ferrara, V. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Iurlaro, G. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Nasti, I. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Montani, L. [Casaccia Research Centre, ENEA, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Pellegrini, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Betti, M. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Martucciello, N. [Portici Research Centre, ENEA, Via Vecchio Macello, 80055 Portici, Naples (Italy); Pani, R. [Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    High resolution radionuclide imaging requires phantoms with precise geometries and known activities using either Anger cameras equipped with pinhole collimators or dedicated small animal devices. Porous silicon samples, having areas of different shape and size, can be made and loaded with a radioactive material, obtaining: (a) precise radio-emitting figures corresponding to the porous areas geometry (b) a radioactivity of each figure depending on the pore's specifications, and (c) the same emission energy to be used in true exams. To this aim a sample with porous circular areas has been made and loaded with a {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} {sup -} solution. Imaging has been obtained using both general purpose and pinhole collimators. This first sample shows some defects that are analyzed and discussed.