WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-potential energy crop

  1. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Selected as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    A review of several publications of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program, and final reports from the herbaceous crop screening trials suggests that there were several technical and non-technical factors that influenced the decision to focus on one herbaceous "model" crop species. The screening trials funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in the late 1980's to early 1990's assessed a wide range of about 34 species with trials being conducted on a wide range of soil types in 31 different sites spread over seven states in crop producing regions of the U.S. While several species, including sorghums, reed canarygrass and other crops, were identified as having merit for further development, the majority of institutions involved in the herbaceous species screening studies identified switchgrass as having high priority for further development. Six of the seven institutions included switchgrass among the species recommended for further development in their region and all institutions recommended that perennial grasses be given high research priority. Reasons for the selection of switchgrass included the demonstration of relatively high, reliable productivity across a wide geographical range, suitability for marginal quality land, low water and nutrient requirements, and positive environmental attributes. Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a "model" or "prototype" species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and

  2. Historical Perspective on How and Why Switchgrass was Seleced as a "Model" High-Potential Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Economic and environmental assessments by Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program staff together with the screening project results, and funding limitations lead to making the decision to further develop only switchgrass as a “model” or “prototype” species in about 1990. This paper describes the conditions under which the herbaceous species were screened, summarizes results from those trials, discusses the various factors which influenced the selection of switchgrass, and provides a brief evaluation of switchgrass with respect to criteria that should be considered when selecting and developing a crop for biofuels and bioproducts.

  3. Energy from field crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubr, J.

    1990-04-15

    At the Research Station of Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark, investigation concerning cultivation and exploitation of field crops for production of fuels was carried out during the period 1986-1989. High yielding crops, such as sugar beet - BETA VULGARIS, jerusalem artichoke - HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS, rhubarb - RHEUM RHAPONTICUM, and comfrey - SYMPHYTUM ASPERUM, were grown experimentally in the field. Different cultivation methods for the crops were used and evaluated. Simultaneously with the field experiment, laboratory investigation was carried out to determine the energy potential of different products and by-products from the crops processes, such as alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation. Production expenses for the crops were determined, and cost of the fuels was estimated. The experimental results show that beet is a superior crop for the climatic conditions of Northern Europe. In the season 1986, yields exceeded 20 t TS/ha in the form of roots and tops, where achieved. A combined exploitation of beet roots and tops via alcoholic and methanogenic fermantation gave a gross energy corresponding to 80 hl OE/ha/yr. Using methanogenic fermentation exclusively, from ensiled beet roots and tops, gross energy yield corresponding to 85 hl IE/ha/yr, was achieved. The cost of energy in the form of alcohol from beet roots was estimated to be 5.17 DKK/1 OE (0.64 ECU/l OE). The cost of energy in the form of methane from ensiled beet tops, was estimated to be 2.68 DKK/l OE (0.33 ECU/l OE). At the present time, methane produced on the basis of ensiled beet roots and tops appears to be competitive with fossil fuels. Irrespective of the cost, however, the possibility of producing clean energy from field crops remains of interest for the future. (author) 27 refs.

  4. Environmental considerations in energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Mann, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary attempt to provide information on the probable environmental effects of energy crop production relative to other potential uses of the land. While dedicated energy crop production is anticipated to occur primarily on land currently in agricultural production, some pastureland and forestland with a high potential for conversion to agricultural production may be utilized. Experimental results suggest that chemical use on energy crops will be lower than on most row crops and that land producing energy crops should experience less erosion than land producing row crops. Long-term site productivity should not be a major issue if macro-and micro-fertilizers are added as needed and nutrient-conserving production techniques are used. (Author)

  5. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  6. Energy crops - where are they?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, Jim [CPL Scientific Ltd., Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The author examines briefly the factors controlling the growth of energy crops, particularly the relationship between dry matter yield and fuel costs and conversion efficiency and electricity price. The EU target is for 135 Mtoe from biomass by 2010 and consideration is given on how this can be met.

  7. Microeconomic aspects of energy crops cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolelli, V.; Mutinati, G.; Pisani, F.

    1992-01-01

    The topic of energy crops, namely of those crops designed to produce biomass to transform into ethanol, has been explored, in Italy and abroad, in all its technical and agronomical aspects. The microeconomic aspect, including the evaluation of convenience for the farmer in adopting such crops, is, on the contrary, less well researched. RENAGRI has developed a research methodology able to give information about the level of convenience of two energy crops (Sweet Sorghum and Topinambour) and has applied it to different Italian agricultural situations, in order to verify the existence of conditions favourable to the cultivation of the two crops, or to indicate the necessity of eventual subvention. (author)

  8. Biogas production from energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaeki, A.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of utilising energy crops and crop residues in methane production through anaerobic digestion in boreal conditions was evaluated in this thesis. Potential boreal energy crops and crop residues were screened for their suitability for methane production, and the effects of harvest time and storage on the methane potential of crops was evaluated. Codigestion of energy crops and crop residues with cow manure, as well as digestion of energy crops alone in batch leach bed reactors with and without a second stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) or methanogenic filter (MF) were evaluated. The methane potentials of crops, as determined in laboratory methane potential assays, varied from 0.17 to 0.49 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} (volatile solids added) and from 25 to 260 m3 CH4 t-1 ww (tons of wet weight). Jerusalem artichoke, timothy-clover and reed canary grass gave the highest methane potentials of 2 900-5 400 m3 CH{sub 4} ha-1, corresponding to a gross energy potential of 28-53 MWh ha-1 and 40 000-60 000 km ha-1 in passenger car transport. The methane potentials per ww increased with most crops as the crops matured. Ensiling without additives resulted in minor losses (0-13%) in the methane potential of sugar beet tops but more substantial losses (17-39%) in the methane potential of grass, while ensiling with additives was shown to have potential in improving the methane potentials of these substrates by up to 19-22%. In semi-continuously fed laboratory continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) co-digestion of manure and crops was shown feasible with feedstock VS containing up to 40% of crops. The highest specific methane yields of 0.268, 0.229 and 0.213 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} in co-digestion of cow manure with grass, sugar beet tops and straw, respectively, were obtained with 30% of crop in the feedstock, corresponding to 85-105% of the methane potential in the substrates as determined by batch assays. Including 30% of crop in

  9. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  10. Cassava as an energy crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    of the Attieké cassava variety. Little competition with food crops is likely, as cassava most likely would replace cotton as primary cash crop, following the decline of cotton production since 2005 and hence food security concerns appear not to be an issue. Stated price levels to motivate an expansion of cassava...

  11. Energy crops in rotation. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technology, University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44 - 40127, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    The area under energy crops has increased tenfold over the last 10 years, and there is large consensus that the demand for energy crops will further increase rapidly to cover several millions of hectares in the near future. Information about rotational systems and effects of energy crops should be therefore given top priority. Literature is poor and fragmentary on this topic, especially about rotations in which all crops are exclusively dedicated to energy end uses. Well-planned crop rotations, as compared to continuous monoculture systems, can be expected to reduce the dependence on external inputs through promoting nutrient cycling efficiency, effective use of natural resources, especially water, maintenance of the long-term productivity of the land, control of diseases and pests, and consequently increasing crop yields and sustainability of production systems. The result of all these advantages is widely known as crop sequencing effect, which is due to the additional and positive consequences on soil physical-chemical and biological properties arising from specific crops grown in the same field year after year. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of several rotations with energy crops and their possibilities of being included alongside traditional agriculture systems across different agro-climatic zones within the European Union. Possible rotations dedicated exclusively to the production of biomass for bioenergy are also discussed, as rotations including only energy crops could become common around bio-refineries or power plants. Such rotations, however, show some limitations related to the control of diseases and to the narrow range of available species with high production potential that could be included in a rotation of such characteristics. The information on best-known energy crops such as rapeseed (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) suggests that conventional crops can benefit from the introduction of energy crops in

  12. Energy Crops and the Common Agricultural Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Kes; Nilsson, Helen; Tomescu, Mihail [Lund Univ. (Sweden). International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE)

    2006-07-15

    The Biomass Action Plan (BAP) for Europe outlines how to achieve the targets for bioenergy and energy crops defined by the European Commission and member states. However, it is the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that shapes the utilisation of agricultural land. This paper therefore reviews the supportive measures for energy crops in recent CAP reforms and investigates the effects on farmers in 'real-life' case studies from Sweden, Italy and Austria. This paper explores if the recent CAP reforms are sufficient to motivate farmers to cultivate energy crops; identifies the barriers and drivers for energy crops from the perspective of farmers; and suggests how to enhance supportive measures in the CAP to overcome barriers and complement the BAP.

  13. Energy potential of agricultural crops in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahiti, Naser; Sfishta, Avni; Gramatikov, Plamen

    2015-01-01

    Primary energy mix in Kosovo with 98 % consisting of lignite and only 2 % of water is far from portfolio of primary energy sources which could contribute to a sustainable and environmental friendly energy supply of the country. In order to improve the situation, government is supporting activities in favor of upgrading of electricity production capacities based on Renewable Energy Sources. Corresponding action plans and feed in tariffs are already in place. However, prior to any investment, one needs specific results on available potential. Current study provides results of the analysis of Kosovo potential for energy production by using of agricultural crops. Study is based on national statistics on available agricultural crops in Kosovo and provides results on biomass potential of crops, corresponding energy potential and an assessment of financial cost of energy produced.

  14. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  15. Biomass for energy from field crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubr, J.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of a field experiment, selected crops were evaluated for feasibility in producing biomass applicable as raw material for fuels. Both the main products and byproducts of the crops were investigated in the laboratory for qualitative characteristics and were subjected to methanogenic fermentation under mesophilic conditions. The biogas energy potential and gross energy potential were determined. Under the climatic conditions of Northern Europe, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) was found to be a superior energy crop. White cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) and comfrey (Symphytum asperum) can be considered as potential crops for biomass. The agrotechnical and the economic aspects of the biomass production are being subjected to further investigation.

  16. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  17. Energy-, environmental and economic evaluation of energy crops utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary project is prepared in order to clarify the economic possibilities and rentability of energy crops. Examples of energy crop resource potential, environmental and economic consequences are calculated on the basis of existing data. Utilization of annual and perennial crops is evaluated with regard to the usual following of agricultural areas, and to the traditional power generation in a coal-fueled plant. Two technological options are discussed: one based on energy crop fuels supplementing the conventional coal fuel, and the other based on a separate biomass-fueled boiler, connected to the conventional coal-fueled unit. Implementation of the main project,following the preliminary one will permit to estimate the future prospects and strategies of energy crop utilization as a profitable energy resource. (EG)

  18. Impact of perennial energy crops income variability on the crop selection of risk averse farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Peter; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government policy is for the area of perennial energy crops in the UK to expand significantly. Farmers need to choose these crops in preference to conventional rotations for this to be achievable. This paper looks at the potential level and variability of perennial energy crop incomes and the relation to incomes from conventional arable crops. Assuming energy crop prices are correlated to oil prices the results suggests that incomes from them are not well correlated to conventional arable crop incomes. A farm scale mathematical programming model is then used to attempt to understand the affect on risk averse farmers crop selection. The inclusion of risk reduces the energy crop price required for the selection of these crops. However yields towards the highest of those predicted in the UK are still required to make them an optimal choice, suggesting only a small area of energy crops within the UK would be expected to be chosen to be grown. This must be regarded as a tentative conclusion, primarily due to high sensitivity found to crop yields, resulting in the proposal for further work to apply the model using spatially disaggregated data. - Highlights: ► Energy crop and conventional crop incomes suggested as uncorrelated. ► Diversification effect of energy crops investigated for a risk averse farmer. ► Energy crops indicated as optimal selection only on highest yielding UK sites. ► Large establishment grant rates to substantially alter crop selections.

  19. The economics of producing energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapouri, H.; Duffield, J.

    1993-01-01

    The US agricultural sector has an immense supply of natural resources which can be used to product energy. Production of energy from these resources could stimulate economic growth, improve environmental quality, and enhance energy security. However, producing feedstocks and converting biomass to energy require large amounts of capital, equipment, labor, and processing facilities. This paper looks at the costs and benefits of producing energy crops for fuel conversion. A review of studies and crop data show that the cost of growing and converting various feedstocks with current technology is greater than the cost of producing conventional fuels. Conventional motor fuels have a price advantage over biofuels, but market prices don't always reflect the cost of negative externalities imposed on society. Government decisions to invest in alternative energy sources should be based on research that includes the environmental costs and benefits of energy production. The future of biofuels will depend on the continuation of government research and incentive programs. As new technologies advance, the costs of processing energy crops and residues will fall, making biofuels more competitive in energy markets

  20. Nitrate leaching and pesticide use in energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate leaching measured below willow and miscanthus is very low from the established crops. Pesticide use in energy crops is low as well.......Nitrate leaching measured below willow and miscanthus is very low from the established crops. Pesticide use in energy crops is low as well....

  1. Energy production on farms. Sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeijts, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on sustainability of energy crops are discussed. Contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse effect and other environmental effects were investigated for the Netherlands. The study assumed that energy crops are grown on set-aside land or grain land. Generating electricity and/or heat from hemp, reed, miscanthus, poplar and willow show the best prospects. These crops are sustainable and may in the future be economically feasible. Ethanol from winter wheat shows the most favourable environmental effects, but is not economically efficient. Liquid fuels from oil seed rape and sugar beet are not very sustainable. 2 tabs., 4 refs

  2. The Danish energy crop research and development project - main conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gylling, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Production of energy crops in Denmark is more or less non-existent in Denmark at the time being. However, the need for biomass on the other side of year 2005 exceeds the existing biomass resources and a substantial amount of energy crops will be necessary in order to fulfil the goals in Energy 21. The targeted share of the use of renewable energy sources by year 2030 is approximately 30%. Energy crops are seen as the most important new resource in order to create a balanced input mix of renewable in the energy system. The energy crops are mainly seen as fuel in small and medium sized CHP plants and in the big power plants. The Danish energy crop project consists of three main parts: a demonstration part, a research and development part, and an overall assessment part. Based on the results from the project the following overall conclusions can be made: Seen from a strictly market and production economic point of view energy crops will not be competitive in a foreseeable future, neither as a production for farmers nor as a fuel at the utility companies; The costs per GJ of energy crops are still higher than a GJ of straw; The cost difference between annual and perennial energy crops are slightly in favour of perennials, however the conditions on the individual farms should govern the choice between annual and perennial energy crops; Energy crops must be seen as part of an overall environmental scheme covering both agriculture and the energy sector; Given the right production scheme energy crops can be grown on environmental sensitive areas and on most ground water protection areas; Adding the potential sustainability benefits like reduced nutrient leakage and reduced CO 2 emissions energy crops seem to be a sensible and sustainable solution; Due to different handling, storage and fuel characteristics an all year delivery scheme of energy crops should include a mix of different energy crops to keep overall cost down. (BA)

  3. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsby, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  4. PHA bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somleva, Maria N; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2013-02-01

    Large scale production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in plants can provide a sustainable supply of bioplastics, biochemicals, and energy from sunlight and atmospheric CO(2). PHAs are a class of polymers with various chain lengths that are naturally produced by some microorganisms as storage materials. The properties of these polyesters make them functionally equivalent to many of the petroleum-based plastics that are currently in the market place. However, unlike most petroleum-derived plastics, PHAs can be produced from renewable feedstocks and easily degrade in most biologically active environments. This review highlights research efforts over the last 20 years to engineer the production of PHAs in plants with a focus on polyhydroxybutryrate (PHB) production in bioenergy crops with C(4) photosynthesis. PHB has the potential to be a high volume commercial product with uses not only in the plastics and materials markets, but also in renewable chemicals and feed. The major challenges of improving product yield and plant fitness in high biomass yielding C(4) crops are discussed in detail. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Energy crops for biogas plants. Bavaria; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, A.; Biertuempel, A.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-08-15

    For agriculturists in Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  6. The potential for energy production from crop residues in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingura, R.M.; Matengaifa, R. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, P. Bag 7724, Chinhoyi (Zimbabwe)

    2008-12-15

    There is increasing interest in Zimbabwe in the use of renewable energy sources as a means of meeting the country's energy requirements. Biomass provides 47% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. Energy can be derived from various forms of biomass using various available conversion technologies. Crop residues constitute a large part of the biomass available from the country's agriculture-based economy. The potential for energy production of crop residues is examined using data such as estimates of the quantities of the residues and their energy content. The major crops considered are maize, sugarcane, cotton, soyabeans, groundnuts, wheat, sorghum, fruits and forestry plantations. Quantities of residues are estimated from crop yields by using conversion coefficients for the various crops. Long-term crop yields data from 1970 to 1999 were used. Total annual residue yields for crops, fruits and forestry plantations are 7.805 Mt, 378 kt and 3.05 Mt, respectively. The crops, fruits and forestry residues have energy potential of 81.5, 4.9 and 44.3 PJ per year, respectively. This represents about 44% of the gross energy consumption in Zimbabwe. The need to balance use of crop residues for both energy purposes and other purposes such as animal feeding and soil fertility improvement is also highlighted. (author)

  7. Manure and energy crops for biogas production. Status and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, H.B.; Nielsen, A.M.; Murto, M.; Christensson, K.; Rintala, J.; Svensson, M.; Seppaelae, M.; Paavola, T.; Angelidaki, I.; Kaparaju, P.L.

    2008-07-01

    This study has evaluated the development of biogas technology in three Nordic countries and analysed the effects of using nine model energy crops as supplement to manure feedstocks in biogas plants. The study compares the global warming impacts and the energy balance for the nine crops used for heat and power production. The energy balances and impacts on greenhouse gases of the studied crops differ between the countries. In Sweden and Denmark, the same crops turned out to be the most promising in terms of energy yield and impact on greenhouse gases. In general, the same crops that score high in terms of energy yield also score high in reducing the amount of greenhouse gases. Based on the examined parameters, it can be concluded that the most promising crops are Jerusalem artichoke, beets, maize, and, in Finland, reed canary grass as well. (au)

  8. Herbaceous energy crops: a general survey and a microeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caserta, G.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid fuels (bioethanol and biooil) derived from herbaceous crops are considered beneficial for the environment and human health especially if they are used as fuels for motor vehicles. The choice of the most suited crop to be cultivated for liquid biofuel production depends on many factors; the most important being the economic convenience for farmers to cultivate the new energy crop in place of the traditional ones. In order to analyse the conditions which favour the cultivation and selling of specific energy crops, a simple methodology is proposed, based on the calculation of the ''threshold price'' of the energy crop products. The ''threshold price'' is the minimum price at which the primary products of the energy crop, i.e., roots, tubers, seeds, etc., must be sold in order to obtain a gross margin equal to that usually obtained from the traditional crop which is replaced by the energy crop. As a case-study, this methodology has been applied to twelve Italian provinces where the cultivation of six energy crops, both in productive lands and set-aside lands, is examined. The crops considered are sugar beet, sweet sorghum and topinambour, useful for bioethanol production; and rapeseed, sunflower and soya, which are usually employed for the production of biooil. (Author)

  9. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw...

  10. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  11. The Giant Reed as an energy crop: assessing the energy requirements within its supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodias, Efthymis; Busato, P.; Bochtis, Dionysis

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is one form of renewable energy sources that are in the core of interesting for many researchers. There many different biomass sources that can be exploited for energy production, such as crop residues, waste materials, forestry residues and energy crops. Regarding energy crops......, there are many different types of crops significantly varies in terms of energy potential yields, production and provision methods, etc. To this end, a thoroughly assessment of the energy inputs and outputs of each potential energy crop is necessary. In this paper, the Giant Reed is evaluated energetically...... as a potential energy crop. The assessment regards a 10 year period. The considered energy elements include direct inputs (e.g. fuel consumption) as well as indirect inputs (e.g. embodied energy of materials and machinery). According to the results, the balance between the estimated total energy input...

  12. Energy crops for biogas plants. Brandenburg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, L.; Barthelmes, G.; Biertuempfel, A. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration, the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzen-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reported on recommendations on alternative cropping systems for energy crop rotations in order to achieve high yields in combination with high diversity, risk spreading and sustainability. In particular, the natural site conditions in the Federal State of Brandenburg (Federal Republic of Germany) are determined.

  13. Watershed Scale Optimization to Meet Sustainable Cellulosic Energy Crop Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cibin, Raj [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowling, Laura [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Brouder, Sylvie [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cherkauer, Keith [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Engel, Bernard [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Frankenberger, Jane [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Goforth, Reuben [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Gramig, Benjamin [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Volenec, Jeffrey [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-03-24

    The overall goal of this project was to conduct a watershed-scale sustainability assessment of multiple species of energy crops and removal of crop residues within two watersheds (Wildcat Creek, and St. Joseph River) representative of conditions in the Upper Midwest. The sustainability assessment included bioenergy feedstock production impacts on environmental quality, economic costs of production, and ecosystem services.

  14. European energy crops overview. Country report for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statens Planteavlsforsoeg, Tjele Denmark; Statens Jordbrugstekniske Forsoeg, Horsens Denmark

    1996-06-01

    Biomass constitutes a significant contribution to the Danish energy production and is a major tool in increasing the contribution from renewables. So far the focus has been on utilizing existing biomass residues like straw and forest residues and not energy crops. The government has agreed to carry out a demonstration and development programme on energy crops in order to analyse aspects of economy, energy, environment, nature conservancy and comerciality. Several plant species have been investigated for their potential as energy crops and overview information in presented on buchina, sunflower, knotweed, Jerusalem artichoke, false flax, reed Canary grass and corn cockle. More detailed descriptions are given on willow, Miscanthus, energy grain (grain whole crop) and rape which have been most intensively investigated. Rape has been the energy crop grown on the largest scale (40-50,000 ha) but the oil has not been used for energy purposes in Denmark. A research programme on the development of a low input production system for non-food rape is currently conducted. The perennial crops willow and Miscanthus are grown with low input of fertilizer and pesticides and are considered environmentally friendly. Willow-SRC is used as fuel at district heating plants, both commercially and for feasibility studies. Full-scale tests have been carried out on Miscanthus combustion in farm heating plant constructed for straw firing, and on co-combustion with coal at power stations. Grain whole crop (energy grain) has been combusted at a district heating plant, a CHP-plant and a power station. Co-combustion with coal was carried out at a CFB-boiler. Concerning ethanol based on energy crops, only a few activities are in progress. (EG) 89 refs.

  15. Screening boreal energy crops and crop residues for methane biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaeki, A.; Rintala, J.A. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Viinikainen, T.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to screen potential boreal energy crops and crop residues for their suitability in methane production and to investigate the effect of harvest time on the methane production potential of different crops. The specific methane yields of crops, determined in 100-200 d methane potential assays, varied from 0.17 to 0.49 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} VS{sub added} (volatile solids added) and from 25 to 260 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} t{sub ww}{sup -1} (tonnes of wet weight). Jerusalem artichoke, timothy-clover grass and reed canary grass gave the highest potential methane yields of 2900-5400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1}, corresponding to a gross energy yield of 28-53 MWh ha{sup -1} and ca. 40,000-60,000 km ha{sup -1} in passenger car transport. The effect of harvest time on specific methane yields per VS of crops varied a lot, whereas the specific methane yields per t{sub ww} increased with most crops as the crops matured. (author)

  16. Energy embodiment in Brazilian agriculture: an overview of 23 crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Soto Veiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The amount of energy required to produce a commodity or to supply a service varies from one production system to another and consequently giving rise to differing levels of environmental efficiency. Moreover, since energy prices have been continuously increasing over time, this energy amount may be a factor that has economic worth. Biomass production has a variety of end-products such as food, energy, and fiber; thus, taking into account the similarity in end-product of different crops (e.g.: sunflower, peanuts, or soybean for oil it is possible to evaluate which crops require less energy per functional unit, such as starch, oil, and protein. This information can be used in decision-making about policies for food safety or bioenergy. In this study, 23 crops were evaluated allowing for a comparison in terms of energy embodied per functional unit. Crops were grouped as follows: starch, oil, horticultural, perennial and fiber, to provide for a deeper analysis of alternatives for the groups, and subsidize further studies comparing conventional and alternative production systems such as organic or genetically modified organisms, in terms of energy. The best energy balance observed was whole sugarcane (juice, bagasse and straw with a surplus of 268 GJ ha−1 yr−1; palm shows the highest energy return on investment with a ratio of approximately 30:1. For carbohydrates and protein production, cassava and soybean, respectively, emerged as the crops offering the greatest energy savings in the production of these functional foods.

  17. Biogas crops grown in energy crop rotations: Linking chemical composition and methane production characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Methane production characteristics and chemical composition of 405 silages from 43 different crop species were examined using uniform laboratory methods, with the aim to characterise a wide range of crop feedstocks from energy crop rotations and to identify main parameters that influence biomass quality for biogas production. Methane formation was analysed from chopped and over 90 days ensiled crop biomass in batch anaerobic digestion tests without further pre-treatment. Lignin content of crop biomass was found to be the most significant explanatory variable for specific methane yields while the methane content and methane production rates were mainly affected by the content of nitrogen-free extracts and neutral detergent fibre, respectively. The accumulation of butyric acid and alcohols during the ensiling process had significant impact on specific methane yields and methane contents of crop silages. It is proposed that products of silage fermentation should be considered when evaluating crop silages for biogas production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  19. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Oilseed Crop Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  20. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  1. Energy saving: From engineering to crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Hemming, S.

    2011-01-01

    In greenhouse horticulture, energy costs form an increasingly larger part of the total production costs. Energy is primarily used for temperature control, reduction of air humidity, increase of light intensity and CO2 supply. Use of fossil energy can be reduced by limiting the energy demand of the

  2. ORGANOFINERY: FROM GREEN CROPS TO PROTEINS, ENERGY AND FERTILISER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; Fernandez, Maria Santamaria; Kiel, P.

    Difficulties with the supply of organic protein feed; low crop yields and low value of leguminous forage crops and a lack of organic fertilisers are nowadays some of the major challenges faced in organic farming with monogastric animals. Thus, organic farmers are forced to import feed and manure ...... from conventional farms. In order to overcome these challenges, the OrganoFinery project targets to develop a green biorefinery concept where organic crops are utilised for animal feed, fertiliser and energy production by producing biogas....

  3. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Buttlar, C. von; Conrad, M. [and others

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  4. Energy crops for biogas plants. Thuringia; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Thueringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biertuempfel, A.; Bischof, R.; Conrad, M. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Thuringia. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  5. Phytoremediation of differents wastewaters using energy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Leigue Fernandez, Maria Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The sources of renewable energy acquire considerable interest, if accompanied by a more rational use of energy, to facilitate the transaction by a high use of fossil fuels to a sustainable use of renewable energy. There are many alternative energy source such as wind, solar, geothermal and biomass that fulfil the criteria of sustainability and economic feasibility. Biomass refers to all the vegetable matter that can be obtained from photosynthesis. Biodiesel can be produced from a variety of ...

  6. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  7. Emission of CO2 from energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhollow, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    The production of cellulosic energy crops (e.g., short rotation woody crops and herbaceous crops) make a net contribution of CO 2 to the atmosphere to the extent that fossil-fuel based inputs are used in their production. The CO 2 released from the use of the biomass is merely CO 2 that has recently been removed from the atmosphere by the plant growth process. Fossil inputs used in the production of energy corps include energy invested in fertilizers and pesticides, and petroleum fuels used for machinery operation such as site preparation, weed control, harvesting, and hauling. Fossil inputs used come from petroleum, natural gas, and electricity derived from fossil sources. No fossil inputs for the capital used to produce fertilizers, pesticides, or machinery is calculated in this analysis. In this paper calculations are made for the short rotation woody crop hybrid poplar (Populus spp.), the annual herbaceous crop sorghum (Sorghum biocolor [L.] Moench), and the perennial herbaceous crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). For comparison purposes, emissions of CO 2 from corn (Zea mays L.) are calculated

  8. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckner, Jens; Peter, Christiane; Vetter, Armin

    2015-01-01

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  9. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  10. Quantifying biomass production in crops grown for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M J; Christian, D; Wilkins, C

    1997-12-31

    One estimate suggests that continued CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) reform may lead to as much as 2 million hectares of land set aside from arable production by the year 2020 in the UK alone, with 20 million hectares in the EU in total. Set-aside currently occupies more than 500,000 hectares in the UK. Set-aside land is providing more opportunities for non-food crops, for example fuel crops, which provide biomass for energy. Whilst any crop species will produce biomass which can be burnt to produce energy, arable crops were not developed with this in mind but rather a specific harvestable commodity, e.g. grain, and therefore the total harvestable commodity is seldom maximised. The characteristics of an ideal fuel crop have been identified as: dry harvested material for efficient combustion; perennial growth to minimise establishment costs and lengthen the growing season; good disease resistance; efficient conversion of solar radiation to biomass energy; efficient use of nitrogen fertiliser (where required) and water; and yield close to the theoretical maximum. Miscanthus, a genus of Oriental and African C4 perennial grasses, has been identified as possessing the above characteristics. There may be other species, which, if not yielding quite as much biomass, have other characteristics of merit. This has led to the need to identify inherently productive species which are adapted to the UK, and to validate the productivity of species which have already been 'discovered'. (author)

  11. Quantifying biomass production in crops grown for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.J.; Christian, D.; Wilkins, C.

    1996-12-31

    One estimate suggests that continued CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) reform may lead to as much as 2 million hectares of land set aside from arable production by the year 2020 in the UK alone, with 20 million hectares in the EU in total. Set-aside currently occupies more than 500,000 hectares in the UK. Set-aside land is providing more opportunities for non-food crops, for example fuel crops, which provide biomass for energy. Whilst any crop species will produce biomass which can be burnt to produce energy, arable crops were not developed with this in mind but rather a specific harvestable commodity, e.g. grain, and therefore the total harvestable commodity is seldom maximised. The characteristics of an ideal fuel crop have been identified as: dry harvested material for efficient combustion; perennial growth to minimise establishment costs and lengthen the growing season; good disease resistance; efficient conversion of solar radiation to biomass energy; efficient use of nitrogen fertiliser (where required) and water; and yield close to the theoretical maximum. Miscanthus, a genus of Oriental and African C4 perennial grasses, has been identified as possessing the above characteristics. There may be other species, which, if not yielding quite as much biomass, have other characteristics of merit. This has led to the need to identify inherently productive species which are adapted to the UK, and to validate the productivity of species which have already been 'discovered'. (author)

  12. N2O Emission from energy crop fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, B.J.; Nyholm Joergensen, R.

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N 2 O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N 2 O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO 2 . The contribution of N 2 O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N 2 O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N 2 O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N 2 O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N 2 O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N 2 O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N 2 O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N 2 O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N 2 O ha -1 yr -1 . This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 compared to a total CO 2 reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO 2 ha -1 yr -1 using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N 2 O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO 2 reduction per unit dry matter. Following the guidelines for good agricultural practice concerning the

  13. Comparison of energy and yield parameters in maize crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.Q.; Mirjat, M.S.; Amjad, N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine direct and indirect input energy in maize production and to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption in maize crop. Result showed that emergence percent, plant height, number of grains per cob and grain yield were the highest in deep tillage as compared to conventional and zero tillage. Total energy input and output were the highest in deep tillage with NPK at the rate 150-75-75kg/ha. The net energy gain was found the highest in deep tillage followed by conventional tillage and the lowest net energy gain in zero tillage. (author)

  14. Modelling farmer uptake of perennial energy crops in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrington, Chris; Moran, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    The UK Biomass Strategy suggests that to reach the technical potential of perennial energy crops such as short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and miscanthus by 2020 requires 350,000 hectares of land. This represents a more than 20-fold increase on the current 15,546 hectares. Previous research has identified several barriers to adoption, including concerns over security of income from contracts. In addition, farmers perceive returns from these crops to be lower than for conventional crops. This paper uses a farm-level linear programming model to investigate theoretical uptake of energy crops at different gross margins under the assumption of a profit-maximising decision maker, and in the absence of known barriers to adoption. The findings suggest that while SRC willow, at current prices, remains less competitive, returns to miscanthus should have encouraged adoption on a wider scale than at present. This highlights the importance of the barriers to adoption. Recently announced contracts for miscanthus appear to offer a significant premium to farmers in order to encourage them to grow the crops. This raises the question of whether a more cost-effective approach would be for government to provide guarantees addressing farmers concerns including security of income from the contracts. Such an approach should encourage adoption at lower gross margins. (author)

  15. Woody biomass from short rotation energy crops. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S., Jr. Zalesny Jr.; M.W. Cunningham; R.B. Hall; J. Mirck; D.L. Rockwood; J.A. Stanturf; T.A. Volk

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) are ideal for woody biomass production and management systems because they are renewable energy feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts that can be strategically placed in the landscape to conserve soil and water, recycle nutrients, and sequester carbon. This chapter is a synthesis of the regional implications of producing...

  16. Evaluating trees as energy crops in Napa County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean R. Donaldson; Richard B. Standiford

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of tree species for energy crops was initiated at two areas in Napa County, California. At one area, Eucalyptus viminalis at 39 months was significantly taller than E. camaldulensis at 50 months. Also evaluated were five clones of Pinus radiata, Juglans regia X hindsii...

  17. Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from Penmann's ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan, Krishtel eMaging Solutions

    Computing energy budget within a crop canopy from. Penmann's formulae. Mahendra Mohan∗ and K K Srivastava∗∗. ∗Radio and Atmospheric Science Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012, India. ∗∗Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.

  18. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The current Danish energy plan stipulates a production of 5 PI from energy crops in 2010. This may be attained through growing of either annual (e.g., cereal) or perennial energy crops (e.g., willow or Miscanthus). Existing Danish data and the IPCC methodology was used to calculate nitrous oxide emissions from and carbon sequestration in soils cropped with an annual energy crop (triticale) or a perennial energy crop (Miscanthus). The calculations for Miscanthus were performed separately for harvest in November or April, since the harvest time affects both yields and emissions. The estimates for Miscanthus were based on a 20-year duration of the cultivation period. The energy use for growing the crops was included in the energy budgets, as was the reduction in CO 2 emission that will result from substitution of fossil fuel (natural gas). The calculations were performed for both a coarse sandy soil and a loamy sand. The results were compared with current (reference) practice for growing cereals. There were only minor differences in production data and emissions between the two soil types. The area required to produce 5 PI was smallest for Miscanthus harvested in November (c. 25,000 ha), and about equal for triticale and Miscanthus harvested in April (c. 32,000 ha). The reduction in nitrous oxide emissions compared with cereal production was smallest for triticale (20 kt CO 2 equivalents /eq] yr -1 ) and about equal for Miscanthus at the two harvest times (30-36 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ). Growing Miscanthus resulted in a carbon sequestration, with the highest rates (100 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ) for Miscanthus harvested in April. The energy use for production of triticale was slightly lower than for normal cereal growing, whereas growing Miscanthus for harvest in April resulted in a smaller energy use which corresponded to an emission reduction of 20 kt CO 2 yr -1 . The substitution of fossil fuel corresponded to 285 kt CO 2 yr -1 . Summing all items, growing 5 PI worth of

  19. Comparison of energy inputs in glasshouse double crop (fall and summer crops) tomato production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Ceylan, R. Figen; Kizilay, Hatice [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07070 (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    The study examines energy use patterns and the relationship between energy inputs and yield for double crop (fall and summer) glasshouse tomato production in Antalya province, where is one of the most important greenhouse centres in Turkey. The data of the study was retrieved from 37 fall and 25 summer glasshouse tomato producers via face to face survey in 2007. The research findings revealed energy use values for inputs such as manure, electricity, chemical fertilizer and fuel. While the average yield per hectare is 25025.4 kg for enterprises involved in tomato production in fall, it is 22392.9 kg for summer production. The overall energy consumption is higher in fall production with 81362.2 MJ ha{sup -1} in comparison to summer production 63023.2 MJ ha{sup -1}. In addition, the specific energy requirement is 3521.2 MJ t{sup -1} and 2814.4 MJ t{sup -1} for fall and summer production in order and the energy efficiency was found out to be 0.31 kg MJ{sup -1} and 0.36 kg MJ{sup -1} respectively. Finally, the energy relationship was tested using the production relationship. The findings indicated that direct energy sources are effective in tomato yield for both of the two seasons. More clearly, the most significant energy input was electrical energy for summer production and a combination of electrical energy, human power and machinery for fall production. Yet, excess and unconscious use of chemical ingredients in glasshouse tomato production was confirmed as energy derived from chemical drugs leaded a declination in the yield for fall season. Therefore, the paper revealed energy relationship for double crop glasshouse tomato production in Antalya, being a reference for similar production methodologies. (author)

  20. Effect of pre-treatments on methane production potential of energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaki, A.; Ronkainen; Rintala, J.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences; Viinikainen, T.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Energy crops, that is, crops grown specifically for energy purposes are an alternative to food production in areas with sufficient agricultural land. Crop residues are also a potential source of energy. The anaerobic digestion of solid materials is limited by hydrolysis of complex polymeric substances such as lignocellulose. The methane producing potential of ligno cellulosic material is to pretreat the substrate in order to break up the polymer chains to more easily accessible soluble compounds. In this study, three different substrates were used: sugar beet tops, grass hay, and straw of oats. Biological pretreatments were the following: enzyme treatment, composting, white-rot fungi treatment. Also, pretreatment in water was tried. Chemical pretreatments included peracetic acid treatment, and treatment with two different alkalis. Alkaline pretreatments of hay and sugar beet tops have the potential to improve the methane yield. For instance, the yield of grass hay was increased 15 per cent by one particular alkaline treatment. Straw did not respond to any of the treatments tried. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Pesticide runoff from energy crops: A threat to aquatic invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzel, Katja; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thrän, Daniela; Kattwinkel, Mira

    2015-12-15

    The European Union aims to reach a 10% share of biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. The major burden is most likely to fall on already established annual energy crops such as rapeseed and cereals for the production of biodiesel and bioethanol, respectively. Annual energy crops are typically cultivated in intensive agricultural production systems, which require the application of pesticides. Agricultural pesticides can have adverse effects on aquatic invertebrates in adjacent streams. We assessed the relative ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates associated with the chemical pest management from six energy crops (maize, potato, sugar beet, winter barley, winter rapeseed, and winter wheat) as well as from mixed cultivation scenarios. The pesticide exposure related to energy crops and cultivation scenarios was estimated as surface runoff for 253 small stream sites in Central Germany using a GIS-based runoff potential model. The ecological risk for aquatic invertebrates, an important organism group for the functioning of stream ecosystems, was assessed using acute toxicity data (48-h LC50 values) of the crustacean Daphnia magna. We calculated the Ecological Risk from potential Pesticide Runoff (ERPR) for all three main groups of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides). Our findings suggest that the crops potato, sugar beet, and rapeseed pose a higher ecological risk to aquatic invertebrates than maize, barley, and wheat. As maize had by far the lowest ERPR values, from the perspective of pesticide pollution, its cultivation as substrate for the production of the gaseous biofuel biomethane may be preferable compared to the production of, for example, biodiesel from rapeseed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy crop (Sida hermaphrodita) fertilization using digestate under marginal soil conditions: A dose-response experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, Moritz; Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Horsch, David; Jablonowski, Nicolai David

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for energy security and the mitigation of climate change are the main drivers pushing energy-plant production in Germany. However, the cultivation of these plants can cause land use conflicts since agricultural soil is mostly used for plant production. A sustainable alternative to the conventional cultivation of food-based energy-crops is the cultivation of special adopted energy-plants on marginal lands. To further increase the sustainability of energy-plant cultivation systems the dependency on synthetic fertilizers needs to be reduced via closed nutrient loops. In the presented study the energy-plant Sida hermaphrodita (Malvaceae) will be used to evaluate the potential to grow this high potential energy-crop on a marginal sandy soil in combination with fertilization via digestate from biogas production. With this dose-response experiment we will further identify an optimum dose, which will be compared to equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Further, lethal doses and deficiency doses will be observed. Two weeks old Sida seedlings were transplanted to 1L pots and fertilized with six doses of digestate (equivalent to a field application of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160t/ha) and three equivalent doses of NPK-fertilizer. Control plants were left untreated. Sida plants will grow for 45 days under greenhouse conditions. We hypothesize that the nutrient status of the marginal soil can be increased and maintained by defined digestate applications, compared to control plants suffering of nutrient deficiency due to the low nutrient status in the marginal substrate. The dose of 40t/ha is expected to give a maximum biomass yield without causing toxicity symptoms. Results shall be used as basis for further experiments on the field scale in a field trial that was set up to investigate sustainable production systems for energy crop production under marginal soil conditions.

  3. Sustainable Biofuel Project: Emergy Analysis of South Florida Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amponsah, Nana Yaw [Intelligentsia International, Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose-Luis [Intelligentsia International, Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Soil and Water Sciences Dept.; Capece, John C. [Intelligentsia International, Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluates the sustainability of various farming systems, namely (1) sugarcane on organic and mineral soils and (2) energycane and sweet sorghum on mineral soils. The primary objective of the study is to compare the relative sustainability matrices of these energy crops and their respective farming systems. These matrices should guide decision and policy makers to determine the overall sustainability of an intended or proposed bioethanol project related to any of these studied crops. Several different methods of energy analysis have been proposed to assess the feasibility or sustainability of projects exploiting natural resources (such as (Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis, Exergy Analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, Ecological Footprint, etc.). This study primarily focused on the concept of Emergy Analysis, a quantitative analytical technique for determining the values of nonmonied and monied resources, services and commodities in common units of the solar energy it took to make them. With this Emergy Analysis study, the Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center intends to provide useful perspective for different stakeholder groups to (1) assess and compare the sustainability levels of above named crops cultivation on mineral soils and organic soils for ethanol production and (2) identify processes within the cultivation that could be targeted for improvements. The results provide as much insight into the assumptions inherent in the investigated approaches as they do into the farming systems in this study.

  4. 2. symposium energy crops 2009; 2. Symposium Energiepflanzen 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-27

    Within the meeting '2nd Symposium energy plants 2009', held at 17th to 18th November, 2009, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The bio energy policy of the Federal Government in the area of attention between climatic protection, ecology and economy (Ilse Aigner); (2) Chances and threatens of cultivation of energy plants for a sustainable energy supply (Alois Heissenhuber); (3) Certification as a prerequisite of the global exploration of bio energy (Andreas Feige); (4) A project support in the field of cultivation of energy plants, a review (Andreas Schuette); (5) Results from the investigation of the crop rotation in the EVA network (Armin Vater); (6) Optimisation of the cultivation technology of sorghum millets (Christian Roehricht); (7) The two-culture utilization system - a comparison between ecologic and conventional cultivation (Reinhold Stuelpnagel); (8) Crop rotation with energy plants - Chances and threatens for the plant protection (Baerbel Gerowitt); (9) Efficiency of utilization of water for energy plants (Siegfried Schittenhelm); (10) Utilization of arable food grasses and permanent grassland as a substrate for biogas (Matthias Benke); (11) Economical evaluation of plant fermentation substrates (Dominik Reus); (12) Energy plants as a challenge for the agricultural engineering (Heiner Bruening); (13) Influence of the design of cultivation on the subsequent effects of the cultivation of energy plants (Michael Glemnitz); (14) Energy plants and waters protection - Key aspects and possible options of action (Heike Nitsch); (15) Neophytes as energy plants - Chances and threatens (Werner Kuhn); (16) Manifold in te landscape - extensive cultivation systems with renewable raw materials as an option for nature protection? (Peer Heck); (17) Ecologic aspects of agro forestry systems (Holger Gruenewald); (18) Enhancement of the potential of energy yield of winter wheat (Wolfgang Friedt); (19) Interspersed silphie

  5. Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael [CRC Development, LLC, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    CRC Development LLC is pursuing commercialization of shrub willow crops to evaluate and confirm estimates of yield, harvesting, transportation and renewable energy conversion costs and to provide a diverse resource in its supply portfolio.The goal of Closed Loop Short Rotation Woody Biomass Energy Crops is supply expansion in Central New York to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops as part of the mix of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts. CRC Development LLC established the first commercial willow biomass plantation acreage in North America was established on the Tug Hill in the spring of 2006 and expanded in 2007. This was the first 230- acres toward the goal of 10,000 regional acres. This project replaces some 2007-drought damaged acreage and installs a total of 630-acre new planting acres in order to demonstrate to regional agricultural producers and rural land-owners the economic vitality of closed loop short rotation woody biomass energy crops when deployed commercially in order to motivate new grower entry into the market-place. The willow biomass will directly help stabilize the fuel supply for the Lyonsdale Biomass facility, which produces 19 MWe of power and exports 15,000 pph of process steam to Burrows Paper. This project will also provide feedstock to The Biorefinery in New York for the manufacture of renewable, CO2-neutral liquid transportation fuels, chemicals and polymers. This project helps end dependency on imported fossil fuels, adds to region economic and environmental vitality and contributes to national security through improved energy independence.

  6. Heavy metals in trees and energy crops - a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, Lars

    1995-12-01

    This literature review deals with the use of energy crops for cleaning of soils from heavy metals. It also deals with the use of low accumulating energy crops to be used on strongly contaminated soils where a low uptake of heavy metals is preferred, for example on mining deposits. In addition to the efforts to reduce the sources for heavy metal contamination of soils (for example commercial fertilizers and atmospheric deposition) the uptake and removal of heavy metals from the soils by the use of energy crops have recently been discussed as a method for cleaning of soils. Species from the Salix family (willow) have a greater potential for accumulating heavy metals than cereals which makes them interesting for this purpose. The Salix family consists of species with a great genetic variation. This will probably make it possible to find or develop clones with different characteristics suitable for cleaning of contaminated soils as well as for plant covering of soils that are extremely contaminated by heavy metals. In the former case an accumulation of heavy metals in the harvested parts, the shoots, is preferred. In the later case clones that do not accumulate heavy metals and maybe also clones with only root accumulation are preferred. There are also Salix clones with a specific accumulation of heavy metals which makes it possible to clean soils from a toxic metal and at the same time avoid the risk for deficiency of essential metals, for example Zn. The greatest potential to clean soils by the use of energy crops, is when the contamination levels in the soils are low, the areas to clean are large and when the time needed for cleaning is of minor importance. The most suitable soils are those where the metal contamination is located in the top soil layer and where the heavy metal concentrations in the sub soil layer are still low. 58 refs, 8 tabs, 1 fig

  7. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus `Giganteus` (M. `Giganteus`) and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substituion for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO{sub 2} reduction

  8. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus 'Giganteus' (M. 'Giganteus') and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substitution for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the

  9. Modelling of cadmium fluxes on energy crop land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, V.

    1992-04-01

    The flux of cadmium on energy crop land is investigated. Three mechanisms are accounted for; Uptake by plant, transport with water, and sorption to soil. Sorption is described with Freundlich isotherms. The system is simulated mathematically in order to estimate the sensitivity and importance of different parameters on the cadmium flow and sorption. The water flux through the soil and the uptake by plants are simulated with a hydrological model, SOIL. The simulated time period is two years. The parameters describing root distribution and evaporation due to crop are taken from measurements on energy crop (Salix). The resulting water flux, water content in the soil profile and the water uptake into roots, for each day and soil compartment, are used in the cadmium sorption simulation. In the cadmium sorption simulation the flux and equilibrium chemistry of cadmium is calculated. It is shown that the amount of cadmium that accumulates in the plant, and the depth to which the applied cadmium reaches depends strongly on the constants in the sorption isotherm. With an application of 10 mg Cd/m 2 in the given range of Freundlich equations, the simulations gave a plant uptake of between 0 and 30 % of the applied cadmium in two years. At higher concentrations, where cadmium sorption can be described by nonlinear isotherms, more cadmium is present in soil water and is generally more bioavailable. 25 refs

  10. Hemp: A more sustainable annual energy crop for climate and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnan, John; Styles, David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fuel-chain greenhouse gas balance and farm economics of hemp grown for bioenergy with two perennial bioenergy crops, Miscanthus and willow, and two more traditional annual bioenergy crops, sugar beet and oil seed rape (OSR). The GHG burden of hemp cultivation is intermediate between perennial and traditional annual energy crops, but net fuel chain GHG abatement potential of 11 t/CO 2 eq./ha/year in the mid yield estimate is comparable to perennial crops, and 140% and 540% greater than for OSR and sugar beet fuel chains, respectively. Gross margins from hemp were considerably lower than for OSR and sugar beet, but exceeded those from Miscanthus when organic fertilizers were used and in the absence of establishment grants for the latter crop. Extrapolated up to the EU scale, replacing 25% of OSR and sugar beet production with hemp production could increase net GHG abatement by up to 21 Mt CO 2 eq./year. Hemp is a considerably more efficient bioenergy feedstock than the dominant annual energy crops. Integrated into food crop rotations, hemp need not compete with food supplies, and could provide an appealing option to develop more sustainable non-transport bioenergy supply chains. - Highlights: ► The GHG burden of hemp is intermediate between perennial and annual energy crops. ► Replacing 25% of OSR/beet with hemp could increase GHG abatement by 21 Mt/CO 2 eq./year. ► Hemp is a more efficient bioenergy feedstock than the dominant annual energy crops

  11. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, Henrik B.

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops....... The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...... oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy...

  12. Energy and emergy analysis of mixed crop-livestock farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczuk, Anna; Pospolita, Janusz; Wacław, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    This paper contains substance and energy balances of mixed crop-livestock farming. The analysis involves the period between 2012 and 2015. The structure of the presentation in the paper includes: crops and their structure, details of the use of plants with a beneficial effect on soil and stocking density per 1ha of agricultural land. Cumulative energy intensity of agricultural animal and plant production was determined, which is coupled the discussion of the energy input in the production of a grain unit obtained from plant and animal production. This data was compared with the data from the literature containing examples derived from intensive and organic production systems. The environmental impact of a farm was performed on the basis of emergy analysis. Emergy fluxes were determined on the basis of renewable and non-renewable sources. As a consequence, several performance indicators were established: Emergy Yield Ratio EYR, Environmental Loading Ratio ELR and ratio of emergy from renewable sources R! . Their values were compared with the parameters characterizing other production patterns followed in agricultural production. As a consequence, conclusions were derived, in particular the ones concerning environmental sustainability of production systems in the analyzed farm.

  13. Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Mitchell, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    Short-rotation energy crops can play a significant role in storing carbon compared to the agricultural land uses they would displace. However, the benefits from these plantations in avoiding further use of fossil fuel and in taking pressure off of native forests for energy uses provides longer term carbon benetfits than the plantation carbon sequestration itself. The fast growth and harvest frequency of plantations tends to limit the amount of above and below-ground carbon storage in them. The primary components of plantation carbon sequestering compared to sustained agricultural practices involve above-ground wood, possible increased soil carbon, litter layer formation, and increased root biomass. On the average, short-rotation plantations in total may increase carbon inventories by about 30 to 40 tonnes per hectare over about a 20- to 56-year period when displacing cropland. This is about doubling in storage over cropland and about one-half the storage in human-impacted forests. The sequestration benefit of wood energy crops over cropland would be negated in about 75 to 100 years by the use of fossil fuels to tend the plantations and handle biomass. Plantation interactions with other land uses and total landscape carbon inventory is important in assessing the relative role plantations play in terrestrial and atmospheric carbon dynamics. It is speculated that plantations, when viewed in this context. could trencrate a global leveling of net carbon emissions for approximately 10 to 20 years

  14. Mineral composition and ash content of six major energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Andrea; Venturi, Gianpietro [Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technologies (DiSTA), University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Di Virgilio, Nicola [Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council, Via P. Gobetti, 101 I, 40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The chemical composition of biofuels has not received adequate attention given that it is an important aspect in the introduction of energy crops. In this study, the ash content and mineral composition (C, N, Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Si) of stems, leaves and reproductive organs of some promising energy crops were determined and compared with the respective recommended thresholds reported in literature. Overall, cynara exhibited the highest ash and mineral contents, which indicate high slagging, fouling and corrosion tendencies. However, cynara also showed the lowest Si content, both in leaves (4.3 g kg{sup -1}) and in stems (0.9 g kg{sup -1}). Sweet sorghum and giant reed exhibited the highest N content (up to 16 g kg{sup -1}), which greatly exceeded the recommended limits in leaves. Importantly, Cl always exceeded the recommended limits (up to 18 mg kg{sup -1} in cynara), both in stems and in leaves, thus resulting in a major stumbling block for all crops. Several significant correlations among elements were found at a single plant part; conversely these correlations were generally very weak considering different plant components, with the exception of K (r=0.91**), P (r=0.94**) and ashes (r=0.64**). Generally, leaves resulted in a significant deterioration of biofuel quality when compared with stems and flower heads. Therefore, agricultural strategies aimed at reducing the leaf component (e.g. by delaying the harvest) may considerably improve the suitability of biofuels for current combustion plants. (author)

  15. Energy crops. Data for planning of energy crop cultivation. KTBL data compilation with internet services; Energiepflanzen. Daten fuer die Planung des Energiepflanzenanbaus. KTBL-Datensammlung mit Internetangebot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckel, H.; Grube, J.; Zimmer, E. (comps.)

    2006-07-01

    Based on the KTBL data compilation ''Betriebsplanung Landwirtschaft'', this data compilation (''Datensammlung Energiepflanzen'') provides comprehensive information on the cultivation of energy crops and production planning. Production techniques are outlined up to the final step of provision to the consumer, so that full-scale cost calculation is possible. Hints for cultivation are presented which take into account the differences between food and fodder crop cultivation. Rare crops are gone into for which little experience is available but which have great potential for utilisation in agriculture. Energetic utilisation is a field for a wider range of crops and with new options for crop rotation. These are discussed in two separate chapters. There is also information on legal aspects of energy crop production, relevant standards, and quality requirements on substrates for energetic use and for secondary harvesting. (orig.)

  16. An optimal staggered harvesting strategy for herbaceous biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.G.; English, B.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biofuel research over the past two decades indicates lignocellulosic crops are a reliable source of feedstock for alternative energy. However, under the current technology of producing, harvesting and converting biomass crops, the cost of biofuel is not competitive with conventional biofuel. Cost of harvesting biomass feedstock is a single largest component of feedstock cost so there is a cost advantage in designing a biomass harvesting system. Traditional farmer-initiated harvesting operation causes over investment. This study develops a least-cost, time-distributed (staggered) harvesting system for example switch grass, that calls for an effective coordination between farmers, processing plant and a single third-party custom harvester. A linear programming model explicitly accounts for the trade-off between yield loss and benefit of reduced machinery overhead cost, associated with the staggered harvesting system. Total cost of producing and harvesting switch grass will decline by 17.94 percent from conventional non-staggered to proposed staggered harvesting strategy. Harvesting machinery cost alone experiences a significant reduction of 39.68 percent from moving from former to latter. The net return to farmers is estimated to increase by 160.40 percent. Per tonne and per hectare costs of feedstock production will decline by 17.94 percent and 24.78 percent, respectively. These results clearly lend support to the view that the traditional system of single period harvesting calls for over investment on agricultural machinery which escalates the feedstock cost. This social loss to the society in the form of escalated harvesting cost can be avoided if there is a proper coordination among farmers, processing plant and custom harvesters as to when and how biomass crop needs to be planted and harvested. Such an institutional arrangement benefits producers, processing plant and, in turn, end users of biofuels.

  17. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Herbaceous energy crops in humid lower South USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The humid lower South has the long warm growing season and high rainfall conditions needed for producing high-yielding perennial herbaceous grasses and shrubs. Many potential biomass plants were evaluated during a ten-year period. Perennial tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum spp.) and the leguminous shrub Leucaena leucocephala were the highest in biomass production. These perennial crops often have top growth killed by winter freezes and regenerate from underground parts. The tall grasses have high yields because of linear crop growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2} d{sup {minus}1} for long periods (140 to 196 d) each season. Tall grasses must be planted vegetatively, which is more costly than seed propagation, however, once established, they may persist for many seasons. Oven dry biomass yields have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in colder subtropical to mild temperate locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} in the lower portion of the Florida peninsular. Highest biomass yields have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils in south Florida. The energy content of 1 Mg of oven dry tall grass and leucaena is equivalent to that of about 112 and 123 gallons of number 2 diesel fuel, respectively.

  19. Energy balance of chosen crops and their potential to saturate energy consumption in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Hrčková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess and compare energy inputs and outputs of various crop managements in 2011–2012. Two main crops on arable land and three permanent grasslands were investigated. Silage maize (Zea mays L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were grown on lowland, whilst two semi-natural grasslands and grassland infested by tufted hair-grass (Deschampsia caespitose (L. P. Beauv were located in mountainous regions of Slovakia. In these crops and grasslands the dry matter yield was measured and subsequently the supplementary energy, energy gain and unifying energy value – tonne of oil equivalent (TOE – were calculated. Silage maize with 233.37 GJ*ha-1 has provided the highest energy gain. In the group of grasslands, grassland infested by tufted hair-grass has offered the highest energy gain (59.77 GJ*ha-1. And this grassland had the lowest requirement on the supplementary energy (3.66 GJ*ha-1, contrary to silage maize with highest one (12.37 GJ*ha-1. The total energy potential of the crop biomasses was confronted with energy consumption in Slovakia. Winter wheat has the biggest energy potential, but it could cover only 19.6% and 11.3% total consumption of electricity or natural gas, respectively. Large area of permanent grasslands and their spatial location make them an important energy reservoir for bioenergy production. But, it is not possible to replace all consumed fossil fuels by bioenergy from these tested renewable energy sources.

  20. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Restuccia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested has been used. At this aim, an experimental field was realised in the south-eastern Sicilian land. During the autumn-winter crop cycle, no irrigation was carried out and some suitable agricultural practices have been carried out taking into account the peculiarity of each type of used seeds. The total energy consumed for the cultivation of oil bearing crops from sowing to the production of biodiesel represents the Input of the process. In particular, this concerned the energy embodied in machinery and tools utilized, in seed, chemical fertilizer and herbicide but also the energy embodied in diesel fuels and lubricant oils. In addition, the energy consumption relating to machines and reagents required for the processes of extraction and transesterification of the vegetable oil into biodiesel have been calculated for each crops. The energy obtainable from biodiesel production, taking into account the energy used for seed pressing and for vegetable oil transesterification into biodiesel, represents the Output of the process. The ratio Output/Input gets the EROEI index which in the case of Camelina sativa and Linum usatissimum is greater than one. These results show that the cultivation of these crops for biofuels production is convenient in terms of energy return on energy investment. The EROEI index for Brassica carinata is lower than one. This could means that some factors, concerning mechanisation and climatic

  1. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  2. Initial study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from field to energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-11-15

    Energy crops constitute an yet not fully utilised potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass increases interest in agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp is increasing. Exploiting the potential for energy crops as fuels will demand that cultivation and harvest be coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilisation of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the course of the 2006 - 2009 programme, decisive steps will be taken towards a functioning market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesised available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from field to energy production. The aim has been to provide a snapshot of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesise knowledge we have today into future research needs. A research plan proposal has been developed for the research programme

  3. Evaluation of triticale as energy crop in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantale, Cristina; Correnti, Angelo; Farneti, Anna; Felici, Fabio; Mentuccia, Luciano; Pignatelli, Vito; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Ammar, Karim; Galeffi, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of renewable energy represents a target of the European 2020 strategy for economical growth and sustainable competitiveness. Cereals are considered a promising biomass producing crop in temperate regions of Europe to be used for both fuel alcohol and biogas production. Among cereals, triticale represents a good candidate for this kind of application, showing a number of advantages such as high grain yield even in marginal environments, tolerance to drought, tolerance to more acid soils, lower production costs and lower susceptibility to biotic stresses. The aim of this study was to compare yield and quality of eight triticale lines grown in marginal areas in a two-year experiment. Italian variety, Magistral, and a bread wheat variety (EW9) were selected for comparison. Data from fields, chemical analyses and preliminary results from fermentation are reported.

  4. Energy crops for biogas plants. Saxony-Anhalt; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Sachsen-Anhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boese, L.; Buttlar, C. von; Boettcher, K. (and others)

    2012-07-15

    For agriculturists in Saxony-Anhalt (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  5. Energy crops for biogas plants. Baden-Wuerttemberg; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, A.; Heiermann, M.; Herrmann, C. [and others

    2013-05-01

    For agriculturists in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  6. Energy crops for biogas plants. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Bull, I.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    For agriculturists in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Federal Republic of Germany), the brochure under consideration provides recommendations on alternative crop rotation systems. With the help of these alternative cultivation systems, crop rotation with high yields in combination with high diversity, diversification and sustainability can be realized. Subsequently to the presentation of energy crops for the production of biogas, recommendations for the design of crop rotation are given. Other chapters of this booklet deal with ensilage and gas yields as well as the economics of energy crop cultivation.

  7. Multicriteria analysis for the selection of the most appropriate energy crops: the case of Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylili, Angeliki; Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A.; Polycarpou, Polycarpos

    2016-01-01

    Energy crops are considered key actors in meeting the international and European carbon reduction targets, increasing the national energy security through renewable energy production, mitigating climate change impacts, and promoting sustainability. Multicriteria analysis is a suitable decision-making tool for the energy sector, where the final decisions have to consider for a range of aspects, and can be utilised as well for deciding on appropriate energy crops. In this paper, a popular multicriteria method, PROMETHEE, is employed for the identification of the most optimal energy crops for their exploitation in Cyprus. The criteria and the weights of each are defined, and accordingly five different scenarios are developed and examined. The obtained results indicated that the promotion of second-generation energy crops is more ideal in terms of the set objectives, as well as more sustainable than the exploitation of any first-generation energy crop.

  8. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  9. Agronomic, Energetic and Environmental Aspects of Biomass Energy Crops Suitable for Italian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore L. Cosentino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The review, after a short introduction on the tendencies of the European Community Policy on biomasses, describes the agronomic, energy potential and environmental aspects of biomass crops for energy in relation to the research activity carried out in Italy on this topic, differentiating crops on the basis of the main energy use: biodiesel and bioethanol (which refers to “first generation biofuel”, heat and electricity. Currently, many of the crops for potential energy purposes are food crops (wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, grain sorghum, sugar beet and their production may be used as biofuel source (bioethanol and biodiesel since their crop management aspects are well known and consequently they are immediately applicable. Other species that could be used, highly productive in biomass, such as herbaceous perennial crops (Arundo donax, Miscanthus spp., cardoon, annual crops (sweet sorghum, short rotation woody crops (SRF have been carefully considered in Italy, but they still exhibit critical aspects related to propagation technique, low-input response, harvest and storage technique, cultivars and mechanization. Crops for food, however, often have negative energetic indices and environmental impacts (carbon sequestration, Life Cycle Assessment, consequent to their low productivity. Conversely, crops which are more productive in biomass, show both a more favourable energy balance and environmental impact.

  10. Agronomic, Energetic and Environmental Aspects of Biomass Energy Crops Suitable for Italian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina M. D’Agosta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The review, after a short introduction on the tendencies of the European Community Policy on biomasses, describes the agronomic, energy potential and environmental aspects of biomass crops for energy in relation to the research activity carried out in Italy on this topic, differentiating crops on the basis of the main energy use: biodiesel and bioethanol (which refers to “first generation biofuel”, heat and electricity. Currently, many of the crops for potential energy purposes are food crops (wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, grain sorghum, sugar beet and their production may be used as biofuel source (bioethanol and biodiesel since their crop management aspects are well known and consequently they are immediately applicable. Other species that could be used, highly productive in biomass, such as herbaceous perennial crops (Arundo donax, Miscanthus spp., cardoon, annual crops (sweet sorghum, short rotation woody crops (SRF have been carefully considered in Italy, but they still exhibit critical aspects related to propagation technique, low-input response, harvest and storage technique, cultivars and mechanization. Crops for food, however, often have negative energetic indices and environmental impacts (carbon sequestration, Life Cycle Assessment, consequent to their low productivity. Conversely, crops which are more productive in biomass, show both a more favourable energy balance and environmental impact.

  11. The environmental benefits of cellulosic energy crops at a landscape scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; English, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops--particularly the cellulosic energy crops current under development. For this discussion, the term energy crop refers to a crop grown primarily to create feedstock for either making biofuels such as ethanol or burning in a heat or electricity generation facility. Cellulosic energy crops are designed to be used in cellulose-based ethanol conversion processes (as opposed to starch or sugar-based ethanol conversion processes). As more cellulose can be produced per hectare of land than can sugar or starch, the cellulose-based ethanol conversion process is a more efficient sue of land for ethanol production. Assessing the environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing cellulosic energy crops especially at the landscape or regional scale. However, to set the stage for this discussion, the authors begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  12. MAFF overview - the present policy on energy crops, the effect of GATT and CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This item outlines current United Kingdom government policy on energy crops. A representative of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food describes the effect of current international trade agreement negotiations on policy on energy crops, particularly cereals and oilseeds. The success of biofuels is thought to depend chiefly on the prevailing fiscal climate. (UK)

  13. Characterization of the southwest United States for the production of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Folger, A.G.

    1987-03-01

    The southwest United States, an area of diverse climate, topography, terrain, soils, and vegetation, is characterized to determine the feasibility of growing terrestrial energy crops there. The emphasis in the study is on delineating general zones of relative resource and environmental suitability, which are then evaluated to estimate the potential of the region for energy crop production. 100 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Policy Instruments for an Increased Supply of Energy Crops; Styrmedel foer ett utoekat utbud av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Widmark, Annika; Wiklund, Sven-Erik; Liljeblad, Anna

    2009-05-15

    At present, energy crops are not commonly used as fuel for heat and power production in Sweden, but as a result of increased competition for biomass, the interest for agricultural fuels such as willow, straw, reed canary grass and hemp increases. The purpose of this study is through a qualitative study that includes a literature study as well as case studies carried out by interviews, with respondents in the agriculture- and energy sectors highlight the conditions for increased production and use of energy crops. The main objective is to propose relevant policy instruments that could increase the production and use of energy crops. The purpose with the proposed policy instruments is that they should serve as a basis for discussions with politicians and authorities regarding the supply of bio fuels through the use of energy crops. The result of the study indicates that the main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation of energy crops today is unprofitable. To reduce the production costs it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips. The study shows that there is a potential for reduction of production costs through development of the logistics chain. Policy measures promoting the use of bio fuels exists today, but are not fully used to increase the share of energy crops in the bio fuel energy mix. The reason for this is that they are generally not as cost efficient as alternative bio fuels. It is important that competition issues are addressed, both regarding competition issues between different bio fuels, but also competition issues between various energy crops that exists today. Further obstacles to accelerate the introduction of energy crops at the market are high investment costs for establishment of some of the energy crops. From the analysis in this study, the following policy instruments are suggested in order to increase the production and the use of energy

  15. Energy and Water Use Related to the Cultivation of Energy Crops: a Case Study in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dalla Marta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of agrobiomasses, as a source of energy, to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was confirmed by several studies. Biomass from agriculture represents one of the larger and more diverse sources to exploit and in particular ethanol and diesel have the potential to be a sustainable replacement for fossil fuels, mainly for transport purposes. However, the cultivation of energy crops dedicated to the production of biofuels presents some potential problems, e.g., competitiveness with food crops, water needs, use of fertilizers, etc., and the economic, energy, and environmental convenience of such activity depends on accurate evaluations about the global efficiency of the production system. In this study, the processes related to the cultivation of energy crops were analyzed from an energy and water cost perspective. The crops studied, maize (Zea mais and sunflower (Helianthus annuus, were identified for their different water requirements and cultivation management, which in turns induces different energy costs. A 50-year climatic series of meteorological data from 19 weather stations scattered in the Tuscany region was used to feed the crop model CropSyst for the simulation of crop production, water requirement, and cultivation techniques. Obtained results were analyzed to define the real costs of energy crop cultivation, depending on energy and water balances. In the energy crop cultivation, the only positive energy balance was obtained with the more efficient system of irrigation whereas all the other cases provided negative balances. Concerning water, the results demonstrated that more than 1.000 liters of water are required for producing 1 liter of bioethanol. As a consequence, the cultivation of energy crops in the reserved areas of the region will almost double the actual water requirement of the agricultural sector in Tuscany.

  16. The potential of intercropping food crops and energy crop to improve productivity of a degraded agriculture land in arid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K.D. Jaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Degraded agricultural lands in the arid tropics have low soil organic carbon (SOC and hence low productivity. Poor farmers that their livelihoods depend highly on these types of lands are suffering. Cropping strategies that are able to improve the soil productivity are needed. In the present study, some intercropping models of food crops with bio-energy crop of castor (Ricinus communis L. were tested to assess their potential to improve the degraded land productivity. The intercropping models were: (1 castor - hybrid maize, (2 castor – short season maize, (3 castor – mungbean, and (4 castor –short season maize – mungbean. The results show that yields of the component crops in monoculture were relatively the same as in intercropping, resulted in a high Land Equivalent Ratio (LER. The highest LER (3.07 was calculated from intercropping castor plants with short season maize crops followed by mungbean with intercropping productivity of IDR 15,097,600.00 ha-1. Intercropping has a great potential to improve degraded agriculture land productivity and castor is a promising plant to improve biodiversity and area coverage on the land.

  17. Plant production, production energy, energy crops - approaches toward intelligent use of energy crops in bioenergy systems; Pflanzenproduktion, Produktionsenergie, Energiepflanzen - Ansaetze intelligenter Energiepflanzennutzung in Bioenergie-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibler, M. [ENTEC Environment Technology Umwelttechnik GmbH, Fussach (Austria); Priedl, J.

    2002-12-01

    Food surplus production in the European Union should be replaced by biomass plantation for biogas production. The choice of energy plants like sunflowers or triticale and the harvesting time depends on soils, microclimates and crop rotation. The authors present a consultance package for planning, construction and operation of a Complete Stirred Reactor for biomass fermentation. Investment and operating cost depend on plant size and degree of automation. (uke)

  18. Energy Crop-Based Biogas as Vehicle Fuel—The Impact of Crop Selection on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Börjesson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of biogas from six agricultural crops was analysed regarding energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG performance for vehicle fuel from a field-to-tank perspective, with focus on critical parameters and on calculation methods. The energy efficiency varied from 35% to 44%, expressed as primary energy input per energy unit vehicle gas produced. The GHG reduction varied from 70% to 120%, compared with fossil liquid fuels, when the GHG credit of the digestate produced was included through system expansion according to the calculation methodology in the ISO 14044 standard of life cycle assessment. Ley crop-based biogas systems led to the highest GHG reduction, due to the significant soil carbon accumulation, followed by maize, wheat, hemp, triticale and sugar beet. Critical parameters are biogenic nitrous oxide emissions from crop cultivation, for which specific emission factors for digestate are missing today, and methane leakage from biogas production. The GHG benefits were reduced and the interrelation between the crops changed, when the GHG calculations were instead based on the methodology stated in the EU Renewable Energy Directive, where crop contribution to soil carbon accumulation is disregarded. All systems could still reach a 60% GHG reduction, due to the improved agricultural management when digestate replaces mineral fertilisers.

  19. EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alluvione, Francesco; Moretti, Barbara; Sacco, Dario; Grignani, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency of agriculture needs improvement to reduce the dependency on non-renewable energy sources. We estimated the energy flows of a wheat-maize-soybean-maize rotation of three different cropping systems: (i) low-input integrated farming (LI), (ii) integrated farming following European Regulations (IFS), and (iii) conventional farming (CONV). Balancing N fertilization with actual crop requirements and adopting minimum tillage proved the most efficient techniques to reduce energy inputs, contributing 64.7% and 11.2% respectively to the total reduction. Large differences among crops in energy efficiency (maize: 2.2 MJ kg -1 grain; wheat: 2.6 MJ kg -1 grain; soybean: 4.1 MJ kg -1 grain) suggest that crop rotation and crop management can be equally important in determining cropping system energy efficiency. Integrated farming techniques improved energy efficiency by reducing energy inputs without affecting energy outputs. Compared with CONV, energy use efficiency increased 31.4% and 32.7% in IFS and LI, respectively, while obtaining similar net energy values. Including SOM evolution in the energy analysis greatly enhanced the energy performance of IFS and, even more dramatically, LI compared to CONV. Improved energy efficiency suggests the adoption of alternative farming systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. However, a thorough evaluation should include net global warming potential assessment. -- Highlights: → We evaluated the energy flows of integrated as alternative to conventional Farming. → Energy flows, soil organic matter evolution included, were analyzed following process analysis. → Energy flows were compared using indicators. → Integrated farming improved energy efficiency without affecting net energy. → Inclusion of soil organic matter in energy analysis accrue environmental evaluation.

  20. Some ecological and socio-economic considerations for biomass energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, L.K.; Undersander, D.J.; Temple, S.A.; Klemme, R.M.; Peterson, T.L.; Bartelt, G.A.; Sample, D.W.; Rineer, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a regional approach to ensure that energy crop production will proceed in an ecologically and economically sustainable way. At this juncture, we have the opportunity to build into the system some ecological and socio-economic values which have not traditionally been considered. If crop species are chosen and sited properly, incorporation of energy crops into our agricultural system could provide extensive wildlife habitat and address soil and water quality concerns, in addition to generating renewable power. We recommend that three types of agricultural land be targeted for perennial biomass energy crops: (1) highly erodible land; (2) wetlands presently converted to agricultural uses; and (3) marginal agricultural land in selected regions. Fitting appropriate species to these lands, biomass crops can be successfully grown on lands not ecologically suited for conventional farming practices, thus providing an environmental benefit in addition to producing an economic return to the land owner. (author)

  1. Comparative performance of annual and perennial energy cropping systems under different management regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmel, Ute Constanze

    2007-07-18

    The theme of this thesis was chosen against the background of the necessary substitution of fossil fuels and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One major solution for these topics may be the energy generation from domestically produced biomass. The overall aim of this thesis was the identification of one or more efficient energy cropping systems for Central Europe. The existence of diverse production environments necessitates further diversification and the identification of several energy crops and the development of energy cropping systems suited to those diverse environments. This thesis starts with an introductory essay (chapter 1), which provides the background for renewable energy production, its features, demands and potentials, and the scientific basis of this thesis. Chapters 2 to 6 consist of five manuscripts to be published in reviewed journals (Papers I, II, IV and V) or in a multi-author book (Paper III). Subsequently, the results from all papers are discussed in a general setting (chapter 7), from which a general conclusion is formulated (chapter 8). The basis of the research formed four field experiments, which were conducted at the experimental sites Ihinger Hof, Oberer Lindenhof and Goldener Acker of the University of Hohenheim, in south-western Germany. Paper I addresses the overall objective of this thesis. Selected cropping systems for this experiment were short rotation willow, miscanthus, switchgrass, energy maize and two different crop rotation systems including winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and winter triticale with either conventional tillage or no-till. The systems were cultivated with three different nitrogen fertilizer applications. An energy balance was calculated to evaluate the biomass and energy yields of the different cropping systems. Results indicate that perennial lignocellulosic crops combine high biomass and net energy yields with low input and potential ecological impacts. Switchgrass, which produced low yields

  2. Optimal combination of energy crops under different policy scenarios; The case of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafeiriou, Eleni; Petridis, Konstantinos; Karelakis, Christos; Arabatzis, Garyfallos

    2016-01-01

    Energy crops production is considered as environmentally benign and socially acceptable, offering ecological benefits over fossil fuels through their contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gases and acidifying emissions. Energy crops are subjected to persistent policy support by the EU, despite their limited or even marginally negative impact on the greenhouse effect. The present study endeavors to optimize the agricultural income generated by energy crops in a remote and disadvantageous region, with the assistance of linear programming. The optimization concerns the income created from soybean, sunflower (proxy for energy crop), and corn. Different policy scenarios imposed restrictions on the value of the subsidies as a proxy for EU policy tools, the value of inputs (costs of capital and labor) and different irrigation conditions. The results indicate that the area and the imports per energy crop remain unchanged, independently of the policy scenario enacted. Furthermore, corn cultivation contributes the most to iFncome maximization, whereas the implemented CAP policy plays an incremental role in uptaking an energy crop. A key implication is that alternative forms of motivation should be provided to the farmers beyond the financial ones in order the extensive use of energy crops to be achieved. - Highlights: •A stochastic and a deterministic LP model is formulated. •The role of CAP is vital in generated income. •Imports and cultivated areas are subsidy neutral. •The regime of free market results in lower income acquired from the potential crop mix. •Non – financial motivation is a key determinant of the farmers’ attitude towards energy crops.

  3. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning; Klimaschutz und Energiepflanzenanbau. Potenziale zur Treibhausgasemissionsminderung durch Fruchtfolge- und Anbauplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckner, Jens [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany); Peter, Christiane; Vetter, Armin

    2015-07-01

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  4. Modelling the carbon and nitrogen balances of direct land use changes from energy crops in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Jørgensen, Uffe; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the conversion of Danish agricultural land from food/feed crops to energy crops. To this end, a life cycle inventory, which relates the input and output flows from and to the environment of 528 different crop systems, is built and described. This includes seven crops (annuals...... and perennials), two soil types (sandy loam and sand), two climate types (wet and dry), three initial soil carbon level (high, average, low), two time horizons for soil carbon changes (20 and 100 years), two residues management practices (removal and incorporation into soil) as well as three soil carbon turnover...... rate reductions in response to the absence of tillage for some perennial crops (0%, 25%, 50%). For all crop systems, nutrient balances, balances between above- and below-ground residues, soil carbon changes, biogenic carbon dioxide flows, emissions of nitrogen compounds and losses of macro...

  5. Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Harriëtte L.; Meesters, Koen P.H.; Conijn, Sjaak G.; Corré, Wim J.; Patel, Martin K.

    2016-01-01

    Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams,

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    will be lower than indicated by our data. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co-production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from either fresh grass-clover or whole crop maize. Here the net reduction corresponded to about 8 tons CO2 per hectare per year...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel-derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye-vetch, vetch and grass......-clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co-production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...

  7. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  8. Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope

    2007-01-01

    Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs. (author)

  9. Barriers to and drivers of the adpotion of energy crops by Swedish farmers: An empirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Anna C.; Ostwald, Madelene; Asplund, Therese; Wibeck, Victoria (Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden). The Tema Inst., Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research)

    2011-06-15

    Since the Swedish government and the EU intend to encourage farmers to expand energy crop production, knowledge of the factors motivating adoption decisions is vital to policy success. Earlier studies have demonstrated that important barriers to farmer adoption of energy crops include converting from annual to perennial crops and from traditional crops or production systems to new ones. Economic motivations for changing production systems are strong, but factors such as values (e.g., aesthetics), knowledge (e.g., habits and knowledge of production methods), and legal conditions (e.g., cultivation licenses) are crucial for the change to energy crops. This paper helps fill gaps in the literature regarding why farmers decide to keep or change a production system. Based on a series of focus group interviews with Swedish farmers, the paper explores how farmers frame crop change decisions and what factors they consider most important. The main drivers of and barriers to growing energy crops, according to interviewees, are grouped and discussed in relation to four broad groups of motivational factors identified in the literature, i.e., values, legal conditions, knowledge, and economic factors. The paper ends by discussing whether some barriers could be overcome by policy changes at the national and European levels

  10. Traits to Ecosystems: The Ecological Sustainability Challenge When Developing Future Energy Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weih, Martin; Hoeber, Stefanie; Beyer, Friderike; Fransson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Today, we are undertaking great efforts to improve biomass production and quality traits of energy crops. Major motivation for developing those crops is based on environmental and ecological sustainability considerations, which however often are de-coupled from the trait-based crop improvement programs. It is now time to develop appropriate methods to link crop traits to production system characteristics set by the plant and the biotic communities influencing it; and to the ecosystem processes affecting ecological sustainability. The relevant ecosystem processes involve the net productivity in terms of biomass and energy yields, the depletion of energy-demanding resources (e.g., nitrogen, N), the carbon dynamics in soil and atmosphere, and the resilience and temporal stability of the production system. In a case study, we compared aspects of N use efficiency in various varieties of an annual (spring wheat) and perennial (Salix) energy crop grown under two nutrient regimes in Sweden. For example, we found considerable variation among crops, varieties, and nutrient regimes in the energy yield per plant-internal N (megajoule per gram per year), which would result in different N resource depletion per unit energy produced.

  11. Traits to Ecosystems: The Ecological Sustainability Challenge When Developing Future Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weih, Martin, E-mail: martin.weih@slu.se; Hoeber, Stefanie; Beyer, Friderike [Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Fransson, Petra [Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-05-22

    Today, we are undertaking great efforts to improve biomass production and quality traits of energy crops. Major motivation for developing those crops is based on environmental and ecological sustainability considerations, which however often are de-coupled from the trait-based crop improvement programs. It is now time to develop appropriate methods to link crop traits to production system characteristics set by the plant and the biotic communities influencing it; and to the ecosystem processes affecting ecological sustainability. The relevant ecosystem processes involve the net productivity in terms of biomass and energy yields, the depletion of energy-demanding resources (e.g., nitrogen, N), the carbon dynamics in soil and atmosphere, and the resilience and temporal stability of the production system. In a case study, we compared aspects of N use efficiency in various varieties of an annual (spring wheat) and perennial (Salix) energy crop grown under two nutrient regimes in Sweden. For example, we found considerable variation among crops, varieties, and nutrient regimes in the energy yield per plant-internal N (megajoule per gram per year), which would result in different N resource depletion per unit energy produced.

  12. Comparing annual and perennial crops for bioenergy production - influence on nitrate leaching and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Schelde, Kirsten; Ugilt Larsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Production of energy crops is promoted as a means to mitigate global warming by decreasing dependency on fossil energy. However, agricultural production of bioenergy can have various environmental effects depending on the crop and production system. In a field trial initiated in 2008, nitrate...... concentration in soil water was measured below winter wheat, grass-clover and willow during three growing seasons. Crop water balances were modelled to estimate the amount of nitrate leached per hectare. In addition, dry matter yields and nitrogen (N) yields were measured, and N balances and energy balances...... was also measured in an old willow crop established in 1996 from which N leaching ranged from 6 to 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. Dry matter yields ranged between 5.9 and 14.8 Mg yr−1 with lowest yield in the newly established willow and the highest yield harvested in grass-clover. Grass-clover gave the highest net...

  13. Fertilizer consumption and energy input for 16 crops in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenumey, Sheila E.; Capel, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Fertilizer use by U.S. agriculture has increased over the past few decades. The production and transportation of fertilizers (nitrogen, N; phosphorus, P; potassium, K) are energy intensive. In general, about a third of the total energy input to crop production goes to the production of fertilizers, one-third to mechanization, and one-third to other inputs including labor, transportation, pesticides, and electricity. For some crops, fertilizer is the largest proportion of total energy inputs. Energy required for the production and transportation of fertilizers, as a percentage of total energy input, was determined for 16 crops in the U.S. to be: 19–60% for seven grains, 10–41% for two oilseeds, 25% for potatoes, 12–30% for three vegetables, 2–23% for two fruits, and 3% for dry beans. The harvested-area weighted-average of the fraction of crop fertilizer energy to the total input energy was 28%. The current sources of fertilizers for U.S. agriculture are dependent on imports, availability of natural gas, or limited mineral resources. Given these dependencies plus the high energy costs for fertilizers, an integrated approach for their efficient and sustainable use is needed that will simultaneously maintain or increase crop yields and food quality while decreasing adverse impacts on the environment.

  14. Willow trees from heavy metals phytoextraction as energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Habart, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction ability of some fast growing plant species leads to the idea of connecting biomass production with soil remediation of contaminated industrial zones and regions. This biomass will contain significant amount of heavy metals and its energetic utilization has to be considered carefully to minimize negative environmental impacts. This study was focused on potential disposal methods of willow trees contaminated by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) with the emphasis on energetic utilization of biomass. Composting seems to be suitable pre-treatment method resulting in decrease of heavy metals leachability and biomass weight reduction. The possibility of willow trees application for energetic purposes was investigated and consequently incineration tests of willow trees samples in fluidized bed reactor were realized. Distribution of selected heavy metals in different ash fractions and treatment methods of produced ashes were studied as well. -- Highlights: ► Composting is an appropriate pre-treatment method for phytoextraction crops. ► Fluidized bed combustion is suitable disposal method of phytoextraction crops. ► Ashes from phytoextraction crops combustion cannot be used as fertilizers.

  15. Compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems of the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bransby, D.I.; Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Sladden, S.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to examine the compatibility of switchgrass as an energy crop in farming systems in the southeastern USA, relative to other regions. In particular, the issues addressed are (1) competition between switchgrass as an energy crop and existing farm enterprises, based primarily on economic returns, (2) complementarity between switchgrass and existing farm enterprises, and (3) environmental benefits. Because projected economic returns for switchgrass as an energy crop are highest in the Southeast, and returns from forestry and beef pastures (the major existing enterprises) are low, there is a very strong economic incentive in this region. In contrast, based on current information, economic viability of switchgrass as an energy crop in other regions appears doubtful. In addition, switchgrass in the southeastern USA would complement forage-livestock production, row crop production and wildlife and would provide several additional environmental benefits. It is concluded that the southeastern USA offers the greatest opportunity for developing switchgrass as an economically viable energy crop.

  16. Energy productivity of some plantation crops in Malaysia and the status of bioenergy utilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.O.; Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin; Ghulam Abdul Quadir; Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah

    2000-01-01

    The paper assesses the energy productivity of the major plantation crops in Malaysia as well as the status of bioenergy utilisation in that country. Of the crops studied and under present local cultivation practices, oil palms and cocoa trees stand out as good trappers of solar energy while paddy plants are the least efficient. Presently, Malaysia consumes roughly 340 million boe of energy per year. Of this amount 14% are contributed by biomass. However of the total amount of biowastes generated in the country roughly 24.5% are already utilised for energy purposes and roughly 75.5% are still unutilised and therefore wasted. (Author)

  17. Emission of N2O from production of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, A.M.; Joergensen, U.; Maag, M.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of N 2 O (nitrous oxide) to the greenhouse effect has been increasing during the latest years. The increase in the contribution from N 2 O is partly caused by increasing emission from soil, mainly due to human activity, and partly as a result of an increasing radiatively greenhouse effect as relative to CO 2 according to general recalculations and reevaluation. The contribution from agriculture is directly from cultivated soil as well as indirectly (production of fertilizer and food). Formation of N 2 O in soil is mainly dependent on variations in content of soil water, oxygen state, and on availability of organic matter. Soil type and cropping are also important. The factors are interrelated, and their influence on the two N 2 O-forming processes, nitrification and denitrification, are very fluctuating resulting in large variations (spatial and temporal) for measurements of the emission in field. In the present paper, the state of knowledge is given for the emission of nitrous oxide from cultivated soil as well as from different types of natural ecosystems. Significant differences between N 2 O-emission from different annual crops cannot be expected. Based on Danish measurements of N 2 O-emission (spring barley, winter wheat and spring rape) the net displacement of CO 2 is calculated. The deduction of N 2 O varied from being double as high as the deduction for the production dependent CO 2 -emission to a lot less than that. There was a marked influence of the yields of the specific crops in the actual measuring years on the relative effect of the N 2 O deduction on the net-displacement of CO 2 . (EG)

  18. Cloud decision model for selecting sustainable energy crop based on linguistic intuitionistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Gang; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, sustainable energy crop has become an important energy development strategy topic in many countries. Selecting the most sustainable energy crop is a significant problem that must be addressed during any biofuel production process. The focus of this study is the development of an innovative multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method to handle sustainable energy crop selection problems. Given that various uncertain data are encountered in the evaluation of sustainable energy crops, linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (LIFNs) are introduced to present the information necessary to the evaluation process. Processing qualitative concepts requires the effective support of reliable tools; then, a cloud model can be used to deal with linguistic intuitionistic information. First, LIFNs are converted and a novel concept of linguistic intuitionistic cloud (LIC) is proposed. The operations, score function and similarity measurement of the LICs are defined. Subsequently, the linguistic intuitionistic cloud density-prioritised weighted Heronian mean operator is developed, which served as the basis for the construction of an applicable MCDM model for sustainable energy crop selection. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to demonstrate the proposed method, and its feasibility and validity are further verified by comparing it with other existing methods.

  19. Energy crops for biogas plants. Lower Saxony; Energiepflanzen fuer Biogasanlagen. Niedersachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurbacher, J.; Benke, M.; Formowitz, B. (and others)

    2012-06-15

    In the brochure under consideration the Agency for Renewable Resources (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the support of the implementation of different plant cultures in structure of plantations and crop rotation systems of companies under consideration of the Federal State Lower Saxony. The main chapters of this brochure are: Crops for the production of biogas; implementation in plantations; ensilage and biogas yields; economy of the cultivation of energy plants.

  20. Cultivation of energy crops. Environmental impacts, competitive utilization and potentials; Anbau von Energiepflanzen. Umweltauswirkungen, Nutzungskonkurrenzen und Potenziale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenhoff, Joerg

    2013-04-15

    This background paper under consideration reports on the utilization of energy crops with regard to energy supply and climate change. Energy crops are renewable plants which are grown only for energy utilization. The harvested biomass is prepared for the power supply, heat supply and fuel supply by means of different usage paths.

  1. Analysis of Selected Environmental Indicators in the Cultivation System of Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltysová Božena Š

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The changes of selected chemical parameters were observed in Gleyic Fluvisols. The field experiment was established as a twofactor experiment with four energy crops (Arundo donax L., Miscanthus × giganteus, Elymus elongatus Gaertner, Sida hermafrodita and two variants of fertilization (nitrogen fertilization in rate 60 kg ha-1, without nitrogen fertilization. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 0 to 0.3 m at the beginning of the experiment in the autumn 2012 and at the end of reference period in the autumn 2015. Land management conversion from market crops to perennial energy crops cultivation has influenced changes of selected soil chemical parameters. The contents of soil organic carbon were affected by cultivated energy crops differently. It was found out that Arundo increased the organic carbon content and Miscanthus, Elymus and Sida decreased its content. At the same time, the same impact of the crops on content of available phosphorus and potassium and soil reaction was found. It was recorded that each cultivated crop decreased the soil reaction and available phosphorus content and increased the content of available potassium.

  2. Soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaim, S.

    1979-07-01

    A summary of the methodologies used to estimate the soil fertility and soil loss constraints on crop residue removal for energy production is presented. Estimates of excess residue are developed for wheat in north-central Oklahoma and for corn and soybeans in central Iowa. These sample farming situations are analyzed in other research in the Analysis Division of the Solar Energy Research Institute.

  3. Rapeseed is an efficient energy crop which can still improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flenet Francis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofuels to contribute efficiently to the replacement of fossil energy and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has been a matter of debate. Hence, there is a need to assess accurately the energy balance of biofuels and their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in order to evaluate and to improve the benefit for society. In rapeseed, the energy ratio (energy produced per unit of non-renewable energy input is well above 2 whatever the method of calculation. In order to investigate the variability of energy ratios and to identify ways of improvement, a study was conducted in France in 2005 and 2006. The method of mass allocation of input energy was used for calculations, instead of the substitution method, because with this method the results do not depend on the utilization of co-products. Hence, this method is better adapted to follow improvements. A great variability in the energy ratio was observed in 2005 and 2006. Seed yields and energy cost of fertilizer N explained most of this variability. Hence, improvements should focus on increasing yield with little increase in energy cost, and on decreasing wasting of N fertilizer. However the farmer incomes, and the net production of energy per hectare, must also be a matter of concern. The inventories of greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are still uncertain because of the great variability of soil emissions, due to environmental and management factors. Hence, in order to assess the effect of rapeseed on greenhouse gas emissions, methods based on process-oriented models accounting for these factors must be used. Such models give promising results, but further testing is still needed.

  4. Miscanthus: A Review of European Experience with a Novel Energy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scurlock, J.M.O.

    1999-02-01

    Miscanthus is a tall perennial grass which has been evaluated in Europe over the past 5-10 years as a new bioenergy crop. The sustained European interest in miscanthus suggests that this novel energy crop deserves serious investigation as a possible candidate biofuel crop for the US alongside switchgrass. To date, no agronomic trials or trial results for miscanthus are known from the conterminous US, so its performance under US conditions is virtually unknown. Speculating from European data, under typical agricultural practices over large areas, an average of about 8t/ha (3t/acre dry weight) may be expected at harvest time. As with most of the new bioenergy crops, there seems to be a steep ''learning curve.'' Establishment costs appear to be fairly high at present (a wide range is reported from different European countries), although these may be expected to fall as improved management techniques are developed.

  5. Energy production study of crops with biofuel potential in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, Lidia; Huerga, Ignacio; Hilbert, Jorge [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria (CIA/INTA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Investigacion de Agroindustria. Inst. de Ingenieria Rural], Emails: ingdonato@cnia.inta.gov.ar, ihuerga@cnia.inta.gov.ar, hilbert@cnia.inta.gov.ar

    2008-07-01

    The present study is focus on the final energy balance of bioenergy production in Argentina using soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, corn and sorghum as feedstocks. The balance considers the difference between the energy contained per unit and the amount used for its generation in all the different steps from sowing to final destination. For direct energy consumption Costo Maq software was employed using local fuel consumption forecast for each field labor. Particular attention is paid to the energy consumption in the agricultural steps considering the distinctive no till system spread out in Argentina that has a very low energy input. Direct and indirect energy were considered in the different steps of bioethanol and biodiesel generation. Industrial conversion consumption was based on international literature data. Comparisons were made between tilled and no till practices and considering or not the energy contained in co products. Results indicate a balance ranging from 0.96 to 1.54 not considering the co products. If co products were introduced the balances ranged between 1.09 and 4.67. (author)

  6. Rodigo Uno (Italy) geothermal thermal energy for crop drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini, U.; Sordelli, C.; Magnoni, S.; Cantadori, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the chief design and performance features of a forage drying installation which makes use of locally available geothermal energy. The heat exchange is accomplished through a water-air exchanger directly fed by 59 degrees C geothermal springs. Two 80,000 cubic meter/hour ventilators, making use of this energy (58 to 38 degrees C heat exchange), raise the drying air temperature by 16 degrees C, while providing an overall drying capacity of 43,200 kg/day. The balance of available 38 degrees C geothermal energy is being employed by a local aquaculture farm. The paper comments on the economic and environmental benefits being derived from this direct utilization of geothermal energy

  7. Jerusalem artichoke: what is its potential. [Energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    The agronomic potential of Jerusalem artichokes (J.A.) and the economic possibilities of commercial production of these tubers for use in fuel production is discussed. The nutrient content and the composition of reducing sugars in 6 strains of J.A. are given. Energy requirements in terms of energy resource depletion of fossil fuel to produce 1 hectare of J.A. and the theoretical yields of ethanol from J.A., sugar beet, corn, and wheat are tabulated. (DMC)

  8. Methods to enhance hydrolysis during one and two-stage anaerobic digestion of energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadabhi, P. S.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate methods to enhance hydrolysis (measured as specific SCOD production, g SCOD g-1 VS) during one and two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of energy crops and crop residues. Addition of macro (NH{sub 4}Cl), micro nutrients (Fe, Ni, Co and Mo) and leachate replacement during mono-digestion of grass silage in one-stage leach bed reactors (LBRs) enhanced hydrolysis by 18 % (0.56 g SCOD g-1 VS), 7 % (0.45 g SCOD g-1 VS) and 34 % (0.51 g SCOD g-1 VS) respectively compared to respective controls. On the other hand, creating micro-aerobic conditions (at 1 l min-1, 2.5 l of air) did not improve hydrolysis but enhanced VFA production by 4 fold (from 2.2 g l-1 to 9 g l-1). Application of rumen cultures improved hydrolysis by 10 % (0.33 g SCOD g-1 VS) more than control (0.30 g SCOD g-1 VS). Similarly, during two-stage AD in LBR-UASB reactor configuration leachate replacement enhanced hydrolysis in cucumber and grass silage (0.5 g SCOD g-1 VS) than in tomato and common reed (0.35 and 0.15 g SCOD g-1 VS respectively). During co-digestion of grass silage and cow manure at a ratio of 30:70 (VS) in CSTR, re-circulation of alkali treated solid fraction of digestate did not improve the anaerobic biodegradation rates or methane yields. Results from batch experiments showed that methane potential of grass silage varied from 0.28-0.39 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} in all the experiments. On the other hand, methane potentials of the studied crop residues were 0.32 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} for tomato and 0.26 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} for cucumber and common reed. Alkali pretreatment of solids, obtained from digestate (during co-digestion of grass silage and cow manure in one-stage CSTRs), at a low concentration of 20 g NaOH kg-1 VS resulted in higher methane yield (0.34 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added}) than the other tested dosages (40 and 60 g NaOH kg-1 VS). Addition of macro nutrient (NH{sub 4}Cl) enhanced methane potential of

  9. Sorghum - An alternative energy crop for marginal lands and reclamation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Stefan; Theiß, Markus; Jäkel, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    The production of biogas and the associated cultivation of energy crops are still of great importance. Considering increasing restrictions for the cultivation of standard biogas crop maize regarding an environmentally friendly production of biomass, a wider range of energy crops is needed. The cultivation of sorghum can contribute to this. As maize, sorghum is a C4-plant and offers a high biomass yield potential. Originated in the semi-arid tropics, sorghum is well adapted to warm and dry climate and particularly noted for its drought tolerance compared to maize. It also makes few demands on soil quality and shows a good capability of nutrient acquisition. Therefore, particularly on marginal areas and reclamation sites with low soil nutrient and water content sorghum can contribute to secure crop yield and income of farmers. The applied research project aims at and reflects on the establishment of sorghum as a profitable and ecological friendly cropping alternative to maize, especially in the face of probable climate change with increasing risks for agriculture. For this purpose, site differentiated growing and cultivar trials with a standardized planting design as well as several practical on-farm field experiments were conducted. The agronomical and economic results will lead to scientifically based procedures and standards for agricultural practice with respect to cultivation methods (drilling, pest-management, fertilization), cropping sequence and technique, cropping period or position in crop rotation. Even by now there is a promising feedback from the agricultural practice linked with an increasing demand for information. Moreover, the specific cropping area is increasing continuously. Therefore, the leading signs for the establishment of sorghum as profitable alternative to maize biogas production are positive. Sorghum cultures perform best as main crops in the warm D locations in the middle and East German dry areas. Here, the contribution margin

  10. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  11. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost evaluation of energy crops at farm gate in different EU countries and related agricultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliope, P.; Dalianis, C.

    1996-01-01

    Interest on energy crops varies greatly among EU regions. Certain climatic conditions prevailing in the areas, determine the coice of the energy crop which is going to be used as raw material for energy production. Furthermore, energy markets, farm structure and set aside regulations as well as national policy play a critical role to biomass exploitation for energy purposes. A common methodology was developed (Moore, 1996) for comparing costs of different options for ''biomass-to-energy systems'' across six EU countries (figure 1). This methodology was developed in the framework of an AIR Concerted Action financed by DGXII of EU and entitled ''Development of a Standard Methodology for Integrating Non-Food Crops in Rural Areas with Niche Energy Markets''. Cost estimations were done form the first stage of raw material production till the final energy product (kWh of heat and electricity or lt of liquid biofuel. In this paper, only the raw material production cost estimation phase will be presented. (Author)

  13. Report of the workshop 'State of the art of Energy Crops Cultivation', 29 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigler, J.K.

    1998-06-01

    The presentations (mainly copies of overhead sheets) of the title workshop are given. Technical (supply, transport and logistics), economical (cost price, market, and financing), environmental (life cycle analysis, biodiversity and physical planning), and other aspects (regulations, Bioguide and combined cultivation) with respect to the production of energy crops were discussed

  14. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. ► Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. ► Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. ► Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. ► It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable

  15. Opportunities for Energy Crop Production Based on Subfield Scale Distribution of Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Bonner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of dedicated herbaceous energy crops into row crop landscapes is a promising means to supply an expanding biofuel industry while benefiting soil and water quality and increasing biodiversity. Despite these positive traits, energy crops remain largely unaccepted due to concerns over their practicality and cost of implementation. This paper presents a case study for Hardin County, Iowa, to demonstrate how subfield decision making can be used to target candidate areas for conversion to energy crop production. Estimates of variability in row crop production at a subfield level are used to model the economic performance of corn (Zea mays L. grain and the environmental impacts of corn stover collection using the Landscape Environmental Analysis Framework (LEAF. The strategy used in the case study integrates switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. into subfield landscape positions where corn grain is modeled to return a net economic loss. Results show that switchgrass integration has the potential to increase sustainable biomass production from 48% to 99% (depending on the rigor of conservation practices applied to corn stover collection, while also improving field level profitability of corn. Candidate land area is highly sensitive to grain price (0.18 to 0.26 $·kg−1 and dependent on the acceptable subfield net loss for corn production (ranging from 0 to −1000 $·ha−1 and the ability of switchgrass production to meet or exceed this return. This work presents the case that switchgrass may be economically incorporated into row crop landscapes when management decisions are applied at a subfield scale within field areas modeled to have a negative net profit with current management practices.

  16. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    . The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...

  17. Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, J.L.; Gale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ''The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,'' describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ''Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,'' discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality

  18. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  19. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding.

  20. Biogas production from high-yielding energy crops in boreal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppala, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this thesis, the methane production potential of traditional and novel energy crops was evaluated in boreal conditions. The highest methane yield per hectare was achieved with maize (4 000-9 200 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}) and the second highest with brown knapweed (2 700-6 100 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}). Recently, the most feasible energy crop, grass, produced 1 200-3 600 m{sup 3}CH{sub 4} ha{sup -1} a{sup -1}. The specific methane yields of traditional and novel energy crops varied from 170-500 l kg{sup -1} volatile solid (VS). The highest specific methane yields were obtained with maize, while the novel energy crops were at a lower range. The specific methane yields decreased in the later harvest time with maize and brown knapweed, and the specific methane yield of the grasses decreased from the 1st to 2nd harvests. Maize and brown knapweed produced the highest total solid (TS) yields per hectare 13-23 tTS ha{sup -1}, which were high when compared with the TS yields of grasses (6-13 tTS ha{sup -1}). The feasibility of maize and brown knapweed in co-digestion with liquid cow manure, in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR), was evaluated. According to the CSTR runs, maize and brown knapweed are suitable feeds and have stable processes, producing the highest methane yields (organic loading rate 2 kgVS m{sup -3}d{sup -1}), with maize at 259 l kgVS{sup -1} and brown knapweed at 254 l kgVS{sup -1}. The energy balance (input/output) of the cultivation of the grasses, maize and brown knapweed was calculated in boreal conditions, and it was better when the digestate was used as a fertilizer (1.8-4.8 %) than using chemical fertilizers (3.7-16.2 %), whose production is the most energy demanding process in cultivation. In conclusion, the methane production of maize, grasses and novel energy crops can produce high methane yields and are suitable feeds for anaerobic digestion. The cultivation managements of maize and novel energy crops for

  1. Prediction of County-Level Corn Yields Using an Energy-Crop Growth Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Jeffrey A.; Dale, Robert F.; Fletcher, Jerald J.; Preckel, Paul V.

    1989-01-01

    Weather conditions significantly affect corn yields. while weather remains as the major uncontrolled variable in crop production, an understanding of the influence of weather on yields can aid in early and accurate assessment of the impact of weather and climate on crop yields and allow for timely agricultural extension advisories to help reduce farm management costs and improve marketing, decisions. Based on data for four representative countries in Indiana from 1960 to 1984 (excluding 1970 because of the disastrous southern corn leaf blight), a model was developed to estimate corn (Zea mays L.) yields as a function of several composite soil-crop-weather variables and a technology-trend marker, applied nitrogen fertilizer (N). The model was tested by predicting corn yields for 15 other counties. A daily energy-crop growth (ECG) variable in which different weights were used for the three crop-weather variables which make up the daily ECG-solar radiation intercepted by the canopy, a temperature function, and the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration-performed better than when the ECG components were weighted equally. The summation of the weighted daily ECG over a relatively short period (36 days spanning silk) was found to provide the best index for predicting county average corn yield. Numerical estimation results indicate that the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration (ET/PET) is much more important than the other two ECG factors in estimating county average corn yield in Indiana.

  2. Energy and economic analysis of traditional versus introduced crops cultivation in the mountains of the Indian Himalayas: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, H. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany); Rao, K.S. [Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment, Academic Research Center, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Maikhuri, R.K. [G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal Unit, P.O. Box 92, Srinagar (Garhwal) 246174 (India); Saxena, K.G. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-12-15

    This study analyzed the energy and economics associated with cultivation of traditional and introduced crops in the mountains of the Central Himalaya, India. The production cost in terms of energy for introduced crops such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation was 90,358-320,516 MJ ha{sup -1} as compared to between 19,814 and 42,380 MJ ha{sup -1} for traditional crops within Himalayan agroecosystems. For the introduced crops, high energy and monetary input was associated with human labor, forest resources, chemical fertilizer and pesticides. However, energy threshold/projection for farmyard manure in traditional crop cultivation was 80-90% of the total energy cost, thus traditional crop cultivation was more efficient in energy and economics. During the study, the farm productivity of introduced crops cultivation declined with increasing years of cultivation. Consequently, the energy output from the system has been declining at the rate of -y20,598 to y20,748 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for tomato and y12,072 to y15,056 MJ ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} for bell pepper under irrigated and rain-fed land use in the mountains, respectively. The comparative analysis on this paradigm shift indicates that more research is needed to support sustainable crop cultivation in the fragile Himalayan environment. (author)

  3. Energy crops on landfills: functional, environmental, and costs analysis of different landfill configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Garbo, Francesco; Moretto, Marco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2018-02-09

    The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.

  4. Water-Energy Nexus: the case of biogas production from energy crops evaluated by Water Footprint and LCA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Caporali, Enrica; Federici, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    This study analyzes the production of biogas from aerobic digestion of energy crops. The production of biogas is an important case study because its spread, similar to other sources of bioenergy, creates questions about the environmental effects, the competition in the food market as well as the progressive change of land use. In particular is hereby analyzed the nexus between bioenergy production and water, which plays a key role because water resources are often the limiting factor in energy production from energy crops. The environmental performances of biogas production were analyzed through Water Footprint (WF) and Life cycle assessment (LCA): the integration of LCA and WF represents an attempt of taking advantage of their complementary strengths in environmental assessment, trying to give a comprehensive analysis of bioenergy production sustainability. Eighteen scenarios were considered, trying to figure out the performances of different combinations of locations (north, center, south Italy), crops (maize, sorghum, wheat) and treatments (anaerobic digestion with water dilution or manure co-digestion). WF assessment shows that cultivation phase is the most impacting on water resource use along the entire system life cycle. In particular, water requirements for crop growth shows that sorghum is the more water saver crop (in terms of consumptive water use to produce the amount of crop needed to produce 1 GJ of biogas energy content). Moreover WF investigates the kind of water use and shows that wheat, despite being the most intensive water user, exploits more green water than the other crops.WF was evaluated with respect to water stress indicators for the Italian territory, underlining the higher criticalities associated with water use in southern Italy and identifying consumptive blue water use, in this area, as the main hotspot. Therefore biogas production from energy crops in southern Italy is unsustainable from a water management perspective. At a basin

  5. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  6. Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production; Peltobioenergian tuotanto Suomessa. Potentiaali, energiasuhteet ja nettoenergia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, H.

    2012-11-01

    Energy potential, energy ratios, and the amount of net energy in Finnish field crop production were studied in this thesis. Special attention was paid to indirect energy inputs and how to treat them in energy analysis. Manufacturing of machines and agrochemicals and production of seeds are examples of indirect energy inputs.The bioenergy potential of the Finnish field crop production could be as large as 12 - 22 TWh, or 3 - 5% of the total energy consumption in Finland in 2008. The major part of this energy would originate from straw and biomass like reed canary grass cultivated for energy use. However, only 0.5 TWh of the potential is utilized. The output/input energy ratios of the studied field crops varied from 3 to 18, being highest (18) for reed canary grass and second highest (7) for sugar beet and grass cultivated for silage. The energy ratio of cereals and oil seed crops varied from 3 to 5 if only the yield of seeds was considered. If the yield of straw and stems was also taken into account the energy ratios would have been almost twofold. The energy ratios for Finnish wheat and barley were as high as those gained in Italian and Spanish conditions, respectively. However, the energy ratios of maize, elephant grass and giant reed were even over 50 in Central and Southern Europe. Plants that use the C4 photosynthesis pathway and produce high biomass yields thrive best in warm and sunny climate conditions. They use nitrogen and water more sparingly than C3 plants typically thriving in the cooler part of the temperate zone. When evaluating energy ratios for field crops it should be kept in mind that the maximal energy potential of the energy crop is the heating value of the dry matter at the field gate. Transportation of the crop and production of liquid fuels and electricity from biomass lowers the energy ratio. A comparison of field energy crops to a reforested field suggested that fast growing trees, as hybrid aspen and silver birch, would yield almost as

  7. What is the future for biofuels and bio-energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This seminar is part of the Ifri research program on agricultural policies. It aims to evaluate the future prospects for the development of bio-energy crops in light of the new energetic and environmental order. Within one generation the hydrocarbon market will likely be under great pressure. The prospect of a lasting high oil price will lead to the use of renewable resources like biofuels. Moreover growing environmental concern about global warming give one more credibility to the development of biofuels. These fuels emit a limited amount of greenhouse gas compared to standard fuels. We have to therefore examine the development possibility of these fuels taking into account the agronomic features of the crops used, the technology of the transformation process and existing initiative policies with respect to the regions studied. Also, we have to evaluate the impact of the energy crisis on food supply via the substitution effect in land allocation. (author)

  8. Energy use in cropping systems: A regional long-term exploratory analysis of energy allocation and efficiency in the Inland Pampa (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Diego Omar

    2012-01-01

    As agricultural system comprises natural processes that are ruled by thermodynamics, the energy utilization is well suited for assessing the sustainability in the management of natural resources. The goals of this paper are 1) to assess the energy use efficiency of the main crops during the 1992–2005 period in Inland Pampa (Argentina); 2) to evaluate the database structure in terms of energy allocation; 3) to assess the changes in technical efficiency using frontier analysis and 4) to identify the best explanatory variables for energy efficiency variability. Results showed an upward trend in productivity per unit area in the crops analyzed (excluding sunflower). Summer soybean and sunflower showed higher energy efficiency values by the end of time series. The main shift in the energy use pattern was the reduction of the energy allocated to tillage. The overall performance of the wheat and soybean crops in the study area appears to be closer to the energy usage pattern shown by the top 5% energy use efficiency crop fields. The exploratory analysis using classification and regression trees (CART) revealed that the energy allocation to tillage; and the crop specie were the attributes that mainly explained the energy efficiency changes. -- Highlights: ► Energy use efficiency (EUE) of main Pampean crops (Argentina) in the 1992–2005 period was analyzed. ► An upward trend in productivity per unit area was observed with the exception of sunflower crop. ► Summer soybean and sunflower showed higher energetic efficiencies by the end of the time series analyzed. ► Average wheat and soybean EUE were closer to the energy usage pattern of the top 5% EUE crop fields. ► Tillage energy and crop specie were the attributes that most strongly explain the EUE changes.

  9. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, G.; Schoenefeldt, J.; Mehring, I.

    1995-01-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author)

  10. Sustainability of energy crops. Four papers by the Centre for Agriculture and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Van Kuik, M.; Van Zeijts, H.

    1998-07-01

    Between 1994 and 1996 CLM developed a method for assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of producing and using energy from agricultural and forest biomass. The method has much in common with environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). CLM has also co-ordinated a concerted action called 'Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'. LCA is at present the best available instrument for assessing the ecological sustainability of energy crops. CLM focused on three topics disseminating the results of the concerted action; updating the work on bioethanol, and proposals for new financial instruments. The results are presented in this report. First, the results from the concerted action and work carried out by CLM were disseminated. Papers were presented at the international conference on 'Implementation of solid biofuels for carbon dioxide mitigation', 29-30 September 1997, Uppsala, Sweden, and at the international workshop on 'Environmental aspects of energy crop production', 9-10 October 1997, Brasimone, Italy. In addition, a paper was written on the need to co-ordinate policy options to stimulate the production and use of energy crops from an energy, agricultural and environmental point of view. Second, a study on bioethanol was carried out in which data obtained elsewhere on the use of bioethanol as a transport fuel were revised and updated. The sustainability of bioethanol production from sugar beet was compared with that of bioethanol from winter wheat. Using bioethanol from sugar beet replaces more fossil energy than bioethanol from winter wheat. For both crops, the costs per ton avoided CO2 decrease over time to 2010, but are still higher than electricity routes. The third action was the development of proposals for new financial instruments to stimulate energy production from biomass in the agricultural and forestry sector. This proposal was presented at the ALTENER Seminar on 'Financial incentives for

  11. Crop Management Effects on the Energy and Carbon Balances of Maize Stover-Based Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Woli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the crop management options—the combinations of various cultivars, irrigation amounts, planting dates, and soils—that would maximize the energy sustainability and eco-friendliness of maize (Zea mays L. stover-based ethanol production systems in the Mississippi Delta. Stover yields simulated with CERES-Maize were used to compute net energy value (NEV and carbon credit balance (CCB, the indicators of sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production, respectively, for various scenarios. As the results showed, deeper soils with higher water holding capacities had larger NEV and CCB values. Both NEV and CCB had sigmoid relationships with irrigation amount and planting date and could be maximized by planting the crop during the optimum planting window. Stover yield had positive effects on NEV and CCB, whereas travel distance had negative. The influence of stover yield was larger than that of travel distance, indicating that increasing feedstock yields should be emphasized over reducing travel distance. The NEV and CCB values indicated that stover-based ethanol production in the Mississippi Delta is sustainable and environmentally friendly. The study demonstrated that the energy sustainability and eco-friendliness of maize stover-based ethanol production could be increased with alternative crop management options.

  12. Genetic Engineering of Energy Crops to Reduce Recalcitrance and Enhance Biomass Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Yadav

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy, biofuels, and a range of valuable chemicals may be extracted from the abundantly available lignocellulosic biomass. To reduce the recalcitrance imposed by the complex cell wall structure, genetic engineering has been proposed over the years as a suitable solution to modify the genes, thereby, controlling the overall phenotypic expression. The present review provides a brief description of the plant cell wall structure and its compositional array i.e., lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, wall proteins, and pectin, along with their effect on biomass digestibility. Also, this review discusses the potential to increase biomass by gene modification. Furthermore, the review highlights the potential genes associated with the regulation of cell wall structure, which can be targeted for achieving energy crops with desired phenotypes. These genetic approaches provide a robust and assured method to bring about the desired modifications in cell wall structure, composition, and characteristics. Ultimately, these genetic modifications pave the way for achieving enhanced biomass yield and enzymatic digestibility of energy crops, which is crucial for maximizing the outcomes of energy crop breeding and biorefinery applications.

  13. Potential productivity of the Miscanthus energy crop in the Loess Plateau of China under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Sang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    With a vast area of marginal land, the Loess Plateau of China is a promising region for large-scale production of second-generation energy crops. However, it remains unknown whether such production is sustainable in the long run, especially under climate change. Using a regional climate change model, PRECIS, we analyzed the impact of climate change on Miscanthus production in the Loess Plateau. Under three emission scenarios, A2, B2, and A1B, both the average yield and total area capable of supporting Miscanthus production would increase continuously in the future period (2011–2099). As a result, the total yield potential in the region would increase by about 20% in this future period from the baseline period (1961–1990). This was explained primarily by predicted increases in temperature and precipitation across the Loess Plateau, which improved the yield of the perennial C4 plants relying exclusively on rainfed production. The areas that are currently too dry or too cold to support Miscanthus production could be turned into energy crop fields, especially along the arid–semiarid transition zone. Thus the Loess Plateau would become increasingly desirable for growing second-generation energy crops in this century, which could in turn contribute to soil improvement and ecological restoration of the region. (letter)

  14. Energy technology impacts on agriculture with a bibliography of models for impact assessment on crop ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, E.M.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Parzyck, D.C.

    1979-09-01

    Possible impacts of energy technologies on agriculture are evaluated, and some of the available simulation models that can be used for predictive purposes are identified. An overview of energy technologies and impacts on the environment is presented to provide a framework for the commentary on the models. Coal combustion is shown to have major impacts on the environment and these will continue into the next century according to current Department of Energy projections. Air pollution effects will thus remain as the major impacts on crop ecosystems. Two hundred reports were evaluated, representing a wide range of models increasing in complexity from mathematical functions (fitted to data) through parametric models (which represent phenomena without describing the mechanisms) to mechanistic models (based on physical, chemical, and physiological principles). Many models were viewed as suitable for adaptation to technology assessment through the incorporation of representative dose-response relationships. It is clear that in many cases available models cannot be taken and directly applied in technology assessment. Very few models of air pollutant-crop interactions were identified, even though there is a considerable data base of pollutant effects on crops.

  15. REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE ENERGY FLUX MODELS TO DERIVE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CROP COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques using high resolution satellite images provide opportunities to evaluate daily crop water use and its spatial and temporal distribution on a field by field basis. Mapping this indicator with pixels of few meters of size on extend areas allows to characterize different processes and parameters. Satellite data on vegetation reflectance, integrated with in field measurements of canopy coverage features and the monitoring of energy fluxes through the soil-plant-atmosphere system, allow to estimate conventional irrigation components (ET, Kc thus improving irrigation strategies. In the study, satellite potential evapotranspiration (ETp and crop coefficient (Kc maps of orange orchards are derived using semi-empirical approaches between reflectance data from IKONOS imagery and ground measurements of vegetation features. The monitoring of energy fluxes through the orchard allows to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa using energy balance and the Surface Renewal theory. The approach indicates substantial promise as an efficient, accurate and relatively inexpensive procedure to predict actual ET fluxes and Kc from irrigated lands.

  16. Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions of biomethane from energy crops cultivated in a central Italian farm were investigated. • Electricity consumption of the biogas plant was monitored. • Current scenario does not allow to achieve a GHG saving according to Renewable Energy Directive. • GHG emissions could be reduced by covering the storage tanks of digestate and installing a CHP plant. - Abstract: Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained

  17. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analysis of energy consumption in lowland rice-based cropping system of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Chee Wan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient energy is needed in the right form and at the right time for adequate crop production. One way to optimize energy consumption in agriculture is to determine the efficiency of methods and techniques used. With the current increase in world population, energy consumption needs effective planning. That is, the input elements need to be identified in order to prescribe the most efficient methods for controlling them. This study was undertaken in order to determine the direct and indirect energy consumption of field operations in a lowland rice production system of Malaysia. Field time, fuel and other energy requirements were measured for the tillage, planting, fertilizing, spraying and harvesting operations performed. Energy analysis carried out revealed the highest average operational energy consumption was for tillage (1747.33 MJ ha-1 which accounted for about 48.6% of the total operational energy consumption (3595.87 MJ ha-1, followed by harvesting (1171.44 MJ ha-1, 32.6% and planting (562.91 MJ ha-1, 15.7%. Fertilizing and pesticide spraying did not make any significant contributions to the operational energy consumption. Based on energy sources, fuel was the main consumer of direct energy with 2717.82 MJha-1 (22.2%, and fertilizer recording the highest indirect energy consumption of 7721.03 MJha-1 (63.2%. Human labour, pesticides, seeds and indirect energy for machinery use had marginal importance, contributing only 0.2%, 0.6%, 6.8% and 6.9%, respectively to the total energy consumption (12225.97 MJha-1. Average grain yield was 6470.8 kg ha-1, representing energy output of 108321.75 MJha-1, that is, 96095.78 MJ net energy gain or 8.86 MJ output per MJ input. Energy input per kilogram grain yield was 1.89 MJkg-1. The results of the study indicate energy gain in the lowland rice production system of Malaysia.

  19. An investigation into the energy use in relation to yield of traditional crops in central Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Abhishek; Saradhi, P. Pardha; Rao, K.S.; Saxena, K.G.; Maikhuri, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Agrobiodiversity and agroecosystem management have changed in central Himalaya due to increasing emphasis on market economy and the motive 'maximization of profit'. Such changes have benefited local people in economic terms, but at the same time increased their vulnerability to environmental and economic risks. The present study addressed the issue of how the ecological functions that are provided by agrobiodiversity translate into tangible benefits for the society. Important characteristics of agrodiversity management are the use of bullocks for draught power, human energy as labour, crop residues as animal feed and animal waste mixed with forest litter as organic input to restore soil fertility levels. The present analysis of resource input-output energy currency in traditional crop production indicated that inputs into different crop systems were significantly higher during kharif season compared to rabi season both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. The maximum input for crop during rabi season (second crop season) was about 31% of that of kharif season (first crop season after fallow) under rainfed conditions. Under irrigated conditions the rabi season input was about 63% of kharif season input. Under rainfed conditions, paddy sole cropping required maximum inputs (231.31 GJ/ha) as compared to mustard sole cropping (11.79 GJ/ha). The present investigation revealed that the total energy inputs and outputs are higher for irrigated agriculture as compared to rainfed system, the difference in inputs is about 5 fold and outputs is about 2 fold. The output-input ratio showed that irrigated systems have higher values as compared to rainfed systems. -- Highlights: → Agriculture continues to be biggest employment provider in the region. → Ecological functions that are provided by agrobiodiversity translate into tangible benefits for the society. → Analysis of resource input-output energy currency in traditional crop production. → Improvements in crop

  20. Integration of non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwant, K.W.; Heuval, E. van der; Rijk, P.J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Integration of energy-crops in the agricultural sector is hampered by a number of factors. Within the EU AIR programme a concerted action has been initiated to contribute to a better understanding of the several aspects of introducing energy corps in the rural sector. A standard methodology to assess the economic and technical viability of energy crops for three identified niche markets was developed. Technical viability of biomass production, pretreatment and conversion to energy is a necessary condition for implementation of such a project, however, it is not a sufficient condition. Non-technical constraints can either hamper or stimulate a successful introduction. Technical issues will be dealt with in other papers. This paper will, therefore concentrate on the non-technical issues. In section 2 the major issues are described. Opportunities on how to improve biomass energy introduction are provided in section 3. As a case study, the non-technical issues of a combined heat and power plant, planned to be fired on arboricultural and short rotation willow, in the municipality of Groningen in the Netherlands will be presented. The paper ends with general conclusions. (Author)

  1. High Potentials: A CEO Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Jeanine

    2007-01-01

    Finding high potentials has been identified as one of the major challenges for society and for higher education. But how does one find the talented individuals who will design the future of society? Can and should universities cooperate or compete with business and industry for these talents? Three CEOs reflect on this worldwide competition for…

  2. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  4. The seawater greenhouse: desalination and crop-production in arid zones based on renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P. A.; Paton, C.; Sablani, S. S.; Perret, J.; Goosen, M. F. A.; Walterbeek, Reinier R.

    2006-01-01

    population growth is threatening the avaliability of fresh water in many regions of the world. With agriculture accounting for approximately 70% of all water used, the water crisis is closely linked to food production and economic development. Conventional agriculture is very inefficient in its use of water with several hundred liters needed to produce just one kilogram of produce. Although seawater is abundant, conventional desalination consumes substantial energy, usually derived from fossil fuels. There is an urgent ned for affordable and sustainable means of p[roducing crops, without heavy reliance on water and energy resource. The seawater Greenhouse is a novel approach to solving this problem. It combines energy-efficient desalination with water-efficient cultivation. Pilot projects have been constructed in Tenerife, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. This paper describes the results from these projects and outlines the potential for opening the seawater Greenhouse from renewable energy sources. Different types of source are evaluated and compared with respect to cost and load matching. Conclusions are drawn about the viability of a stand-alone system for the production of water and crops.(Author)

  5. The Possibilities to use Euphorbia Tirucalli as an Energy and a Rubber Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Van Damme

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli has been used as a source for natural rubber at different times in history, especially in southern Africa. The latex resin content is too high to guarantee a good quality product and economic production has never taken off as some had hoped. The fact that the plant is very well adapted to arid and semi arid conditions and can be grown on marginal waste lands makes it a potential energy crop which can be turned into biogas without too much investment in costly technology. The first results obtained in the laboratory and in field conditions (Senegal are very promising. The latex contains a number of interesting triterpenes which have a very high energy content and could be used in fuel production. Most of these applications have been tested or used in Africa and can offer long-term solutions for old problems, particularly in the case of renewable energy through biomass fermentation. KEY WORDS: rubber, biomass, biogas, triterpenes, energy crop

  6. Renewable energy from pyrolysis using crops and agricultural residuals: An economic and environmental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chih-Chun; Zhang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines pyrolysis-based electricity generation and ethanol production using various crops and agricultural residuals in Taiwan. It analyzes the net economic and environmental effects within the framework of the Extended Taiwanese Agricultural Sector Model by incorporating ongoing and potential gasoline, coal and GHG (greenhouse gas) prices. The study discusses the effects of agricultural shifts, which have several important implications for the Taiwanese bioenergy development. First, the cost of collecting rice straw is much lower than the production cost of other energy crops, implying that the efficient use of agricultural waste may eventually result in positive social effects in terms of farmers' revenue, the renewable energy supply and GHG emissions offset. Second, farmers with idle land usually suffer a lower steady income. Encouraging the development of the renewable energy industry increases the demand of raw feedstocks, which involves converting the idle land into cultivation and increasing farmers' revenue. Third, agricultural waste is usually burned and emits CO_2, which accelerates the global climate shift. Approximately one third of emissions could be offset by rice straw-based bioenergy in certain cases. Turning this waste into bioenergy, which offsets net GHG emissions, has positive effects on the climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • Pyrolyzing rice straw provides considerable energy supply (max 4.68 billion kWh). • High emission offset when combined with rice straw (max 2.73 million tons). • Affordable government subsidy ($204 million a year). • Collection and transportation costs of wastes could impact the result significantly.

  7. Impact of chashma right-canal on energy-inputs and crop production in dera ismail khan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Rehman, A.; Singh, G.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the patterns of energy-consumption and their relationship with crop-production and poverty-alleviation of the farming community, before and after the completion of Chashma Right-Bank Canal (CRBC) Project. A survey was made of daily inputs of energy for crop-production operations on more than 60 crop plots of 10 farms in three villages. The selection of farms in the villages was based on the financial condition of the farmers, as judged by the main power-source (bullock or tractor) that the farmer uses on his farm. Sources of energy recorded on biweekly basis were: human labor, bullocks and tractors. Crops-yields and values of output were recorded. Energy-inputs were computed on per hectare basis by summing the energy inputs to all crop-plots. Results indicated that the use of tractors does result in a reduction of human labor-hours and bullock-energy on per hectare basis. Due to lack of a permanent source of irrigation (crops were dependent on rain and floodwater), the crop-yield in the study areas was low before CRBC improvement work. Moreover, floods also damaged the crops on some plots before harvesting; therefore the consumption of energy on both bullock-operated farms (BOF) and Tractor-Operated Farms (TOF) was very low in the 1992-93 year. Post CRBC project, during 1997-98 and 2000-2001, the farms used more energy. In 1997-98, TOF obtained higher wheat-yields than BOF. However, in 2000-2001, both BOF and TOF were using tractors as their main power source, which indirectly indicated a reduction 'in poverty. As the yields and therefore crop-values were higher on TOF than BOF, the TOF obtained higher gross margins. Cost of production was low in 1992-93, but the crop-values were also low, so the gross margins remained low. Results indicate that there will be an increase in production and a reduction in cost of production through mechanized farming, however, there will be an increase in energy

  8. Supply evaluation of a herbaceous and woody energy crop at three midwest regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Dillivan, K.D.; Ojo, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    While substantial research has been conducted on the argronomic issues of biomass production and on the processes of converting biofuel crops into energy, little work has been completed analyzing the economic and physical impacts of biofuel production on an agriculturally based region. Acres currently devoted to traditional crops will be replaced by biomass crops if such a conversion proves to be economically attractive. These shifts could have impacts on local and regional levels of farm income, current farmland market values, commodity prices received, and the demand for and prices of farm level inputs. This paper examines the economic and physical ramifications of introducing biomass production to three Midwest regions centered in the following counties; Cass County, North Dakota, Olmsted County, Minnesota, and Orange County, Indiana. Using a regional linear programming model that maximizes net returns to producers subject to several constraints, a supply curve for biomass is developed for each of the three regions. The model predicts that at a plant gate price of $26, $40, and $52 per dry ton, biomass begins to enter into production in the Cass, Olmsted, and Orange Regions respectively. Prices of $28, $44, and $54 per dry ton of biomass are sufficient to supply a quantity necessary to operate a power plant requiring 5,000 dry tons per day in Cass, Olmsted, and Orange regions respectively. In the Olmsted and Orange regions, biomass production results in fertilizer being applied, however, in the Cass Region a slight increase in fertilizer use corresponds to biomass production

  9. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Modelling the costs of energy crops. A case study of US corn and Brazilian sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejean, Aurelie; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices, uncertainties about the consequences of climate change and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the prospects of alternative fuels, such as biofuels. This paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of energy crops, drawing on the user's degree of belief about a series of parameters as an input. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of production constraints and experience on the costs of corn and sugar cane, which can then be converted to bioethanol. Land is a limited and heterogeneous resource: the crop cost model builds on the marginal land suitability, which is assumed to decrease as more land is taken into production, driving down the marginal crop yield. Also, the maximum achievable yield is increased over time by technological change, while the yield gap between the actual yield and the maximum yield decreases through improved management practices. The results show large uncertainties in the future costs of producing corn and sugar cane, with a 90% confidence interval of 2.9-7.2$/GJ in 2030 for marginal corn costs, and 1.5-2.5$/GJ in 2030 for marginal sugar cane costs. The influence of each parameter on these supply costs is examined. (author)

  11. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  12. Greenhouse crop residues: Energy potential and models for the prediction of their higher heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A.J.; Lopez-Martinez, J.A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Velazquez-Marti, B. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural y Agroalimentaria, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Almeria, in southeastern Spain, generates some 1,086,261 t year{sup -1} (fresh weight) of greenhouse crop (Cucurbita pepo L., Cucumis sativus L., Solanum melongena L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Phaseoulus vulgaris L., Capsicum annuum L., Citrillus vulgaris Schrad. and Cucumis melo L.) residues. The energy potential of this biomass is unclear. The aim of the present work was to accurately quantify this variable, differentiating between crop species while taking into consideration the area they each occupy. This, however, required the direct analysis of the higher heating value (HHV) of these residues, involving very expensive and therefore not commonly available equipment. Thus, a further aim was to develop models for predicting the HHV of these residues, taking into account variables measured by elemental and/or proximate analysis, thus providing an economically attractive alternative to direct analysis. All the analyses in this work involved the use of worldwide-recognised standards and methods. The total energy potential for these plant residues, as determined by direct analysis, was 1,003,497.49 MW h year{sup -1}. Twenty univariate and multivariate equations were developed to predict the HHV. The R{sup 2} and adjusted R{sup 2} values obtained for the univariate and multivariate models were 0.909 and 0.946 or above respectively. In all cases, the mean absolute percentage error varied between 0.344 and 2.533. These results show that any of these 20 equations could be used to accurately predict the HHV of crop residues. The residues produced by the Almeria greenhouse industry would appear to be an interesting source of renewable energy. (author)

  13. Comparative energy analysis of agricultural crops used for producing ethanol and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.A. dos

    1997-01-01

    A variety of biomass sources can be used for producing ethanol. Among these are sugar cane (Brazil), corn (USA), sweet sorghum (USA and Europe), sugar beets (Europe) and wheat (USA and Europe). The production of fuel alcohol worldwide has been analyzed from various perspectives: productivity, the competition between food and energy crops, the social and economic aspects and, more recently, the environmental dimension. Another relevant study is aimed at calculating the energy costs of the production and use of alcohol from sugar cane as compared to other primary sources for this fuel. The present analysis employs the methodology of energy balance, highlighting local conditions that influence how biomass is transformed into ethanol: technology, agricultural productivity, environmental conditions and an estimate of the carbon dioxide emissions from these different processes. (author)

  14. MINIMIZE ENERGY AND COSTS REQUIREMENT OF WEEDING AND FERTILIZING PROCESS FOR FIBER CROPS IN SMALL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work was carried out through agricultural summer season of 2014 at the experimental farm of Gemmiza Research Station, Gharbiya governorate to minimize energy and costs in weeding and fertilizing processes for fiber crops (Kenaf and Roselle in small farms. The manufactured multipurpose unit performance was studied as a function of change in machine forward speed (2.2, 2.8, 3.4 and 4 Km/h fertilizing rates (30,45 and 60 Kg.N.fed-1,and constant soil moisture content was 20%(d.b in average. Performance of the manufactured machine was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, power and energy requirements, effective field capacity, theoretical field capacity, field efficiency, and operational costs as a machine measurements .The experiment results reveled that the manufactured machine decreased energy and increased effective field capacity and efficiency under the following conditions: -machine forward speed 2.2Kmlh. -moisture content average 20%.

  15. Crop residues as a potential renewable energy source for Malawi's cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondwe, Kenneth J.; Chiotha, Sosten S.; Mkandawire, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    that the projected total energy demands in 2020, 2025 and 2030 were approximately 177 810 TJ, 184 210 TJ and 194 096 TJ respectively. The highest supply potentials were found to be in the central and southern regions of Malawi, coinciding with the locations of the two clinker plants. Crop residues could meet 45......-57% of the national total energy demand. The demand from the cement industry is only 0.8% of the estimated biomass energy potential. At an annual production of 600 000 t of clinker and 20% biomass co-firing with coal, 18 562 t of coal consumption would be avoided and 46 128 t of carbon dioxide emission reduction...

  16. Utilization of residual biochar produced from the pyrolysis of energy crops for soil enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, G.; Lavoie, J.M. [Sherbrooke Univ., Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology

    2010-07-01

    Although national and international interest in the use of energy crops for the production of biofuels is increasing, it is understood that measures must be taken to ensure that the production and transportation of these energy crops does not require more energy than they provide and that the soil should not be left uncovered so as not to reduce its organic content and nutrients. In response, concerns regarding soil fertilization have increased. A technique for biomass preconversion known as pyrolysis-torrefaction involves the production of char and bio-oil from biomass. This processing method is gaining interest because the char may be useful for many applications such as a fuel, soil conditioner or carbon sequestration. An appropriate distribution of biochar applications could be potentially beneficial for the sustainability of biomass use in the imminent biomarket. In this study, biochar produced from switchgrass was prepared and characterized to verify its potential as a soil enhancer and its potential as a solid fuel. The biochar was prepared under varying reacting conditions using custom-made bench scale, batch-type fixed bed pyrolysis-torrefaction reactor. Volatiles were released by varying the residence times.

  17. The hydrological impacts of energy crop production in the UK. Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, J. W.; Hall, R. L.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Clark, D. B.; Stratford, C.; Davies, H. N.; Marsh, T. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Riche, A.; Christian, D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work carried out between March 2002 and January 2004 under ETSU Contract number B/CR/000783/00/00 by the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford. It also describes the results of measurements made by Rothamsted Research staff under a sub-contract. The objectives of this work are: 1. To determine the effects on water availability at the catchment and sub-catchment scale, of production of energy crops, across England and Wales. 2. To indicate areas where...

  18. Prospects for dedicated energy crop production and attitudes towards agricultural straw use: The case of livestock farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.; Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Second generation biofuels utilising agricultural by-products (e.g. straw), or dedicated energy crops (DECs) produced on ‘marginal’ land, have been called for. A structured telephone survey of 263 livestock farmers, predominantly located in the west or ‘marginal’ upland areas of England captured data on attitudes towards straw use and DECs. Combined with farm physical and business data, the survey results show that 7.2% and 6.3% of farmers would respectively consider growing SRC and miscanthus, producing respective maximum potential English crop areas of 54,603 ha and 43,859 ha. If higher market prices for straw occurred, most livestock farmers would continue to buy straw. Reasons for not being willing to consider growing DECs include concerns over land quality, committing land for a long time period, lack of appropriate machinery, profitability, and time to financial return; a range of moral, land quality, production conflict and lack of crop knowledge factors were also cited. Results demonstrate limited potential for the production of DECs on livestock farms in England. Changes in policy support to address farmer concerns with respect to DECs will be required to incentivise farmers to increase energy crop production. Policy support for DEC production must be cognisant of farm-level economic, tenancy and personal objectives. - Highlights: • Survey of English livestock farms determining attitudes to dedicated energy crops. • 6.3% to 7.2% of surveyed farmers would consider growing energy crops. • Limited potential for dedicated energy crops on livestock farms in England. • Livestock farmers would continue to buy straw, even at higher market prices. • Wide range of reasons given for farmers’ decisions related to energy crops

  19. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  20. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI) of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    OpenAIRE

    A. Restuccia; S. Failla; D. Longo; L. Caruso; I. Mallia; G. Schillaci

    2013-01-01

    As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested) has been used. At this aim, an...

  1. Energy farming in multiple land use : An opportunity for energy crop introduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londo, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Concerns about climate change related to fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions require the development of alternative energy resources. In most scenario studies on future energy supply, bio-energy is one of the dominant renewable alternatives foreseen. Apart from the use of residues and wastes, the

  2. “Marginal land” for energy crops: Exploring definitions and embedded assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortall, O.K.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of using less productive or “marginal land” for energy crops is promoted as a way to overcome the previous land use controversies faced by biofuels. It is argued that marginal land use would not compete with food production, is widely available and would incur fewer environmental impacts. This term is notoriously vague however, as are the details of how marginal land use for energy crops would work in practice. This paper explores definitions of the term “marginal land” in academic, consultancy, NGO, government and industry documents in the UK. It identifies three separate definitions of the term: land unsuitable for food production; ambiguous lower quality land; and economically marginal land. It probes these definitions further by exploring the technical, normative and political assumptions embedded within them. It finds that the first two definitions are normatively motivated: this land should be used to overcome controversies and the latter definition is predictive: this land is likely to be used. It is important that the different advantages, disadvantages and implications of the definitions are spelled out so definitions are not conflated to create unrealistic expectations about the role of marginal land in overcoming biofuels land use controversies. -- Highlights: •Qualitative methods were used to explore definitions of the term “marginal land”. •Three definitions were identified. •Two definitions focus on overcoming biomass land use controversies. •One definition predicts what land will be used for growing biomass. •Definitions contain problematic assumptions

  3. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals from soil using Poaceae energy crops: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa PRELAC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a method that use plants which can remove or stabilize pollutants in the environment. The aim of the polluted area remediation is to return ecosystems into original condition. Phytoremediation is a green technology used for a wide range of pollutants as well as on various lands, low costs and reduced environment impacts. Energy crops are relatively new in this field of researches and insufficiently explored. However, the results so far show their potential in heavy metal removal. The aim of this research was to examine the available literature and determine the phytoremediation potential of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc from the soil using Arundo donax, Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Sida hermaphrodita and Sorghum x drummondii. According to the researches conditions, studied energy crops are reccomended in heavy metals phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, stabilization and accumulation. Still, those plants accumulate higher concentrations of heavy metals in the rhizosphere which makes them heavy metals excluders since heavy metals are not translocated into the plants' shoot system and favorable in the implementation of rhizofiltration as well.

  4. Effect of crop rotations and fertilization on energy balance in typical production systems on the Canadian Prairies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, R.P.; Stumborg, M.A.; Campbell, C.A.

    1989-03-01

    Non-renewable energy inputs (both direct and indirect), metabolizable energy output and energy efficiency of 10 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotations were examined over 18 years on a loam soil in the Brown soil zone of the Canadian Prairies. The rotations, which were managed using conventional tillage, included a range of crops, cropping intensities, crop sequences and fertilizer practices. Results showed that the total energy input per unit of land was lowest for the traditional fallow-wheat (F-W) rotation (3482 MJ ha/sup -1/), intermediate (4470 MJ ha/sup -1/) for N- and P-fertilized fallow-wheat-wheat (F-W-W) and highest for N- and P-fertilized continuous wheat (7100 MJ ha/sup -1/). Substituting flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or rye (Secale cereale L.) for wheat in the rotations reduced total energy input by 3 to 8%, while withholding the application of either N or P fertilizer reduced total energy input by 16-37%. Liquid fuel for field operations and local product transport, and fertilizer (primarily N) were the major energy inputs; both increased with cropping intensity. Fuel accounted for 30-50% of the total energy input of the rotations. Fertilizer represented 15-49% of the total energy input and was more important than fuel for the continuous crop rotations. Despite the high energy content in pesticides, they accounted for only 4-11% of the total energy input of the rotations. Metabolizable energy output displayed similar response patterns as total energy input reflecting the higher total annual grain yields as cropping intensity increased. The average energy output to input ratio for F-W was 3.6, or 262 kg of wheat GJ/sup -1/ of energy input, while those for F-W-W and continuous wheat were 3.3 and 2.6, or 240 and 191 kg of wheat GJ/sup -1/ of energy input, respectively. Rotations that included flax or cereal forage crops had the lowest energy efficiencies. 2 figs., 31 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Oil crops: requirements and possibilities for their utilization as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, G; Schoenefeldt, J; Mehring, I [OeHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Although vegetable oils have been used as an energy source for centuries, they were used almost exclusively in oil lamps. Their value as a foodstuff and the availability and low price of mineral oil had for a long time kept them from being seriously considered as a potential energy source. Now, owing to the increasing cost of fossil fuel, particularly oil, and increasing industrial energy consumption, as well as the negative impact of fossil fuel use on the environment, there is interest in a number of alternative energy sources, including vegetable oils. The discussion in this paper focuses on the use of untreated vegetable oils, particularly rapeseed oil. The energy potential of rapeseed oil is explored first. Then, conditions under which the use of oil crops as an energy source is feasible are briefly discussed; two concepts for decentralized oil-seed processing are described and, finally, future possibilities for use of vegetable oils as a fuel source are reviewed. (author) 5 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  7. Water-food-energy nexus index: analysis of water-energy-food nexus of crop's production system applying the indicators approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gafy, Inas

    2017-10-01

    Analysis the water-food-energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water-food-energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water-food-energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water-food-energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.

  8. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies.

  9. Energy performance and efficiency of two sugar crops for the biofuel supply chain. Perspectives for sustainable field management in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, Pasquale; D'Andrea, Laura; Vonella, A. Vittorio; Rinaldi, Michele; Palumbo, A. Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of the energy balance and efficiency for reduced input of cropping systems is one of the main goals for the cultivation of energy crops. In this field study, two sugar crops for bioethanol production were cultivated under different soil tillage management (conventional; no tillage) and mineral nitrogen application (0, 75, 150 kg N ha"−"1): sweet sorghum and sugar beet. The energy performance and efficiency along the bioethanol supply chain were analysed and compared. Both of these crops showed good growth adaptation to the different soil and nitrogen management, and thus the energy return, resource and energy efficiencies were significantly improved in the low-input system. Sweet sorghum provided better responses in terms of water and nitrogen use efficiency for biomass accumulation, as well as its energy yield and net gain, compared to sugar beet, whereas sugar beet showed higher energy efficiency than sorghum. According to these data, both of these crops can be cultivated in a Mediterranean environment with low energy input, which guarantees good crop and energy performances for biofuel strategy planning. - Highlights: • Two sugar crops for the bioethanol supply chain were evaluated. • Energy performances and efficiencies were assessed under different energy input. • Sugar yield resulted not compromised by the different crop management. • The energy gain was improved with low energy input at field level. • Sweet sorghum gave the highest energy yield, sugar beet the energy efficiency.

  10. Energy performances of intensive and extensive short rotation cropping systems for woody biomass production in the EU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djomo, S. N.; Ač, Alexander; Zenone, T.; De Groote, T.; Bergante, S.; Facciotto, G.; Sixto, H.; Ciria Ciria, P.; Weger, J.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, jan (2015), s. 845-854 ISSN 1364-0321 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : poplar * willow * bioenergy crops * energy balance * energy efficiency Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 6.798, year: 2015

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Pamela J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  12. Options for achieving the target of 45 MTOE from energy cropping in the EU in 2010. Danish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    Among the renewable, biomass is considered an attractive option for energy production for a number of fundamental agricultural, industrial and rural development reasons. During the last decade several types of goals and associated incentives have been set across Europe in order to enhance both the RandD of the technologies and the implementation of bioenergy schemes. In Denmark, Austria and Finland the bioenergy schemes have been proved successful, while in other EU regions, bioenergy schemes are now either beginning to be implemented or are slowly developed at small scale and pilot level. The main reasons for this slow progress are: Lack in security of supply; Non-uniform and bulky material in the form of residues and wastes; Inadequate interrelation between the agricultural and energy policies; Inefficient way of approaching the main target groups involved in the bioenergy business. Scientists and policy makers remain sceptical whether the favourable technical potential of these crops will actually serve as feedstock in already operating or newly planned bioenergy schemes. Due to the role of energy in almost all walks of life, EU policies in this area have to be considered within a wider context extending to climate change, waste disposal, agriculture, air and water policy. The report states the following recommendations: Define niche markets for energy crops per type of fuel produced; Link current residue exploitation to mainstream biomass developments; Transfer of knowledge on growing energy crops to the 10 new countries; Define the role that energy crops trade could play. The absence of any policy to encourage energy crops represents one of the main limits to their dissemination. Energy crops incentive policies are actually constrained by CAP requirements and thus heavily affected by the limits of EU agricultural policy and partly by its rural policy which is biased in favour of restricting arable land characterized by production surpluses. The promotion of

  13. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint. The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Research Service, UNESCO Institute for water education and Food, and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The water footprint approach was applied to analyze the relationship between water requirement and energy of content of crop and animal products, in which the uncertainty and sensitivity was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation technique that is contained in the Oracle Crystal Ball Fusion Edition v11.1.1.3.00. The results revealed significant water saving due to changes in food consumption pattern i.e. from consumption of more meat to vegetables. The production of 1kcal of crop and animal products requires about 98% of green, 4.8% blue water and 0.4% of gray water. In which changes in consumption pattern gave annual blue water saving of about 1605 Mm3 that is equivalent to 41.30m3/capita, extremely greater than the standard drinking water requirement for the whole population. Moreover, the projected results indicated, triple increase of dietary water requirement from 30.9 Mm3 in 2005 to 108 Mm3 by 2050. It was also inferred that, Tanzania has a positive virtual water balance of crop and animal products consumption with net virtual water import of 9.1 Mm3 that is the contribution margin to the water scarcity alleviation strategy. Therefore, developed relationship of water footprint and energy content of crops and animal products can be used by water resource experts for sustainable freshwater and food supply.

  14. Ecosystem-service tradeoffs associated with switching from annual to perennial energy crops in riparian zones of the US Midwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Meehan

    Full Text Available Integration of energy crops into agricultural landscapes could promote sustainability if they are placed in ways that foster multiple ecosystem services and mitigate ecosystem disservices from existing crops. We conducted a modeling study to investigate how replacing annual energy crops with perennial energy crops along Wisconsin waterways could affect a variety of provisioning and regulating ecosystem services. We found that a switch from continuous corn production to perennial-grass production decreased annual income provisioning by 75%, although it increased annual energy provisioning by 33%, decreased annual phosphorous loading to surface water by 29%, increased below-ground carbon sequestration by 30%, decreased annual nitrous oxide emissions by 84%, increased an index of pollinator abundance by an average of 11%, and increased an index of biocontrol potential by an average of 6%. We expressed the tradeoffs between income provisioning and other ecosystem services as benefit-cost ratios. Benefit-cost ratios averaged 12.06 GJ of additional net energy, 0.84 kg of avoided phosphorus pollution, 18.97 Mg of sequestered carbon, and 1.99 kg of avoided nitrous oxide emissions for every $1,000 reduction in income. These ratios varied spatially, from 2- to 70-fold depending on the ecosystem service. Benefit-cost ratios for different ecosystem services were generally correlated within watersheds, suggesting the presence of hotspots--watersheds where increases in multiple ecosystem services would come at lower-than-average opportunity costs. When assessing the monetary value of ecosystem services relative to existing conservation programs and environmental markets, the overall value of enhanced services associated with adoption of perennial energy crops was far lower than the opportunity cost. However, when we monitized services using estimates for the social costs of pollution, the value of enhanced services far exceeded the opportunity cost. This

  15. Evaluation of energy plantation crops in a high-throughput indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were run in Battelle`s 10 ton per day Process Research Unit (PRU) gasifier using two high-growth, energy plantation crops -- hybrid poplar -- and an herbaceous biomass crop -- switch grass. The results show that both feedstocks provide gas production rates, product gas compositions, and heating value similar to other biomass feedstocks tested in the Battelle gasification process. The ash compositions of the switch grass and hybrid poplar feedstocks were high in potassium relative to previously tested biomass feedstocks. High growth biomass species tend to concentrate minerals such as potassium in the ash. The higher potassium content in the ash can then cause agglomeration problems in the gasification system. A method for controlling this agglomeration through the addition of small amounts (approximately 2 percent of the wood feed rate) of an additive could adequately control the agglomeration tendency of the ash. During the testing program in the PRU, approximately 50 tons of hybrid poplar and 15 tons of switch grass were gasified to produce a medium Btu product gas.

  16. Growth and energy yield when cultivating various energy crops on farming soil. Tillvaext och energiutbyte vid odling av olika energigroedor paa jordbruksmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerner, L.

    1988-03-01

    In four fields in the south of Sweden different energy crops were tested. In all trials sugar beet, barley, alfalfa, corn, sunflower and quickgrowing species of Salix (energy forest) were grown. In some of the trials broome-grass, potatoes and winter wheat were tested. One trial also included marrow-stem kale, Jerusalem artichoke and a hybride of J artichoke and sunflower. The purpose of the experiment was to illustrate the effect of increasing N-fertilizing and the effect of growing the crops in different climatic conditions. The yield varies between the crops. Some of the crops were harvested in different stages of development. The largest yields were noticed for sugar beet, corn, potatoes and energy forest. For these crops the yield was 11.5-14.5 tons of dry matter per hectare. The yield of potatoes was very large but it is figures for only one place with very good conditions. Barley, sunflower and alfalfa produced 8-10 tons of dry matter per hectare. The smaller yield depends on a short vegetation season for these crops. The year of establishment the energy forest produced about four tons of dry matter in the form of stem wood. When fully established the production has been 12-15 tons of dry matter per hectare and annum. The analysis of plant material indicates small divergences in the content of carbon and heat value.

  17. High yielding tropical energy crops for bioenergy production: Effects of plant components, harvest years and locations on biomass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendra, K C; Ogoshi, Richard; Zaleski, Halina M; Hashimoto, Andrew G; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2018-03-01

    The composition of lignocellulosic feedstock, which depends on crop type, crop management, locations and plant parts, significantly affects the conversion efficiency of biomass into biofuels and biobased products. Thus, this study examined the composition of different parts of two high yielding tropical energy crops, Energycane and Napier grass, collected across three locations and years. Significantly higher fiber content was found in the leaves of Energycane than stems, while fiber content was significantly higher in the stems than the leaves of Napier grass. Similarly, fiber content was higher in Napier grass than Energycane. Due to significant differences in biomass composition between the plant parts within a crop type, neither biological conversion, including anaerobic digestion, nor thermochemical pretreatment alone is likely to efficiently convert biomass components into biofuels and biobased products. However, combination of anaerobic digestion with thermochemical conversion technologies could efficiently utilize biomass components in generating biofuels and biobased products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of Southeastern Forest Biomass Crop Production: A Watershed Scale Evaluation of the Sustainability and Productivity of Dedicated Energy Crop and Woody Biomass Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chescheir, George M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Nettles, Jami E, [Weyerhaeuser Company; Youssef, Mohamed [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Birgand, Francois [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Amatya, Devendra M. [United States Forest Service; Miller, Darren A. [Weyerhaeuser Company; Sucre, Eric [Weyerhaeuser Company; Schilling, Erik [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Inc.; Tian, Shiying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Cacho, Julian F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bennett, Erin M. [Ecosystem Planning and Restoration, LLC; Carter, Taylor [HDR; Bowen, Nicole Dobbs [Engineering Design Consultants; Muwamba, Augustine [College of Charleston; Panda, Sudhanshu [University of North Georgia; Christopher, Sheila [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Phillips, Brian D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Appelboom, Timothy [NC Department of Environmental Quality; Skaggs, Richard W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Greene, Ethan J. [Land Trust for Central North Carolina; Marshall, Craig D. [Mississippi State University; Allen, Elizabeth [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Schoenholtz, Stephen H. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Growing switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as an intercrop in managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations has emerged as a potential source of bioenergy feedstock. Utilizing land resources between pine trees to produce an energy crop can potentially reduce the demand for land resources used to produce food; however, converting conventionally managed forest land to this new intercropping system constitutes changes in land use and associated management practices, which may affect the environmental and economic sustainability of the land.

    The overall objective of this project is to evaluate the environmental effects of large-scale forest bioenergy crop production and utilize these results to optimize cropping systems in a manner that protects the important ecosystem services provided by forests while contributing to the development of a sustainable and economically-viable biomass industry in the southeastern United States.

    Specific objectives are to:

    1. Quantify the hydrology of different energy crop production systems in watershed scale experiments on different landscapes in the southeast.
    2. Quantify the nutrient dynamics of energy crop production systems in watershed scale experiments to determine the impact of these systems on water quality.
    3. Evaluate the impacts of energy crop production on soil structure, fertility, and organic matter.
    4. Evaluate the response of flora and fauna populations and habitat quality to energy crop production systems.
    5. Develop watershed and regional scale models to evaluate the environmental sustainability and productivity of energy crop and woody biomass operations.
    6. Quantify the production systems in terms of bioenergy crop yield versus the energy and economic costs of production.
    7. Develop and evaluate best management practice guidelines to ensure the environmental sustainability of energy crop production systems.
    Watershed and plot scale studies

  19. Modeling surface energy fluxes from a patchwork of fields with different soils and crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    Agroecosystems are a dominant terrestrial land-use on planet earth and cover about 36% of the ice-free surface (12% pasture, 26% agriculture) [Foley2011]. Within this land use type, management practices vary strongly due to climate, cultural preferences, degree of industrialization, soil properties, crop rotations, field sizes, degree of land use sustainability, water availability, sowing and harvest dates, tillage, etc. These management practices influence abiotic environmental factors like water flow and heat transport within the ecosystem leading to changes of land surface fluxes. The relevance of vegetation (e.g. crops), ground cover, and soil properties to the moisture and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere is well known [McPherson 2007], but the impact of vegetation growth dynamics on energy fluxes is only partly understood [Gayler et al. 2014]. Thus, the structure of turbulence and the albedo evolve during the cropping period and large variations of heat can be measured on the field scale [Aubinet2012]. One issue of local distributed mixture of different land use is the measurement process which makes it challenging to evaluate simulations. Unfortunately, for meteorological flux-measurements like the Flux-Gradient or the Eddy Covariance (EC) method, comparability with simulations only exists in the ideal case, where fields have to be completely uniform in land use and flat within the reach of the footprint. Then a model with one specific land use would have the same underlying source area as the measurement. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mixed approach, which was recently implemented into the ecosystem model framework Expert-N [Biernath et al. 2013]. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of five managed field plots, planted with winter wheat, potato and maize on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the

  20. Laboratory investigations on continuous bio-methanization of energy crops as mono-substrate without supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, Burak

    2009-01-01

    Continuous bio-methanization of an energy crop, namely the beet silage, was investigated in this laboratory-scale work as mono-substrate, using a mesophilic biogas digester controlled by a fuzzy logic control (FLC) technique and without using any supplementing or buffering agent, despite the low pH of the substrate around 3.80. The temperature, pH, redox potential (ORP), daily biogas production and composition of digester biogas were continuously measured online. During the operation, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 24.8 and 9 days, as the organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 g L -1 d -1 . The average pH, specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) and volumetric gas production rate (vol. GPR) were determined to be 7.12, 0.31 L g VS -1 d -1 and 1.084 L L -1 d -1 , respectively. The average methane (CH 4 ) content of digester biogas was about 56%. The FLC technique, which was developed at HAW Hamburg for anaerobic conversion of acidic energy crops to methane, determined the daily feeding volume (∼ OLR/HRT) for the biogas digester, depending on the feedback from online pH and methane measurements, and on the calculation of the spec. GPR. The spec. GPR was calculated by the corrected daily biogas production. Through online monitoring of pH, biogas production rate and composition, and by use of the FLC technique, the acidic beet silage could continuously be converted to biogas, without using manure or any other kind of buffering or supplementing agent(s). The lab-scale anaerobic biogas digester performed stable and safe, without encountering any problems of instability, as indicated by an adequate amount of buffering capacity, a VFA content below 0.5 g L -1 and a neutral pH range throughout the study.

  1. Carbon Sequestration by Perennial Energy Crops: Is the Jury Still Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Gregory, Andrew S; Richter, Goetz M

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with land conversion to energy crops are central to the debate on bioenergy and their potential carbon neutrality. Here, the experimental evidence on SOC under perennial energy crops (PECs) is synthesised to parameterise a whole systems model and to identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps determining PECs being a sink or source of greenhouse gas (GHG). For Miscanthus and willow ( Salix spp.) and their analogues (switchgrass, poplar), we examine carbon (C) allocation to above- and belowground residue inputs, turnover rates and retention in the soil. A meta-analysis showed that studies on dry matter partitioning and C inputs to soils are plentiful, whilst data on turnover are rare and rely on few isotopic C tracer studies. Comprehensive studies on SOC dynamics and GHG emissions under PECs are limited and subsoil processes and C losses through leaching remain unknown. Data showed dynamic changes of gross C inputs and SOC stocks depending on stand age. C inputs and turnover can now be specifically parameterised in whole PEC system models, whilst dependencies on soil texture, moisture and temperature remain empirical. In conclusion, the annual net SOC storage change exceeds the minimum mitigation requirement (0.25 Mg C ha -1 year -1 ) under herbaceous and woody perennials by far (1.14 to 1.88 and 0.63 to 0.72 Mg C ha -1 year -1 , respectively). However, long-term time series of field data are needed to verify sustainable SOC enrichment, as the physical and chemical stabilities of SOC pools remain uncertain, although they are essential in defining the sustainability of C sequestration (half-life >25 years).

  2. Effects of different cropping systems and weed management methods on free energy and content of pigments in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Spasojević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rotation is a cropping system that has many advantages and ensures better crop growth and yielding. Its combinination with other cropping measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximal growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems: monoculture and two rotations, including maize, wheat and soybean (MSW and MWS, and different weed management methods (weed removal by hoeing, application of a full recommended herbicide dose (RD and half that dose (0.5 RD, and weedy check on weed biomass and maize growth parameters - leaf area index (LAI, free energy, contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, grain yield, and their possible relationships in two fields of the maize hybrids ZP 677 (H1 and ZP 606 (H2. The lowest LAI and grain yield were found in monoculture, particularly in weedy check, which had relatively high weed infestation. Higher weed biomass was also observed in herbicide treated plots in monoculture. Such high competition pressure indicates a stress reflected on reduced LAI and chlorophyll content, and increased free energy and content of carotenoids. On the other hand, rotation, particularly if it is combined with the application of herbicides or hoeing, had a positive impact on yielding potential by increasing LAI and the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and decreasing free energy.

  3. Production of biomass/energy crops on phosphatic clay soils in central Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, J.A. [Univ. of Florida, Bartow, FL (United States); Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Anderson, D.L. [Univ. of Florida, Belle Glade, FL (United States); Shibles, D.B.; Riddle, T.C. [Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project, Bartow, FL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Phosphatic clay is a byproduct of phosphate mining. Presently more than 40,470 ha have been created, most in central Florida, and about 810 ha are being added each year. Phosphatic clays have high fertility and high water holding capacity, reducing fertilization costs and producing high yields without irrigation. Based on 10 years of research, scientists have selected tall annual-regenerating perennial C-4 grasses as having the greatest potential for biomass production in Florida. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of growing these tall perennial grasses for biomass on phosphatic clay. Elephantgrass, sugarcane and energycane, and erianthus were planted in duplicate replications on phosphatic clay soil in late August, 1986. yield was measured by one harvest in December or January each year for four years. Nitrogen fertilization included 112 kg ha{sup {minus}1} the first year followed by 134 kg ha{sup {minus}1} for the next three years. Nitrogen is the only supplemental nutrient needed to grow all tall grass crops on phosphatic clay. The average annual oven dry matter yield over the 4-yr period was 36.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} for PI 300086 elephantgrass, 45.2 for N51 elephantgrass, 42.5 for L79-1002 energycane, 49.0 for US72-1153 energycane, 49.7 for US78-1009 sugarcane, 52.2 for US56-9 sugarcane, 56.2 for CP72-1210 sugarcane, and 48.8 for 1K-7647 erianthus. More recent work has utilized domestic sewage sludge as a nitrogen source for the tall grasses. Preliminary sugar yields of selected sugarcane accessions & sweet sorghum were 4.7 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} for CP72-1210, 12.5 for US67-2022, 3.4 for US78-1009 and 1.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} for sweet sorghum. The high yields of the tall grasses grown on phosphatic clay with low inputs indicate a great potential for these crops as a source of renewable energy. A sustainable cropping system may be maintained by utilizing municipal sewage sludge as a nitrogen source with tall grasses on phosphatic clay.

  4. Biomass and energy production of catch crops in areas with deficiency of precipitation during summer period in central Bohemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, V.; Pivec, J.; Fuksa, P.; Neckar, K.; Kocourkova, D.; Venclova, V.

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production dynamics of catch crops, volunteers and weeds in dependence on precipitation and air temperature, was studied in central Bohemia from 2004 to 2006. The cover of individual components of the growth was monitored during the same period. Also measured were energy and efficiency of utilization of global radiation by catch crops and volunteers. The catch crops included the following species: Brassica napus, Lolium multiflorum, Lolium perenne, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba, Trifolium incarnatum, Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis and Trifolium subterraneum. The highest biomass production and the highest cover of catch crops were observed in treatments with S. alba (1382.0 kg ha -1 , 47.8%). The average biomass production (sum of catch crops, volunteers and weeds) was highest in treatments with S. alba, R. sativus, and P. tanacetifolia and lowest in treatments with B. napus, L. multiflorum and L. perenne. It was demonstrated that an increase in the percentage share of volunteers caused a decrease in the biomass production of catch crops. The average energy production ranged from 0.31 to 2.37 MJ m -2 in treatments with catch crops, and from 0.25 to 0.89 MJ m -2 in treatments with cereal volunteers. The highest effectivity of global radiation utilization, was determined in treatments with S. alba (0.11-0.47%). Based on regression analysis the closest dependence between biomass production from all treatments on the experimental site and precipitation was observed from 1st May till the time of sowing and the average air temperatures from the sowing period till the time of the last biomass production assessment.

  5. Economic impacts of short-rotation woody crops for energy or oriented strand board: a Minnesota case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Lazarus; Douglas G. Tiffany; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2011-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid poplars are becoming increasingly competitive with agriculture on marginal land. The trees can be grown for energy and for traditional uses such as oriented strandboard. Using IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) software, we modeled the impacts of shifting land use from hay and pasture for cow-calf beef operations to...

  6. Assessment of the GHG Reduction Potential from Energy Crops Using a Combined LCA and Biogeochemical Process Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA, as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  7. Multi-Product Crops for Agricultural and Energy Production : an AGE Analysis for Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Dellink, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    By-products from agriculture and forestry can contribute to production of clean and cheap (bio)electricity. To assess the role of such multi-product crops in the response to climate policies, we present an applied general equilibrium model with special attention to biomass and multi-product crops

  8. Development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This project was supported as a Concerted Action under the EC DGVI AIR programme from 1993-1996. It has successfully developed a standard methodology to help integrate non-food crop production in rural areas with niche energy markets. The methodology was used to compare the costs of different energy crop production and conversion options across the six participating nations. The partners provide a representative cross-section of European agriculture and energy expertise. All partners agreed on three niche markets favourable for biomass and biofuels: small-scale heat markets (less than 1 MW th ) for agro-industry, domestic and commercial buildings, medium-scale heat markets (1-10MW th ), including cogeneration for light industry and district heating, and liquid biofuels as substitutes for fossil fuels in transport, heat and power applications. (Author)

  9. Crop intensification, land use, and on-farm energy-use efficiency during the worldwide spread of the green revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Pedro; Fernández, Roberto J

    2018-03-06

    We analyzed crop production, physical inputs, and land use at the country level to assess technological changes behind the threefold increase in global crop production from 1961 to 2014. We translated machinery, fuel, and fertilizer to embedded energy units that, when summed up, provided a measure of agricultural intensification (human subsidy per hectare) for crops in the 58 countries responsible for 95% of global production. Worldwide, there was a 137% increase in input use per hectare, reaching 13 EJ, or 2.6% of the world's primary energy supply, versus only a 10% increase in land use. Intensification was marked in Asia and Latin America, where input-use levels reached those that North America and Europe had in the earlier years of the period; the increase was more accentuated, irrespective of continent, for the 12 countries with mostly irrigated production. Half of the countries (28/58), mainly developed ones, had an average subsidy >5 GJ/ha/y (with fertilizers accounting for 27% in 1961 and 45% in 2014), with most of them (23/28) using about the same area or less than in 1961 (net land sparing of 31 Mha). Most of the remaining countries (24/30 with inputs <5 GJ/ha/y), mainly developing ones, increased their cropped area (net land extensification of 135 Mha). Overall, energy-use efficiency (crop output/inputs) followed a U-shaped trajectory starting at about 3 and finishing close to 4. The prospects of a more sustainable intensification are discussed, and the inadequacy of the land-sparing model expectation of protecting wilderness via intensified agriculture is highlighted.

  10. Short rotation woody crops: Using agroforestry technology for energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.L.; Ranney, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Agroforestry in the United States is being primarily defined as the process of using trees in agricultural systems for conservation purposes and multiple products. The type of agroforestry most commonly practiced in many parts of the world, that is the planting of tree crops in combination with food crops or pasture, is the type least commonly practiced in the United States. One type of agroforestry technique, which is beginning now and anticipated to expand to several million acres in the United States, is the planting of short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) primarily to provide fiber and fuel. Research on SRWC's and environmental concerns are described

  11. Does a carbon tax make sense in countries with still a high potential for energy efficiency? Comparison between the reducing-emissions effects of carbon tax and energy efficiency measures in the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Sonia; Sauma, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Many countries have not yet successfully decoupled their growth and their energy consumption. Moreover, power production frequently entails a number of negative externalities, like greenhouse gas emissions from thermo electrical units. This situation has highlighted the need for countries to move towards sustainable economic growth. Accordingly, many countries have proposed and established measures to decrease their carbon emissions. In this line, the Chilean government has just passed a carbon tax of $5/Ton CO 2 e. In this work, we compare the effects on reducing CO 2 emissions of this carbon tax and of some energy efficiency measures in the power sector. The results obtained indicate that the imposed carbon tax will produce an expected annual reduction in CO 2 emissions of 1% with respect to the estimated baseline during the 2014–2024 period. However, this reduction will be accompanied by an expected 3.4% increase in the marginal cost of power production on the main Chilean power system. In contrast, the introduction of some energy efficiency measures, aimed to reduce 2% of the power demand of the residential sector, could achieve larger reductions in CO 2 emissions, while simultaneously decreasing energy price. - Highlights: • We estimate CO 2 emission reductions due to a carbon tax and EE measures in Chile. • We simulate the main Chilean power system with diverse levels of carbon tax and EE. • Energy efficiency measures could achieve better results than carbon tax in Chile. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile reduces CO 2 emissions in 1% in the 2014–2024 period. • The carbon tax imposed in Chile increases system marginal cost in 3.4% in 2014–2024

  12. Finnish farmers' willingness to produce and supply biomass from energy crops and forest residues. A survey of landowners' attitudes and intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Latvala, T. (Pellervo Economic Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)), Email: anna-kaisa.ramo@ptt.fi; Silvennoinen, H. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)), Email: harri.silvennoinen@joensuu.fi

    2009-07-01

    According to EU's Climate and Energy Plan Finland is obliged to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources considerably by the year 2020. The obligation is challenging and requires among others a considerably increased use of biomass. Besides wood energy crop production provides a considerable potential as energy source in Finland. Farmer forest owners are one of the key groups regarding the supply of field energy crops and energy wood in Finland. Basically, farmers have a positive attitude towards the production of field energy crops and energy wood. Their interest in bio-energy related entrepreneurship has also increased in recent years. However, farmers do not find the business environment of biomass production satisfactory. Still the results indicate that the number of field crop producers would at least double by the year 2012. The increase is, however, considerably less than the estimated potential of recent scenarios. The results also imply that famer forest owners have not any intentions to increase their energy wood supplies in the next few years. This is mainly due to undeveloped energy wood markets and unsatisfactory energy wood prices. In order to enhance the biomass production and supply, both field energy crop and energy wood markets and extension need to be improved to meet farmers' needs. (orig.)

  13. Thermochemical and physical evaluation of poplar genotypes as short rotation forestry crops for energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monedero, Esperanza; Hernández, Juan José; Cañellas, Isabel; Otero, Jose María; Sixto, Hortensia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combustion properties of poplar genotypes harvested from three different sites were analyzed. • Both the genotype and the locations affect the expected combustion behavior. • Among the poplar genotypes, ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are expected to have better combustion behavior. • No operating problems derived from fouling/corrosion are expected for any of the genotypes. - Abstract: Short rotation plantations of fast-growing species provide a promising way to produce heat and electricity from renewable sources. The thermo-chemical and physical properties of different genotypes of poplar in short rotation forestry crops grown at three locations with different climatic and edaphic characteristics as well as planting density, have been determined in order to characterize the most appropriate biomass in terms of energy potential. The planting density was 6666 or 13,333 trees/ha (depending on the location) in a rotation of three-four years and the analysis was carried out at the end of the first rotation. For all the genotypes, experimental tests to quantify the moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk density, heating value, ash content and composition as well as the volatile matter were performed. In addition, natural air drying of biomass (stem and branches) was studied in two locations with the aim of determining the humidity loss during raw storage. A significant effect of the genotype and the planting density on the biomass properties was observed. The results obtained indicate that ‘Monviso’ and ‘Viriato’ are the most suitable genotypes. No operational problems related to ash fouling and deposition in combustion devices are expected for any of the genotypes studied.

  14. Current and future financial competitiveness of electricity and heat from energy crops: A case study from Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2007-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that Miscanthus and willow energy-crop cultivation could be economically competitive with current agricultural land uses at a farm-gate biomass price ranging from EUR70 to EUR130 t -1 dry matter [Styles, D., Thorne, F., Jones, M.B., in review. Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, May 2006]. This paper uses the same farm-gate prices to calculate the economic competitiveness of energy crop electricity and heat production, using a net-present-value (NPV) approach (20-year period, 5% discount rate). Direct and gasified co-firing of willow wood with coal would result in electricity generation 30% or 37% more expensive than coal generation, at current coal and CO 2 allowance prices and a farm-gate biomass cost of EUR100 t -1 . 'Break-even' CO 2 allowance prices are EUR33 and EUR37 t -1 , respectively. However, co-firing of Miscanthus with peat is close to economic competitiveness, and would require a CO 2 allowance price of EUR16 t -1 to break-even (against a current price of EUR12 t -1 ). NPV analyses indicate that wood heat is significantly cheaper than oil, gas or electric heat, excluding existing wood-boiler installation subsidies. Discounted annual savings range from EUR143 compared with gas to EUR722 compared with electric heating at the domestic scale and from EUR3454 to EUR11,222 at the commercial scale. Inclusion of available subsidies improves the comparative economics of domestic wood heat substantially. The economic advantage of wood heat is robust to variation in fuel prices, discount rates and heat loads. The greatest obstacles to energy-crop utilisation include: (i) a reluctance to consider long-term economics; (ii) possible competition from cheaper sources of biomass; (iii) the need for a spatially coordinated supply and utilisation network. (author)

  15. Identification and characterization of an anaerobic ethanol-producing cellulolytic bacterial consortium from Great Basin hot springs with agricultural residues and energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Deng, Yunjin; Wang, Xingna; Li, Qiuzhe; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In order to obtain the cellulolytic bacterial consortia, sediments from Great Basin hot springs (Nevada, USA) were sampled and enriched with cellulosic biomass as the sole carbon source. The bacterial composition of the resulting anaerobic ethanol-producing celluloytic bacterial consortium, named SV79, was analyzed. With methods of the full-length 16S rRNA librarybased analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 21 bacteria belonging to eight genera were detected from this consortium. Clones with closest relation to the genera Acetivibrio, Clostridium, Cellulosilyticum, Ruminococcus, and Sporomusa were predominant. The cellulase activities and ethanol productions of consortium SV79 using different agricultural residues (sugarcane bagasse and spent mushroom substrate) and energy crops (Spartina anglica, Miscanthus floridulus, and Pennisetum sinese Roxb) were studied. During cultivation, consortium SV79 produced the maximum filter paper activity (FPase, 9.41 U/ml), carboxymethylcellulase activity (CMCase, 6.35 U/ml), and xylanase activity (4.28 U/ml) with sugarcane bagasse, spent mushroom substrate, and S. anglica, respectively. The ethanol production using M. floridulus as substrate was up to 2.63 mM ethanol/g using gas chromatography analysis. It has high potential to be a new candidate for producing ethanol with cellulosic biomass under anoxic conditions in natural environments.

  16. A trial burn of rape straw and whole crops harvested for energy use to assess efficiency implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, R.

    2003-11-01

    Increased biomass utilisation and alternatives to cereal straw such as oil seed rape (OSR) straw will be necessary to achieve the Government's renewable energy targets. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of burning OSR straw and whole crops in an existing biomass power plant operated by EPR Ely Ltd in comparison with conventional cereal straw. Suitable quantities of bales of each fuel were provided for the combustion trials by Anglian Straw Ltd. Three trials were conducted: one using wheat-based cereal straw; one using 92% OSR; and one using 65% whole crop fuel. The availability of OSR straw and whole crop in Eastern England for use as fuel was also determined. Plant performance and stack emissions were evaluated and samples of delivered crop samples, bottom ash and fly ash from each trial were analysed. The parameters against which performance was assessed included: ease of handling and conveying; ease of chopping; ease of entry into the combustion chamber; furnace temperature profile; steam and electricity production rate; plant chimney emissions; ash collection and removal; operating stability; sustainability; and fuel availability.

  17. Cofermentation of energy crops and organic residues; Ergebnisse der Kovergaerung von Energiepflanzen und organischen Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, B. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V. (ATB), Potsdam-Bornim (Germany); Vollmer, G.R. [Biotechnologie Nordhausen (BTN) (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    There are currently more than 1500 agricultural biogas plans in Germany, most of which work by the liquid fermentation principle which is commercially available. At a mean hydraulic time of residue of 20 - 30 days and a charge of about 1.5 to 4 kg of organic matter m{sup -1}d{sup -1}, about 350 - 550 l of biogas can be produced per kg of organic matter (liquid or solid manure). Biogas yields are higher for cofermentation of liquid manure with energy crops and/or high-energy organic residues. Some figures are given: About 1000 l per kg{sup -1} for beetroot, pressed pellets of rape, sugarbeet, or rye, 600 - 700 l per kg{sup -1} for grass, malt residuum, sugar pulp, grape cake or potato pulp. In the case of silo-fermented corn, yields were higher than reported in earlier publications, i.e. about 800 instead of 200 l per kg{sup -1}. [German] Die Gewinnung von Biogas aus Guelle, Stallmist, pflanzlichen Biomassen oder organischen Reststoffen aus der Agro- oder Lebensmittelindustrie leistet heute durch das EEG in ueber 1500 Landwirtschaftsbetrieben Deutschlands einen Beitrag zur Sicherung des Einkommens. Die Landwirte nutzen hierfuer vorwiegend die Technik der Fluessigvergaerung, die von zahlreichen Firmen auf dem Markt angeboten werden. Bei mittleren hydraulischen Verweilzeiten von 20 bis 30 Tagen oder Faulraumbelastungen von etwa 1,5 bis 4 kg oS m{sup -3} d{sup -1} koennen aus Guelle oder Stallmist je kg zugefuehrte organische Substanz 350 bis 550 l Biogas gewonnen werden. Deutlich hoehere spezifische Biogasausbeuten erhaelt man durch die gemeinsame Vergaerung von Guelle mit Energiepflanzen und/oder energiereichen organischen Reststoffen (Kofermentation). Fuer Ruebensilage, Rapskuchen, Zuckerrueben-Pressschnitzel oder Roggen kann man oS-Biogasausbeuten von etwa 1000 l kg{sup -1} rechnen, waehrend sich der entsprechende Wert fuer Graeser, Schlempe, Melasse, Trester oder Kartoffelpuelpe im Bereich von 600 bis 700 l kg{sup -1} bewegt. Der in der Fachliteratur oft zu

  18. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  19. Food and nutritional security requires adequate protein as well as energy, delivered from whole-year crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively...... and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies....

  20. Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Jennifer Pc; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N; Elich, Tedd

    2010-09-08

    Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

  1. A one-layer satellite surface energy balance for estimating evapotranspiration rates and crop water stress indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Salvatore; Consoli, Simona; Russo, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Daily evapotranspiration fluxes over the semi-arid Catania Plain area (Eastern Sicily, Italy) were evaluated using remotely sensed data from Landsat Thematic Mapper TM5 images. A one-source parameterization of the surface sensible heat flux exchange using satellite surface temperature has been used. The transfer of sensible and latent heat is described by aerodynamic resistance and surface resistance. Required model inputs are brightness, temperature, fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index, albedo, crop height, roughness lengths, net radiation, air temperature, air humidity and wind speed. The aerodynamic resistance (r(ah)) is formulated on the basis of the Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory and the surface resistance (r(s)) is evaluated from the energy balance equation. The instantaneous surface flux values were converted into evaporative fraction (EF) over the heterogeneous land surface to derive daily evapotranspiration values. Remote sensing-based assessments of crop water stress (CWSI) were also made in order to identify local irrigation requirements. Evapotranspiration data and crop coefficient values obtained from the approach were compared with: (i) data from the semi-empirical approach "K(c) reflectance-based", which integrates satellite data in the visible and NIR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum with ground-based measurements and (ii) surface energy flux measurements collected from a micrometeorological tower located in the experiment area. The expected variability associated with ET flux measurements suggests that the approach-derived surface fluxes were in acceptable agreement with the observations.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION OF WHEAT TO MODERN REQUIREMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE III. ENERGY PRODUCTIVITY OF CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaveta Vasileva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to conclude on adaptation of modern varieties to the requirements of sustainable agriculture and hence the effectiveness of their methods of selection with respect to these requirements. The comparison between genotypes in two directions - by the selection methods by which they were established and according to the time of their creation. Energy assessment shows that the gross energy yield of grain is higher ( in average 5% over standard for varieties produced by the methods of the Intervarietal hybridization and during the period 1995 to 1999. While absolute maximum values of the energy productivity of grain (at N18 and maximum average total gross energy productivity of crops (4% above standard were detected in genotypes generated by the methods of mutagenesis by irradiation with gamma rays. Absolute maximum value of the energy productivity of crops were reported in cultivar Zdravko (at N18, which was established by the method of plant biotechnology by combining and somaclonal variation.

  3. Harvesting fertilized rye cover crop: simulated revenue, net energy, and drainage Nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and biofuel production along with global N use are expected to increase over the next few decades, which complicates the goal of reducing N loss to the environment. Including winter rye as a cover crop in corn-soybean rotations reduces N loss to drainage. A few studies suggest that harvesting r...

  4. Requirement, balance and energy efficiency under two models of cropping systems in the center-south of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Martin; Barbera, Agustin; Hansson, Alejandro; Carrasco, Natalia; Domenech, Marisa

    2017-04-01

    In a natural ecosystem, the solar energy is the main source. However, in the agro ecosystem we should use others in order to sustain specific processes or to avoid some interactions. This energy is introduced in the agro-system not only as fossil fuel but also as inputs like fertilizers and pesticides or for agricultural machines. Since February 2011, two adjacent fields were set at Barrow Experimental Station (Lat:-38.322844, Lon:-60.25572): one of them adopting agro-ecology principles (AGROE), as biodiversity increase, polyculture with legumes, less use of agrochemicals; while the other one is based on industrial model of agriculture (ACTUAL). This model is defined by its capital intensity and dependence on massive inputs like seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides. In both fields, beef cattle and agriculture production have been implemented with different intensity. The aim of this study was to compare the demand, production, balance and energy efficiency between these two agro-systems. To do this, we use tables of energy associated with different processes and inputs. For both systems, we estimate the energetic demand used in seeds, pesticides, fertilizers and labor during the crop sequence from February 2011 to December 2015; the energy production according to grains and meat yield achieved; the energetic balance calculated as the difference between inputs and outputs of energy in the system and finally, the energy efficiency which is the ratio between the energy produced and consumed. Inputs-outputs ratios of energy were transformed into equivalent units = GJ (Gigajoules). After a sequence of seven crops, ACTUAL consumed 60 GJ, which represents 158% more energy than AGROE. Particularly, ACTUAL consumed a 72% more energy in cultivation labor, 372% more in herbicides and 10 times more energy used in fertilizers than AGROE. Even though ACTUAL produced 37% more energy than AGROE (187 GJ vs 127 GJ) in grain and meat, the energetic balance was only 12% higher. However

  5. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    Maintaining a predictable and sustainable supply of feedstock for bioenergy conversion is a major goal to facilitate the efficient transition to cellulosic biofuels. Our work provides insight into the complex interactions among agronomic, edaphic, and climatic factors that affect the sustainability of bioenergy crop yields. Our results provide science-based agronomic response measures that document how to better manage bioenergy sorghum production from planting to harvest. We show that harvest aids provide no significant benefit as a means to decrease harvest moisture or improve bioenergy yields. Our efforts to identify optimal seeding rates under varied edaphic and climatological conditions reinforce previous findings that sorghum is a resilient plant that can efficiently adapt to changing population pressures by decreasing or increasing the numbers of additional shoots or tillers – where optimal seeding rates for high biomass photoperiod sensitive sorghum is 60,000 to 70,000 seeds per acre and 100,000 to 120,000 seeds per acre for sweet varieties. Our varietal adaptability trials revealed that high biomass photoperiod sensitive energy sorghum consistently outperforms conventional photoperiod insensitive sweet sorghum and high biomass forage sorghum as the preferred bioenergy sorghum type, with combined theoretical yields of both cellulosic and fermentable water-soluble sugars producing an average yield of 1,035 gallons of EtOH per acre. Our nitrogen trials reveal that sweet sorghums produce ample amounts of water-soluble sugars with minimal increases in nitrogen inputs, and that excess nitrogen can affect minor increases in biomass yields and cellulosic sugars but decrease bioenergy quality by decreasing water-soluble sugar concentrations and increasing ash content, specifically when plant tissue nitrogen concentrations exceed 0.6 %, dry weight basis. Finally, through our growth and re-growth trials, we show that single-cut high biomass sorghum bioenergy yields

  6. An Assessment of Direct on-Farm Energy Use for High Value Grain Crops Grown under Different Farming Practices in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek Maraseni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have quantified the energy consumption associated with crop production in various countries. However, these studies have not compared the energy consumption from a broad range of farming practices currently in practice, such as zero tillage, conventional tillage and irrigated farming systems. This study examines direct on-farm energy use for high value grain crops grown under different farming practices in Australia. Grain farming processes are identified and “typical” farming operation data are collected from several sources, including published and unpublished literature, as well as expert interviews. The direct on-farm energy uses are assessed for 27 scenarios, including three high value grain crops―wheat, barley and sorghum―for three regions (Northern, Southern and Western Australia under three farming conditions with both dryland (both for conventional and zero-tillage and irrigated conditions. It is found that energy requirement for farming operations is directly related to the intensity and frequency of farming operations, which in turn is related to tillage practices, soil types, irrigation systems, local climate, and crop types. Among the three studied regions, Western Australia requires less direct on-farm energy for each crop, mainly due to the easily workable sandy soils and adoption of zero tillage systems. In irrigated crops, irrigation energy remains a major contributor to the total on-farm energy demand, accounting for up to 85% of total energy use.

  7. Investigations of the pre-treatment and the conversion of energy crops into biogas and bioethanol; Untersuchungen zur Aufbereitung und Umwandlung von Energiepflanzen in Biogas und Bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Britt

    2008-07-01

    the measured and calculated values showed no correlation. Whether the biogas tests can be replaced, by other methods or techniques of analysis of the components and the determination of additional components for the estimation of the potential of new cultivars, should be subject of further investigations. Bioethanol yields The energy yields on the conversion pathway bioethanol without using the by-products are lower than the yields via conversion into biogas, because the ethanol fermentation is limited on material that can be converted into sugar first. The advantage of the ethanol production is a fluid fuel as result of the process. Combining the ethanol production with a biogas plant, the by-products also can be used energetically and a gaseous energy carrier can be produced. There are high potentials for the bioprocess engineering, for instance in breeding of microorganisms for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass or of C5-sugar. Furthermore a process optimization of water and energy input is recommended. Energy and environmental balance Biogas as well as bioethanol (combined with biogas) is able to reduce the consumption of non-renewable energy carrier and its emission under the investigated scenarios and the scoop set. A future task will be the development of differentiated and well-adapted concepts on the basis of a decision between (liquid) fuels or stationary supply of thermal and electrical energy out of biomass. The aim is an efficient use of the limited areas of arable land and forests for the supply with bioenergy carriers by a useful combination of biomass, paths of utilization and conversion technique depending on natural local and regional conditions as well as the anthropogenic needs. (orig.)

  8. Perspective of energy cropping on polluted areas for the energy production in Holland; Perspectief van energieteelt op verontreinigde terreinen voor de energie-opwekking in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, G D [DLO Instituut voor Milieu- en Agritechniek IMAG-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands); Harmsen, J [DLO Staring Centrum SC-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands); Castilho, P del [DLO Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek AB-DLO, Haren (Netherlands); Ligthart, F [Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-05-01

    The targets set by the Dutch government for the use of sustainable energy sources in 2020 include the use of locally-grown biomass to replace part of the fossil fuels used now. However, the costs of locally-grown biomass, are high compared with fossil fuels and imported biomass. The objective of this project was to investigate the potential of utilising cheap, polluted locations and/or combining energy cropping with other forms of land use, such as nature development or remediation of contaminated dredged sediments, for biomass production for energy in the Netherlands. It was estimated that about 15,000 ha could become available for these low-cost biomass production options on short term, equivalent to 42% of the locally-grown biomass target in the year 2020. The costs on a caloric basis, without subsidies, would be roughly 1-2 times the costs of coal. Depending on future policies, the low-cost biomass production area could be extended to a total of 26,500 ha, equivalent to 73% of the locally-grown biomass target in the year 2020. The available literature indicates that soil pollution has little effect on biomass yield. Expected heavy metal concentrations in the biomass do not negatively affect its energy conversion properties and the currently practised re-use of the fly-ash of co-fired powder coal plants in cement and concrete. The study also revealed strong indications that the heavy metals in biomass are concentrated in a low volume ash-stream when gasification technology is used for conversion. This might offer opportunities for phytoremediation of polluted soils. 42 refs.

  9. Regional economic impacts of biomass based energy service use: A comparison across crops and technologies for East Styria, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trink, Thomas; Schmid, Christoph; Schinko, Thomas; Steininger, Karl W.; Loibnegger, Thomas; Kettner, Claudia; Pack, Alexandra; Toeglhofer, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Biomass action plans in many European countries seek to expand biomass heat and fuel supply, mainly to be supplied by peripheral, agricultural regions. We develop a two-plus-ten-region energy-focused computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that acknowledges land competition in analysing the sub-state local-regional economic implications of such a strategy, embedded within a global context. Our model is based on a full cost analysis of selected biomass technologies covering a range of agricultural and forestry crops, as well as thermal insulation. The local-regional macroeconomic effects differ significantly across technologies and are governed by factors such as net labour intensity in crop production. The high land intensity of agricultural biomass products crowds out conventional agriculture, and thus lowers employment and drives up land prices and the consumer price index. The regional economic results show that net employment effects are positive for all forestry based biomass energy, and also show for which agriculture based biomass systems this is true, even when accounting for land competition. When regional consumer price development governs regional wages or when the agricultural sector is in strong enough competition to the international market, positive employment and welfare impacts vanish fully for agriculture based bio-energy.

  10. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Fernández-Tirado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA and two functional units (FUs were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  11. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  12. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of energy crops: A life cycle assessment of Spanish rapeseed and Argentinean soybean cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Tirado, F.; Parra-López, C.; Romero-Gámez, M.

    2017-09-01

    Rapeseed oil is expected to be increasingly used in Spain as raw material to produce biodiesel to the detriment of extra-EU imports of biodiesel mainly based on soybean oil from Argentina. Therefore, the environmental impacts produced throughout the life cycle of energy crops used to produce biodiesel which is consumed in Spain could be radically affected. In this context, the environmental impacts of rapeseed cultivation in Spain and soybean cultivation in Argentina, were compared under certain growing conditions using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Two methods of calculation for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and two functional units (FUs) were used to test potential biases. The results showed that the cultivation of soybean in Argentina had, in general, fewer environmental impacts than rapeseed cultivation in Spain when the FU was the area of cultivation, but these findings are inverted when the analysis is conducted according to the energy content of the biodiesel obtained from these crops. Soybean in fact has very low oil content, meaning that larger areas of land are required to obtain the same amount of biodiesel and that consequently it has a higher environmental impact by energy content. Fertilization was, in general, the process that generated the greatest environmental burdens, and is an area in which improvement is necessary in order to increase sustainability, particularly with regard to Spanish rapeseed.

  13. Assessing energy efficiencies, economy, and global warming potential (GWP) effects of major crop production systems in Iran: a case study in East Azerbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Arash; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Vafabakhsh, Javad; Deihimfard, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Efficient use of energy in farming systems is one of the most important implications for decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigating global warming (GW). This paper describes the energy use patterns, analyze the economics, and report global warming potential effects of major crop production systems in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For this purpose, 110 farmers whose main activity was major crop production in the region, including wheat, barley, carrot, tomato, onion, potato, alfalfa, corn silage, canola, and saffron, were surveyed. Some other data was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad of Iran. Results showed that, in terms of total energy input, onion (87,556 Mj ha -1 ) and potato (80,869 Mj ha -1 ) production systems were more energy-intensive than other crops. Among the studied crops, the highest values of net return (6563.8 $ ha -1 ) and benefit/cost ratio (1.95) were related to carrot and corn silage production systems, respectively. Studies have also shown that onion and saffron production systems emit the highest (5332.6 kg CO2eq ha -1 ) and lowest (646.24 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 ) CO 2 eq. emission, respectively. When it was averaged across crops, diesel fuel accounted for the greatest GHG contribution with 43% of the total, followed by electric power (28%) and nitrogen fertilizer (21%). In the present study, eco-efficiency was calculated as a ratio of the gross production value and global warming potential effect for the studied crops. Out of all the studied crops, the highest values of eco-efficiency were calculated to be 8.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 for the saffron production system followed by the carrot (3.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 ) production. Generally, from the aspect of energy balance and use efficiency, the alfalfa production system was the best; however, from an economical point of view, the carrot production system was better than the other crops.

  14. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  15. Carbon sequestration by Miscanthus energy crops plantations in a broad range semi-arid marginal land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jia; Liu, Wei; Yang, Wenhui; Yan, Juan; Li, Jianqiang; Sang, Tao

    2014-10-15

    Carbon sequestration is an essential ecosystem service that second-generation energy crops can provide. To evaluate the ability of carbon sequestration of Miscanthus energy crops in the Loess Plateau of China, the yield and soil organic carbon (SOC) changes were measured for three Miscanthus species in the experimental field in Qingyang of the Gansu Province (QG). With the highest yield of the three species, Miscanthus lutarioriparius contributed to the largest increase of SOC, 0.57 t ha(-1)yr(-1), comparing to the field left unplanted. Through modeling M. lutarioriparius yield across the Loess Plateau, an average increase of SOC was estimated at 0.46 t ha(-1)yr(-1) for the entire region. Based on the measurements of SOC mineralization under various temperatures and moistures for soil samples taken from QG, a model was developed for estimating SOC mineralization rates across the Loess Plateau and resulted in an average of 1.11 t ha(-1)yr(-1). Combining the estimates from these models, the average of net carbon sequestration was calculated at a rate of 9.13 t ha(-1)yr(-1) in the Loess Plateau. These results suggested that the domestication and production of M. lutarioriparius hold a great potential for carbon sequestration and soil restoration in this heavily eroded region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  17. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO 2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural soils are contaminated with mainly cadmium. We use Life Cycle Analysis to show for the most relevant crops (willow (Salix spp), energy maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus)), that phytoremediation, used for renewable energy production, could abate CO 2 . Converting this in economic numbers through the Marginal Abatement Cost of CO 2 (€ 20 ton −1 ) we can integrate this in the economic analysis to compare phytoremediation crops among each other, and phytoremediation with conventional technologies. The external benefit of CO 2 abatement when using phytoremediation crops for land management ranges between € 55 and € 501 per hectare. The purpose of these calculations is not to calculate a subsidy for phytoremediation. There is no reason why one would prefer phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production over “normal” biomass. Moreover, subsidies for renewable energy already exist. Therefore, we should not integrate these numbers in the economic analysis again. However, these numbers could contribute to making explicit the competitive advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation technologies, but also add to a more sustainably funded decision on which crop should be grown on contaminated land. -- Highlights: ► We add CO 2 abatement for each remediation crop to the private economic analysis. ► This values the advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation. ► This leads to a crop choice that considers an

  18. Establishing perennial seed-based energy crops on reclaimed surface mine soils in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie L. Schuler; Shawn Grushecky; Jingxin. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy has been at the forefront of the United States' energy policies. Cellulosic feedstocks have received considerable interest in the Appalachian region because of their abundance and availability, but cost competition from other energy sectors has limited their use in the region. Some other bioenergy feedstocks, such as corn and soybeans, are not a...

  19. Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…

  20. The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, D.; Breen, J.P.; Thorne, F.; Wallace, M.

    2012-01-01

    A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ► We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ► Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ► REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ► Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ► Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

  1. Capacity of biochar application to maintain energy crop productivity: soil chemistry, sorghum growth, and runoff water quality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Ronnie W; Vietor, Donald M; Provin, Tony L; Munster, Clyde L; Capareda, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis of crop biomass generates a by-product, biochar, which can be recycled to sustain nutrient and organic C concentrations in biomass production fields. We evaluated effects of biochar rate and application method on soil properties, nutrient balance, biomass production, and water quality. Three replications of eight sorghum [ (L.) Moench] treatments were installed in box lysimeters under greenhouse conditions. Treatments comprised increasing rates (0, 1.5, and 3.0 Mg ha) of topdressed or incorporated biochar supplemented with N fertilizer or N, P, and K fertilizer. Simulated rain was applied at 21 and 34 d after planting, and mass runoff loss of N, P, and K was measured. A mass balance of total N, P, and K was performed after 45 d. Returning 3.0 Mg ha of biochar did not affect sorghum biomass, soil total, or Mehlich-3-extractable nutrients compared to control soil. Yet, biochar contributed to increased concentration of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and mass loss of total phosphorus (TP) in simulated runoff, especially if topdressed. It was estimated that up to 20% of TP in topdressed biochar was lost in surface runoff after two rain events. Poor recovery of nutrients during pyrolysis and excessive runoff loss of nutrients for topdressed biochar, especially K, resulted in negative nutrient balances. Efforts to conserve nutrients during pyrolysis and incorporation of biochar at rates derived from annual biomass yields will be necessary for biochar use in sustainable energy crop production. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA) were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya) contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a) primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b) primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully. PMID:21812981

  3. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuly Fatemeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV, Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully.

  4. Life cycle assessment of biogas production by monofermentation of energy crops and injection into the natural gas grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, Colin; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel; Schmitt, Bianca; Welfring, Joelle

    2010-01-01

    The use of renewable energy is a possible solution to reduce the contribution to climate change of human activities. Nevertheless, there is much controversy about the non-climate related environmental impacts of renewable energy as compared to fossil energy. The aim of this study is to assess a new technology of biomethane production by monofermentation of cultivated crops. Based on the results of an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the contribution to climate change of biomethane production and injection into the grid is 30-40% (500a time horizon) or 10-20% (100a) lower than the contribution of natural gas importation. The reduction depends mainly on the biogas yield, the amount of readily available nitrogen in the digestate and the type of agricultural practices. Nevertheless, the natural gas definitively generates far lower ecosystem quality and human health damages than the biomethane production. Farming activities have the most important contribution to the damages mainly because of land occupation and the use of fertilizer. The main improvement opportunities highlighted are: the increase of biogas yield, the choice of good agricultural practices and the cultivation of winter or summer crops exclusively. Future research should include the emission and sequestration of CO 2 from soil. The ripple effects related to the total increase of farming area and the consequences of farming activities on the food production chain should be addressed as well. To this aim, the switch to consequential LCA is a critical challenge, from both the methodological and application point of view, to support decision-making. (author)

  5. Wood, straw, energetic crops... Biomass energy. A sustainable alternative for your projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After having briefly recalled the French and European legal context promoting the use of renewable energies, this document highlights the challenges associated with such a development. They concern the environment, the energetic independence, the cost of energy, and the local and rural development. It evokes the actions and labels which favour the improvement and the renewal of domestic heating equipment, the large number of installations using biomass for collective heating or for industrial heating. It indicates the objectives of the biomass energy programme for 2007-2010, and describes the French energy conservation agency (ADEME) role and missions within this programme

  6. Carbon sequestration potential of poplar energy crops in the Midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Jr. Zalesny; W.L. Headlee; R.B. Hall; D.R. Coyle

    2010-01-01

    Energy use and climate change mitigation are closely linked via ecological, social, and economic factors, including carbon management. Energy supply is a key 21st century National security issue for the United States; identifying and developing woody feedstocks for transportation fuels and combined heat and power operations are a crucial component of the future...

  7. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  8. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  9. Impacts of the cultivation of energy crops for generation of biogas on the landscape structure and avifauna; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus zur Biogaserzeugung auf Landschaftsstruktur und Avifauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehmkorf, Hilke

    2011-07-01

    In its effort to implement new climate and energy policies, Germany has been heavily promoting the adoption of renewable energies. This has brought about a dramatic change in the use of arable land during the last years. The primary objective of this study was therefore to assess the effect of energy cropping on existing landscape structures in intensively cultivated regions in the course of the year. According to the available structural parameters an investigation was conducted to ascertain the fallout of energy plant cultivation on both migratory and overwintering birds. The period covered entailed the winter months. Both the advent of the energy crops as well as the associated biogas facilities that sprang up outside built-in areas seem to have reshaped the existing agricultural landscape. Hence, an additional aim of this study was to identify birds that use biogas plants for breeding or as a feeding habitat in winter. In conclusion, it can be asserted that energy crops can definitely contribute to the expansion of structural diversity in the agricultural landscape provided those energy crops were not cultivated on a large scale prior to the advent of the biogas facilities. Hence, there is still room for further energy crop diversification as its potential has not been exhausted. During the winter months mostly common species such as the carrion crow or the wood pigeon consider the maize fields as a viable source of nutrition. Cranes are seen as newcomers, as they probably started resting in the 'Boerde' precisely due to the advent of energy maize cultivation. And more availability of nourishment when the ground is covered by snow is another benefit the avifauna reaps from biogas plants. However, for endangered farmland birds this type of nutrition is a rarely used source, as it runs counter to their escape strategies and food preferences. For these species the habitat function and the food availability depends especially on how the land is managed (e

  10. Environmental effects of an increasing cultivation of energy crops; Umweltwirkungen eines zunehmenden Energiepflanzenbaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippel, Rudolf (comp.)

    2008-11-15

    The development of the cultivation of energy plants depends on economic general situation (price relationship for energy raw materials and agrarian raw materials). Changes in the spectrum of the kinds of fruit hardly arise. In the medium term, potentials at sorghum millet and wood exist in short activities cultures. In particular, there are problems in the case of existing regional cultivation emphasis for energy plants for the production of fermentation gas. Depending upon kind and extent of an expansion of the cultivation of energy plants, the effects on the environment will fail strongly or weakly. Thus there are possibilities with positive and negative effect for the ground structure, humus supply, entry of pollutant and water protection. Positive and negative potentials for the environment are recognizable for the entry of plant protection agents into the ground and for the emission environmental harmful gases. With the unbalanced cultivation of energy plants, predominantly negative effects for the Flora and fauna as well as for the game protection are to be expected. A negative ecological effect always will proceed from an intensification the land use with the shutdown or the radical change with grassland. Due to different production procedures and due to a lack of investigation data, a concluding evaluation of the environmental effects of the cultivation of energy plants is not possible for the complexity of connections. It insists a clear requirement of research for the effects of the increasing development of energy plants on the environment.

  11. Modified batch anaerobic digestion assay for testing efficiencies of trace metal additives to enhance methane production of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulé, Mathieu; Bolduan, Rainer; Seidelt, Stephan; Schlagermann, Pascal; Bott, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to evaluate the methane yield of biogas substrates such as energy crops are usually carried out with undiluted inoculum. A BMP assay was performed on two energy crops (green cuttings and grass silage). Anaerobic digestion was performed both with and without supplementation of three commercial additives containing trace metals in liquid, solid or adsorbed form (on clay particles). In order to reveal positive effects of trace metal supplementation on the methane yield, besides undiluted inoculum, 3-fold and 10-fold dilutions of the inoculum were applied for substrate digestion. Diluted inoculum variants were supplemented with both mineral nutrients and pH-buffering substances to prevent a collapse of the digestion process. As expected, commercial additives had no effect on the digestion process performed with undiluted inoculum, while significant increases of methane production through trace element supplementation could be observed on the diluted variants. The effect of inoculum dilution may be twofold: (1) decrease in trace metal supplementation from the inoculum and (2) reduction in the initial number of bacterial cells. Bacteria require higher growth rates for substrate degradation and hence have higher trace element consumption. According to common knowledge of the biogas process, periods with volatile fatty acids accumulation and decreased pH may have occurred in the course ofanaerobic digestion. These effects may have led to inhibition, not only ofmethanogenes and acetogenes involved in the final phases of methane production, but also offibre-degrading bacterial strains involved in polymer hydrolysis. Further research is required to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. The growth productivity, and environmental impact of the cultivation of energy crops on sandy soil in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Ellerbrock, R. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. Muencheberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Energy plants, cultivated on set-aside land, could substitute nearly 3% of the primary energy in Germany and could raise the income of farmers. However, the substitution of fossil fuels by plants requires the selection of plant species with high site suitability, an ecologically benign farming system and high yields. This paper describes results of the cultivation of 10 energy plant species suitable for combustion. Over a period of 6 yr, yield, energy gain, and environmentally relevant substances in the plant and the soil were determined under practical conditions. Fertilization was carried out in four variants each ranging from 0 to 150 kgNha{sup -1} and with wood- and straw-ashes, as well as basic mineral fertilizer. Plant protection products were entirely dispensed with. The results show that, except for topinambur haulm (Jerusalem artichoke) and short rotation coppice with undersown crops, the mean yield ranges between 8 and 12 t{sub DM} ha{sup -1} and that a reduction of nitrogen application from 150 to 75 kgNh{sup -1} causes only slight yield losses. Without fertilization, yields diminish by 20-40% after 6 years, except for poplars, which reach similarly a high yield level as with fertilization. The contents of the emission- and combustion-relevant plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, sulfur and chlorine, are significantly lower in poplars and willows than in grass, rye, triticale and hemp. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead, are absorbed differently. Hemp, poplars, and winter rye allow high-energy yields to be achieved. Even if nitrogen fertilization is reduced, net energy gains of more than 120 GJha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (3.2 kl oil equivalent ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) are reached. (author)

  13. Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othieno, H.

    1987-01-01

    The African Energy Programme (AEP) was established by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) to strengthen Africa's scientific and technical capabilities to develop and utilise the continent's enormous renewable energy resources to assist its socio-economic development. The AEP was conceived at a regional workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania in 1979, at which African researchers met to share their experiences of and explored the feasibility of establishing a collaborative regional R and D programme to develop and adapt technologies appropriate to the specific needs of the participating countries. The AEP researchers accorded the highest priority to seeking solutions to the energy problems of Africa's predominantly rural populations and identified eight project areas as the nodes for regional collaborative research and development: 1. Biogas for rural development; 2. Wood/Charcoal production and utilisation; 3. Solar crop drying; 4. Solar thermal heating and cooling; 5. Wind electricity generation; 6. Wind water pumping; 7. Resources Assessments; 8. Energy policy and planning. The primary goal of the AEP activities were to develop indigenous national capabilities to enable the examination and application of technological solutions appropriate to the unique problems and socio-cultural environments of each country. However, the severe limitations on expertise and the broad similarity of many of the critical problems favoured regional R and D cooperation around common techniques and methodologies in each project area. This work has made a significant contribution to Science and Technology. Prior to this work there was no detailed information in natural convection solar dryers. This work has exposed a number of critical design factors which must be considered in order to design an efficient dryer. Buoyancy-induced pressure inside the dryer, problems of multiple radiative heat exchange in the heater and cooling effects of wind have been studied in detail. The final dryer

  14. Natural convection solar crop dryers in Kenya: Theory and practical application. African Energy Programme research report series no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othieno, H [Kenyatta University, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1987-07-01

    The African Energy Programme (AEP) was established by the Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) to strengthen Africa's scientific and technical capabilities to develop and utilise the continent's enormous renewable energy resources to assist its socio-economic development. The AEP was conceived at a regional workshop held at Arusha, Tanzania in 1979, at which African researchers met to share their experiences of and explored the feasibility of establishing a collaborative regional R and D programme to develop and adapt technologies appropriate to the specific needs of the participating countries. The AEP researchers accorded the highest priority to seeking solutions to the energy problems of Africa's predominantly rural populations and identified eight project areas as the nodes for regional collaborative research and development: 1. Biogas for rural development; 2. Wood/Charcoal production and utilisation; 3. Solar crop drying; 4. Solar thermal heating and cooling; 5. Wind electricity generation; 6. Wind water pumping; 7. Resources Assessments; 8. Energy policy and planning. The primary goal of the AEP activities were to develop indigenous national capabilities to enable the examination and application of technological solutions appropriate to the unique problems and socio-cultural environments of each country. However, the severe limitations on expertise and the broad similarity of many of the critical problems favoured regional R and D cooperation around common techniques and methodologies in each project area. This work has made a significant contribution to Science and Technology. Prior to this work there was no detailed information in natural convection solar dryers. This work has exposed a number of critical design factors which must be considered in order to design an efficient dryer. Buoyancy-induced pressure inside the dryer, problems of multiple radiative heat exchange in the heater and cooling effects of wind have been studied in detail. The final dryer

  15. Calculation methodology for economic comparison between different land uses. With focus on comparisons between energy crops and traditional crops; Kalkylmetodik foer loensamhetsjaemfoerelser mellan olika markanvaendning. Med fokus paa jaemfoerelser mellan energigroedor och traditionella groedor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenqvist, Haakan

    2010-02-15

    There are two main objectives to this report. The first is to describe a calculation method for both short- and long-term analysis of crops, as well as present the basis and reasoning around it. Another objective is to create an approach that lay-people can use to compare energy crops with traditional crops in a sufficiently straight-forward and believable manner. The report describes, discusses and develops the technical aspects to the calculation questions around the analysis of crops that are grown only on small area of land today, but have the potential to be grown on much larger areas in the future. The variable costing calculation approach is used in agriculture as decision-support for what should be produced. The present variable costing calculation approach has been reworked and redeveloped in order to be more applicable as a decision-support tool. This includes its use to decide which crop should be grown in both short- and long-term perspectives, as well as for perennial energy crops. A number of items that impact growing economy and how they can be interpreted in the growing calculations are discussed. Some of the examples are: Fertilization effects; Sales commissions/product prices; Storage/reestablishment; Fertilization of P and K; Crop insurance; Labor costs; Machine costs; Timeliness costs; New production chains and unutilized resources; Interest rates; Land costs; Over overhead costs; and Costs which not are annual. The main objective of this report is a methodological question and not to show the absolute profitability for each particular land use alternative. But even though the calculations have been improved for different land uses, there is material that that can even be used for profitability analyses. This has been performed to a smaller degree in this report. The profitability of Salix growing has been studied for a variety of different conditions. For part of the studies have used the entire growing period of 22 years, part with

  16. Effects of irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization for the trees. Populus species and hybrids (i.e., poplars) are ideal for such systems given their fast...

  17. Bowen ratio/energy balance technique for estimating crop net CO2 assimilation, and comparison with a canopy chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, A. A.; Steduto, P.; Orgaz, F.; Matista, A.; Hsiao, T. C.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes a Bowen ratio/energy balance (BREB) system which, in conjunction with an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA), is referred to as BREB+ and is used to estimate evapotranspiration ( ET) and net CO2 flux ( NCF) over crop canopies. The system is composed of a net radiometer, soil heat flux plates, two psychrometers based on platinum resistance thermometers (PRT), bridge circuits to measure resistances, an IRGA, air pumps and switching valves, and a data logger. The psychrometers are triple shielded and aspirated, and with aspiration also between the two inner shields. High resistance (1 000 ohm) PRT's are used for dry and wet bulbs to minimize errors due to wiring and connector resistances. A high (55 K ohm) fixed resistance serves as one arm of the resistance bridge to ensure linearity in output signals. To minimize gaps in data, to allow measurements at short (e.g., 5 min) intervals, and to simplify operation, the psychrometers were fixed at their upper and lower position over the crop and not alternated. Instead, the PRT's, connected to the bridge circuit and the data logger, were carefully calibrated together. Field tests using a common air source showed appartent effects of the local environment around each psychrometer on the temperatures measured. ET rates estimated with the BREB system were compared to those measured with large lysimeters. Daily totals agreed within 5%. There was a tendency, however, for the lysimeter measurements to lag behind the BREB measurements. Daily patterns of NCF estimated with the BREB+ system are consistent with expectations from theories and data in the literature. Side-by-side comparisons with a stirred Mylar canopy chamber showed similar NCF patterns. On the other hand, discrepancies between the results of the two methods were quite marked in the morning or afternoon on certain dates. Part of the discrepancies may be attributed to inaccuracies in the psychrometric temperature measurements. Other possible causes

  18. Energy efficiency for establishment and management of cover crops; Eficiencia energetica na implantacao e manejo de plantas de cobertura do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, R.; Gamero, C.A.; Boller, W.

    2000-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in Botucatu, SP, Brazil to evaluate the energy balance involved in the establishment and management of cover crops and also to determine specific heating seeds and biomass of different species of cover crops. Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg) and lupinus (Lupinus angustifolius L.) were grown in a randomized block design, in twelve replicates. Oat showed higher energy production as compared to lupinus, while higher specific heat were determined for forage radish seeds and also for lupinus and oat biomass. While fuel and fertilizers were the most important energy inputs for the establishment and management of oat and forage radish, seeds and fuel were the most used energy input for lupinus. (author)

  19. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R Schmer

    Full Text Available Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L. and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates. Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1 of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels.

  20. Energy Potential and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy Cropping Systems on Marginally Productive Cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Varvel, Gary E.; Follett, Ronald F.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Jin, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of −29 to −396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha−1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels. PMID:24594783

  1. Removal of arsenic from Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil with soil washing using magnetic iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaemaro; Zhao, Xin; Lee, Jong Keun; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-05-01

    Arsenic compounds are considered carcinogen and easily enter drinking water supplies with their natural abundance. US Environmental Protection Agency is finalizing a regulation to reduce the public health risks from arsenic in drinking water by revising the current drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ppb to 10 ppb in 2001 (USEPA, 2001). Therefore, soil remediation is also growing field to prevent contamination of groundwater as well as crop cultivation. Soil washing is adjusted as ex-situ soil remediation technique which reduces volume of the contaminated soil. The technique is composed of physical separation and chemical extraction to extract target metal contamination in the soil. Chemical extraction methods have been developed solubilizing contaminants containing reagents such as acids or chelating agents. And acid extraction is proven as the most commonly used technology to treat heavy metals in soil, sediment, and sludge (FRTR, 2007). Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide have been used in diverse areas including information technology and biomedicine. Magnetic iron oxides also can be used as adsorbent to heavy metal enhancing removal efficiency of arsenic concentration. In this study, magnetite is used as the washing agent with acid extraction condition so that the injected oxide can be separated by magnetic field. Soil samples were collected from three separate areas in the Janghang smelter site and energy crops-grown soil to have synergy effect with phytoremediation. Each sample was air-dried and sieved (2mm). Soil washing condition was adjusted on pH in the range of 0-12 with hydrogen chloride and sodium hydroxide. After performing soil washing procedure, arsenic-extracted samples were analyzed for arsenic concentration by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). All the soils have exceeded worrisome level of soil contamination for region 1 (25mg/kg) so the soil remediation techniques are

  2. State of the art and perspectives of the cultivation of energy crops in Hesse. Significance, procedure of cultivation, sustainability; Stand und Perspektiven des Energiepflanzenanbaus in Hessen. Bedeutung, Anbauverfahren, Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    In line with the further increase in the use of renewable energy sources, the expansion of biomass utilization in Hesse increasingly becomes important. In light of the increasing criticism of the cultivation of energy crops, it is important to learn about the situation in the Federal State Hessen (Federal Republic of Germany). Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration contributes to proper information and creating acceptance in the current discussion on the development of bioenergy in Hessen. In particular, the brochure reports on the following topics: (1) What is the advantage of the bioenergy in Hessen?; (2) Scope of the cultivation of energy crops in the Hessian agriculture?; (3) Economic aspects of the cultivation of energy crops for biogas plants; (4) Cultivation of oil crops for the production of biodiesel oil and vegetable oil; (5) Cultivation of cereals and sugar beet for bioethanol production; (6) One-year-old energy crops; (7) Perennial energy crops; (8) Aspects of sustainability in the cultivation of energy crops; (9) Areas of conflict in the cultivation of energy crops.

  3. Energy wood harvesting from nurse crop of spruce seeding stand; Kuusen taimikon verhopuuston korjuu energiapuuksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, M.; Tanttu, V.

    2008-07-01

    The study focused on establishing the productivity and costs of mechanical energy wood cutting and the profitability of forest management alternatives in the harvesting of hold-overs from spruce seeding stands. The productivity in whole-tree harvesting performed using a multi-tree whole tree processing method reached 3.5 m3/E{sub 0}h with a felling cost of 26 euros/m3. The calculated cost of chainsaw harvesting using a felling-piling technique was 16 euros/m3. The average size of trees harvested from the research stand was 15 dm3. At a rate of 17.8 euros per megawatt that was paid for forest chips delivered to the plant, the net profit using mechanical harvesting method was 272 euros per hectare. The net profit using chainsaw harvesting was 464 euros per hectare. 'Net profit' is defined here as the total amount earned, taking into account forest management costs, the production cost of forest chips, the Kemera subsidies and the price paid for the chips at the place of usage. The net profit of felling the removed trees to the ground (not processing it into fuel) was minus 124 euros. A theoretical stumpage price rate was calculated for the energy harvesting alternatives by dividing the net result by the volume of trees harvested. Theoretical stumpage price was positive when the paid price per megawatt of chips delivered to the place of usage was 13 euros per megawatt-hour for mechanically harvested chips or 10 euros per megawatt-hour for chainsaw-harvested chips. In mechanical harvesting, 17 percent of the trees harvested were damaged in the harvesting process. While it is often essential for the forest owner to ensure that any forest management measures contribute to quick profitability, the forest management benefits that will become realisable assets in the future must nevertheless also be taken into account. (orig.)

  4. Cynara cardunculus L. genotypes as a crop for energy purposes in a Mediterranean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ierna, Anita [Istituto per i Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali del Mediterraneo, CNR, Sezione di Catania, Str.le V. Lancia, Zona Industriale; Blocco Palma I 95121 Catania (Italy); Mauromicale, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche, Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, DACPA, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Previous studies indicate biomass and grain production for energy purposes as potential utilizations of the three Cynara cardunculus botanical varieties (globe artichoke, cultivated cardoon, and wild cardoon). In this work, the results of C. cardunculus biomass and grain yield under Sicilian (south Italy) low input conditions are shown. Over a 3 year period on the plain of Catania (South Italy) six genotypes of C. cardunculus, including 1 cultivated cardoon cultivar, 1 globe artichoke line, 1 wild cardoon ecotype, 3 F{sub 1} progenies: ''globe artichoke x wild cardoon'', ''globe artichoke x cultivated cardoon'' and ''cultivated cardoon x wild cardoon'', were evaluated for lignocellulosic biomass production, energy yield and grain yield. On a 3 year average, the dry aboveground biomass and grain yield resulted, respectively, about 2000 g plant{sup -1} and 100 g plant{sup -1} in ''globe artichoke x wild cardoon'', 1720 and 126 g plant{sup -1} in cultivated cardoon, 1570 and 90 g plant{sup -1} in ''globe artichoke x cultivated cardoon'', 1480 and 109 g plant{sup -1} in ''cultivated cardoon x wild cardoon'', 1116 and 75 g plant{sup -1} in wild cardoon and 990 and 60 g plant{sup -1} in globe artichoke. The results showed that genotypes deriving from the cross of globe artichoke with cultivated and wild cardoon improved the performance both of globe artichoke and wild cardoon separately. It is reasonable to expect further improvements for biomass and grain yield in C. cardunculus in the future by breeding work. (author)

  5. Irrigating poplar energy crops with landfill leachate negatively affects soil micro- and meso-fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H

    2011-10-01

    Increased municipal solid waste generated worldwide combined with substantial demand for renewable energy has prompted testing and deployment of woody feedstock production systems that reuse and recycle wastewaters as irrigation and fertilization. Populus selections are ideal for such systems given their fast growth, extensive root systems, and high water usage rates. Maintaining ecological sustainability (i.e., the capacity for an ecosystem to maintain its function and retain its biodiversity over time) during tree establishment and development is an important component of plantation success, especially for belowground faunal populations. To determine the impact of solid waste leachate on soil micro- and meso-fauna, we compared soilfrom eight different Populus clones receiving municipal solid waste landfill leachate irrigation with clones receiving fertilized (N, P K) well water irrigation. Microfauna (i.e., nematodes) communities were more diverse in control soils. Mesofauna (i.e., insects) were associated with all clones; however, they were four times more abundant around trees found within the control plot than those that received leachate treatments. Nematode and insect abundance varied among Populus clones yet insect diversity was greater in the leachate-treated soils. Phytotechnologies must allow for soil faunal sustainability, as upsetting this balance could lead to great reductions in phytotechnology efficacy.

  6. Developing an Agro-Ecological Zoning Model for Tumbleweed (Salsola kali, as Energy Crop in Drylands of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falasca Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Salsola kali is considered extremely valuable as an energy crop worldwide because it adapts easily to environments with strong abiotic stresses (hydric, saline and alkaline and produces large amounts of biomass in drylands. This species is categorized as an important weed in Argentina. The aim of this work was to design an agro-ecological zoning model for tumbleweed in Argentina, employing a Geography Information System. Based on the bioclimatic requirements for the species and the climatic data for Argentina (1981–2010 period, an agro-climatic suitability map was drawn. This map was superimposed on the saline and alkaline soil maps delineated by the Food and Agriculture Organization for dry climates, generating the agro-ecological zoning on a scale of 1 : 500 000. This zoning revealed very suitable and suitable cultivation areas on halomorphic soils. The potential growing areas extend from N of the Salta province (approximately 22° S to the Santa Cruz province (50° S. The use of tumbleweed on halomorphic soils under semi-arid to arid conditions, for the dual purpose of forage use and source of lignocellulosic material for bioenergy, could improve agricultural productivity in these lands. Furthermore, it could also contribute to their environmental sustainability, since the species can be used to reclaim saline soils over the years. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented here.

  7. Computing the biomass potentials for maize and two alternative energy crops, triticale and cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.), with the crop model BioSTAR in the region of Hannover (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauböck, Roland; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Kappas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Lower Saxony (Germany) has the highest installed electric capacity from biogas in Germany. Most of this electricity is generated with maize. Reasons for this are the high yields and the economic incentive. In parts of Lower Saxony, an expansion of maize cultivation has led to ecological problems and a negative image of bioenergy as such. Winter triticale and cup plant have both shown their suitability as alternative energy crops for biogas production and could help to reduce maize cultivation. The model Biomass Simulation Tool for Agricultural Resources (BioSTAR) has been validated with observed yield data from the region of Hannover for the cultures maize and winter wheat. Predicted yields for the cultures show satisfactory error values of 9.36% (maize) and 11.5% (winter wheat). Correlations with observed data are significant ( P  alternative to maize in the region of Hanover and other places in Lower Saxony. The model BioSTAR simulated yields for maize and winter wheat in the region of Hannover at a good overall level of accuracy (combined error 10.4%). Due to input data aggregation, individual years show high errors though (up to 30%). Nevertheless, the BioSTAR crop model has proven to be a functioning tool for the prediction of agricultural biomass potentials under varying environmental and crop management frame conditions.

  8. Network Candidate Genes in Breeding for Drought Tolerant Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Tim Krannich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change leading to increased periods of low water availability as well as increasing demands for food in the coming years makes breeding for drought tolerant crops a high priority. Plants have developed diverse strategies and mechanisms to survive drought stress. However, most of these represent drought escape or avoidance strategies like early flowering or low stomatal conductance that are not applicable in breeding for crops with high yields under drought conditions. Even though a great deal of research is ongoing, especially in cereals, in this regard, not all mechanisms involved in drought tolerance are yet understood. The identification of candidate genes for drought tolerance that have a high potential to be used for breeding drought tolerant crops represents a challenge. Breeding for drought tolerant crops has to focus on acceptable yields under water-limited conditions and not on survival. However, as more and more knowledge about the complex networks and the cross talk during drought is available, more options are revealed. In addition, it has to be considered that conditioning a crop for drought tolerance might require the production of metabolites and might cost the plants energy and resources that cannot be used in terms of yield. Recent research indicates that yield penalty exists and efficient breeding for drought tolerant crops with acceptable yields under well-watered and drought conditions might require uncoupling yield penalty from drought tolerance.

  9. Pre-study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from cultivation to energy production; Foerstudie - sammanstaellning och syntes av kunskap och erfarenheter om groedor fraan aaker till energiproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-06-15

    Energy crops constitute a yet not fully utilized potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass hardens the interest for agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp increases. Utilization of the potential for energy crops as fuels demands that cultivation and harvest are coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the programme, 2006 - 2009, decisive steps will be taken towards a working market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesized available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from the field to energy production. The aim has been to give a picture of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesize knowledge of today into future research needs. A proposal of a research plan has been developed for the research programme.

  10. A life cycle assessment of biodiesel derived from the “niche filling” energy crop camelina in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, Brian J.; Fripp, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We conducted a life cycle analysis of biodiesel derived from Camelina sativa. ► Camelina biodiesel reduced GHG emissions and fossil fuel use by 40–60%. ► As a “niche filling” crop camelina can avoid land use change emissions. ► Low fertilizer use and yields >800 kg/ha are necessary for environmental viability. -- Abstract: Camelina sativa (L.) is a promising crop for biodiesel production that avoids many of the potential pitfalls of traditional biofuel crops, such as land use change (LUC) and food versus fuel. In this study the environmental viability of camelina biodiesel was assessed using life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology. The LCA was conducted using the spreadsheet model dubbed KABAM. KABAM found that camelina grown as a niche filling crop (in rotation with wheat or as a double crop) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel use by 40–60% when compared to petroleum diesel. Furthermore, by avoiding LUC emissions, camelina biodiesel emits fewer GHGs than traditional soybean and canola biodiesel. Finally, a sensitivity analysis concluded that in order to maintain and increase the environmental viability of camelina and other niche filling biofuel crops, researchers and policy makers should focus their efforts on achieving satisfactory yields (1000–2000 kg/ha) while reducing nitrogen fertilizer inputs.

  11. Socio-economic evaluation of energy crops as a means for a better environment; Samfundsoekonomisk vurdering af energiafgroeder som virkemiddel for et bedre miljoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Dubgaard, A.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of the economic analysis is to describe the economy by growing willow compared to alternative rotations in order to assess whether there would be an economic interest, to grow willow on selected soil types. The goal of the socio-economic analysis is to assess whether the price to reduce N leaching or emissions of greenhouse gases is cost-effective compared to other instruments. The analysis shows that it is economically attractive to grow energy crops on moist marginal soils (+1.800 Kr. / hectare / year) and in some cases also on sandy soil (600 kr. / hectare / year). A low grain prices will make energy crops attractive to all soil types, while a high grain prices would mean that it is only economically viable on marginal soils. There is some uncertainty about yields and prices for energy crops. Generally, a decrease in yield of two tonnes per year per hectare means a reduction in the contribution margin of almost 1,200 Kr. per hectare. Conversely, an increase in price from 42 to 45 Kr. per GJ will mean an increase in the contribution margin of DKK 400 per hectare. The welfare economic analyses show that there are negative costs (= gain) associated with energy crops, both in relation to the reduction of greenhouse gases and compared to N leaching from agricultural land. The assessment also includes the effect of reduced ammonia volatilization. It is estimated that willow cultivation reduces pesticide use calculated as the frequency of treatment of 50-97% and the load index of 19-89% compared to cereals cultivation. There is therefore a significant reduction of pesticide use. Compared to the cost of alternative measures, 23 DKK. per. kg N or 140 DKK per. tonnes of CO{sub 2}, it is therefore a cost-effective instrument under specified conditions. (LN)

  12. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke)

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqi Lv; Bin Yang; Yixuan Kou; Jun Zeng; Ruixiong Wang; Yumeng Xiao; Fencan Li; Ying Lu; Yuwen Mu; Changming Zhao

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress t...

  13. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  14. Seasonal nutrient dynamics and biomass quality of giant reed (Arundo donax L. and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter as energy crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Nassi o Di Nasso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of energy crops in displacing fossil fuels within the energy sector in Europe is growing. Among energy crops, the use of perennial rhizomatous grasses (PRGs seems promising owing to their high productivity and their nutrient recycling that occurs during senescence. In particular, nutrient requirements and biomass quality have a fundamental relevance to biomass systems efficiency. The objective of our study was to compare giant reed (Arundo donax L. and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deuter in terms of nutrient requirements and cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content. This aim was to identify, in the Mediterranean environment, the optimal harvest time that may combine, beside a high biomass yield, high nutrient use efficiency and a good biomass quality for second generation biofuel production. The research was carried out in 2009, in San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Central Italy; latitude 43°41’ N, longitude 10°21’ E, on seven-year-old crops in a loam soil characterised by good water availability. Maximum above-ground nutrient contents were generally found in summer. Subsequently, a decrease was recorded; this suggested a nutrient remobilisation from above-ground biomass to rhizomes. In addition, miscanthus showed the highest N, P, and K use efficiency, probably related to its higher yield and its C4 pathway. Regarding biomass quality, stable values of cellulose (38%, hemicelluloses (25% and lignin (8% were reported from July onwards in both crops. Hence, these components appear not to be discriminative parameters in the choice of the harvest time in the Mediterranean environment. In conclusion, our results highlighted that, in our environment, a broad harvest period (from late autumn to winter seems suitable for these PRGs. However, further research is required to evaluate the role of rhizomes in nutrient storage and supply during the growing season, as well as ecological and productive performances in marginal

  15. Demand and energy efficiency in the soybean crop in no tillage; Demanda e eficiencia energetica no cultivo da soja em plantio direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riquetti, Neilor Bugoni; Seki, Andre Satoshi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa Energia na Agricultura], E-mail: neilor@fca.unesp.br; Sousa, Saulo Fernando Gomes de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Fazenda de Ensino Pesquisa e Producao; Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex; Benez, Sergio Hugo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2010-07-01

    The increase in energy use in agriculture, combined with rising costs and possible stores for the future have led to the need for farming systems more efficient in the use of non-renewable resource. Based on this work was undertaken to determine the efficiency of cultivation of soybean in no-till system. For the calculations were quantified all operations that involve expenditure of energy from the drying up of the harvest, including depreciation of machinery energy, calculated in accordance with its life, weight, and the days of actual use. Energy efficiency was calculated by dividing the total energy produced by the grain and dry matter divided by the total input energy. The highest spending power in this culture system were due to the use of pesticides and fertilizers. The demand for energy was 7956.54 MJ.ha{sup 1} from the harvest desiccation. Energy efficiency was calculated at 5.95, ie for each unit of energy used was taken from 5.95 units in the form of grain. When calculated the energy of matter left by the crop after harvest coupled with the energy of the grains, the efficiency was 7.94. (author)

  16. Assessment of agricultural crops and natural vegetation in Scotland for energy production by anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Lawson, David; Madsen, René Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    The current paper investigates the use of natural vegetation and agricultural crops commonly found in Scotland as a source of bioenergy. Such biomass is shown to have a high moisture content upon harvest (∼80%) which renders them suitable for wet conversion technologies such as anaerobic digestion...

  17. Photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency: setting a baseline for gauging future improvements in important food and biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Rebecca A; Ort, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency (ε(c)) of absorbed radiation into biomass (MJ of dry matter per MJ of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) is a component of yield potential that has been estimated at less than half the theoretical maximum. Various strategies have been proposed to improve ε(c), but a statistical analysis to establish baseline ε(c) levels across different crop functional types is lacking. Data from 164 published ε(c) studies conducted in relatively unstressed growth conditions were used to determine the means, greatest contributors to variation, and genetic trends in ε(c )across important food and biofuel crop species. ε(c) was greatest in biofuel crops (0.049-0.066), followed by C4 food crops (0.046-0.049), C3 nonlegumes (0.036-0.041), and finally C3 legumes (0.028-0.035). Despite confining our analysis to relatively unstressed growth conditions, total incident solar radiation and average growing season temperature most often accounted for the largest portion of ε(c) variability. Genetic improvements in ε(c), when present, were less than 0.7% per year, revealing the unrealized potential of improving ε(c) as a promising contributing strategy to meet projected future agricultural demand. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CATCH CROPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; Larsen, Søren U.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    -substrate in manure-based biogas plants and the profit obtained from the sale of biogas barely compensates for the harvest costs. A new agricultural strategy to harvest catch crops together with the residual straw of the main crop was investigated to increase the biomass and thereby the methane yield per hectare......Catch crop cultivation combined with its use for biogas production would increase renewable energy production in the form of methane, without interfering with the production of food and fodder crops. The low biomass yield of catch crops is the main limiting factor for using these crops as co...... biomass. Leaving the straw on the field until harvest of the catch crop in the autumn could benefit biogas production due to the organic matter degradation of the straw taking place on the field during the autumn months. This new agricultural strategy may be a good alternative to achieve economically...

  19. The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Tingju

    2018-06-01

    The water-food-energy-GHG nexus under climate change has been gaining increasing attention from both the research and policy communities, especially over the past several years. However, most existing nexus studies are qualitative and explorative in nature. So far, very few studies provide integrated analysis of this nexus across all the four sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine this nexus by assessing the effects of climate change on agricultural production through the change in water availability, evaluating the adjustment responses and resulting energy consumption and GHG emission, with the Northeast China as a case study. Based on our simulation results, by 2030, climate change is projected to increase water supply and demand gap for irrigation in Northeast China. Due to the increase in water scarcity, irrigated areas will decrease, and the cropping pattern will be adjusted by increasing maize sown areas and decreasing rice sown areas. As a result, the total output of crops and profits will clearly be reduced. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emission from irrigation will be reduced. This study suggests that climate change impact assessment fully consider the nexus among water, food, energy and GHG; however, more studies need to be conducted in the future.

  20. Modeling of the radiative energy balance within a crop canopy for estimating evapotranspiration: Studies on a row planted soybean canopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Y.; Hirota, O.

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distribution and density of the leaf area within a crop canopy were used to estimate the radiational environment and evapotranspiration. Morphological measurements were pursued on the soybean stands in the early stage of growth when the two-dimensional foliage distribution pattern existed. The rectangular tube model was used to calculate the light absorption by parallel row of crops both short-wave radiation (direct and diffuse solar radiation, and scattered radiation by plant elements) and long-wave radiation (emanated radiation from the sky, ground and leaves). The simulated profiles are in close agreement with the experimentally measured short-wave and net radiation data. The evapotranspiration of a row was calcuated using a simulated net radiation. The model calculation also agreed well with the evapotranspiration estimated by the Bowen ratio method

  1. Higher US crop prices trigger little area expansion so marginal land for biofuel crops is limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinton, Scott M.; Babcock, Bruce A.; James, Laura K.; Bandaru, Varaprasad

    2011-01-01

    By expanding energy biomass production on marginal lands that are not currently used for crops, food prices increase and indirect climate change effects can be mitigated. Studies of the availability of marginal lands for dedicated bioenergy crops have focused on biophysical land traits, ignoring the human role in decisions to convert marginal land to bioenergy crops. Recent history offers insights about farmer willingness to put non-crop land into crop production. The 2006-09 leap in field crop prices and the attendant 64% gain in typical profitability led to only a 2% increase in crop planted area, mostly in the prairie states. At this rate, a doubling of expected profitability from biomass crops would expand cropland supply by only 3.2%. Yet targets for cellulosic ethanol production in the US Energy Independence and Security Act imply boosting US planted area by 10% or more with perennial biomass crops. Given landowner reluctance to expand crop area with familiar crops in the short run, large scale expansion of the area in dedicated bioenergy crops will likely be difficult and costly to achieve. - Highlights: → Biofuel crops on cropland can displace food crops, reducing food supply and triggering indirect land use. → Growing biofuel crops on non-crop marginal land avoids these problems. → But US farmers expanded cropland by only 2% when crop profitability jumped 64% during 2006-09. → So medium-term availability of marginal lands for biofuel crops is limited and costly.

  2. New feedstocks for biofuels. Alternative 1st generation of energy crops; Nieuwe Grondstoffen voor Biobrandstoffen. Alternatieve 1e Generatie Energiegewassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbersen, W. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, WUR-AFSG, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oyen, L. [Plant Resources of Tropical Africa, WUR-PROTA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    A brief overview is provided of a number of alternative crops that can supply feedstocks for 1st generation biofuels and a brief analysis is conducted of the option for renewable biofuel production. [Dutch] Er wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van een aantal alternatieve gewassen die grondstoffen voor 1e generatie biobrandstoffen kunnen leveren en wordt er een korte analyse gegeven van de mogelijkheid voor duurzame biobrandstofproductie.

  3. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  4. Energy efficiency of conventional, organic, and alternative cropping systems for food and fuel at a site in the U.S. Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2010-05-15

    The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.

  5. Canaryseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Cogliatti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L. is a graminaceous crop species with production practices and cycle similar to those of other winter cereal crops such as spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and oat (Avena sativa L.. Currently its grains are used almost exclusively as feed for birds, alone or mixed with other grains like millet, sunflower seed, and flaxseed. Canaryseed is a genuine cereal with a unique composition that suggests its potential for food use. P. canariensis is cultivated in many areas of temperate climates. Currently, its production is concentrated in the southwestern provinces of Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and on a smaller scale in Argentina, Thailand and Australia. Globally it is considered to be a minor crop with regional relevance, with a production about of 250000 tonnes per year, which restricts private investment and public research on its genetic and technological improvement. For this reason, the type of crop management that is applied to this species largely depends on innovations made in other similar crops. This work provides an updated summary of the available information on the species: its requirements, distribution, genetic resources, cultivation practices, potential uses, marketing and other topics of interest to researchers and producers.

  6. Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Dempster, W F; Silverstone, S; Alling, A; Allen, J P; van Thillo, M

    2005-01-01

    Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 d-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m-2 d-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8 g m-2 d-1 of biomass vs. 1156 g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 d-1; and a seed harvest of 812.3 g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 d-1 vs. 566.5 g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 d-1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. The experiment with sweet potato used TU-82-155 a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m-2 d-1. Temperature regime was 28 +/- 3 degrees C day/22 +/- 4 degrees C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 d-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 d-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol-1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol-1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol-1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but somewhat below

  7. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recently expanded Renewable Fuel Standard, which now requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, has increased demand for biofuel refinery feedstocks. Currently, biofuel production consists mainly of corn-based ethanol, but concern over increasing nitrate levels resulting from increased corn crop fertilization has prompted research into alternative biofuel feedstocks. Of these, high-yielding biomass crops such as Miscanthus have been suggested for cellulose-based ethanol production. Because these perennial crops require less fertilization and do not need tilling, increasing land area in the Midwest planted with Miscanthus would result in less nitrate pollution to the Gulf of Mexico. There is a tradeoff, however, as Miscanthus also has higher water requirements than conventional crops in the region. This could pose a serious problem for riparian ecosystems and other streamflow users such as municipalities and biofuel refineries themselves, as the lowest natural flows in this region coincide with the peak of the growing season. Moreover, low flow reduction may eventually cut off the water quality benefit that planting Miscanthus provides. Therefore, for large-scale cellulosic ethanol production to be sustainable, it is important to understand how the watershed will respond to this change in land and water use. To this end a detailed data analysis of current watershed conditions has been combined with hydrologic modeling to gain deeper insights into how catchments in the highly agricultural central IL watershed of the Sangamon River respond to current and future land and water usage, with the focus on the summer low-flow season. In addition, an integrated systems optimization model has been developed that combines hydrologic, agro-biologic, engineering infrastructural, and economic inputs to provide optimal scenarios of crop type and area and corresponding refinery locations and capacities. Through this integrated modeling framework, we address the key

  8. ExpeCIVE 2013 - 2014. Field study of the agronomic, methanogenic and environmental potentials of Intermediate Crops for Energy Supply. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pislor, Emilie; Thual, Julien

    2015-12-01

    Intermediate Crops for Energy Supply (ICES) are essential for farming anaerobic digestion development. Catch crops into a three crops over two years sequence decrease environmental risks with a long soil cover. However, their use in anaerobic digestion process is conditioned by their cost and their yield variability. Following the results of 2012 on short growth cycle ICES program conducted by ADEME, Caussade Semences and Methaneva, a new program have been done on summer 2013 to test short growth cycle ICES and winter 2013 - 2014 to test long growth cycle ICES. The aim of this project was to evaluate the agronomic, energetic, economic and environmental characteristics of some plant covers marketed by Caussade Semences. Then field experiments have been conducted on 24 sites all over France. The impact of fertilization was studied too because some trial sites has fertilized the half part of experimental field. 9 short growth cycle ICES and 3 long growth cycle ICES have been tested. The harvesting have been done by geometric weighting between middle of October and beginning of November for the first one and in April for the second. The agronomic yields have been determined for each plant cover and for each trial site. The biochemical methane potentials (BMP) have been evaluated in order to determine the energetic yield of each ICES. The production cost in euro/tDM was calculated for each plant cover and the environmental impact determined by Life Cycle Analysis (LCA). Finally, 3 short growth cycle ICES and 2 long growth cycle ICES could be identified. More generally, no matter what type of ICES, short or long growth cycle, the more important is to plant at the right time and the right place to obtain the higher biomass, that is the more energy for the lowest production cost. (author)

  9. The Evaluation of Science Learning Program, Technology and Society Application of Audio Bio Harmonic System with Solar Energy to Improve Crop Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rosana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in science learning is how to integrate a wide range of basic scientific concepts of physics, chemistry, and biology into an integrated learning material. Research-based teaching material in this area is still very poor and does not much involve students of science education in its implementation as part of the learning program science technology and society (STS. The purpose of this study is to get the result of evaluation of the teaching and learning of STS in the form of public service in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. The program to improve crop productivity through the application of Audio Bio Harmonic System (ABHS with solar energy have been selected for utilizing the natural animal sounds to open stomata of the leaves conducted during foliar fertilization, making it suitable for integrated science lessons. Component of evaluation model used is Stufflebeam model evaluation (CIPP. CIPP evaluation in these activities resulted in two aspects: The first aspect was improving the skills of students and farmers in using ABHS, and these two aspects, namely food crop productivity; (1 cayenne increased 76.4%, (2 increased red onions (56.3% and (3 of maize increased by 67.8%. Besides, it was also the effect of the application of ABHS on the rate of plant growth. The outcome of this study is the STS teaching materials and appropriate technology of ABHS with solar energy.

  10. Soil organic carbon changes in the cultivation of energy crops: Implications for GHG balances and soil quality for use in LCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Miguel; Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Clift, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The environmental impact of different land-use systems for energy, up to the farm or forest 'gate', has been quantified with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Four representative crops are considered: OilSeed Rape (OSR), Miscanthus, Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and forest residues. The focus of the LCA is on changes in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) but energy use, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs), acidification and eutrophication are also considered. In addition to providing an indicator of soil quality, changes in SOC are shown to have a dominant effect on total GHG emissions. Miscanthus is the best land-use option for GHG emissions and soil quality as it sequesters C at a higher rate than the other crops, but this has to be weighed against other environmental impacts where Miscanthus performs worse, such as acidification and eutrophication. OSR shows the worst performance across all categories. Because forest residues are treated as a by-product, their environmental impacts are small in all categories. The analysis highlights the need for detailed site-specific modelling of SOC changes, and for consequential LCAs of the whole fuel cycle including transport and use.

  11. Determination of the biogas and methane yield of selected energy crops. [NAchWAchsende ROhstoffe]; Ermittlung der Biogas- und Methanausbeute ausgewaehlter Nawaro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohl, Susanne

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this paper is the characterization of substrate quality and methane yield of different energy crops, which were cultivated in Schleswig-Holstein. The specific methane production of 224 variants was determined in with Hohenheim biogas yield test (HBT), 72 variants were investigated in a common batch test. The specific methane production (HBT) is 359-371 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for wheat, 358-378 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for maize and 341-372 l{sub N}/kg{sub oDM} for perennial ryegrass. The results for the specific methane production are due to a systematic offset in the batch experiment always below those of the HBT. Silages achieve higher gas yields than fresh substrates. The mass losses, which occur during ensiling, were compensated due to the higher gas yields. Maize is compared with other energy crops superior in terms of the yield per hectare. The experimentally determined methane yields showed a good agreement with calculated theoretical methane yields (method of WEIssBACH 2008, 2009).

  12. Potential use and performance studies of solar crop driers in Mauritius. African Energy Programme research report series no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wai Man, Y.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Monoculture has in the past, been the norm in agriculture in Mauritius. However under a recent policy of self reliance, there has been a move to multi-crop culture. Under this policy it has been decided to release, in the first instance, 800 hectares of the best arable land for the production of food crops. This decision, coupled with further increase in intense cultivation of crops in the interrow space of the 80,000 hectares of sugar cane fields, will make the need for crop drying more and more indispensable. As the present oil bill of MuR 25 million in precious foreign exchange, for crop drying only is already too much the country could afford, the need for solar drying remains the only other alternative. The Government's Plan of Action calls for immediate action on at least 10 major crops, among which maize is the single most important. The major land holders who will participate in the programme of agricultural diversification will normally use the established artificial drying process. However the 1200 small scale farmers who will also be called upon to contribute their share will obviously not be able to afford such an expensive process and open air or sun drying remains the only resort for them. However sun drying methods have several major constraints not least of which is the inability to dry down to the safe moisture content for subsequent storage. For example, sun-dried maize will only reach a minimum of 15 to 16% moisture and must be further dried artificially at a cost of about MuR 200 per tonne to attain the 12% moisture for storage. It is apparent that the use of solar driers would generate a higher income, through a reduction in post-harvest losses and a saving in drying cost, to these small scale farmers. This, in turn, would act as an impetus to grow more food for self-reliance, if not for export. This research work was, therefore, undertaken with the aim of fulfilling the needs of small-scale farmers. The objectives of the project were to

  13. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt. Final report Part 1: Agronomic aspects, March 1, 1988--November 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The relative high cost of energy derived from biomass is a major deterrent to greater use of biomass for energy production One of the most important methods of lowering the cost of dedicated biomass production is to increase the yield per unit of land area so that fixed costs can be applied to more tons of forage. For this study, the authors selected grass and legume crops with potential for high biomass yields and those that offer protection from soil erosion. The research reported here was conducted to identify those species and cultural practices that would result in high biomass yields for various land capabilities with acceptable and soil erosion potential. They also conducted research to determine if intercropping sorghum into alfalfa or reed canarygrass could increase biomass yields over alfalfa or reed canarygrass grown alone and still have the advantage for limiting soil erosion.

  14. Synthesis of Vaermeforsk's research programme 'Crops from field to energy'; Syntes av Vaermeforsks forskningsprogram 'Groedor fraan aaker till energi'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Gunnarsson, Carina; Roennbaeck, Marie; Olsson, Johanna

    2010-06-15

    Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have jointly run the research programme 'Crops from field to energy'. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture for combustion and heat and power production in Sweden. About 20 projects have studied different parts of the chain from cultivation, harvest and storage to combustion and recycling of ash to farmland for agricultural fuels (straw, hemp, Reed Canary Grass and short rotation willow crops (Salix)). The aim of this report has been to compile and synthesise progress made during the programme and realization of its aims, as well as to identify the need of further research. The most important progress and conclusions made during the programme are: Cultivation - More knowledge and concrete advice concerning planting and growth of Salix, as well as on suitable length of harvest season, which enables planting cost reductions and increased yields. Increased knowledge on cultivation of Reed Canary Grass and combined cultivation with leguminous plants. Harvest and logistics - Comparisons and costs for different alternatives for harvest, handling and logistics has been produced for all of the agricultural fuels, both via theoretical and practical efforts, which can serve as a basis for direct measures as well as continued research. Processing/combustion/ash - It is possible to produce briquettes made from Reed Canary Grass and peat. New knowledge on combustion of Reed Canary Grass with different boilers is produced. It is now recommended as a fuel for co-combustion with wood and peat in large scale plants. Recommendations on co-combustion of Reed Canary Grass and Salix with peat have also been put forward, based on combustion tests. Experience from Denmark on large scale combustion of straw and production of high quality straw has been compiled. Additional costs that may arise when using agricultural fuels

  15. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  16. Multi-farm economic analysis of perennial energy crops in Central Greece, taking into account the CAP reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychnaras, Vassilis [Centre for Planning and Economic Research, 11, Amerikis str., 106 72 Athens (Greece); Schneider, Uwe A. [Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, University of Hamburg, KlimaCampus Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    This study analyses farm level economic impacts of biomass production from perennial crops including Arundo donax L. (arundo), Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus), Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) and Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon). Regional biomass supply curves are estimated with a dynamic, multi-farm, mathematical programming model. Micro-economic data for the model are generated from farm surveys covering 52 farms containing a total of 400 parcels, in Central Greece. The study also examines the potential effects of the Common Agricultural Policy reform in 2003 on regional biomass supply. Simulations show that the policy reform toward decoupled subsidies lowers the cost of biomass between 15 and 25 euro per tonne. Switchgrass appears to be the most attractive option, followed by cardoon and miscanthus. Due to high specific machinery cost, arundo is never preferred. Relative to the agricultural policy setting of Agenda 2000, the biomass potential increases more for farms of small economic size and farms with a higher share of cotton. (author)

  17. Analysis of the energy efficiency of short rotation woody crops biomass as affected by different methods of soil enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał; Tworkowski, Józef; Szczukowski, Stefan; Niksa, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the energy input and energy efficiency of the production of willow, poplar and black locust chips in four-year harvest rotation. The highest energy input was made in poplar production when soil was enriched with lignin and by mineral fertilisation (33.02 GJ ha −1 ). For willow production it was 30.76 GJ ha −1 when lignin, mycorrhiza and mineral fertilisation were used. The energy input in the production of black locust was much lower. The largest energy gain was obtained in the production of poplar when soil was enriched with lignin and mineral fertilisation (673.7 GJ ha −1 ). A similar level of this parameter (669.7 GJ ha −1 ) was achieved in the production of willow when lignin, mycorrhiza and mineral fertilisation was used. In general, a higher energy gain was obtained in the production of willow and poplar than in the production of black locust. On the other hand, the best energy efficiency ratio was achieved for willow (28.9) in the option with lignin. The ratio for poplar production ranged from 19.7 to 25.9. On the other hand, the energy efficiency ratio for black locust ranged from 10.6 to 21.7. - Highlights: • The energy input ranged from 6.69 GJ ha −1 to 33.02 GJ ha −1 . • The largest energy gain was obtained for poplar (673.7 GJ ha −1 ). • The best energy efficiency ratio was achieved for willow (28.9). • The energy efficiency ratio for poplar ranged from 19.7 to 25.9. • The energy efficiency ratio for black locust ranged from 10.6 to 21.7.

  18. The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M.; Noon, C.; Daly, M.; Moore, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock

  19. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  20. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  1. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence spectra for the monitoring of Cd toxicity in a bio-energy crop (Jatropha curcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marise Conceição; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

    2013-10-05

    The vegetation of metal-contaminated soils using non-edible crops can be a safe and economical technique for Cd immobilization and the remediation of contaminated sites. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) exhibits a relative tolerance to heavy metals and potential for biofuel production. The study was performed to monitor the Cd-induced alterations in jatropha plants by X-ray chlorophyll fluorescence. The Cd effects on photosynthetic pigments, the mineral composition of plants, defense enzyme activity and soluble proteins were also studied. Plants were grown for 20days in a nutrient solution with five Cd contents: 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40μmolL(-1); a control with no Cd addition was also monitored. The analysis of the chlorophyll fluorescence spectra allowed detecting alterations caused by Cd toxicity in the jatropha plants. The mineral composition of the plants was affected by the Cd doses; however, the Fe and Mg contents were not significantly reduced, which most likely improved the effects on the contents of the photosynthetic pigments. Because of its relative tolerance to Cd, Jatropha curcas may be a promising species to revegetate Cd-contaminated sites. Considering the long period needed to phytoremediate soils, the combination of remediation with bioenergy production could be an attractive option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotype, development and tissue-derived variation of cell-wall properties in the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Ricardo M F; Lee, Scott J; Allison, Gordon G; Hazen, Samuel P; Winters, Ana; Bosch, Maurice

    2014-10-01

    Species and hybrids of the genus Miscanthus contain attributes that make them front-runners among current selections of dedicated bioenergy crops. A key trait for plant biomass conversion to biofuels and biomaterials is cell-wall quality; however, knowledge of cell-wall composition and biology in Miscanthus species is limited. This study presents data on cell-wall compositional changes as a function of development and tissue type across selected genotypes, and considers implications for the development of miscanthus as a sustainable and renewable bioenergy feedstock. Cell-wall biomass was analysed for 25 genotypes, considering different developmental stages and stem vs. leaf compositional variability, by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and lignin determination. In addition, a Clostridium phytofermentans bioassay was used to assess cell-wall digestibility and conversion to ethanol. Important cell-wall compositional differences between miscanthus stem and leaf samples were found to be predominantly associated with structural carbohydrates. Lignin content increased as plants matured and was higher in stem tissues. Although stem lignin concentration correlated inversely with ethanol production, no such correlation was observed for leaves. Leaf tissue contributed significantly to total above-ground biomass at all stages, although the extent of this contribution was genotype-dependent. It is hypothesized that divergent carbohydrate compositions and modifications in stem and leaf tissues are major determinants for observed differences in cell-wall quality. The findings indicate that improvement of lignocellulosic feedstocks should encompass tissue-dependent variation as it affects amenability to biological conversion. For gene-trait associations relating to cell-wall quality, the data support the separate examination of leaf and stem composition, as tissue-specific traits may be masked by considering only total above-ground biomass samples, and sample

  3. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    ‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  4. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-06-05

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits.

  5. Prospects of whole grain crops of wheat, rye and triticale under different fertilizer regimes for energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    is an advantage for biomass for energy purposes. The mineral content of the grain fraction changed only little between years and locations. By contrast, large variations in the analysed ions in the straw fraction between years and locations were observed. The use of K fertilizers resulted in a significantly...

  6. A proposal to demonstrate production of salad crops in the space station mockup facility with particular attention to space, energy, and labor constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Carolyn A.; Sharma, Govind C.; Beyl, Caula A.

    1990-01-01

    A desire for fresh vegetables for consumption during long term space missions has been foreseen. To meet this need in a microgravity environment within the limited space and energy available on Space Station requires highly productive vegetable cultivars of short stature to optimize vegetable production per volume available. Special water and nutrient delivery systems must also be utilized. As a first step towards fresh vegetable production in the microgravity of Space Station, several soil-less capillary action media were evaluated for the ability to support growth of two root crops (radish and carrot) which are under consideration for inclusion in a semi-automated system for production of salad vegetables in a microgravity environment (Salad Machine). In addition, productivity of different cultivars of radish was evaluated as well as the effect of planting density and cultivar on carrot production and size. Red Prince radish was more productive than Cherry Belle and grew best on Jiffy Mix Plus. During greenhouse studies, vermiculite and rock wool supported radish growth to a lesser degree than Jiffy Mix Plus but more than Cellular Rooting Sponge. Comparison of three carrot cultivars (Planet, Short n Sweet, and Goldinhart) and three planting densities revealed that Short n Sweet planted at 25.6 sq cm/plant had the greatest root fresh weight per pot, the shortest mean top length, and intermediate values of root length and top fresh weight per pot. Red Prince radish and Short n Sweet carrot showed potential as productive cultivars for use in a Salad Machine. Results of experiments with solid capillary action media were disappointing. Further research must be done to identify a solid style capillary action media which can productively support growth of root crops such as carrot and radish.

  7. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering] [and others

    2012-02-15

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg{sup -1}) and Cd (50 mg kg{sup -1}) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops. (orig.)

  8. Development of a method for the control of an environmentally friendly cultivation of energy crops at provincial level using a differentiated premium payment; Entwicklung einer Methodik zur Steuerung eines umweltschonenden Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Landesebene durch eine differenzierte Praemienzahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiff, Kathrin Britta

    2012-07-01

    Facing the global challenge of climate change and finiteness of fossil resources renewable resources are becoming more and more important at present. At the moment, biomass is the most important renewable resource in Germany. The rising cultivation of energy crops, supported by political instruments, has a negative environmental impact on the natural resources soil, water and biodiversity. The existing agricultural legislation can not avoid such negative environmental impact. Thus, it seems reasonable to realign the existing support scheme for energy crop use to a system that operates regional and crop specific but includes the whole agricultural sector as well. Such a newly designed system could be realised by a differentiated premium. This instrument is most suitable to prevent environmental damage due to the advantages of a regional use and a differentiation of crop species. The aim of this work has been to identify an easy applicable and transferable control mechanism for an environmental friendly support scheme of energy crops and also to develop and test a method as basis for this control mechanism. The design of a regional and crop specific premium has been described as a possible political instrument. The method has been developed and tested within a case study for Bavaria, one of Germany's federal states. For the investigation the level of agrarian production regions has been chosen. For each region it has been assessed which crops should and which ones should not be cultivated. For this, the actual environmental risk for the agricultural activity has been calculated by using landscape analysis on the basis of environmental risk assessment. Agrarian statistics (InVeKos) and digital GIS-based site data has been used as data base. With this data base it has been possible to illustrate the environmental risk for the natural resources soil, water and biodiversity in sufficient exactness. The comparison of the periods 1994-96 and 2005-07 approved that the

  9. Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum americanum × P. purpureum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xingfeng; Zhang, Xuehong; Gao, Bo; Li, Zhian; Xia, Hanping; Li, Haifang; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of cadmium (Cd) on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum purpureum K. Schumach × P. thyphoideum Rich). Leaf shape was more sensitive to Cd than biomass and root length. Leaves had no visual toxic symptoms under 8–100 mg kg −1 Cd. High Cd pollution significantly increased the chlorophyll content of young leaves but showed no effect on mature leaves. Cd enhanced the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax), light compensation point (LCP) and light saturation point (LSP). For roots, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Mg and Ca. For stems, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca, while had a negative relationship with Mn. For leaves, Cd had a positive relationship with Zn, Mg and K, while had a negative relationship with Mn and Ca. Plant tissues accumulated 98, 21 and 26 mg kg −1 Cd in roots, stems and leaves, respectively, and extracted 477 and 515 μg Cd in roots and shoots for a single plant at 30 mg kg −1 Cd, respectively. King grass would require 23–290 years to remediate contaminated soil with 8–100 mg kg −1 Cd. It could extract 0.94–1.31 kg ha −1 Cd and produce 216–375 t ha −1 of fresh biomass and 28–79 t ha −1 of dry biomass each year. In summary, king grass had high biomass production and phytoremediation potential. - Highlights: • The effect of Cd on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and Cd accumulation of energy crop, king grass was investigated. • Plant leaves had no visual toxic symptoms under 8–100 mg kg −1 soil Cd. • Plant could extract 0.94–1.31 kg ha −1 Cd and produce 28–79 t ha −1 of dry biomass each year under 8–100 mg kg −1 soil Cd

  10. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  11. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  12. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  13. Lead dioxide electrodes for high potential anodic processes

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. VELICHENKO; ROSSANO AMADELLI

    2001-01-01

    Doping of PbO2 by cations (Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+), by F- and by cations and F- simultaneously is discussed as a way of improving the stability and electrochemical activity in processes occurring at high potentials. Doping allows the control of the amount of structural water in an oxide. Radiotracer experiments showed that high electrodeposition current densities favour the segregation of incorporated tritium (protons) at the surface. On the other hand, fluorine doping results in a marked decrea...

  14. Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vrije Truus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Results Batch cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana produced hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid as the main products from soluble saccharides in Miscanthus hydrolysate. The presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural and 5-hydroxylmethyl furfural, in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate was avoided by the mild alkaline-pretreatment conditions at a low temperature of 75°C. Both microorganisms simultaneously and completely utilized all pentoses, hexoses and oligomeric saccharides up to a total concentration of 17 g l-1 in pH-controlled batch cultures. T. neapolitana showed a preference for glucose over xylose, which are the main sugars in the hydrolysate. Hydrogen yields of 2.9 to 3.4 mol H2 per mol of hexose, corresponding to 74 to 85% of the theoretical yield, were obtained in these batch fermentations. The yields were higher with cultures of C. saccharolyticus compared to T. neapolitana. In contrast, the rate of substrate consumption and hydrogen production was higher with T. neapolitana. At substrate concentrations exceeding 30 g l-1, sugar consumption was incomplete, and lower hydrogen yields of 2.0 to 2.4 mol per mol of consumed hexose were obtained. Conclusion Efficient hydrogen production in combination with simultaneous and complete utilization of all saccharides has been obtained during the growth of thermophilic bacteria on hydrolysate of the lignocellulosic feedstock Miscanthus. The use of thermophilic bacteria will therefore significantly contribute to the energy efficiency of a bioprocess for hydrogen production from biomass.

  15. Life-cycle environmental and economic impacts of energy-crop fuel-chains: an integrated assessment of potential GHG avoidance in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Jones, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines life-cycle analyses and economic analyses for Miscanthus and willow heat and electricity fuel-chains in Ireland. Displaced agricultural land-uses and conventional fuels were considered in fuel-chain permutations. Avoided greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions ranged from 7.7 to 35.2 t CO 2 eq. ha -1 a -1 . Most fuel-chain permutations exhibited positive discounted financial returns, despite losses for particular entities at a farm-gate processed-biomass price of Euro 100 t -1 dry-matter. Attributing a value of Euro 10 t -1 CO 2 eq. to avoided GHG emissions, but subtracting financial returns associated with displaced fuel supplies, resulted in discounted annual national economic benefits (DANEBs) ranging from -457 to 1887 Euro ha -1 a -1 . Extrapolating a plausible combination of fuel-chains up to a national indicative scenario resulted in GHG emission avoidance of 3.56 Mt CO 2 eq. a -1 (5.2% of national emissions), a DANEB of 167 M Euro , and required 4.6% of national agricultural land area. As cost-effective national GHG avoidance options, Miscanthus and willow fuel-chains are robust to variation in yields and CO 2 price, and appear to represent an efficient land-use option (e.g. compared with liquid biofuel production). Policies promoting utilisation of these energy-crops could avoid unnecessary, and environmentally questionable, future purchase of carbon credits, as currently required for national Kyoto compliance

  16. Cultivation concepts for energy crops in times of climatic changes. Contribution to the management of the impact of climate changes in the metropolitan area Hanover-Brunswick-Goettingen-Wolfsburg; Anbaukonzepte fuer Energiepflanzen in Zeiten des Klimawandels. Beitrag zum Klimafolgenmanagement in der Metropolregion Hannover-Braunschweig-Goettingen-Wolfsburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttlar, Christine von [Ingenieurgemeinschaft fuer Landwirtschaft und Umwelt (IGLU), Goettingen (Germany); Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Bereich Erneuerbare Energien; Bauboeck, Roland [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kartografie, GIS und Fernerkundung

    2013-10-01

    central and southern areas of the metropolitan region. In extreme years with below average precipitation (-10%), the maize yield is more severely reduced than that of winter rye, although with additional irrigation, the yield of maize recovers and exceeds that of rye. Energy crop rotations will be restored by plants from Mediterranean and sub-tropical regions such as Sorghum, Topinambur and Amaranth. Having a wide variety of such cultures brings about a high potential for adaptation. Winter cereals will have better cultivation requirements than summer cereals. The choice of climate-tolerant varieties with high water efficiency can help to avert lower yields in the future. Further measures to adapt to climate change consist in using specialized fertilizer and crop protection methods as well as setting up stronger water-conservation methods in crop cultivation like the practice of a reduced oil preparation. Adequate plant breeding for future climate conditions offers further perspectives to counteract climate change. The environmental impacts of climate change on crop production have to be reassessed. There are increasing risks to be expected for the humus reproduction, nitrate leaching and erosion hazards. Further evidence is given in this research. (orig.)

  17. Singular Strategic Project for the Development, Demonstration and Evaluation of Energy Crop Biomass-based Energy Production in Spain (On Cultivos); Proyecto Singular y Estragetico para el desarrollo, demostracion y evaluacion de la produccion de energia en Espana a partir de la biomasa de cultivos energeticos (On Cultivos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, E.; Maleta, E. J.; Carrasco, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    The Singular Strategic Project (PSE) On Cultivos, Development, demonstration and evaluation of the viability of energy crop biomass-based energy production in Spain, has been under way since 2005. This article describes the project objectives and general data indicating the current project status and the most relevant preliminary results obtained since it began. The On Cultivos PSE is proving to be an effective tool to channel the R and D efforts required to achieve the integral commercial implementation of energy crops in Spain. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  19. Estimating yield gaps at the cropping system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilpart, Nicolas; Grassini, Patricio; Sadras, Victor O; Timsina, Jagadish; Cassman, Kenneth G

    2017-05-01

    Yield gap analyses of individual crops have been used to estimate opportunities for increasing crop production at local to global scales, thus providing information crucial to food security. However, increases in crop production can also be achieved by improving cropping system yield through modification of spatial and temporal arrangement of individual crops. In this paper we define the cropping system yield potential as the output from the combination of crops that gives the highest energy yield per unit of land and time, and the cropping system yield gap as the difference between actual energy yield of an existing cropping system and the cropping system yield potential. Then, we provide a framework to identify alternative cropping systems which can be evaluated against the current ones. A proof-of-concept is provided with irrigated rice-maize systems at four locations in Bangladesh that represent a range of climatic conditions in that country. The proposed framework identified (i) realistic alternative cropping systems at each location, and (ii) two locations where expected improvements in crop production from changes in cropping intensity (number of crops per year) were 43% to 64% higher than from improving the management of individual crops within the current cropping systems. The proposed framework provides a tool to help assess food production capacity of new systems ( e.g. with increased cropping intensity) arising from climate change, and assess resource requirements (water and N) and associated environmental footprint per unit of land and production of these new systems. By expanding yield gap analysis from individual crops to the cropping system level and applying it to new systems, this framework could also be helpful to bridge the gap between yield gap analysis and cropping/farming system design.

  20. N2O and CH4-emissions from energy crops - Can the use of organic fertilizers in form of biogas digestate be considered as a real alternative? Results from a three and a half year multi-site field study of energy crops fertilized with biogas digestate in so

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2016-04-01

    Gawan Heintze1,2, Matthias Drösler1, Ulrike Hagemann3and Jürgen Augustin3 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany 3Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Eberswalder Straße 84, 15374 Müncheberg, Germany Together with industrial process-related emissions (8.1%) the actual GHG emissions from agriculture (7.5% - 70 million tones (Mt) of carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalents) representing after energy-related emissions from combustion processes of fossil fuels (83.7%) the second largest budget of the Germany-wide total emissions per year. To reduce the EU's CO2 emissions by 20% by 2020 the cultivation of energy crops for biogas production, ideally coupled to a subsequent return of the resulting residues in form of biogas digestate is intended as one key element in the pathway of renewable energy production. Despite an increasing cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas aiming to reduce the overall climate impact of the agricultural sector, it is still largely unknown how the application of ammonia-rich organic digestate effects field N2O emissions. Therefore, the collaborative research project "potential for reducing the release of climate-relevant trace gases in the cultivation of energy crops for the production of biogas" was launched. The main objective of the study was to determine an improved process understanding and to quantify the influence of mineral nitrogen fertilization, biogas digestate application, crop type and crop rotation, to gain precise and generalizable statements on the exchange of trace gases like nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) on the resulting climate impact. Gas fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured for three and a half years on two differently managed sites in maize monoculture with different applied organic

  1. Modelling the impact of mulching the soil with plant remains on water regime formation, crop yield and energy costs in agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Dzhogan, Larisa Y.; Nasonova, Olga N.

    2018-02-01

    The model MULCH, developed by authors previously for simulating the formation of water regime in an agricultural field covered by straw mulch layer, has been used for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of Russia and Ukraine. It simulates the dynamics of water budget components in a soil rooting zone at daily time step from the beginning of spring snowmelt to the beginning of the period with stable negative air temperatures. The model was designed for estimation of mulching efficiency in terms of increase in plant water supply and crop yield under climatic and soil conditions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones. It is used for studying the mulching effect on some characteristics of water regime and yield of winter wheat growing at specific sites located in semi-arid and arid regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the eastern and southern parts of the East-European (Russian) plain. In addition, a previously developed technique for estimating the energetic efficiency of various agricultural technologies with accounting for their impact on changes in soil energy is applied for the comparative evaluation of the efficiency of four agricultural cultivation technologies, which are usually used for wheat production in different regions of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European Russia: (1) moldboard tillage of soil without irrigation, (2) moldboard tillage of soil with irrigation, (3) subsurface cultivation, and (4) subsurface cultivation with mulching the soil with plant remains.

  2. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Lv

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg2+ contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content. The lines LZJ119 and LZJ047 showed delays in emergence time of about four weeks, and LZJ047 exhibited the highest mortality rate, 85.19%, under treatment with 10 mg kg-1 mercury. The MDA (malondialdehyde content increased whereas and the Pn (net photosynthetic rate, Fv∕Fm (the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and chlorophyll content decreased in response to mercury stress. The stem diameter, stem biomass and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke showed some modest increases in response to mercury stress and exhibited hormesis at least 1 mg kg-1 mercury treatment. Overall, LZJ119 produced more biomass under mercury stress, whereas LZJ033 exhibited a greater capacity for mercury bioaccumulation. Accordingly, LZJ119 may be a good candidate cultivar for use in cases of moderate—low mercury contamination, whereas LZJ033 may be a better candidate under conditions of high mercury contamination. When Jerusalem artichoke was cultivated in mercury contaminated soil, it not only removed the mercury from soil but also produced large amounts of tubers and shoots which could be used as feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  3. Assessing the difference of tolerance and phytoremediation potential in mercury contaminated soil of a non-food energy crop, Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shiqi; Yang, Bin; Kou, Yixuan; Zeng, Jun; Wang, Ruixiong; Xiao, Yumeng; Li, Fencan; Lu, Ying; Mu, Yuwen; Zhao, Changming

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mercury stress on growth, photosynthesis and mercury accumulation in different cultivars of a non-food energy crop, Jerusalem artichoke, and to screen appropriate cultivars for their efficacy in the phytoremediation of mercury (Hg 2+ ) contaminated soil. Cultivars LZJ033 (high above-ground biomass and nutrient content, and strongly sexual reproduction) and LZJ119 (a long period of vegetative growth) exhibited more tolerance to mercury stress than LZJ047 (the highest tuber yield and total sugar content). The lines LZJ119 and LZJ047 showed delays in emergence time of about four weeks, and LZJ047 exhibited the highest mortality rate, 85.19%, under treatment with 10 mg kg -1 mercury. The MDA (malondialdehyde) content increased whereas and the P n (net photosynthetic rate), F v ∕ F m (the maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry) and chlorophyll content decreased in response to mercury stress. The stem diameter, stem biomass and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke showed some modest increases in response to mercury stress and exhibited hormesis at least 1 mg kg -1 mercury treatment. Overall, LZJ119 produced more biomass under mercury stress, whereas LZJ033 exhibited a greater capacity for mercury bioaccumulation. Accordingly, LZJ119 may be a good candidate cultivar for use in cases of moderate-low mercury contamination, whereas LZJ033 may be a better candidate under conditions of high mercury contamination. When Jerusalem artichoke was cultivated in mercury contaminated soil, it not only removed the mercury from soil but also produced large amounts of tubers and shoots which could be used as feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

  4. Helping to increase tree crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-07-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  5. Helping to increase tree crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Tree crops such as coffee, coconuts, palm oil, citrus fruits and cocoa are of major importance to the economies of countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, and may be a prime source of foreign exchange earnings. The search for ways to improve efficiently the yields of crops like these - now being aided by the Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization - thus has a clearly defined practical goal. D. Nethsinghe deals here with some of the work. (author)

  6. Nitrogen fertility and abiotic stresses management in cotton crop: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel Kean Yuen; Afridi, Muhammad Zahir; Luo, Honghai; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Ajab, Mir; Fahad, Shah

    2017-06-01

    This review outlines nitrogen (N) responses in crop production and potential management decisions to ameliorate abiotic stresses for better crop production. N is a primary constituent of the nucleotides and proteins that are essential for life. Production and application of N fertilizers consume huge amounts of energy, and excess is detrimental to the environment. Therefore, increasing plant N use efficiency (NUE) is important for the development of sustainable agriculture. NUE has a key role in crop yield and can be enhanced by controlling loss of fertilizers by application of humic acid and natural polymers (hydrogels), having high water-holding capacity which can improve plant performance under field conditions. Abiotic stresses such as waterlogging, drought, heat, and salinity are the major limitations for successful crop production. Therefore, integrated management approaches such as addition of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), the film antitranspirant (di-1-p-menthene and pinolene) nutrients, hydrogels, and phytohormones may provide novel approaches to improve plant tolerance against abiotic stress-induced damage. Moreover, for plant breeders and molecular biologists, it is a challenge to develop cotton cultivars that can tolerate plant abiotic stresses while having high potential NUE for the future.

  7. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  8. Lead dioxide electrodes for high potential anodic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. VELICHENKO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Doping of PbO2 by cations (Fe3+, Co2+ and Ni2+, by F- and by cations and F- simultaneously is discussed as a way of improving the stability and electrochemical activity in processes occurring at high potentials. Doping allows the control of the amount of structural water in an oxide. Radiotracer experiments showed that high electrodeposition current densities favour the segregation of incorporated tritium (protons at the surface. On the other hand, fluorine doping results in a marked decrease in the amount of surface oxygen species. The influence of doping with metal cations strongly depends on the nature of the metal. Iron behaves like fluorine, while nickel causes an accumulation of surface oxygen species. Doped PbO2 electrodes have quite good activities for the electrogeneration of ozone. In particular, Fe and Co doped PbO2 showed a current efficiency of 15–20 % for this process. This result is relevant to our recent studies on “cathodic oxidation”, i.e., an ozone mediated electrochemical method in which an O2 stream is used to sweep the O2/O3 gas mixture produced at a PbO2 anode into the cathodic compartment of the same electrochemical cell containing polluting species.

  9. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  10. Is the Modern High Potential Dairy Cow Suitable for Organic Farming Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harðarson Grétar H

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is not acceptable to compromise animal welfare in any system of farming. Feeding should be aimed at meeting the nutritional requirements at the various stages of production. This paper deals with the detrimental effects that organic, extensive or low input farming systems may have on the energy status in early lactation of the high potential dairy cow. Bovine ketosis is the most important disease resulting from insufficient energy intake in early lactation. It is also important to realize that ketosis is a part of the so-called periparturient disease complex, which includes milk fever, mastitis, retained placenta, endometritis and poor fertility also. All these diseases are interrelated and reflect to a large extent the nutritional status of the animal. If organic dairy farming is to be successful the breeding programmes have to divert from selection for high yields as a main goal, to more emphasis on a flatter lactation curve, less production diseases and longevity.

  11. Renewable energy sources in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Balducchi, R.; Bernardini, A.; Dondi, F.; Di Carlo, F.; Genovese, A.; Scoccianti, M.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse crop evolution if from one hand improves the quality of products and productive cycles, from another hand cause negative effects on the natural resources, the environment and the economy of the country. Although renewable energies already feature to some extent in the European Union's regional, the 2007-2013 Structural Funds package could be the occasion to increase the weight given to RES within the energy programmes for less favoured regions (particularly in ex-objective 1 areas). In those areas, greenhouse crop sector is particularly developed as agriculture industrial activity. According to numerous investigations, agricultural greenhouse consumption for greenhouse acclimatization represents approximately between 2% to 6% of the E U's-27 total energy consumption. This report is intended to give a general overview to the potential of renewable energy and technology in Italy, particularly geothermal, wind and solar (thermic and photovoltaic) as energy for greenhouse crop sector. RES have a high potential for developing of indigenous resources, service activities, new job creation and reducing Co2 emissions. [it

  12. The Impact of Field Size on the Environment and Energy Crop Production Efficiency for a Sustainable Indigenous Bioenergy Supply Chain in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Deverell

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates, using the GIS platform, the potential impacts of meeting national bioenergy targets using only indigenous sources of feedstock on the habitats and carbon stores that exist within Ireland’s field boundaries. A survey of the Republic of Irelands field was conducted in order to estimate and map the size and geographic distribution of the Republic of Ireland’s field boundaries. The planting and harvesting costs associated with possible bioenergy crop production systems were determined using the relationship between the seasonal operating efficiency and the average field size. The results indicate that Ireland will need a large proportion of its current agricultural area (at least 16.5% in order to its meet national bioenergy targets by 2020. The demand cannot be met by the current area that both has suitable soil type for growing the bioenergy crops and is large enough for the required operating efficiency. The results of this study indicate that implementing and meeting national bioenergy targets using only indigenous feedstock will likely impact the country’s field boundary resources negatively, as crop producers seek to improve production efficiency through field consolidation and field boundary removal. It was found that such boundary removal results in a loss of up to 6 tC/km2 and 0.7 ha/km of previously permanent habitat where average field size is small. The impact of field consolidation on these resources reduces substantially as larger fields become consolidated.

  13. Electron injection dynamics in high-potential porphyrin photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, Rebecca L; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2015-05-19

    There is a growing need to utilize carbon neutral energy sources, and it is well known that solar energy can easily satisfy all of humanity's requirements. In order to make solar energy a viable alternative to fossil fuels, the problem of intermittency must be solved. Batteries and supercapacitors are an area of active research, but they currently have relatively low energy-to-mass storage capacity. An alternative and very promising possibility is to store energy in chemical bonds, or make a solar fuel. The process of making solar fuel is not new, since photosynthesis has been occurring on earth for about 3 billion years. In order to produce any fuel, protons and electrons must be harvested from a species in its oxidized form. Photosynthesis uses the only viable source of electrons and protons on the scale needed for global energy demands: water. Because artificial photosynthesis is a lofty goal, water oxidation, which is a crucial step in the process, has been the initial focus. This Account provides an overview of how terahertz spectroscopy is used to study electron injection, highlights trends from previously published reports, and concludes with a future outlook. It begins by exploring similarities and differences between dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) for producing electricity and a putative device for splitting water and producing a solar fuel. It then identifies two important problems encountered when adapting DSSC technology to water oxidation-improper energy matching between sensitizer energy levels with the potential for water oxidation and the instability of common anchoring groups in water-and discusses steps to address them. Emphasis is placed on electron injection from sensitizers to metal oxides because this process is the initial step in charge transport. Both the rate and efficiency of electron injection are analyzed on a sub-picosecond time scale using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy (TRTS). Bio-inspired pentafluorophenyl porphyrins are

  14. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  15. 4F CROPS: Future crops for food, feed, fibre and fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Alexopoulou, E.; Christou, M.; Eleftheriadis, I. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES), Pikermi Attikis (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    As different sectors - food, feed, fiber, and fuels - compete for land, the yielding potential of the future non-food crops has to be as efficient as possible in order to minimize the competition for land. The main objective of 4F CROPS project is to survey and analyze all the parameters that will play an important role in successful non-food cropping systems in the agriculture of EU27 alongside the existing food crop systems. The work will start with the prediction of the future land use in short term (2020) and long term (2030), taking under consideration restrict factors for agriculture and the market demand for non-food crops. The cropping possibilities based on regional potential levels, ecology and climate will be determined. This group of non-food crops will be then subjected to a comparative cost analysis with conventional crops for the same time framework. Socio-economic impacts, like farmers' income, rural development, public development, and public acceptance will analyze. Then environmental implications will be assessed compared to their respective conventional products (fossil energy, conversional materials). Several environmental impacts will be assessed like soil quality and soil erosion, air quality and climate change, water issues, biodiversity and landscape by using LCA and EIE methods. The regulatory framework of the non-food crops will be considered including existing policies, co-existence and safety measures when the crops used for both food and non-food crops. All the collected information will be used for the formation of scenarios for successful non-food cropping alongside food cropping systems answering whether a completive bioeconomy is a viable option for EU27.

  16. Near-term high potential counties for SWECS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, W. C.; Downey, W. T.

    1981-02-01

    Up-to-date market information to manufacturers of small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) to assist them in developing marketing strategies for their products are provided. The data are arranged in a format that permits rapid identification of a particular location or market segment for further investigation. Extensive backup information by state and county in state SWECS Market reports are appended. It is suggested that the information are useful to SWECS manufacturers for planning new marketing and advertising activities. Background information essential to market studies is synthesized and an initial framework to start such a study is provided.

  17. Radiation induced mutant crop varieties: accomplishment and societal deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane

  18. Impact of cash cropping and perennial crops on food crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant effects on food crop production and productivity. ... 2 Department of Economics and Resource management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway ... food markets work well, the problem of imperfect markets does not allow ..... prices at the time of purchase with the remaining balance due at the end of the.

  19. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  20. Biosolarization in garlic crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabeiro, Concepcion; Andres, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo

    2014-05-01

    watered until field capacity and covered with clear plastic (160 gauges). Plastic remained until 28 October. There have been two soil sampling, July 24 and November 4. Garlic bulbs were planted in December 23. Selected "Morado" variety, obtained free virus by in vitro culture by the own Cooperative was used. The culture will run until July, following homogeneous organic practices for the 5 treatments. The microbiological activity of a soil directly influences the stability and fertility of a crop. The most common indices used to measure the metabolic activity of the soil are, apart from the net nitrogen mineralization, microbial respiration, soil enzyme activities and the energy involved in the processes (Brookes, 1995; Nanipieri, 1994). Soil samples taken in the different experimental conditions were cleaned, sieved and kept in the laboratory at 4° C for immediate analysis of respiration, biomass carbon and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and dehydrogenase). They were then dried for analysis of physico-chemical parameters, total carbon and nitrogen, phosphorus, conductivity, pH and carbonates. At the time of this summary, biosolarization shows to be effective in controlling weeds before crop planting. The results of soil analysis show a significant effect on the indicators studied.

  1. Numerical simulation of cropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Hutchinson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Cropping is a cutting process whereby opposing aligned blades create a shearing failure by exerting opposing forces normal to the surfaces of a metal sheet or plate. Building on recent efforts to quantify cropping, this paper formulates a plane strain elastic-plastic model of a plate subject to s...

  2. Applied Crop Protection 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse...

  3. Applied Crop Protection 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of gricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse ...

  4. Applied crop protection 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Nielsen, Bent Jørgen; Jensen, Peter Kryger

    This publication contains results from crop protection trials which were carried out at the Department of Agroecology within the area of agricultural crops. Most of the results come from field trials, but results from greenhouse and semi-field trials are also included. The report contains results...

  5. Reed canary grass as an energy crop. Experiences from full-scale tests at BTC, Umeaa during the period 2000-2004; Roerflen som energigroeda. Erfarenheter fraan fullskalefoersoek vid Biobraensletekniskt Centrum (BTC) i Umeaa under aaren 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Sylvia; Oerberg, Haakan; Kalen, Gunnar; Thyrel, Mikael

    2006-07-01

    In the years 2000-2004, reed canary grass (RCG) has been cultivated, harvested, stored, upgraded, and combusted at Umeaa Biofuel Technology Center (BTC), SLU Roebaecksdalen, Umeaa. The entire chain from the field to hot water has been handled by personnel at BTC. Data and experiences from the different handling stages have been continuously collected. In this time period, RCG has been harvested each spring. The mean harvest level on SLU properties has been approximately 4 ton DM/ha and the dry matter content at harvest has been on average 11-12 %. Winter and harvest losses has been determined to approximately 44 %, by a comparison of harvest levels in spring and harvest levels in sample squares in late fall. An alternate method of cutting in late fall, where the crop is left in the field until spring, has been tested. With this method, the risk for cutting of green shoots is eliminated and the isolating effect of the cut ley is decreasing the frost depth in the field. Three different techniques of baling have been tested: large and small square baling, and round baling. Round baling is most suitable for the conditions at BTC, because of the low availability of large square baling equipment in the area. Otherwise large square baling is more time efficient. Thus, the low weight of round baling equipment is advantageous and gives rise to less ground damages. On BTC, the RCG bales are stored outside on an asphalt area, covered with ensilage plastic on a layer of pallets. This handling procedure is working satisfactory with relatively low material losses, but when larger quantities are stored inside storage is to prefer. The economy of RCG cultivation is, as for all agricultural crops, dependent of subsidies within EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Subsidies can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland and on fallow farmland. An extra energy crop subsidy can be received for RCG cultivation on ordinary farmland if the energy crop is utilised as

  6. Molecular, Genetic and Agronomic Approaches to Utilizing Pulses as Cover Crops and Green Manure into Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Abraham, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias

    2017-01-01

    Cover crops constitute one of the most promising agronomic practices towards a more sustainable agriculture. Their beneficial effects on main crops, soil and environment are many and various, while risks and disadvantages may also appear. Several legumes show a high potential but further research is required in order to suggest the optimal legume cover crops for each case in terms of their productivity and ability to suppress weeds. The additional cost associated with cover crops should also be addressed and in this context the use of grain legumes such as cowpea, faba bean and pea could be of high interest. Some of the aspects of these grain legumes as far as their use as cover crops, their genetic diversity and their breeding using conventional and molecular approaches are discussed in the present review. The specific species seem to have a high potential for use as cover crops, especially if their noticeable genetic diversity is exploited and their breeding focuses on several desirable traits. PMID:28587254

  7. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  8. Do cover crop mixtures have the same ability to suppress weeds as competitive monoculture cover crops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brust, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of farmers use cover crop mixtures instead of monoculture cover crops to improve soil and crop quality. However, only little information is available about the weed suppression ability of cover crop mixtures. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted in Baden-Württemberg between 2010 and 2012, to compare growth and weed suppression of monoculture cover crops and cover crop mixtures. In the first experiment, heterogeneous results between yellow mustard and the cover crop mixture occurred. For further research, a field experiment was conducted in 2012 to compare monocultures of yellow mustard and hemp with three cover crop mixtures. The evaluated mixtures were: “MELO”: for soil melioration; “BETA”: includes only plant species with no close relation to main cash crops in Central Europe and “GPS”: for usage as energy substrate in spring. Yellow mustard, MELO, BETA and GPS covered 90% of the soil in less than 42 days and were able to reduce photosynthetically active radiation (PAR on soil surface by more than 96% after 52 days. Hemp covered 90% of the soil after 47 days and reduced PAR by 91% after 52 days. Eight weeks after planting, only BETA showed similar growth to yellow mustard which produced the highest dry matter. The GPS mixture had comparatively poor growth, while MELO produced similar dry matter to hemp. Yellow mustard, MELO and BETA reduced weed growth by 96% compared with a no cover crop control, while hemp and GPS reduced weeds by 85% and 79%. In spring, weed dry matter was reduced by more than 94% in plots with yellow mustard and all mixtures, while in hemp plots weeds were only reduced by 71%. The results suggest that the tested cover crop mixtures offer similar weed suppression ability until spring as the monoculture of the competitive yellow mustard.

  9. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  10. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.

  11. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Radioactivity in food crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for 241 Am, 7 Be, 60 Co, 55 Fe, 3 H, 131 I, 54 Mn, 95 Nb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 228 Th, 232 Th, and 95 Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g -1 (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins

  14. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  15. Addressing crop interactions within cropping systems in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goglio, Pietro; Brankatschk, Gerhard; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2018-01-01

    objectives of this discussion article are as follows: (i) to discuss the characteristics of cropping systems which might affect the LCA methodology, (ii) to discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the current available methods for the life-cycle assessment of cropping systems, and (iii) to offer...... management and emissions, and (3) functional unit issues. The LCA approaches presented are as follows: cropping system, allocation approaches, crop-by-crop approach, and combined approaches. The various approaches are described together with their advantages and disadvantages, applicability...... considers cropping system issues if they are related to multiproduct and nutrient cycling, while the crop-by-crop approach is highly affected by assumptions and considers cropping system issues only if they are related to the analyzed crop. Conclusions Each LCA approach presents advantages and disadvantages...

  16. Agronomical and biological results of solar energy heating by the combination of the sunstock system with an outside captor on a muskmelon crop grown in polyethylene greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandevelde, R.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Six cultivars of muskmelon (Early Dew, "68-02", "Early Chaca", "Jivaro", "Super Sprint" and "Cantor" transplanted at two differents dates were cultivated under two PE greenhouses heated by solar energy recovery and compared to a control greenhouse. The greenhouses were covered with a double shield of normal PE of 100 microns. The first greenhouse was considered as the control. The second one was equipped with a sunstock solar energy collector distribution system, consisting in a covering of 37 % of the ground surface by flat black PVC tubes, used during the day as a solar energy captor for heating the water of a basin and during the night as a radiant mulch for heating the greenhouse by emission of radiation warmth. The third greenhouse was equipped also with the same sunstock System, but connected with a supplementary outdoor collector by means of flat PE tubes corresponding to about 28 % covering of the greenhouse, and resulting in a more important energy stock, available for heating during the night. Minimum air temperature was raised by about 1, 5 and 2, 5°C respectively in the second and the third greenhouse, while the minimum soil temperature was raised with about 1 and 2°C respectively. Evolution of the maximum temperatures was more irregular and was depending also from the incident energy. Plant growth under the solar heated greenhouse was more accelerated, and resulted in an earlier fruitset, an earlier production and a higher total yield.

  17. Grand challenges for crop science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop science is a highly integrative science using the disciplines of conventional plant breeding, transgenic crop improvement, plant physiology, and cropping system sciences to develop improved varieties of agronomic, turf, and forage crops to produce feed, food, fuel, and fiber for our world's gro...

  18. Biotechnology: herbicide-resistant crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops are planted on about 80% of the land covered by transgenic crops. More than 90% of HR crios are glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, the others being resistant to glufosinate. The wide-scale adoption of HR crops, largely for economic reasons, has been the mos...

  19. Is energy cropping in Europe compatible with biodiversity? – Opportunities and threats to biodiversity from land-based production of biomass for bioenergy purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Frederiksen, P.; Grandin, U.; Heikkilä, R.; Krogh, P.H.; Izakovicová, Z.; Johansen, A.; Meiresonne, L.; Spijker, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on literature and six country studies (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Slovakia) this paper discusses the compatibility of the EU 2020 targets for renewable energy with conservation of biodiversity. We conclude that increased demand for biomass for bioenergy purposes may lead

  20. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration

  2. Farming with future: making crop protection sustainable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    The project Farming with future works with parties with a vested interest to promote sustainable crop protection in practice. Besides developing new knowledge, it spends a good deal of its energy in the embedding of sustainable practices within relevant organisations, businesses and agrarian

  3. Jojoba: a crop whose time has come

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yermanos, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    The prospects of developing Simmondsia chinensis into a profitable energy-related crop are discussed. Apart from yielding seed oil with lubricating properties, it has potential as a landscape and soil conservation plant. Propagation, spacing, temperature and soil requirements, irrigation, pollination, stand establishment, yields and breeding are considered.

  4. International energy technology collaboration and climate change mitigation. Case study 2. Cooperation in Agriculture. R and D on High-Yielding Crop Varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [Global and Structural Policies Division, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Mitigating climate change and achieving stabilisation of greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations will require deep reductions in global emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Developing and disseminating new, low-carbon energy technology will thus be needed. Two previous AIXG papers have focused on possible drivers for such a profound technological change: Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion, released in June 2003, and International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, released in June 2004. The first of these papers assesses a broad range of technical options for reducing energy-related CO2 emissions. It examines how technologies evolve and the role of research and development efforts, alternative policies, and short-term investment decisions in making long-term options available. It considers various policy tools that may induce technological change, some very specific, and others with broader expected effects. Its overall conclusion is that policies specifically designed to promote technical change, or 'technology push', could play a critical role in making available and affordable new energy technologies. However, such policies would not be sufficient to achieve the Convention's objective in the absence of broader policies. First, because there is a large potential for cuts that could be achieved in the short run with existing technologies; and second, the development of new technologies requires a market pull as much as a technology push. The second paper considers the potential advantages and disadvantages of international energy technology collaboration and transfer for promoting technological change. Advantages of collaboration may consist of lowering R and D costs and stimulating other countries to invest in R and D; disadvantage may include free-riding and the inefficiency of reaching agreement between many actors. This paper sets the context for further discussion on the role of

  5. Efficiency for solar energy conversion in rice population estimated from crop photosynthesis and respiration under field conditions (Part 1). Ratio of respiration to photosynthesis during the ripening stage. [Effect of planting data, heading time, variety, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaki, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Junji

    1987-12-21

    According to the results of measuring crop photosynthesis and respiration of rice population, a comparative experiment on the variations of the ratio of respiration to photosynthesis (R/P ratio) due to the difference of the rice planting time or the heading time was carried out using extremely early-maturing and early or medium-maturing varieties. On the measured data of photosynthesis and respiration which were observed with change of the growth, the R/P ratio were obtained twenty days before to thirty days after the heading time. As the results, it was found that the R/P ratio of the group with the heading time at the end of July was about 10 to 20 % higher than that of another group with the heading time after middle of August. This means that the apparent energy conversion efficiency may be affected by the differences of the planting time, the heading time and the temperature condition. Hitherto, in determination of the rice-planting time, quantity of solar radiation in the growth and ripening stages was apt to be regarded as important. However, in consideration of true suitable planting time, the study from the aspect of the energy conversion efficiency is also required. (7 figs, 9 tabs, 8 refs)

  6. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  7. Cover crops support ecological intensification of arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Raphaël A.; Dorn, Brigitte; Jossi, Werner; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2017-02-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is to enhance productivity with minimum impact on the environment. Several studies indicate that cover crops could replace anthropogenic inputs and enhance crop productivity. However, so far, it is unclear if cover crop effects vary between different cropping systems, and direct comparisons among major arable production systems are rare. Here we compared the short-term effects of various cover crops on crop yield, nitrogen uptake, and weed infestation in four arable production systems (conventional cropping with intensive tillage and no-tillage; organic cropping with intensive tillage and reduced tillage). We hypothesized that cover cropping effects increase with decreasing management intensity. Our study demonstrated that cover crop effects on crop yield were highest in the organic system with reduced tillage (+24%), intermediate in the organic system with tillage (+13%) and in the conventional system with no tillage (+8%) and lowest in the conventional system with tillage (+2%). Our results indicate that cover crops are essential to maintaining a certain yield level when soil tillage intensity is reduced (e.g. under conservation agriculture), or when production is converted to organic agriculture. Thus, the inclusion of cover crops provides additional opportunities to increase the yield of lower intensity production systems and contribute to ecological intensification.

  8. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  9. Variation on biomass yield and morphological traits of energy grasses from the genus Miscanthus during the first years of crop establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowski, S.; Glowacka, K.; Kaczmarek, Z. [Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Strzeszynska 34, 60-479 Poznan (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    This study presents the results of investigations of variation, genotype x year interactions and genotype x year x location interactions for the yield and morphological traits of several selected clones of energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. The analyses were performed on the best clones of selected hybrid plants, which were obtained within the species M. sinensis or are the result of interspecific hybridization of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus. Analyses were conducted on the basis of three-year field trials at two locations. The young plants produced from in vitro cultures were planted at a density of one plant per m{sup 2}. The early stages of plant development, from planting until peak yield in the third year of cultivation, were analysed. Statistical analyses performed on the yield and morphological traits as well as changes in these characteristics over the successive years of the study showed considerable genotypic variation for traits under study. Moreover, significant genotype x year interactions as well as genotype x year x location interactions were observed in terms of yield and morphological traits. Based on the collective results of the study, we suggest that apart from M. x giganteus particularly hybrids of M. sinensis x M. sacchariflorus, should be taken into consideration in genetic and breeding studies on the improvement of yield from energy grasses of the genus Miscanthus. (author)

  10. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  11. Transpiration and crop yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1958-01-01

    Theoretical and practical aspects of the transpiration of crops in the field are discussed and he concludes that the relationship between transpiration and total dry matter production is much less affected by growing conditions than has been supposed. In semi-arid and arid regions, this relationship

  12. Future-proof crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissoudis, Christos; Wiel, van de Clemens; Visser, R.G.F.; Linden, van der Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Breeding for stress-resilient crops strongly depends on technological and biological advancements that have provided a wealth of information on genetic variants and their contribution to stress tolerance. In the context of the upcoming challenges for agriculture due to climate change, such as

  13. Mycorrhiza and crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayman, D S

    1980-10-09

    This article describes recent research with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiotic fungus-root association. The suggestion that the symbiotic association may be harnessed to achieve more economical use of phosphate fertilizers is discussed and the results from various test crops are given.

  14. N-Nitroso Compound Precursors in some Nigerian Forage Crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N-Nitroso Compound Precursors in some Nigerian Forage Crops. ... were analyzed as their sulphonamides by gas chromatography interfaced with a chemiluminescence detector-Thermal Energy Analyzer modified for use in nitrogen mode.

  15. Evaluation of herbacceous biomass crops in the northern Great Plains. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, D.W.; Norby, W.E.; Erickson, D.O.; Johnson, R.G. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Herbaceous lignocellulose crops are a potential renewable feedstock for biochemical conversion systems second in size to wood products. Several herbaceous crops are utilized as forage crops in the northern Great Plains, but forage quality considerations usually dictates a early harvest. Biomass cropping does not have this constraint; therefore, little information was available on herbaceous crops utilized as energy crops prior to this project. Our primary objectives were to evaluate the biomass yield and select chemical components of several herbaceous crops for energy crops in the northern Great Plains, compare the economic feasibility of energy crops with common competing crops, and evaluate biomass cropping on summer fallow lands. Three good, two marginal, and one irrigated sites were used during 1988 to 1992 for the first component. At least six perennial and four annual biomass species were included at all sites. Three to four nitrogen (N) levels and a crop-recrop comparison (annuals only) were management intensities included. Biomass cropping on idled lands was performed on dryland at Carrington and evaluated the effects of removing leguminous biomass on fallowed lands. This report summarizes results from the 5-year project.

  16. Building crop models within different crop modelling frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, M.Y.O.; Corbeels, M.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Keulen, van H.; Wery, J.; Ewert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Modular frameworks for crop modelling have evolved through simultaneous progress in crop science and software development but differences among these frameworks exist which are not well understood, resulting in potential misuse for crop modelling. In this paper we review differences and similarities

  17. Retention of high-potential employees in a development finance company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishani Letchmiah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The loss of high-potential employees was a concern to leaders at a South African development finance company. The research question that guided the study was: How can high-potential employees be retained in the company? Research purpose: The objective of the study was to identify factors that positively impact the retention of high-potential employees in a development finance company. Motivation for the study: The organisation that comprised the unit of study had prioritised employee development to retain high-potential employees, thereby aiming to build a strong talent pipeline and a sustainable knowledge base. A prevalent concern was that there were no formal retention programmes for high-potential employees. Accordingly, organisational leaders could benefit from understanding those retention factors that may serve to retain such employees. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative methodology promoted a deeper understanding of a social problem through a case study. Eleven purposefully chosen highpotential employees provided insights into factors they considered to be important in their retention. A content analysis of the data resulted in clusters of themes that addressed the research objective. Main findings: The following factors appeared to influence the retention of high-potential employees: leadership and organisational culture, organisational purpose, developmental opportunities, meaningful work and collegiality. Practical and managerial implications: Leaders in the company should consider factors that could influence the retention of high-potential employees. Such factors should be built into formal retention strategies based on the intrinsic needs of employees; the strengths that the organisational culture provides could be leveraged in this regard. Contribution: The practical value of the study was the highlighting of the factors that can be leveraged to retain high-potential employees in a development finance

  18. Crop responses to climatic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, John R.; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2005-01-01

    The yield and quality of food crops is central to the well being of humans and is directly affected by climate and weather. Initial studies of climate change on crops focussed on effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO2) level and/or global mean temperature and/or rainfall and nutrition on crop...... production. However, crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions, exhibit threshold responses and are subject to combinations of stress factors that affect their growth, development and yield. Thus, climate variability and changes in the frequency of extreme events are important...... for yield, its stability and quality. In this context, threshold temperatures for crop processes are found not to differ greatly for different crops and are important to define for the major food crops, to assist climate modellers predict the occurrence of crop critical temperatures and their temporal...

  19. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  20. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  1. Radiation and crop improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    The present state of the research was reviewed and its results analyzed at an international scientific Symposium on the Effects of Ionizing Radiations on Seeds and their Significance for Crop Improvement held at Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1960. The experts began a detailed examination of certain special aspects of the radiobiology of seeds. Some of the topics discussed related to the processes initiated in seeds as a result of irradiation. The influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity and the presence or absence of oxygen, was also evaluated. Variations in the sensitivity to radiation were taken into consideration and ways of modifying the sensitivity were examined. Two sessions were devoted to a study of radiation- and chemically-induced chromosome breakage and reunion. The nature and mechanism of chromosome breakage and reunion area subject of basic importance in all radiobiological studies and naturally constituted one of the main topics of discussion at the Karlsruhe symposium. The symposium discussed the relevance of these basic scientific questions to crop improvement. Whether irradiation itself, without producing any hereditary changes, can stimulate crop yields is a matter of considerable interest. It has been found that in some cases the effect is stimulating, while in others it is inhibitive. A number of experiments were described and an attempt was made to deduce certain principles from the results obtained

  2. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  3. Economic analysis of biomass crop production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.; Stricker, J.A.; Kiker, C.F. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Favorable soil and climate conditions for production of biomass crops in Florida, and a market for their use, provide the essentials for developing a biomass energy system in the State. Recent surveys showed that there is low opportunity cost land available and several high yield herbaceous and woody crops have potential as biomass crops. Comparison of biomass crop yields, farmgate costs, and costs of final products in Florida and other states show that Florida can be considered as one of the best areas for development of biomass energy systems in the United States. This paper presents facts and figures on biomass production and conversion in Florida and addresses issues of concern to the economics of biomass energy in the State. (author)

  4. Air-quality and Climatic Consequences of Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Christian

    Bioenergy is expected to play an increasingly significant role in the global energy budget. In addition to the use of liquid energy forms such as ethanol and biodiesel, electricity generation using processed energy crops as a partial or full coal alternative is expected to increase, requiring large-scale conversions of land for the cultivation of bioenergy feedstocks such as cane, grasses, or short rotation coppice. With land-use change identified as a major contributor to changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), many of which are known contributors to the pollutants ozone (O 3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), careful review of crop emission profiles and local atmospheric chemistry will be necessary to mitigate any unintended air-quality consequences. In this work, the atmospheric consequences of bioenergy crop replacement are examined using both the high-resolution regional chemical transport model WRF/Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) and the global climate model CESM (Community Earth System Model). Regional sensitivities to several representative crop types are analyzed, and the impacts of each crop on air quality and climate are compared. Overall, the high emitting crops (eucalyptus and giant reed) were found to produce climate and human health costs totaling up to 40% of the value of CO 2 emissions prevented, while the related costs of the lowest-emitting crop (switchgrass) were negligible.

  5. Crop yield response to climate change varies with cropping intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Andrew J; Parkes, Ben; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian

    2015-04-01

    Projections of the response of crop yield to climate change at different spatial scales are known to vary. However, understanding of the causes of systematic differences across scale is limited. Here, we hypothesize that heterogeneous cropping intensity is one source of scale dependency. Analysis of observed global data and regional crop modelling demonstrate that areas of high vs. low cropping intensity can have systematically different yields, in both observations and simulations. Analysis of global crop data suggests that heterogeneity in cropping intensity is a likely source of scale dependency for a number of crops across the globe. Further crop modelling and a meta-analysis of projected tropical maize yields are used to assess the implications for climate change assessments. The results show that scale dependency is a potential source of systematic bias. We conclude that spatially comprehensive assessments of climate impacts based on yield alone, without accounting for cropping intensity, are prone to systematic overestimation of climate impacts. The findings therefore suggest a need for greater attention to crop suitability and land use change when assessing the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-01-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs

  7. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  8. The Crop Journal Call for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  9. The Crop Journal Call for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer-reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  10. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer‐reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  11. The Crop Journal Calls for Papers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    We would like to invite you to submit your latest research accomplishments to The Crop Journal,an international,peer-reviewed research publication covering all aspects of crop sciences including crop genetics,breeding,agronomy,crop physiology,germplasm resources,grain chemistry,grain storage and processing,crop management practices,crop biotechnology,and biomathematics on a bimonthly basis.

  12. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  13. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  14. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  15. Plant factories; crop transpiration and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graamans, Luuk; Dobbelsteen, van den Andy; Meinen, Esther; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanisation may result in a shortage of food supplies for cities in the foreseeable future. Research on closed plant production systems, such as plant factories, has attempted to offer perspectives for robust (urban) agricultural systems. Insight into the explicit role

  16. in crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antoni Rafalski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most important crop productivity traits, such as yield under normal and environmental stress conditions, are determined by a large number of genes, each with a small phenotypic effect. Genetic improvement of these traits through breeding or genetic engineering has been frustrating researchers in academia and industry. The reasons for this include the complexity of the traits, the difficulty of precise phenotyping and the lack of validated candidate genes. Different approaches to the discovery of the genetic architecture of such traits, such as Genetic Association Mapping and Genomic Selection and their engineering, are expected to yield benefits for farmers and consumers.

  17. [Biofuels, food security and transgenic crops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.

  18. Radiation technology for the development of improved crop varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, Stanislaus F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane. The desirable traits which have been bred through induced mutations include higher yield, grain quality, early maturity, disease and pest resistance, improved plant type and abiotic stress resistance

  19. Using trap crops for control of Acalymma vittatum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reduces insecticide use in butternut squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, A; Hazzard, R; Adler, L S; Boucher, J

    2009-06-01

    Striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F., is the primary insect pest of cucurbit crops in the northeastern United States. Adult beetles colonize squash crops from field borders, causing feeding damage at the seedling stage and transmitting bacterial wilt Erwinia tracheiphila Hauben et al. 1999. Conventional control methods rely on insecticide applications to the entire field, but surrounding main crops with a more attractive perimeter could reduce reliance on insecticides. A. cittatum shows a marked preference for Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) over butternut squash (C. moschata Poir). Given this preference, Blue Hubbard squash has the potential to be an effective perimeter trap crop. We evaluated this system in commercial butternut fields in 2003 and 2004, comparing fields using perimeter trap cropping with Blue Hubbard to conventionally managed fields. In 2003, we used a foliar insecticide to control beetles in the trap crop borders, and in 2004, we compared systemic and foliar insecticide treatments for the trap crop borders. We found that using a trap crop system reduced or eliminated the need to spray the main crop area, reducing insecticide use by up to 94% compared with conventional control methods, with no increase in herbivory or beetle numbers. We surveyed the growers who participated in these experiments and found a high level of satisfaction with the effectiveness and simplicity of the system. These results suggest that this method of pest control is both effective and simple enough in its implementation to have high potential for adoption among growers.

  20. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  1. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  2. Expression and Characterisation of Recombinant Rhodocyclus tenuis High Potential Iron-Sulphur Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Bjerg; Bennet, K.; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2000-01-01

    The high potential iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) from Rhodocyclus tenuis strain 2761 has been overproduced in Escherichia coli from its structural gene, purified to apparent homogeneity, and then characterized by an array of methods. UV-visible spectra of the reduced and oxidized recombinant protein...

  3. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  4. Space Data for Crop Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    CROPIX, Inc., formed in 1984 by Frank Lamb, president of the Eastern Oregon Farming Company, monitors primarily potato crops in a 20,000 square mile area of northern Oregon and central Washington. Potatoes are a high value specialty crop that can be more profitable to the farmer if he has advance knowledge of market conditions, knows when to harvest, and when to take it to market. By processing and collecting data collected by the NASA-developed Landsat Earth Resources survey satellites, Lamb is able to provide accurate information on crop acreage and conditions on a more timely basis than the routine estimates by the USDA. CROPIX uses Landsat data to make acreage estimates of crops, and to calculate a field-by-field vegetative index number. CROPIX then distributes to its customers a booklet containing color-coded maps, an inventory of crops, plus data and graphs on crop conditions and other valuable information.

  5. Introduction of Alley Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Parmadi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the efforts to preserve the sources of vegetarian, soil, and water is to rehabilitate the land and soil conservation. The aim of this rehabilitation is increasing and maintaining the produtivity of the land, so it can be preserved and used optimally. Therefore, it is necessary to a  develop a variety of good soil conservation, such as vegetative method and civil engineering. To find an appropriate technology, so it is necessary to develop some alternatives of soil conservation technique that are mainly implemented at dry land with its slope of more than 15% in the upstream area of discharge. One of the most suitable soil conservation technique today is Alley Cropping. Based on the research (trial and error in some areas, Alley Cropping could really provide a positive result in terms of erotion controlling and running off and maintain the land productivity. In addition, the technique is more easly operated and spends a cheaper cost than making a bench terrace.

  6. SALT TOLERANCE OF CROP PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdia, M. A; Shaddad, M. A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Several environmental factors adversely affect plant growth and development and final yield performance of a crop. Drought, salinity, nutrient imbalances (including mineral toxicities and deficiencies) and extremes of temperature are among the major environmental constraints to crop productivity worldwide. Development of crop plants with stress tolerance, however, requires, among others, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms and genetic controls of the contributing traits at different pla...

  7. Cost efficient utilisation of biomass in the German energy system in the context of energy and environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The possible uses of biomass for energy provision are manifold. Gaseous, liquid and solid bioenergy carriers can be alternatively converted into heat, power or transport fuel. The contribution of the different utilisation pathways to environmental political targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction and energy political targets for the future share of renewable energy vary accordingly to their techno-economic characteristics. The aim of the presented study is to assess the different biomass options against the background of energy and environmental political targets based on a system analytical approach for the future German energy sector. The results show that heat generation and to a lower extent combined heat and power (CHP) production from solid biomass like wood and straw are the most cost effective ways to contribute to the emission reduction targets. The use of energy crops in fermentation biogas plants (maize) and for production of 1st generation transportation fuels, like biodiesel from rapeseed and ethanol from grain or sugar beet, are less favourable. Optimisation potentials lie in a switch to the production of 2nd generation biofuels and the enhanced use of either biomass residues or low production intensive energy crops. - Research Highlights: → Heat generation and CHP generation from biomass can contribute cost efficiently to emission reduction targets. → Biofuel production represenst the least cost efficient option for emission reduction when using biomass energetically. → The energetical use of biomass shows a high potential to contribute to energy and envirnoment political targets.

  8. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  9. Tropical crops as a basic source of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, J.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A study is made of the potential that exists for food production in the Latin American tropics, and ways in which this could improve and diversify nutritional patterns in other ecological regions. Crops which could become more important include roots and tubers, varieties of beans, fruits, nuts and vegetables. Tropical crops such as sugar cane and cassava could also be used as renewable sources of energy, to replace conventional non-renewable fuels.

  10. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    OpenAIRE

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration and to identify the constraints set on climate management by the termodynamic behaviour of the canopy. Before the relationship among microclimate, canopy temperature and transpiration is rendered i...

  11. Test of a solar crop dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S. [Teknologisk Institut. SolEnergiCentret, Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danmarks JordbrugsForskning, Tjele (Denmark); Forman, T. [Aidt Miljoe A/S, Thorsoe (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    . During the test of the year other crops may be dried in the solar crop dryer. The solar crop dryer was developed and produced in Denmark by Aidt Miljoe A/S in corporation with the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Solar Energy Centre Denmark. As an important part of the development of the solar crop dryer, a unit was tested in Denmark. The report describes briefly the dryer and the modifications made to the original design based on the tests. Main focus of the report is the results from the tests on the prototype. The second chapter of the report contains the description, measuring equipment and test on the initial design of the solar crop dryer. The third to sixth chapter contain only descriptions of the modifications made to the dryer and the measuring equipment and the most important measuring results. Several other smaller tests have been carried out than the tests described in chapter 3-6, however, the tests described in chapter 3-6 include the major findings of the tests carried out. Chapter seven contains some preliminary economical considerations. (au)

  12. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  13. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  14. Developing Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouton, J.; Bransby, D.; Conger, B.; McLaughlin, S.; Ocumpaugh, W.; Parrish, D.; Taliaferro, C.; Vogel, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    1998-11-08

    The utilization of energy crops produced on American farms as a source of renewable fuels is a concept with great relevance to current ecological and economic issues at both national and global scales. Development of a significant national capacity to utilize perennial forage crops, such as switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) as biofuels could benefit our agricultural economy by providing an important new source of income for farmers. In addition energy production from perennial cropping systems, which are compatible with conventional fining practices, would help reduce degradation of agricultural soils, lower national dependence on foreign oil supplies, and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and toxic pollutants to the atmosphere (McLaughlin 1998). Interestingly, on-farm energy production is a very old concept, extending back to 19th century America when both transpofiation and work on the farm were powered by approximately 27 million draft animals and fueled by 34 million hectares of grasslands (Vogel 1996). Today a new form of energy production is envisioned for some of this same acreage. The method of energy production is exactly the same - solar energy captured in photosynthesis, but the subsequent modes of energy conversion are vastly different, leading to the production of electricity, transportation fuels, and chemicals from the renewable feedstocks. While energy prices in the United States are among the cheapest in the world, the issues of high dependency on imported oil, the uncertainties of maintaining stable supplies of imported oil from finite reserves, and the environmental costs associated with mining, processing, and combusting fossil fuels have been important drivers in the search for cleaner burning fuels that can be produced and renewed from the landscape. At present biomass and bioenergy combine provide only about 4% of the total primary energy used in the U.S. (Overend 1997). By contrast, imported oil accounts for approximately 44% of the

  15. Process-based humidity control regime for greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    Modern greenhouses in The Netherlands are designed for efficient use of energy. Climate control traditionally aims at optimal crop performance. However, energy saving is a major issue for the development of new temperature regimes. Temperature integration (TI) results in fluctuating and often high

  16. Turning the aquatic weed Azolla into a sustainable crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, P.

    2017-01-01

    Growing worldwide demands for food, energy and chemicals threatens natural ecosystems and global climate. Plants are crucial for food production, but may also be used to produce sustainable energy and materials. Hereto novel crops are sought with high productivity per hectare, whilst requiring

  17. The dynamics of hydroponic crops for simulation studies of the CELSS initial reference configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler

    1993-01-01

    During the past several years, the NASA Program in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) has continued apace with crop research and logistic, technological, and scientific strides. These include the CELSS Test Facility planned for the space station and its prototype Engineering Development Unit, soon to be active at Ames Research Center (as well as the advanced crop growth research chamber at Ames); the large environmental growth chambers and the planned human test bed facility at Johnson Space Center; the NSCORT at Purdue with new candidate crops and diverse research into the CELSS components; the gas exchange data for soy, potatoes, and wheat from Kennedy Space Center (KSC); and the high-precision gas exchange data for wheat from Utah State University (USU). All these developments, taken together, speak to the need for crop modeling as a means to connect the findings of the crop physiologists with the engineers designing the system. A need also exists for crop modeling to analyze and predict the gas exchange data from the various locations to maximize the scientific yield from the experiments. One fruitful approach employs what has been called the 'energy cascade'. Useful as a basis for CELSS crop growth experimental design, the energy cascade as a generic modeling approach for CELSS crops is a featured accomplishment in this report. The energy cascade is a major tool for linking CELSS crop experiments to the system design. The energy cascade presented here can help collaborations between modelers and crop experimenters to develop the most fruitful experiments for pushing the limits of crop productivity. Furthermore, crop models using the energy cascade provide a natural means to compare, feature for feature, the crop growth components between different CELSS experiments, for example, at Utah State University and Kennedy Space Center.

  18. Availability of crop cellulosics for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, R.D.

    1982-10-01

    Past estimates of cellulosic resources available from Canadian agriculture totalled over 23 million tonnes of cereal grain straw and corn stover residues surplus to soil and animal requirements. A new much reduced estimate, based on four detailed regional studies that also include previously unassessed resources such as chaff, oilseed hulls, and food processing wastes, is suggested. Eleven million tonnes are currently available from all residue sources for energy conversion by different processes. Only five million tonnes are identified as potentially usable in ethanol production plants were they to be constructed. Additional resource opportunities may become available in future from currently underutilized land, especially saline soils, novel processing techniques of conventional grains and forages, innovative cropping systems that may increase the yield of agricultural biomass, and new food/feed/fuel (i.e. multi-purpose) crops such as kochia, milkweed, and Jerusalem artichoke. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Management of crop residues for sustainable crop production. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    Since ancient times, farmers have recognized the importance of organic matter inputs to enhance crop yields. Organic matter contributes to plant growth through beneficial effects on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil, including (i) provision of a carbon and energy source for soil microbes, (ii) improvement of soil aggregation, thus reducing the hazard of erosion, (iii) retaining of nutrients and water, (iv) provision of nutrients through decomposition, and (v) reduction of soil compaction. The amount of soil organic matter is controlled by the balance between additions of plant and animal materials and losses by decomposition. Both additions and losses are directly affected by management practices. This CRP supported national efforts in eleven Member States to identify options managing crop residues for sustainable agricultural production and environmental preservation in a wide range of soils and cropping systems. Various options for the recycling of crop residues that are sustainable and economically attractive to farmers were examined using isotopic techniques. The specific options of this CRP were: to increase the quantity of nutrients available to crops from organic sources and for more effective recycling of those nutrients; to enhance the efficiency of use of nutrients by crops, and minimize losses through improved synchrony between process-level understanding of carbon and nutrient flow through the use of isotopic techniques so that management recommendations can be extrapolated to a wide range of environments using models. A simple mathematical model, descriptive in nature, was developed to synthesize information collected from all experimental sites, allowing comparisons between treatments and sites. Most of the fertilizer N was lost during the first cropping season and only insignificant losses occurred in the following seasons. The losses of N from applied fertilizer ranged from 45 to 85% irrespective of crop

  20. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  1. Potential photosynthesis of crop surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.

    1959-01-01

    A formula for calculating the potential photosynthesis of a closed crop surface is proposed, assuming that the leaves of the crop are not arranged in any definite direction. In the Netherlands, values for potential photosynthesis vary from 290 kg. CH2O/ha./day in June to 50 kg./ha./day in December.

  2. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  3. Chemical mutagenesis for crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Focusses on methodological aspects for the efficient induction of mutations in crop plants by chemomutagens. Mutagen treatment of barley seeds with ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) is documented in detail to exemplify procedural phases. Reference is made to safe handling and the prevention of biohazards. Induced biological and genetic effects at various plant generations are documented and the use of mutants for crop improvement is discussed

  4. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  5. Archives: African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 99 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 99 ...

  6. Archives: African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 99 of 99 ... Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home > Archives: African Crop Science Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 99 of 99 ...

  7. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Activation or stalling on dark days. Outline of the options to save energy and the consequences for crops; Activeren' of 'stilzetten' op donkere dagen. Verkenning van de mogelijkheden voor energiebesparing en de gevolgen voor het gewas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Kempkes, F.; Dueck, T.A. [Plant Research International, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    In the framework of the Greenhouse Horticulture and Environment Covenant (GLAMI) the government and the greenhouse horticulture sector have made agreements about social preconditions, with 2010 as horizon: 65% decrease in energy use compared to 1980 and 4% sustainable energy. Moreover, the government demands that greenhouse horticulture reduces CO2 emissions. Set against this background, a study was conducted in 2006 examining the effects of activating crops on the carious processes in the crops and the consequences for energy use. In the first phase an inventory was made of the knowledge and the number of experts in the area of crops, greenhouse climate and energy use. In the final phase of the project the results were discussed with a number of cultivation advisors and a study group high wire cucumber growers.(mk) [Dutch] In het kader van het convenant Glastuinbouw en Milieu (GLAMI) hebben de overheid en de glastuinbouwsector afspraken gemaakt over de maatschappelijke randvoorwaarden, met als horizon 2010: 65% vermindering van het energiegebruik ten opzichte van 1980 en 4% duurzame energie. Ook wil de overheid dat de glastuinbouw de uitstoot van CO2 terugdringen. Tegen deze achtergrond is in 2006 onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van het activeren van het gewas op de verschillende processen in het gewas en op de gevolgen voor het energiegebruik. De eerste fase van dit onderzoek bestond uit het inventariseren van de kennis van een aantal experts op het gebied van gewas, kasklimaat en energiegebruik. In de laatste fase van dit project zijn de resultaten besproken met een aantal teeltadviseurs en een studiegroep hoge draad komkommertelers.

  9. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  10. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeshart, H.

    1978-01-01

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  11. Plutonium contents of field crops in the southeastern US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Corey, J.C.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Agricultural crops were grown at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Plant (SRP) and at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on soils at field sites containing plutonium concentrations above background levels from nuclear weapon tests. Major US grain crops were grown adjacent to a reprocessing facility at SRP, which releases low chronic levels of plutonium through an emission stack. Major vegetable crops were grown at the ORNL White Oak Creek floodplain, which received plutonium effluent wastes in 1944 from the Manhattan Project weapon development. In general, the concentration ratios of vegetative parts of crops at SRP were approximately one order of magnitude higher than those at ORNL, which indicates the influence of aerial deposition of plutonium at the SRP site

  12. Impact of feedstock, land use change, and soil organic carbon on energy and greenhouse gas performance of biomass cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njakou Djomo, S.; Witters, N.; Van Dael, M.; Gabrielle, B.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel based CHP system. • Not all energy efficient pathways led to lower GHG emissions. • iLUC through intensification increased the total energy input and GHG emissions. • Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and GHG benefits of all pathways. • Perennial crops are in some cases better than residues on GHG emissions criteria. - Abstract: Bioenergy (i.e., bioheat and bioelectricity) could simultaneously address energy insecurity and climate change. However, bioenergy’s impact on climate change remains incomplete when land use changes (LUC), soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, and the auxiliary energy consumption are not accounted for in the life cycle. Using data collected from Belgian farmers, combined heat and power (CHP) operators, and a life cycle approach, we compared 40 bioenergy pathways to a fossil-fuel CHP system. Bioenergy required between 0.024 and 0.204 MJ (0.86 MJ th + 0.14 MJ el ) −1 , and the estimated energy ratio (energy output-to-input ratio) ranged from 5 to 42. SOC loss increased the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residue based bioenergy. On average, the iLUC represented ∼67% of the total GHG emissions of bioenergy from perennial energy crops. However, the net LUC (i.e., dLUC + iLUC) effects substantially reduced the GHG emissions incurred during all phases of bioenergy production from perennial crops, turning most pathways based on energy crops to GHG sinks. Relative to fossil-fuel based CHP all bioenergy pathways reduced GHG emissions by 8–114%. Fluidized bed technologies maximize the energy and the GHG benefits of all pathways. The size and the power-to-heat ratio for a given CHP influenced the energy and GHG performance of these bioenergy pathways. Even with the inclusion of LUC, perennial crops had better GHG performance than agricultural and forest residues. Perennial crops have a high potential in the multidimensional approach to increase energy

  13. Estimating Major Crop Water Productivity at Neyshabour Basin and Optimize Crop Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavar Pourmohamad

    2017-06-01

    reports, agriculture consumes around 93.5percent of the groundwater withdrawals in Neyshabour basin and mostly in irrigation fields, surface water resources share in total water resource withdrawals is about 4.2percent, which means that groundwater is a primary source of fresh water for different purposes and surface water has a minor role in providing water supply services in the Neyshabour basin. To determine crop cultivation area, major crops divided into two groups. two winter crops (Wheat and Barley and two summer crops (Maize and Tomato. To accomplish land classification by using supervised method, a training area is needed, so different farms for each crop were chosen by consulting with official agricultural organization expert and multiple point read on GPS for each crop. The maximum likelihood (MLC method was selected for the land cover classification. To estimate the amount of precipitation at each 199 sub-basins, 13 station data for precipitation were collected, these stations are including 11 pluviometry stations, one climatology station and one synoptic station. Actual evapotranspiration (ETa is needed to estimate actual yield (Ya. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL technique were applied on Landsat 8 OLI images. To calculate actual ETa, the following steps in flowchart were modeled as tool in ArcGIS 10.3 and a spreadsheet file. To estimate actual crop yield, the suggested procedure by FAO-33 and FAO-66 were followed. Financial productivity could be defined in differently according to interest. In this study several of these definition was used. These definitions are Income productivity (IP and Profit productivity (PP. To optimize crop area, linear programing technique were used. Results and discussionaverage actual evapotranspiration result for each sub-basin are shown in context. In some sub-basins which there were no evapotranspiration are shown in white. And it happens in those sub-basins which assigned as desert in land classification. In

  14. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  15. Stable Food Crops Turning Into Commercial Crops: Case studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    case study analyses for the cereal crops of teff3, wheat and rice. Specifically, the ... behavior of households during the process of commercial transformation of subsistence ..... roducer → rural assembler, and producer → consumer. As with teff ...

  16. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  17. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  18. Attributing Crop Production in the United States Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Pan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Crop production plays key role in supporting life, economy and shaping environment. It is on one hand influenced by natural factors including precipitation, temperature, energy, and on the other hand shaped by the investment of fertilizers, pesticides and human power. Successful attributing of crop production to different factors can help optimize resources and improve productivity. Based on the meteorological records from National Center for Environmental Prediction and state-wise crop production related data provided by the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, an artificial neural network was constructed to connect crop production with precipitation and temperature anormlies, capital input, labor input, energy input, pesticide consumption and fertilizer consumption. Sensitivity analysis were carried out to attribute their specific influence on crop production for each grid. Results confirmed that the listed factors can generally determine the crop production. Different state response differently to the pertubation of predictands. Their spatial distribution is visulized and discussed.

  19. Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.C.; Keoleian, G.A.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting for 37% of the non-renewable fossil energy input into the system. Net energy ratio varies from 58 to below 40 as a function of fertilizer application rate, but application rate also has implications on the system nutrient balance. Substituting inorganic N fertilizer with sewage sludge biosolids increases the net energy ratio of the willow biomass crop production system by more than 40%. While CO 2 emitted in combusting dedicated biomass is balanced by CO 2 adsorbed in the growing biomass, production processes contribute to the system's net global warming potential. Taking into account direct and indirect fuel use, N 2 O emissions from applied fertilizer and leaf litter, and carbon sequestration in below ground biomass and soil carbon, the net greenhouse gas emissions total 0.68 g CO 2 eq. MJ biomassproduced -1 . Site specific parameters such as soil carbon sequestration could easily offset these emissions resulting in a net reduction of greenhouse gases. Assuming reasonable biomass transportation distance and energy conversion efficiencies, this study implies that generating electricity from willow biomass crops could produce 11 units of electricity per unit of fossil energy consumed. Results form the LCA support the assertion that willow biomass crops are sustainable from an energy balance perspective and contribute additional environmental benefits

  20. African Crop Science Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particular attention should be paid to the study factors/treatments and their structure, design, ... The African Crop Science Journal uses the Harvard citation style. Only published articles (journals and proceedings) or books may be cited.

  1. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay...... plants, the expression of the IPT gene under control of senescence-associated promoters has been the most successful. The promoters employed for senescence-regulated expression contain cis-elements for binding of WRKY transcription factors and factors controlled by abscisic acid. In most crops...

  2. Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, R.A.; Jacobus, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent

  3. Nonlinear electron acoustic structures generated on the high-potential side of a double layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High-time resolution measurements of the electron distribution function performed in the auroral upward current region reveals a large asymmetry between the low- and high-potential sides of a double-layer. The latter side is characterized by a large enhancement of a locally trapped electron population which corresponds to a significant part (~up to 30% of the total electron density. As compared to the background hot electron population, this trapped component has a very cold temperature in the direction parallel to the static magnetic field. Accordingly, the differential drift between the trapped and background hot electron populations generates high frequency electron acoustic waves in a direction quasi-parallel to the magnetic field. The density of the trapped electron population can be deduced from the frequency where the electron acoustic spectrum maximizes. In the auroral midcavity region, the electron acoustic waves may be modulated by an additional turbulence generated in the ion acoustic range thanks to the presence of a pre-accelerated ion beam located on the high-potential side of the double layer. Electron holes characterized by bipolar pulses in the electric field are sometimes detected in correlation with these electron acoustic wave packets.

  4. The influence of iron coordination compounds on producing capacity of some crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, M.M.; Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to influence of iron coordination compounds on producing capacity of some crops. The influence of aqueous solutions of iron coordination compounds with anions of acetic and ethylen diamin disuccinic acids on germinative energy and germination of cotton crops and grapes was studied in laboratory conditions. The conducted researches shown that application of iron coordination compounds improves the growth, fruiting and the quality of studied crops.

  5. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  6. Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  7. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  8. Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  9. Food Security and Staple Crops. Staple Food Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, Lizette

    2012-01-01

    Of more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, only a few hundred contribute significantly to our food supplies. Almost all of the world’s food energy intake is satisfied by just a few crop plants. Rice, maize and wheat make up two-thirds of this already small group of foods. These three grains are the staple foods for more than four billion people both as a source of nutrition and income. A staple crop, by definition, dominates the major part of our diet and supplies a major proportion of our energy and nutrient needs. If staple crops are threatened by drought, pests or nutrient-poor soils, hunger and poverty can rise dramatically.

  10. Development of Trombay pulse crop varieties mutation through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhole, V.J.; Reddy, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    The food prices including pulses were beginning to increase from 2008, something that was not expected to happen before 2020. It was due to climate change, a scarcity of good arable land, water and nutrients. With these obstacles, we must produce almost double than what we are producing now to achieve food security by 2050. It can be achieved through crop improvement. Crop improvement is the art and science of changing the genetic make of crop plant in desire direction through various method of plant breeding. Mutation breeding is one of the techniques which utilize the physical and chemical mutagens to create genetic variability. Till date more than 3200 mutant varieties have been developed worldwide in which two physical mutagens i.e. X-rays and gamma rays have major contributions. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is one of the leading institutes in India where nuclear energy is used for crop improvement, which resulted in to development of 43 improved high yielding varieties in different crops including 19 varieties of pulse crops. These varieties are contributing significantly to production of pulses and ultimately to national food security. (author)

  11. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...... the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability....

  12. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  13. Crop rotation modelling - A European model intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollas, Chris; Kersebaum, Kurt C; Nendel, Claas

    2015-01-01

    Diversification of crop rotations is considered an option to increase the resilience of European crop production under climate change. So far, however, many crop simulation studies have focused on predicting single crops in separate one-year simulations. Here, we compared the capability of fiftee...

  14. Testing an Irrigation Decision Support Tool for California Specialty Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Cahn, M.; Benzen, S.; Zaragoza, I.; Murphy, L.; Melton, F. S.; Martin, F.; Quackenbush, A.; Lockhart, T.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficiency of irrigation water management, which in turn can mitigate nitrate leaching, groundwater depletion, and provide energy savings. Past research in California and elsewhere has revealed strong relationships between photosynthetically active vegetation fraction (Fc) and crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Additional research has shown the potential of monitoring Fc by satellite remote sensing. The U.C. Cooperative Extension developed and operates CropManage (CM) as on-line database irrigation (and nitrogen) scheduling tool. CM accounts for the rapid growth and typically brief cycle of cool-season vegetables, where Fc and fraction of reference ET can change daily during canopy development. The model automates crop water requirement calculations based on reference ET data collected by California Dept. Water Resources. Empirically-derived equations are used to estimate daily Fc time-series for a given crop type primarily as a function of planting date and expected harvest date. An application programming interface (API) is under development to provide a check on modeled Fc of current crops and facilitate CM expansion to new crops. The API will enable CM to extract field scale Fc observations from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS). SIMS is mainly Landsat based and currently monitors Fc over about 8 million irrigation acres statewide, with potential for adding data from ESA/Sentinel for improved temporal resolution. In the current study, a replicated irrigation trial was performed on romaine lettuce at the USDA Agricultural Research Station in Salinas, CA. CropManage recommendations were used to guide water treatments by drip irrigation at 50%, 75%, 100% ETc replacement levels, with an added treatment at 150% ET representing grower standard practice. Experimental results indicate that yields from the 100% and 150% treatments were not significantly different and were in-line with industry average, while

  15. The identification of high potential archers based on relative psychological coping skills variables: A Support Vector Machine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Zahari; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Muaz Alim, Muhammad; Arif Mat Jizat, Jessnor; Fauzi Ibrahim, Mohamad

    2018-03-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been revealed to be a powerful learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the use of SVM for prediction and classification in sport is at its inception. The present study classified and predicted high and low potential archers from a collection of psychological coping skills variables trained on different SVMs. 50 youth archers with the average age and standard deviation of (17.0 ±.056) gathered from various archery programmes completed a one end shooting score test. Psychological coping skills inventory which evaluates the archers level of related coping skills were filled out by the archers prior to their shooting tests. k-means cluster analysis was applied to cluster the archers based on their scores on variables assessed. SVM models, i.e. linear and fine radial basis function (RBF) kernel functions, were trained on the psychological variables. The k-means clustered the archers into high psychologically prepared archers (HPPA) and low psychologically prepared archers (LPPA), respectively. It was demonstrated that the linear SVM exhibited good accuracy and precision throughout the exercise with an accuracy of 92% and considerably fewer error rate for the prediction of the HPPA and the LPPA as compared to the fine RBF SVM. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from the selected psychological coping skills variables examined which would consequently save time and energy during talent identification and development programme.

  16. HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential ground-water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G. (Principal Investigator); Heilman, J.; Tunheim, J.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of soil temperature and water table data indicated that shallow aquifers appear to produce a heat sink effect when the depth to water table is approximately four meters or less.

  17. Potential Air Quality Impacts of Global Bioenergy Crop Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, W. C.; Rosenstiel, T. N.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The use of bioenergy crops as a replacement for traditional coal-powered electricity generation will require large-scale land-use change, and the resulting changes in emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may have negative impacts on local to regional air quality. BVOCs contribute to the formation of both ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with magnitudes of specific compound emissions governed largely by plant speciation and land coverage. For this reason, large-scale land-use change has the potential to markedly alter regional O3 and PM2.5 levels, especially if there are large differences between the emission profiles of the replacement bioenergy crops (many of which are high BVOC emitters) and the previous crops or land cover. In this work, replacement areas suitable for the cultivation of the bioenergy crops switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and giant reed (Arundo donax) were selected based on existing global inventories of under-utilized cropland and local climatological conditions. These two crops are among the most popular current candidates for bioenergy production, and provide contrasting examples of energy densities and emissions profiles. While giant reed has been selected in an ongoing large-scale coal-to-biocharcoal conversion in the Northwestern United States due to its high crop yields and energy density, it is also among the highest biogenic emitters of isoprene. On the other hand, switchgrass produces less biomass per acre, but also emits essentially no isoprene and low total BVOCs. The effects of large-scale conversion to these crops on O3 and PM2.5 were simulated using version 1.1 of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with version 2.1 of the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). By comparing crop replacement scenarios involving A. donax and P. virgatum, the sensitivities of O3 and PM2.5 levels to worldwide increases in bioenergy production were examined, providing an initial

  18. The imprint of crop choice on global nutrient needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobbágy, Esteban G; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2014-01-01

    Solutions to meet growing food requirements in a world of limited suitable land and degrading environment focus mainly on increasing crop yields, particularly in poorly performing regions, and reducing animal product consumption. Increasing yields could alleviate land requirements, but imposing higher soil nutrient withdrawals and in most cases larger fertilizer inputs. Lowering animal product consumption favors a more efficient use of land as well as soil and fertilizer nutrients; yet actual saving may largely depend on which crops and how much fertilizer are used to feed livestock versus people. We show, with a global analysis, how the choice of cultivated plant species used to feed people and livestock influences global food production as well as soil nutrient withdrawals and fertilizer additions. The 3 to 15-fold differences in soil nutrient withdrawals per unit of energy or protein produced that we report across major crops explain how composition shifts over the last 20 years have reduced N, maintained P and increased K harvest withdrawals from soils while contributing to increasing dietary energy, protein and, particularly, vegetable fat outputs. Being highly variable across crops, global fertilization rates do not relate to actual soil nutrient withdrawals, but to monetary values of harvested products. Future changes in crop composition could contribute to achieve more sustainable food systems, optimizing land and fertilizer use. (letter)

  19. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  20. 76 FR 71276 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY... Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance... Regulations (7 CFR part 457) by revising Sec. 457.167 Pecan Revenue Crop Insurance Provisions, to be effective...

  1. 75 FR 15603 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... to: (1) Theft; or (2) Inability to market the avocados for any reason other than actual physical... Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance... Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Florida Avocado Crop Insurance Provisions to convert the Florida...

  2. ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), a new process-based agro-land surface model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Moors, E.J.; Jans, W.; Elbers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The response of crops to changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) could have large effects on food production, and impact carbon, water, and energy fluxes, causing feedbacks to the climate. To simulate the response of temperate crops to changing climate and

  3. Investigation of ethanol productivity of cassava crop as a sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... the most dominant among the plant materials are the energy crops. ... even reverse CO2 emissions by taking carbon out of the air and sequestering it in ... ethanol unsuitable for human consumption. Enzymes are used to ...

  4. Starch Biosynthesis in Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Tetlow

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a water-insoluble polyglucan synthesized inside the plastids of plant tissues to provide a store of carbohydrate. Starch harvested from plant storage organs has probably represented the major source of calories for the human diet since before the dawn of civilization. Following the advent of agriculture and the building of complex societies, humans have maintained their dependence on high-yielding domesticated starch-forming crops such as cereals to meet food demands, livestock production, and many non-food applications. The top three crops in terms of acreage are cereals, grown primarily for the harvestable storage starch in the endosperm, although many starchy tuberous crops also provide an important source of calories for various communities around the world. Despite conservation in the core structure of the starch granule, starches from different botanical sources show a high degree of variability, which is exploited in many food and non-food applications. Understanding the factors underpinning starch production and its final structure are of critical importance in guiding future crop improvement endeavours. This special issue contains reviews on these topics and is intended to be a useful resource for researchers involved in improvement of starch-storing crops.

  5. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  6. Automated phenotyping of permanent crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler

    2017-05-01

    AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.

  7. Biomass production on marginal lands - catalogue of bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Ivanina, Vadym; Hanzhenko, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Marginal lands are the poorest type of land, with various limitations for traditional agriculture. However, they can be used for biomass production for bioenergy based on perennial plants or trees. The main advantage of biomass as an energy source compared to fossil fuels is the positive influence on the global carbon dioxide balance in the atmosphere. During combustion of biofuels, less carbon dioxide is emitted than is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis. Besides, 20 to 30 times less sulphur oxide and 3 to 4 times less ash is formed as compared with coal. Growing bioenergy crops creates additional workplaces in rural areas. Soil and climatic conditions of most European regions are suitable for growing perennial energy crops that are capable of rapid transforming solar energy into energy-intensive biomass. Selcted plants are not demanding for soil fertility, do not require a significant amount of fertilizers and pesticides and can be cultivated, therefore, also on unproductive lands of Europe. They prevent soil erosion, contribute to the preservation and improvement of agroecosystems and provide low-cost biomass. A catalogue of potential bioenergy plants was developed within the EU H2020 project SEEMLA including woody and perennial crops that are allowed to be grown in the territory of the EU and Ukraine. The catalogue lists high-productive woody and perennial crops that are not demanding to the conditions of growing and can guarantee stable high yields of high-energy-capacity biomass on marginal lands of various categories of marginality. Biomass of perennials plants and trees is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which are directly used to produce solid biofuels. Thanks to the well-developed root system of trees and perennial plants, they are better adapted to poor soils and do not require careful maintenance. Therefore, they can be grown on marginal lands. Particular C4 bioenergy crops are well adapted to a lack of moisture and high

  8. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues

  9. Compositions comprising lignosulfonates for crop protection and crop improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, L.H.; Kok, C.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.

    2009-01-01

    International patent application number: WO2004067699http://www.wipo.int/patentscope/search/en/WO2004067699 (EN)The invention relates to a composition for protecting an agricultural crop against external threats, such as weeds, pathogens, abiotic and biotic stresses and/or for improving the quality

  10. Progress update: crop development of biofortified staple food crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the past 15 years, biofortification, the process of breeding nutrients into food crops, has gained ample recognition as a cost-effective, complementary, feasible means of delivering micronutrients to populations that may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, or commercially fortified foods. In 2008, a panel of ...

  11. Validation of crop weather models for crop assessment arid yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRSIS and CRPSM models were used in this study to see how closely they could predict grain yields for selected stations in Tanzania. Input for the models comprised of weather, crop and soil data collected from five selected stations. Simulation results show that IRSIS model tends to over predict grain yields of maize, ...

  12. Determinants of crop diversity and composition in Enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Abebe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Households in much of the tropics depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own farms. In such systems, maintenance of agrobiodiversity and ensuring food security are important for the well being of the population. The enset-coffee agroforestry homegardens of Southern Ethiopia that are dominated by two native perennial crops, Coffee (Coffea arabica L. and Enset (Enset ventricosum Welw. Cheesman, are examples of such agricultural systems. This study was conducted in Sidama administrative zone of Southern Ethiopia to determine the factors that influence the diversity and composition of crops in the systems. Data were collected from 144 sample homegardens selected from four districts. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to relate indices of crop diversity and area share of major crops with the physical and socioeconomic factors. The study revealed that socioeconomic factors, mainly proximity to markets, affected negatively crop species richness. The production area of the main crops enset and coffee decreased with increasing proximity to market and road while that of maize and khat increased. At household level, farm size had a significant effect on area share of enset and coffee. As farm size increased the share of the cash crop, coffee increased but that of the staple, enset declined. Enset, which is the backbone of the system in terms of food security, is declining on small farms and the share of monoculture maize system is increasing. The trend towards declining agrobiodiversity, and reduction in the production area of the main perennial crops and their gradual replacement with monoculture fields could make the systems liable to instability and collapse. As these sites are high potential agricultural areas, intensification can be achieved by integrating high-value and more productive crops, such as fruits, spices and vegetables, while maintaining the

  13. Identification of High Potential Bays for HABs Occurrence in Peninsular Malysia Using Palsar Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, A. B.; Hashim, M.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of Harmful algal blooms (HABs) poses a serious threat to the coastal fish/shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in Malaysian bays. Rising in sea level, shoreline erosion, stresses on fisheries, population pressure, interference of land-use and lack of institutional capabilities for integrated management make major challenges. Recent investigations and satellite observations indicate HABs originated from specific coast that have favourable geographic, geomorphic and coastal geology conditions to bring the green macro algae from the coast offshore. Therefore, the identification of high HABs frequented bays using remote sensing and geology investigations in Malaysian waters is required to reduce future challenges in this unique case. This research implemented comprehensive geomorphic and coastal geology investigations combined with remote sensing digital image processing approach to identify Malaysian bays frequented with HABs occurrence in Malaysian waters territory. The landscape and geomorphological features of the Malaysian bays were constructed from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing satellite data combined with field observations and surveying. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected from the sediment stations with different distance across shorelines features and watersheds of the Johor Bahru estuary. This research identified that semi-enclosed bays such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru bays with connection to estuaries have high potential to be frequented with HABs occurrence.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL BAYS FOR HABs OCCURRENCE IN PENINSULAR MALYSIA USING PALSAR REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Pour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution of Harmful algal blooms (HABs poses a serious threat to the coastal fish/shellfish aquaculture and fisheries in Malaysian bays. Rising in sea level, shoreline erosion, stresses on fisheries, population pressure, interference of land-use and lack of institutional capabilities for integrated management make major challenges. Recent investigations and satellite observations indicate HABs originated from specific coast that have favourable geographic, geomorphic and coastal geology conditions to bring the green macro algae from the coast offshore. Therefore, the identification of high HABs frequented bays using remote sensing and geology investigations in Malaysian waters is required to reduce future challenges in this unique case. This research implemented comprehensive geomorphic and coastal geology investigations combined with remote sensing digital image processing approach to identify Malaysian bays frequented with HABs occurrence in Malaysian waters territory. The landscape and geomorphological features of the Malaysian bays were constructed from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR remote sensing satellite data combined with field observations and surveying. The samples for laboratory analysis were collected from the sediment stations with different distance across shorelines features and watersheds of the Johor Bahru estuary. This research identified that semi-enclosed bays such as Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru bays with connection to estuaries have high potential to be frequented with HABs occurrence.

  15. Feeding nine billion: the challenge to sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter J; George, Timothy S

    2011-11-01

    In the recent past there was a widespread working assumption in many countries that problems of food production had been solved, and that food security was largely a matter of distribution and access to be achieved principally by open markets. The events of 2008 challenged these assumptions, and made public a much wider debate about the costs of current food production practices to the environment and whether these could be sustained. As in the past 50 years, it is anticipated that future increases in crop production will be achieved largely by increasing yields per unit area rather than by increasing the area of cropped land. However, as yields have increased, so the ratio of photosynthetic energy captured to energy expended in crop production has decreased. This poses a considerable challenge: how to increase yield while simultaneously reducing energy consumption (allied to greenhouse gas emissions) and utilizing resources such as water and phosphate more efficiently. Given the timeframe in which the increased production has to be realized, most of the increase will need to come from crop genotypes that are being bred now, together with known agronomic and management practices that are currently under-developed.

  16. Possible changes to arable crop yields by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, Keith W; Qi, Aiming; Ober, Eric S

    2010-09-27

    By 2050, the world population is likely to be 9.1 billion, the CO(2) concentration 550 ppm, the ozone concentration 60 ppb and the climate warmer by ca 2 degrees C. In these conditions, what contribution can increased crop yield make to feeding the world? CO(2) enrichment is likely to increase yields of most crops by approximately 13 per cent but leave yields of C4 crops unchanged. It will tend to reduce water consumption by all crops, but this effect will be approximately cancelled out by the effect of the increased temperature on evaporation rates. In many places increased temperature will provide opportunities to manipulate agronomy to improve crop performance. Ozone concentration increases will decrease yields by 5 per cent or more. Plant breeders will probably be able to increase yields considerably in the CO(2)-enriched environment of the future, and most weeds and airborne pests and diseases should remain controllable, so long as policy changes do not remove too many types of crop-protection chemicals. However, soil-borne pathogens are likely to be an increasing problem when warmer weather will increase their multiplication rates; control is likely to need a transgenic approach to breeding for resistance. There is a large gap between achievable yields and those delivered by farmers, even in the most efficient agricultural systems. A gap is inevitable, but there are large differences between farmers, even between those who have used the same resources. If this gap is closed and accompanied by improvements in potential yields then there is a good prospect that crop production will increase by approximately 50 per cent or more by 2050 without extra land. However, the demands for land to produce bio-energy have not been factored into these calculations.

  17. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or coll