HOKF: High Order Kalman Filter for Epilepsy Forecasting Modeling.
Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee
2017-08-01
Epilepsy forecasting has been extensively studied using high-order time series obtained from scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An accurate seizure prediction system would not only help significantly improve patients' quality of life, but would also facilitate new therapeutic strategies to manage epilepsy. This paper thus proposes an improved Kalman Filter (KF) algorithm to mine seizure forecasts from neural activity by modeling three properties in the high-order EEG time series: noise, temporal smoothness, and tensor structure. The proposed High-Order Kalman Filter (HOKF) is an extension of the standard Kalman filter, for which higher-order modeling is limited. The efficient dynamic of HOKF system preserves the tensor structure of the observations and latent states. As such, the proposed method offers two main advantages: (i) effectiveness with HOKF results in hidden variables that capture major evolving trends suitable to predict neural activity, even in the presence of missing values; and (ii) scalability in that the wall clock time of the HOKF is linear with respect to the number of time-slices of the sequence. The HOKF algorithm is examined in terms of its effectiveness and scalability by conducting forecasting and scalability experiments with a real epilepsy EEG dataset. The results of the simulation demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the original Kalman Filter and other existing methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Green, T
2012-07-01
Full Text Available composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength...
High-order noise filtering in nontrivial quantum logic gates.
Green, Todd; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J
2012-07-13
Treating the effects of a time-dependent classical dephasing environment during quantum logic operations poses a theoretical challenge, as the application of noncommuting control operations gives rise to both dephasing and depolarization errors that must be accounted for in order to understand total average error rates. We develop a treatment based on effective Hamiltonian theory that allows us to efficiently model the effect of classical noise on nontrivial single-bit quantum logic operations composed of arbitrary control sequences. We present a general method to calculate the ensemble-averaged entanglement fidelity to arbitrary order in terms of noise filter functions, and provide explicit expressions to fourth order in the noise strength. In the weak noise limit we derive explicit filter functions for a broad class of piecewise-constant control sequences, and use them to study the performance of dynamically corrected gates, yielding good agreement with brute-force numerics.
Learning High-Order Filters for Efficient Blind Deconvolution of Document Photographs
Xiao, Lei; Wang, Jue; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Michael
2016-01-01
by small-scale high-order structures, we propose to learn a multi-scale, interleaved cascade of shrinkage fields model, which contains a series of high-order filters to facilitate joint recovery of blur kernel and latent image. With extensive experiments
Construction of Low Dissipative High Order Well-Balanced Filter Schemes for Non-Equilibrium Flows
Wang, Wei; Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, Bjorn; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang
2009-01-01
The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. [26] to a class of low dissipative high order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. [30], Sjoegreen & Yee [24] and Yee & Sjoegreen [35] consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive nonlinear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e., choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high order). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g., turbulence fluctuations; it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.
Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components....... Hence, a new method is proposed in this paper to optimally design the passive damping circuit for the LCL filters and LCL with multi-tuned LC traps. In short, the optimization problem reduces to the proper choice of the multi-split capacitors or inductors in the high-order filter. Compared to existing...... filter resonance. The passive filters are designed, built and validated both analytically and experimentally for verification....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.
2006-01-01
Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.
High-Order Model and Dynamic Filtering for Frame Rate Up-Conversion.
Bao, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Li; Ding, Lianghui; Gao, Zhiyong
2018-08-01
This paper proposes a novel frame rate up-conversion method through high-order model and dynamic filtering (HOMDF) for video pixels. Unlike the constant brightness and linear motion assumptions in traditional methods, the intensity and position of the video pixels are both modeled with high-order polynomials in terms of time. Then, the key problem of our method is to estimate the polynomial coefficients that represent the pixel's intensity variation, velocity, and acceleration. We propose to solve it with two energy objectives: one minimizes the auto-regressive prediction error of intensity variation by its past samples, and the other minimizes video frame's reconstruction error along the motion trajectory. To efficiently address the optimization problem for these coefficients, we propose the dynamic filtering solution inspired by video's temporal coherence. The optimal estimation of these coefficients is reformulated into a dynamic fusion of the prior estimate from pixel's temporal predecessor and the maximum likelihood estimate from current new observation. Finally, frame rate up-conversion is implemented using motion-compensated interpolation by pixel-wise intensity variation and motion trajectory. Benefited from the advanced model and dynamic filtering, the interpolated frame has much better visual quality. Extensive experiments on the natural and synthesized videos demonstrate the superiority of HOMDF over the state-of-the-art methods in both subjective and objective comparisons.
Learning High-Order Filters for Efficient Blind Deconvolution of Document Photographs
Xiao, Lei
2016-09-16
Photographs of text documents taken by hand-held cameras can be easily degraded by camera motion during exposure. In this paper, we propose a new method for blind deconvolution of document images. Observing that document images are usually dominated by small-scale high-order structures, we propose to learn a multi-scale, interleaved cascade of shrinkage fields model, which contains a series of high-order filters to facilitate joint recovery of blur kernel and latent image. With extensive experiments, we show that our method produces high quality results and is highly efficient at the same time, making it a practical choice for deblurring high resolution text images captured by modern mobile devices. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.
Zhou, Anran; Xie, Weixin; Pei, Jihong
2018-06-01
Accurate detection of maritime targets in infrared imagery under various sea clutter conditions is always a challenging task. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is the extension of the Fourier transform in the fractional order, and has richer spatial-frequency information. By combining it with the high order statistic filtering, a new ship detection method is proposed. First, the proper range of angle parameter is determined to make it easier for the ship components and background to be separated. Second, a new high order statistic curve (HOSC) at each fractional frequency point is designed. It is proved that maximal peak interval in HOSC reflects the target information, while the points outside the interval reflect the background. And the value of HOSC relative to the ship is much bigger than that to the sea clutter. Then, search the curve's maximal target peak interval and extract the interval by bandpass filtering in fractional Fourier domain. The value outside the peak interval of HOSC decreases rapidly to 0, so the background is effectively suppressed. Finally, the detection result is obtained by the double threshold segmenting and the target region selection method. The results show the proposed method is excellent for maritime targets detection with high clutters.
Analysis and Design of a High-Order Discrete-Time Passive IIR Low-Pass Filter
Tohidian, M.; Madadi, I.; Staszewski, R.B.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a discrete-time IIR low-pass filter that achieves a high-order of filtering through a charge-sharing rotation. Its sampling rate is then multiplied through pipelining. The first stage of the filter can operate in either a voltage-sampling or charge-sampling mode. It uses
Rectangular optical filter based on high-order silicon microring resonators
Bao, Jia-qi; Yu, Kan; Wang, Li-jun; Yin, Juan-juan
2017-07-01
The rectangular optical filter is one of the most important optical switching components in the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) fiber-optic communication system and the intelligent optical network. The integrated highorder silicon microring resonator (MRR) is one of the best candidates to achieve rectangular filtering spectrum response. In general, the spectrum response rectangular degree of the single MRR is very low, so it cannot be used in the DWDM system. Using the high-order MRRs, the bandwidth of flat-top pass band, the out-of-band rejection degree and the roll-off coefficient of the edge will be improved obviously. In this paper, a rectangular optical filter based on highorder MRRs with uniform couplers is presented and demonstrated. Using 15 coupled race-track MRRs with 10 μm in radius, the 3 dB flat-top pass band of 2 nm, the out-of-band rejection ratio of 30 dB and the rising and falling edges of 48 dB/nm can be realized successfully.
Rectangular optical filter based on high-order silicon microring resonators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BAO Jia-qi; YU Kan; WANG Li-jun; YIN Juan-juan
2017-01-01
The rectangular optical filter is one of the most important optical switching components in the dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) fiber-optic communication system and the intelligent optical network.The integrated highorder silicon microring resonator (MRR) is one of the best candidates to achieve rectangular filtering spectrum response.In general,the spectrum response rectangular degree of the single MRR is very low,so it cannot be used in the DWDM system.Using the high-order MRRs,the bandwidth of flat-top pass band,the out-of-band rejection degree and the roll-off coefficient of the edge will be improved obviously.In this paper,a rectangular optical filter based on highorder MRRs with uniform couplers is presented and demonstrated.Using 15 coupled race-track MRRs with 10 μm in radius,the 3 dB flat-top pass band of 2 nm,the out-of-band rejection ratio of 30 dB and the rising and falling edges of 48 dB/nm can be realized successfully.
Construction of low dissipative high-order well-balanced filter schemes for non-equilibrium flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wei; Yee, H.C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Magin, Thierry; Shu, Chi-Wang
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to generalize the well-balanced approach for non-equilibrium flow studied by Wang et al. (2009) to a class of low dissipative high-order shock-capturing filter schemes and to explore more advantages of well-balanced schemes in reacting flows. More general 1D and 2D reacting flow models and new examples of shock turbulence interactions are provided to demonstrate the advantage of well-balanced schemes. The class of filter schemes developed by Yee et al. (1999) , Sjoegreen and Yee (2004) and Yee and Sjoegreen (2007) consist of two steps, a full time step of spatially high-order non-dissipative base scheme and an adaptive non-linear filter containing shock-capturing dissipation. A good property of the filter scheme is that the base scheme and the filter are stand-alone modules in designing. Therefore, the idea of designing a well-balanced filter scheme is straightforward, i.e. choosing a well-balanced base scheme with a well-balanced filter (both with high-order accuracy). A typical class of these schemes shown in this paper is the high-order central difference schemes/predictor-corrector (PC) schemes with a high-order well-balanced WENO filter. The new filter scheme with the well-balanced property will gather the features of both filter methods and well-balanced properties: it can preserve certain steady-state solutions exactly; it is able to capture small perturbations, e.g. turbulence fluctuations; and it adaptively controls numerical dissipation. Thus it shows high accuracy, efficiency and stability in shock/turbulence interactions. Numerical examples containing 1D and 2D smooth problems, 1D stationary contact discontinuity problem and 1D turbulence/shock interactions are included to verify the improved accuracy, in addition to the well-balanced behavior.
Chen, Chaochao; Vachtsevanos, George; Orchard, Marcos E.
2012-04-01
Machine prognosis can be considered as the generation of long-term predictions that describe the evolution in time of a fault indicator, with the purpose of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a failing component/subsystem so that timely maintenance can be performed to avoid catastrophic failures. This paper proposes an integrated RUL prediction method using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) and high-order particle filtering, which forecasts the time evolution of the fault indicator and estimates the probability density function (pdf) of RUL. The ANFIS is trained and integrated in a high-order particle filter as a model describing the fault progression. The high-order particle filter is used to estimate the current state and carry out p-step-ahead predictions via a set of particles. These predictions are used to estimate the RUL pdf. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated via the real-world data from a seeded fault test for a UH-60 helicopter planetary gear plate. The results demonstrate that it outperforms both the conventional ANFIS predictor and the particle-filter-based predictor where the fault growth model is a first-order model that is trained via the ANFIS.
Filtered Carrier Phase Estimator for High-Order QAM Optical Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rozental, Valery; Kong, Deming; Corcoran, Bill
2018-01-01
We investigate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the performance characteristics and limits of a low-complexity filtered carrier phase estimator (F-CPE) in terms of cycle slip occurrences and SNR penalties. In this work, the F-CPE algorithm has been extended to include modulation formats whose oute...
Yu, Jianbo
2015-12-01
Prognostics is much efficient to achieve zero-downtime performance, maximum productivity and proactive maintenance of machines. Prognostics intends to assess and predict the time evolution of machine health degradation so that machine failures can be predicted and prevented. A novel prognostics system is developed based on the data-model-fusion scheme using the Bayesian inference-based self-organizing map (SOM) and an integration of logistic regression (LR) and high-order particle filtering (HOPF). In this prognostics system, a baseline SOM is constructed to model the data distribution space of healthy machine under an assumption that predictable fault patterns are not available. Bayesian inference-based probability (BIP) derived from the baseline SOM is developed as a quantification indication of machine health degradation. BIP is capable of offering failure probability for the monitored machine, which has intuitionist explanation related to health degradation state. Based on those historic BIPs, the constructed LR and its modeling noise constitute a high-order Markov process (HOMP) to describe machine health propagation. HOPF is used to solve the HOMP estimation to predict the evolution of the machine health in the form of a probability density function (PDF). An on-line model update scheme is developed to adapt the Markov process changes to machine health dynamics quickly. The experimental results on a bearing test-bed illustrate the potential applications of the proposed system as an effective and simple tool for machine health prognostics.
Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji
2016-07-01
There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.
Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits
Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.
2008-01-01
Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-02-23
This course presents information for working safely with portable ladders: specifically, stepladders, extensions ladders, and their derivations. Additionally, this course provides limited information on the safe use of stepstools and fixed ladders. The skills, techniques, and good practices needed for selecting, inspecting, setting up and securing, and using ladders are presented in this course.
Bryant, B; Rabbitts, D; Shover, J; Torres, M; VanDerHeyden, B; Violand-Jones, S
1992-01-01
Motivation, quality improvement, productivity enhancement. These are just some of the benefits of an effective career ladder program. The key term here is effective. It is easy for laboratory personnel to stagnate professionally if they do not have a career ladder program, but it is even easier for them to become frustrated--even cynical--over a program that fails to live up to its expectations to encourage, support, and reward professional advancement. If you have been looking form some ideas to get your own career ladder program off the ground, the following responses from your colleagues may help as CLMR asks: What makes your career ladder program effective?
Boat boarding ladder placement
1998-04-01
Presented in three volumes; 'Boat Boarding Ladder Placement,' which explores safety considerations including potential for human contact with a rotating propeller; 'Boat Handhold Placement,' which explores essential principles and methods of fall con...
High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe
2015-01-01
This paper presents a high order method for solving the unbounded Poisson equation on a regular mesh using a Green’s function solution. The high order convergence was achieved by formulating mollified integration kernels, that were derived from a filter regularisation of the solution field....... The method was implemented on a rectangular domain using fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to increase computational efficiency. The Poisson solver was extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution. This is achieved either by including the differential operator in the integration kernel...... the equations of fluid mechanics as an example, but can be used in many physical problems to solve the Poisson equation on a rectangular unbounded domain. For the two-dimensional case we propose an infinitely smooth test function which allows for arbitrary high order convergence. Using Gaussian smoothing...
29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.
2010-07-01
... Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders (d) Standards for job-made portable ladders. Job-made... usage. (1) Ladders made by fastening rungs or devices across a single rail are prohibited. (2) Ladders...
Ladder variational autoencoders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars
2016-01-01
Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...
Ladder Variational Autoencoder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Raiko, Tapani; Maaløe, Lars
2016-01-01
Variational autoencoders are powerful models for unsupervised learning. However deep models with several layers of dependent stochastic variables are difficult to train which limits the improvements obtained using these highly expressive models. We propose a new inference model, the Ladder...... Variational Autoencoder, that recursively corrects the generative distribution by a data dependent approximate likelihood in a process resembling the recently proposed Ladder Network. We show that this model provides state of the art predictive log-likelihood and tighter log-likelihood lower bound compared...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, R.D.
1990-01-01
By formal manipulation of the QCD functional integral we arrive at a relativistic low energy effective theory of non-local color singlet mesons and baryons, which at tree level sums up ladders of effective glue exchange between constituent quarks. (orig.)
A Review and Modern Approach to LC Ladder Synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander J. Casson
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Ultra low power circuits require robust and reliable operation despite the unavoidable use of low currents and the weak inversion transistor operation region. For analogue domain filtering doubly terminated LC ladder based filter topologies are thus highly desirable as they have very low sensitivities to component values: non-exact component values have a minimal effect on the realised transfer function. However, not all transfer functions are suitable for implementation via a LC ladder prototype, and even when the transfer function is suitable the synthesis procedure is not trivial. The modern circuit designer can thus benefit from an updated treatment of this synthesis procedure. This paper presents a methodology for the design of doubly terminated LC ladder structures making use of the symbolic maths engines in programs such as MATLAB and MAPLE. The methodology is explained through the detailed synthesis of an example 7th order bandpass filter transfer function for use in electroencephalogram (EEG analysis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson
2015-01-01
the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...... approach more effective. Originality/value – The paper provides an insight into the debate on redefining improved sanitation in the post-2015 era of the Millennium Development Goals and offers policy alternatives to policy makers in low-income countries seeking to accelerate the uptake of improved latrines...
Generation of high order modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ngcobo, S
2012-07-01
Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...
High order depletion sensitivity analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naguib, K.; Adib, M.; Morcos, H.N.
2002-01-01
A high order depletion sensitivity method was applied to calculate the sensitivities of build-up of actinides in the irradiated fuel due to cross-section uncertainties. An iteration method based on Taylor series expansion was applied to construct stationary principle, from which all orders of perturbations were calculated. The irradiated EK-10 and MTR-20 fuels at their maximum burn-up of 25% and 65% respectively were considered for sensitivity analysis. The results of calculation show that, in case of EK-10 fuel (low burn-up), the first order sensitivity was found to be enough to perform an accuracy of 1%. While in case of MTR-20 (high burn-up) the fifth order was found to provide 3% accuracy. A computer code SENS was developed to provide the required calculations
2010-07-01
... plastic ladder shall sustain at least 3.3 times the maximum intended load. The ability of a ladder to... that each extra-heavy-duty type 1A metal or plastic ladders shall sustain at least 3.3 times the... from anticipated usage of the ladder, shall also be included), plus anticipated loads caused by ice...
29 CFR 1917.118 - Fixed ladders.
2010-07-01
... tubular scaffold framing; and (4) Ladders used only for fire-fighting or emergency purposes. (b... of equipment. (3) Ladder safety device means a support system limiting an employee's drop or fall...
2010-07-01
...). (b) Construction of portable wood cleated ladders up to 30 feet in length. (1) Wood side rails shall... shall be at least 25/32×33/4 inches in cross section. (c) Construction of portable wood cleated ladders... split side rails, or other faulty or defective construction is prohibited. When ladders with such...
High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Hongxia; Ma Shanjun
2008-01-01
In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.
High-order finite volume advection
Shaw, James
2018-01-01
The cubicFit advection scheme is limited to second-order convergence because it uses a polynomial reconstruction fitted to point values at cell centres. The highOrderFit advection scheme achieves higher than second order by calculating high-order moments over the mesh geometry.
High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez
2017-01-01
In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...
De optimale sportafstand voor de ladder van de glazenwasser
Reijneveld, C.N.; Looze, M.P. de; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Grinten, M.P. van der; Korte, E.M. de; Kingma, I.
2002-01-01
Voor de glazenwasser die werkt met staande ladder, is een goede ladder zeer belangrijk. Hij loopt en werkt op en verplaatst de ladder veelvuldig. Er is veel discussie over ladders en de optimale sportafstand bij staande ladders. De meeste glazenwassers geven de voorkeur aan een sportafstand van 35
High-order beam optics - an overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heighway, E.A.
1989-01-01
Beam-transport codes have been around for as long as thirty years and high order codes, second-order at least, for close to twenty years. Before this period of design-code development, there was considerable high-order treatment, but it was almost entirely analytical. History has a way of repeating itself, and the current excitement in the field of high-order optics is based on the application of Lie algebra and the so-called differential algebra to beam-transport codes, both of which are highly analytical in foundation. The author will describe some of the main design tools available today, giving a little of their history, and will conclude by trying to convey some of the excitement in the field through a brief description of Lie and differential algebra. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Perspective on rainbow-ladder truncation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichmann, G.; Alkofer, R.; Krassnigg, A.; Cloeet, I. C.; Roberts, C. D.
2008-01-01
Prima facie the systematic implementation of corrections to the rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations will uniformly reduce in magnitude those calculated mass-dimensioned results for pseudoscalar and vector meson properties that are not tightly constrained by symmetries. The aim and interpretation of studies employing rainbow-ladder truncation are reconsidered in this light
Modeling the Sliding/Falling Ladder Paradox
Fox, William P.; Fox, James B.
2003-01-01
Recently we were presented with an interesting twist to the sliding ladder problem viewed in the related rates section of most calculus textbooks. Our problem concerning a sliding ladder that eventually hits the ground. At first, those attempting this problem fell into the calculus trap using only related rates. Previous work for this problem…
Laddering em pesquisa de marketing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira
Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.
Bioinspired Nanocomposite Hydrogels with Highly Ordered Structures.
Zhao, Ziguang; Fang, Ruochen; Rong, Qinfeng; Liu, Mingjie
2017-12-01
In the human body, many soft tissues with hierarchically ordered composite structures, such as cartilage, skeletal muscle, the corneas, and blood vessels, exhibit highly anisotropic mechanical strength and functionality to adapt to complex environments. In artificial soft materials, hydrogels are analogous to these biological soft tissues due to their "soft and wet" properties, their biocompatibility, and their elastic performance. However, conventional hydrogel materials with unordered homogeneous structures inevitably lack high mechanical properties and anisotropic functional performances; thus, their further application is limited. Inspired by biological soft tissues with well-ordered structures, researchers have increasingly investigated highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels as functional biological engineering soft materials with unique mechanical, optical, and biological properties. These hydrogels incorporate long-range ordered nanocomposite structures within hydrogel network matrixes. Here, the critical design criteria and the state-of-the-art fabrication strategies of nanocomposite hydrogels with highly ordered structures are systemically reviewed. Then, recent progress in applications in the fields of soft actuators, tissue engineering, and sensors is highlighted. The future development and prospective application of highly ordered nanocomposite hydrogels are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hybrid RANS-LES using high order numerical methods
Henry de Frahan, Marc; Yellapantula, Shashank; Vijayakumar, Ganesh; Knaus, Robert; Sprague, Michael
2017-11-01
Understanding the impact of wind turbine wake dynamics on downstream turbines is particularly important for the design of efficient wind farms. Due to their tractable computational cost, hybrid RANS/LES models are an attractive framework for simulating separation flows such as the wake dynamics behind a wind turbine. High-order numerical methods can be computationally efficient and provide increased accuracy in simulating complex flows. In the context of LES, high-order numerical methods have shown some success in predictions of turbulent flows. However, the specifics of hybrid RANS-LES models, including the transition region between both modeling frameworks, pose unique challenges for high-order numerical methods. In this work, we study the effect of increasing the order of accuracy of the numerical scheme in simulations of canonical turbulent flows using RANS, LES, and hybrid RANS-LES models. We describe the interactions between filtering, model transition, and order of accuracy and their effect on turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy spectra, boundary layer evolution, and dissipation rate. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Exascale Computing Project, under Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thaury, C.
2008-09-01
When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 15 W/cm 2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 10 18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 10 19 W/cm 2 , two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)
Available friction of ladder shoes and slip potential for climbing on a straight ladder.
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Chang, Chien-Chi; Matz, Simon
2005-07-15
Straight ladder accidents are a major safety problem. As a leading cause of injuries involving straight ladders, slips at the ladder base occur when the required friction exceeds the available friction at the ladder shoe and floor interface. The objectives of this experiment were to measure the available friction at the base of a portable straight ladder in contact with a floor and to estimate the slip potential of the ladder. The results of friction measurements indicated that the measured friction coefficient on the oily surfaces differed among the six commercially available ladder shoes evaluated. A statistical model was used to compare the available friction results from the current study with the friction requirements under different climbing conditions from a previous study based on their stochastic distributions to estimate the slip potential at the base of the ladder. The results showed that different climbing conditions used in the previous study could be supported by available friction on dry surfaces. However, when the ladder was put onto oily surfaces, resulting in a significant reduction in the available friction due to contamination, slip potential was significantly increased.
A Continuous Game of Sankes and Ladders
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 8. The Control of Tuberculosis: A Continuous Game of Sankes and Ladders. T Ramakrishnan P Chandrasekhar. Classics Volume 14 Issue 8 August 2009 pp 820-834 ...
High order corrections to the renormalon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faleev, S.V.
1997-01-01
High order corrections to the renormalon are considered. Each new type of insertion into the renormalon chain of graphs generates a correction to the asymptotics of perturbation theory of the order of ∝1. However, this series of corrections to the asymptotics is not the asymptotic one (i.e. the mth correction does not grow like m.). The summation of these corrections for the UV renormalon may change the asymptotics by a factor N δ . For the traditional IR renormalon the mth correction diverges like (-2) m . However, this divergence has no infrared origin and may be removed by a proper redefinition of the IR renormalon. On the other hand, for IR renormalons in hadronic event shapes one should naturally expect these multiloop contributions to decrease like (-2) -m . Some problems expected upon reaching the best accuracy of perturbative QCD are also discussed. (orig.)
High-order passive photonic temporal integrators.
Asghari, Mohammad H; Wang, Chao; Yao, Jianping; Azaña, José
2010-04-15
We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, an ultrafast photonic high-order (second-order) complex-field temporal integrator. The demonstrated device uses a single apodized uniform-period fiber Bragg grating (FBG), and it is based on a general FBG design approach for implementing optimized arbitrary-order photonic passive temporal integrators. Using this same design approach, we also fabricate and test a first-order passive temporal integrator offering an energetic-efficiency improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude as compared with previously reported passive first-order temporal integrators. Accurate and efficient first- and second-order temporal integrations of ultrafast complex-field optical signals (with temporal features as fast as approximately 2.5ps) are successfully demonstrated using the fabricated FBG devices.
High-order nonlinear susceptibilities of He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, W.C.; Clark, C.W.
1996-01-01
High-order nonlinear optical response of noble gases to intense laser radiation is of considerable experimental interest, but is difficult to measure or calculate accurately. The authors have begun a set of calculations of frequency-dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of He 1s, within the framework of Rayleigh=Schroedinger perturbation theory at lowest applicable order, with the goal of providing critically evaluated atomic data for modelling high harmonic generation processes. The atomic Hamiltonian is decomposed in term of Hylleraas coordinates and spherical harmonics using the formalism of Ponte and Shakeshaft, and the hierarchy of inhomogeneous equations of perturbation theory is solved iteratively. A combination of Hylleraas and Frankowski basis functions is used; the compact Hylleraas basis provides a highly accurate representation of the ground state wavefunction, whereas the diffuse Frankowski basis functions efficiently reproduce the correct asymptotic structure of the perturbed orbitals
Towards automatic verification of ladder logic programs
Zoubek , Bohumir; Roussel , Jean-Marc; Kwiatkowska , Martha
2003-01-01
International audience; Control system programs are usually validated by testing prior to their deployment. Unfortunately, testing is not exhaustive and therefore it is possible that a program which passed all the required tests still contains errors. In this paper we apply techniques of automatic verification to a control program written in ladder logic. A model is constructed mechanically from the ladder logic program and subjected to automatic verification against requirements that include...
The massless supersymmetric ladder with L rungs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossi, G.C.; Stanev, Ya.S.
2009-01-01
We show that in the massless N=1 supersymmetric Wess-Zumino theory it is possible to devise a computational strategy by which the x-space calculation of the ladder 4-point correlators can be carried out without introducing any regularization. As an application we derive a representation valid at all loop orders in terms of conformal invariant integrals. We obtain an explicit expression of the 3-loop ladder diagram for collinear external points
Gluing Ladder Feynman Diagrams into Fishnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basso, Benjamin; Dixon, Lance J.; Stanford University, CA; University of California, Santa Barbara, CA
2017-01-01
We use integrability at weak coupling to compute fishnet diagrams for four-point correlation functions in planar Φ "4 theory. Our results are always multilinear combinations of ladder integrals, which are in turn built out of classical polylogarithms. The Steinmann relations provide a powerful constraint on such linear combinations, which leads to a natural conjecture for any fishnet diagram as the determinant of a matrix of ladder integrals.
Edge currents in frustrated Josephson junction ladders
Marques, A. M.; Santos, F. D. R.; Dias, R. G.
2016-09-01
We present a numerical study of quasi-1D frustrated Josephson junction ladders with diagonal couplings and open boundary conditions, in the large capacitance limit. We derive a correspondence between the energy of this Josephson junction ladder and the expectation value of the Hamiltonian of an analogous tight-binding model, and show how the overall superconducting state of the chain is equivalent to the minimum energy state of the tight-binding model in the subspace of one-particle states with uniform density. To satisfy the constraint of uniform density, the superconducting state of the ladder is written as a linear combination of the allowed k-states of the tight-binding model with open boundaries. Above a critical value of the parameter t (ratio between the intra-rung and inter-rung Josephson couplings) the ladder spontaneously develops currents at the edges, which spread to the bulk as t is increased until complete coverage is reached. Above a certain value of t, which varies with ladder size (t = 1 for an infinite-sized ladder), the edge currents are destroyed. The value t = 1 corresponds, in the tight-binding model, to the opening of a gap between two bands. We argue that the disappearance of the edge currents with this gap opening is not coincidental, and that this points to a topological origin for these edge current states.
High-order nonuniformly correlated beams
Wu, Dan; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian
2018-02-01
We have introduced a class of partially coherent beams with spatially varying correlations named high-order nonuniformly correlated (HNUC) beams, as an extension of conventional nonuniformly correlated (NUC) beams. Such beams bring a new parameter (mode order) which is used to tailor the spatial coherence properties. The behavior of the spectral density of the HNUC beams on propagation has been investigated through numerical examples with the help of discrete model decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Our results reveal that by selecting the mode order appropriately, the more sharpened intensity maxima can be achieved at a certain propagation distance compared to that of the NUC beams, and the lateral shift of the intensity maxima on propagation is closed related to the mode order. Furthermore, analytical expressions for the r.m.s width and the propagation factor of the HNUC beams on free-space propagation are derived by means of Wigner distribution function. The influence of initial beam parameters on the evolution of the r.m.s width and the propagation factor, and the relation between the r.m.s width and the occurring of the sharpened intensity maxima on propagation have been studied and discussed in detail.
High Order Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme
Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian
2014-11-01
In most fluid phenomena, advection plays an important roll. A numerical scheme capable of making quantitative predictions and simulations must compute correctly the advection terms appearing in the equations governing fluid flow. Here we present a high order forward semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme specifically tailored to compute material derivatives. The scheme relies on the geometrical interpretation of material derivatives to compute the time evolution of fields on grids that deform with the material fluid domain, an interpolating procedure of arbitrary order that preserves the moments of the interpolated distributions, and a nonlinear mapping strategy to perform interpolations between undeformed and deformed grids. Additionally, a discontinuity criterion was implemented to deal with discontinuous fields and shocks. Tests of pure advection, shock formation and nonlinear phenomena are presented to show performance and convergence of the scheme. The high computational cost is considerably reduced when implemented on massively parallel architectures found in graphic cards. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).
High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
George, H.
2010-01-01
When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm -2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10 -18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)
High order harmonic generation in rare gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1994-05-01
The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~10^{13}-10^{14} W/cm^{2}) is focused into a dense (~10^{17} particles/cm^{3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.
Transport properties of a ladder with two random dimer chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Dong-Sheng; Zhu Chen-Ping; Zhang Yong-Mei
2011-01-01
We investigate the transport properties of a ladder with two random dimer (RD) chains. It is found that there are two extended states in the ladder with identical RD chains and a critical state regarded as an extended state in the ladder with pairing RD chains. Such a critical state is caused by the chiral symmetry. The ladder with identical RD chains can be decoupled into two isolated RD chains and the ladder with pairing RD chains can not. The analytic expressions of the extended states are presented for the ladder with identical RD chains. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Doped spin ladders under magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roux, G.
2007-07-01
This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)
Magnetic susceptibilities of integrable quantum ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Soo A; Lee, K.
2001-01-01
As an extension of previous studies, we consider the magnetic susceptibilities of a coupled spin chain model at low temperature and of a more realistic model at low temperature and of a more realistic model having a t-J ladder structure at zero temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities for both models are obtained numerically when the coupling constant is greater than its critical value. In this region, the ladders behave as a single chain for H c and as two independent chains for H>H c , showing a divergence at H c . This divergence is expected to smear out at a finite temperature
Ladder physics in the spin fermion model
Tsvelik, A. M.
2017-05-01
A link is established between the spin fermion (SF) model of the cuprates and the approach based on the analogy between the physics of doped Mott insulators in two dimensions and the physics of fermionic ladders. This enables one to use nonperturbative results derived for fermionic ladders to move beyond the large-N approximation in the SF model. It is shown that the paramagnon exchange postulated in the SF model has exactly the right form to facilitate the emergence of the fully gapped d -Mott state in the region of the Brillouin zone at the hot spots of the Fermi surface. Hence, the SF model provides an adequate description of the pseudogap.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas
2013-01-01
We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function...... that there is a critical angle at which ordering disappears. This angle is slightly larger than the angle at which the dipoles are non-interacting along a single leg. This behavior should be observable using current experimental techniques....
5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of record...
The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction
Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex
2011-01-01
The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…
Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR
Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Maggi Kelly; Scott Stephens
2014-01-01
We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base...
The laddering method in service innovation research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe
2017-01-01
The laddering method is a qualitative interview technique applied in a situation with one interviewer and one informant with the aim of creating an understanding of the value that business-to-consumer (B2C) customers extract from product attributes. Thus, this methodology aims to depict a mental ...
Fermion-boson scattering in ladder approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafarov, R.G.; Hadjiev, S.A.
1992-10-01
A method of calculation of forward scattering amplitude for fermions and scalar bosons with exchanging of scalar particle is suggested. The Bethe-Salpeter ladder equation for the imaginary part of the amplitude is constructed and a solution in Regge asymptotical form is found and the corrections to the amplitude due to the exit from mass shell are calculated. (author). 8 refs
29 CFR 1910.27 - Fixed ladders.
2010-07-01
...) All rungs shall have a minimum diameter of three-fourths inch for metal ladders, except as covered in... appurtenances shall be painted or otherwise treated to resist corrosion and rusting when location demands... areas under floors, are frequently located in an atmosphere that causes corrosion and rusting. To...
Hadron structure in the ladder model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soper, D.E.
1979-01-01
The (flavor non-singlet) Green's function to find a far-off-shell quark in a hadron is obtained in the renormalization group improved ladder model for QCD in the space-like axial gauge. Particular attention is paid to the role of the singularity in the gluon propagator. 4 figures
Recursive regularization step for high-order lattice Boltzmann methods
Coreixas, Christophe; Wissocq, Gauthier; Puigt, Guillaume; Boussuge, Jean-François; Sagaut, Pierre
2017-09-01
A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with enhanced stability and accuracy is presented for various Hermite tensor-based lattice structures. The collision operator relies on a regularization step, which is here improved through a recursive computation of nonequilibrium Hermite polynomial coefficients. In addition to the reduced computational cost of this procedure with respect to the standard one, the recursive step allows to considerably enhance the stability and accuracy of the numerical scheme by properly filtering out second- (and higher-) order nonhydrodynamic contributions in under-resolved conditions. This is first shown in the isothermal case where the simulation of the doubly periodic shear layer is performed with a Reynolds number ranging from 104 to 106, and where a thorough analysis of the case at Re=3 ×104 is conducted. In the latter, results obtained using both regularization steps are compared against the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook LBM for standard (D2Q9) and high-order (D2V17 and D2V37) lattice structures, confirming the tremendous increase of stability range of the proposed approach. Further comparisons on thermal and fully compressible flows, using the general extension of this procedure, are then conducted through the numerical simulation of Sod shock tubes with the D2V37 lattice. They confirm the stability increase induced by the recursive approach as compared with the standard one.
Ladder physics in the spin fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsvelik, A. M.
2017-01-01
A link is established between the spin fermion (SF) model of the cuprates and the approach based on the analogy between the physics of doped Mott insulators in two dimensions and the physics of fermionic ladders. This enables one to use nonperturbative results derived for fermionic ladders to move beyond the large-N approximation in the SF model. Here, it is shown that the paramagnon exchange postulated in the SF model has exactly the right form to facilitate the emergence of the fully gapped d-Mott state in the region of the Brillouin zone at the hot spots of the Fermi surface. Hence, the SF model provides an adequate description of the pseudogap.
Excitation spectrum of Heisenberg spin ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, T.; Dagotto, E.; Riera, J.; Swanson, E.S.
1993-01-01
Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin ''ladders'' (two coupled spin chains) are low-dimensional magnetic systems which for S=1/2 interpolate between half-integer-spin chains, when the chains are decoupled, and effective integer-spin one-dimensional chains in the strong-coupling limit. The spin-1/2 ladder may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate, (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . In this paper we apply strong-coupling perturbation theory, spin-wave theory, Lanczos techniques, and a Monte Carlo method to determine the ground-state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum of the ladder. We find evidence of a nonzero spin gap for all interchain couplings J perpendicular >0. A band of spin-triplet excitations above the gap is also analyzed. These excitations are unusual for an antiferromagnet, since their long-wavelength dispersion relation behaves as (k-k 0 ) 2 (in the strong-coupling limit J perpendicular much-gt J, where J is the in-chain antiferromagnetic coupling). Their band is folded, with a minimum energy at k 0 =π, and a maximum between k 1 =π/2 (for J perpendicular =0) and 0 (for J perpendicular =∞). We also give numerical results for the dynamical structure factor S(q,ω), which can be determined in neutron scattering experiments. Finally, possible experimental techniques for studying the excitation spectrum are discussed
Career ladder program for registered nurses in ambulatory care.
Nelson, Joan; Sassaman, Becky; Phillips, Alison
2008-01-01
RN ladder programs are designed to inspire and reward clinical excellence. Kaiser Permanente Colorado's (KPCO) career ladder program emerged as a result of a labor-management partnership. Career ladder point assignments are reflective of the organization's priorities and values. KPCO's career ladder point tool awards RNs for formal and continuing education, professional presentations, organizational experience and experience as an RN, certifications and active professional memberships, leadership activities, research and publications, and nursing-related volunteer work. Participation in the RN career ladder requires that the nurse achieve a self-determined, manager-approved, measurable goal that will improve patient care. Career ladder nurses at KPCO were significantly more involved in leadership and interdisciplinary activities, quality improvement projects, and preceptorship.
The snakes and ladders of FM service excellence
Price, Ilfryn; Mccarroll, Patricia
2015-01-01
A report to accompany a workshop and gamification event at EFMC 2015 in Glasgow.\\ud \\ud Snakes and Ladders is an ancient Indian board game regarded today as a worldwide classic. The historic version had its root in morality lessons, where a player's progression up the board represented a life journey complicated by virtues (ladders) and vices (snakes). Our version brings back the morality element by associating each ladder and snake with enablers or barriers to service excellence in FM all id...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun Hyeok Kim
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A high performance ladder-like structured methacrylate siloxane hybrid material (LMSH was fabricated via simple hydrolytic sol–gel reaction, followed by free-radical polymerization. A structurally ordered siloxane backbone, the ladder-like structure, which is an essential factor for high performance, could be achieved by a short period of sol–gel reaction in only 4 h. This results in superior optical (Transmittance > 90% at 550 nm, thermal (T5 wt % decomposition > 400 ℃ , mechanical properties(elastic recovery = 0.86, hardness = 0.6 GPa compared to the random- and even commercialized cage-structured silsesquioxane, which also has ordered structure. It was investigated that the fabricated ladder-like structured MSH showed the highest overall density of organic/inorganic co-networks that are originated from highly ordered siloxane network, along with high conversion rate of polymerizable methacrylate groups. Our findings suggest a potential of the ladder-like structured MSH as a powerful alternative for the methacrylate polysilsesquioxane, which can be applied to thermally stable and flexible optical coatings, even with an easier and simpler preparation process.
Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru
2016-04-19
We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.
Discussing Laddering Application by the Means-End Chain Theory
Veludo-de-Oliveira, Tania Modesto; Ikeda, Ana Akemi; Campomar, Marcos Cortez
2006-01-01
This article aims at analyzing laddering as a technique of qualitative research, emphasizing the procedures for data collection, analysis and interpretation, and its main limitations as well. "Laddering refers to an in-depth, one-on-one interviewing technique used to develop an understanding of how consumers translate the attributes of products…
46 CFR 72.05-20 - Stairways, ladders, and elevators.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairways, ladders, and elevators. 72.05-20 Section 72.05-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-20 Stairways, ladders, and elevators. (a)(1) Except as further noted the provisions of this...
29 CFR 1910.25 - Portable wood ladders.
2010-07-01
... for the construction, care, and use of the common types of portable wood ladders, in order to insure... density wood shall not be used. (ii) [Reserved] (2) [Reserved] (c) Construction requirements. (1... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portable wood ladders. 1910.25 Section 1910.25 Labor...
Designing and Implementing Performance-Based Career Ladder Plans.
Hawley, Willis D.
1985-01-01
Reviews the factors that any teacher motivation plan must incorporate to be effective and outlines 11 principles that should be followed in designing career ladder plans to meet teacher needs, increase teacher competence, and facilitate effective instruction. Warns against potential pitfalls in career ladder plans. (PGD)
A balanced intervention ladder: promoting autonomy through public health action.
Griffiths, P E; West, C
2015-08-01
The widely cited Nuffield Council on Bioethics 'Intervention Ladder' structurally embodies the assumption that personal autonomy is maximized by non-intervention. Consequently, the Intervention Ladder encourages an extreme 'negative liberty' view of autonomy. Yet there are several alternative accounts of autonomy that are both arguably superior as accounts of autonomy and better suited to the issues facing public health ethics. We propose to replace the one-sided ladder, which has any intervention coming at a cost to autonomy, with a two-sided 'Balanced Intervention Ladder,' where intervention can either enhance or diminish autonomy. We show that not only the alternative, richer accounts of autonomy but even Mill's classic version of negative liberty puts some interventions on the positive side of the ladder. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generation of intense high-order vortex harmonics.
Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lingang; Wang, Wenpeng; Xu, Jiancai; Yi, Longqiong; Xu, Zhizhan
2015-05-01
This Letter presents for the first time a scheme to generate intense high-order optical vortices that carry orbital angular momentum in the extreme ultraviolet region based on relativistic harmonics from the surface of a solid target. In the three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation, the high-order harmonics of the high-order vortex mode is generated in both reflected and transmitted light beams when a linearly polarized Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulse impinges on a solid foil. The azimuthal mode of the harmonics scales with its order. The intensity of the high-order vortex harmonics is close to the relativistic region, with the pulse duration down to attosecond scale. The obtained intense vortex beam possesses the combined properties of fine transversal structure due to the high-order mode and the fine longitudinal structure due to the short wavelength of the high-order harmonics. In addition to the application in high-resolution detection in both spatial and temporal scales, it also presents new opportunities in the intense vortex required fields, such as the inner shell ionization process and high energy twisted photons generation by Thomson scattering of such an intense vortex beam off relativistic electrons.
Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Sérgio Agostinho
Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with
Bound states in weakly disordered spin ladders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arlego, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: arlego@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Brenig, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Cabra, D.C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg (France); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Honecker, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Rossini, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)
2005-04-30
We study the appearance of bound states in the spin gap of spin-12 ladders induced by weak bond disorder. Starting from the strong-coupling limit, i.e., the limit of weakly coupled dimers, we perform a projection on the single-triplet subspace and derive the position of bound states for the single impurity problem of one modified coupling as well as for small impurity clusters. The case of a finite concentration of impurities is treated with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) in the strong-coupling limit and compared with numerical results. Further, we analyze the details in the structure of the density of states and relate their origin to the influence of impurity clusters.
Dynamic Stability Analysis Using High-Order Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juarez-Toledo C.
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A non-linear model with robust precision for transient stability analysis in multimachine power systems is proposed. The proposed formulation uses the interpolation of Lagrange and Newton's Divided Difference. The High-Order Interpolation technique developed can be used for evaluation of the critical conditions of the dynamic system.The technique is applied to a 5-area 45-machine model of the Mexican interconnected system. As a particular case, this paper shows the application of the High-Order procedure for identifying the slow-frequency mode for a critical contingency. Numerical examples illustrate the method and demonstrate the ability of the High-Order technique to isolate and extract temporal modal behavior.
A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe
In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...... of convergence consistent with the moments conserved by the applied smoothing function. In the hybrid particle-mesh method of Hockney and Eastwood (HE) the particles are interpolated onto a regular mesh where the unbounded Poisson equation is solved by a discrete non-cyclic convolution of the mesh values...... and the integration kernel. In this work we show an implementation of high order regularised integration kernels in the HE algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve an arbitrary high order convergence. We further present a quantitative study of the convergence rate to give further insight...
Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan eLiu
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.
A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe
2013-01-01
. The method is extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution to Poissonʼs equation. In this way differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field can be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method, is applied......A high order converging Poisson solver is presented, based on the Greenʼs function solution to Poissonʼs equation subject to free-space boundary conditions. The high order convergence is achieved by formulating regularised integration kernels, analogous to a smoothing of the solution field...... and validated, however not restricted, to the equations of fluid mechanics, and can be used in many applications to solve Poissonʼs equation on a rectangular unbounded domain....
Retrieval of high-order susceptibilities of nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhi-Yu; Qiu Jin-Peng; Chen Hua; Mo Jiong-Jiong; Yu Fa-Xin
2017-01-01
Active metamaterials embedded with nonlinear elements are able to exhibit strong nonlinearity in microwave regime. However, existing S -parameter based parameter retrieval approaches developed for linear metamaterials do not apply in nonlinear cases. In this paper, a retrieval algorithm of high-order susceptibilities for nonlinear metamaterials is derived. Experimental demonstration shows that, by measuring the power level of each harmonic while sweeping the incident power, high-order susceptibilities of a thin-layer nonlinear metamaterial can be effectively retrieved. The proposedapproach can be widely used in the research of active metamaterials. (paper)
Superconductivity in doped two-leg ladder cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Jihong; Yuan Feng; Feng Shiping
2006-01-01
Within the t-J ladder model, superconductivity with a modified d-wave symmetry in doped two-leg ladder cuprates is investigated based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the spin-liquid ground-state at the half-filling evolves into the superconducting ground-state upon doping. In analogy to the doping dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in the planar cuprate superconductors, the superconducting transition temperature in doped two-leg ladder cuprates increases with increasing doping in the underdoped regime, and reaches a maximum in the optimal doping, then decreases in the overdoped regime
Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José
2013-11-18
We present a high-order UWB pulses generator based on a microwave photonic filter which provides a set of positive and negative samples by using the slicing of an incoherent optical source and the phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. The simple scalability and high reconfigurability of the system permit a better accomplishment of the FCC requirements. Moreover, the proposed scheme permits an easy adaptation to pulse amplitude modulation, bi phase modulation, pulse shape modulation and pulse position modulation. The flexibility of the scheme for being adaptable to multilevel modulation formats permits to increase the transmission bit rate by using hybrid modulation formats.
Intra-cavity generation of high order LGpl modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ngcobo, S
2012-08-01
Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gaussian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order LGpl Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...
A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe
2012-01-01
This work improves upon Hockney and Eastwood's Fourier-based algorithm for the unbounded Poisson equation to formally achieve arbitrary high order of convergence without any additional computational cost. We assess the methodology on the kinematic relations between the velocity and vorticity fields....
Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from Argon-clusters
Tao, Yin; Hagmeijer, Rob; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Goh, S.J.; van der Slot, P.J.M.; Biedron, S.; Milton, S.; Boller, Klaus J.
2017-01-01
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in clusters is of high promise because clusters appear to offer an increased optical nonlinearity. We experimentally investigate HHG from Argon clusters in a supersonic gas jet that can generate monomer-cluster mixtures with varying atomic number density and
Airfoil noise computation use high-order schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2007-01-01
High-order finite difference schemes with at least 4th-order spatial accuracy are used to simulate aerodynamically generated noise. The aeroacoustic solver with 4th-order up to 8th-order accuracy is implemented into the in-house flow solver, EllipSys2D/3D. Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) fin...
A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weder, Ricardo
2008-01-01
There is currently a great deal of interest in the invisibility cloaks recently proposed by Pendry et al that are based on the transformation approach. They obtained their results using first-order transformations. In recent papers, Hendi et al and Cai et al considered invisibility cloaks with high-order transformations. In this paper, we study high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks in transformation media obtained by high-order transformations from general anisotropic media. We consider the case where there is a finite number of spherical cloaks located in different points in space. We prove that for any incident plane wave, at any frequency, the scattered wave is identically zero. We also consider the scattering of finite-energy wave packets. We prove that the scattering matrix is the identity, i.e., that for any incoming wave packet the outgoing wave packet is the same as the incoming one. This proves that the invisibility cloaks cannot be detected in any scattering experiment with electromagnetic waves in high-order transformation media, and in particular in the first-order transformation media of Pendry et al. We also prove that the high-order invisibility cloaks, as well as the first-order ones, cloak passive and active devices. The cloaked objects completely decouple from the exterior. Actually, the cloaking outside is independent of what is inside the cloaked objects. The electromagnetic waves inside the cloaked objects cannot leave the concealed regions and vice versa, the electromagnetic waves outside the cloaked objects cannot go inside the concealed regions. As we prove our results for media that are obtained by transformation from general anisotropic materials, we prove that it is possible to cloak objects inside general crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrev, Veselin A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2012-09-20
The numerical approximation of the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a movingLagrangian frame is at the heart of many multiphysics simulation algorithms. Here, we present a general framework for high-order Lagrangian discretization of these compressible shock hydrodynamics equations using curvilinear finite elements. This method is an extension of the approach outlined in [Dobrev et al., Internat. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 65 (2010), pp. 1295--1310] and can be formulated for any finite dimensional approximation of the kinematic and thermodynamic fields, including generic finite elements on two- and three-dimensional meshes with triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, or hexahedral zones. We discretize the kinematic variables of position and velocity using a continuous high-order basis function expansion of arbitrary polynomial degree which is obtained via a corresponding high-order parametric mapping from a standard reference element. This enables the use of curvilinear zone geometry, higher-order approximations for fields within a zone, and a pointwise definition of mass conservation which we refer to as strong mass conservation. Moreover, we discretize the internal energy using a piecewise discontinuous high-order basis function expansion which is also of arbitrary polynomial degree. This facilitates multimaterial hydrodynamics by treating material properties, such as equations of state and constitutive models, as piecewise discontinuous functions which vary within a zone. To satisfy the Rankine--Hugoniot jump conditions at a shock boundary and generate the appropriate entropy, we introduce a general tensor artificial viscosity which takes advantage of the high-order kinematic and thermodynamic information available in each zone. Finally, we apply a generic high-order time discretization process to the semidiscrete equations to develop the fully discrete numerical algorithm. Our method can be viewed as the high-order generalization of the so-called staggered
The chiral Ward-Takahashi identity in the ladder approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kugo, Taichiro; Mitchard, M.G.
1992-01-01
We show that the ladder approximation to the Schwinger-Dyson and Bethe-Salpeter equations preserves the Ward-Takahashi identity for the axial vector vertex if and only if we use the gluon momentum as the argument of the running coupling constant. However, in the usual Landau gauge this is inconsistent with the vector Ward identity. We propose a new method for making the ladder approximation scheme consistent with both vector and axial vector Ward identities. (orig.)
Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Antonio Agostinho
Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for
High-Order Modulation for Optical Fiber Transmission
Seimetz, Matthias
2009-01-01
Catering to the current interest in increasing the spectral efficiency of optical fiber networks by the deployment of high-order modulation formats, this monograph describes transmitters, receivers and performance of optical systems with high-order phase and quadrature amplitude modulation. In the first part of the book, the author discusses various transmitter implementation options as well as several receiver concepts based on direct and coherent detection, including designs of new structures. Hereby, both optical and electrical parts are considered, allowing the assessment of practicability and complexity. In the second part, a detailed characterization of optical fiber transmission systems is presented, regarding a wide range of modulation formats. It provides insight in the fundamental behavior of different formats with respect to relevant performance degradation effects and identifies the major trends in system performance.
Eliminating high-order scattering effects in optical microbubble sizing.
Qiu, Huihe
2003-04-01
Measurements of bubble size and velocity in multiphase flows are important in much research and many industrial applications. It has been found that high-order refractions have great impact on microbubble sizing by use of phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The problem has been investigated, and a model of phase-size correlation, which also takes high-order refractions into consideration, is introduced to improve the accuracy of bubble sizing. Hence the model relaxes the assumption of a single-scattering mechanism in a conventional PDA system. The results of simulation based on this new model are compared with those based on a single-scattering-mechanism approach or a first-order approach. An optimization method for accurately sizing air bubbles in water has been suggested.
High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes
Ganeev, Rashid A
2013-01-01
This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...
Analysis and Design of High-Order Parallel Resonant Converters
Batarseh, Issa Eid
1990-01-01
In this thesis, a special state variable transformation technique has been derived for the analysis of high order dc-to-dc resonant converters. Converters comprised of high order resonant tanks have the advantage of utilizing the parasitic elements by making them part of the resonant tank. A new set of state variables is defined in order to make use of two-dimensional state-plane diagrams in the analysis of high order converters. Such a method has been successfully used for the analysis of the conventional Parallel Resonant Converters (PRC). Consequently, two -dimensional state-plane diagrams are used to analyze the steady state response for third and fourth order PRC's when these converters are operated in the continuous conduction mode. Based on this analysis, a set of control characteristic curves for the LCC-, LLC- and LLCC-type PRC are presented from which various converter design parameters are obtained. Various design curves for component value selections and device ratings are given. This analysis of high order resonant converters shows that the addition of the reactive components to the resonant tank results in converters with better performance characteristics when compared with the conventional second order PRC. Complete design procedure along with design examples for 2nd, 3rd and 4th order converters are presented. Practical power supply units, normally used for computer applications, were built and tested by using the LCC-, LLC- and LLCC-type commutation schemes. In addition, computer simulation results are presented for these converters in order to verify the theoretical results.
Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.
2006-01-01
-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated.......A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz...
High order modes in Project-X linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sukhanov, A., E-mail: ais@fnal.gov; Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; Awida, M.; Champion, M.; Ginsburg, C.; Gonin, I.; Grimm, C.; Khabiboulline, T.; Nicol, T.; Orlov, Yu.; Saini, A.; Sergatskov, D.; Solyak, N.; Vostrikov, A.
2014-01-11
Project-X, a multi-MW proton source, is now under development at Fermilab. In this paper we present study of high order modes (HOM) excited in continues-wave (CW) superconducting linac of Project-X. We investigate effects of cryogenic losses caused by HOMs and influence of HOMs on beam dynamics. We find that these effects are small. We conclude that HOM couplers/dampers are not needed in the Project-X SC RF cavities.
Machine Learning Control For Highly Reconfigurable High-Order Systems
2015-01-02
calibration and applications,” Mechatronics and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA), 2010 IEEE/ASME International Conference on, IEEE, 2010, pp. 38–43...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0012 MACHINE LEARNING CONTROL FOR HIGHLY RECONFIGURABLE HIGH-ORDER SYSTEMS John Valasek TEXAS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION...DIMENSIONAL RECONFIGURABLE SYSTEMS FA9550-11-1-0302 Period of Performance 1 July 2011 – 29 September 2014 John Valasek Aerospace Engineering
International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods
Dumont, Ney; Hesthaven, Jan
2017-01-01
This book features a selection of high-quality papers chosen from the best presentations at the International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods (2016), offering an overview of the depth and breadth of the activities within this important research area. The carefully reviewed papers provide a snapshot of the state of the art, while the extensive bibliography helps initiate new research directions.
Conditional High-Order Boltzmann Machines for Supervised Relation Learning.
Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Tan, Tieniu
2017-09-01
Relation learning is a fundamental problem in many vision tasks. Recently, high-order Boltzmann machine and its variants have shown their great potentials in learning various types of data relation in a range of tasks. But most of these models are learned in an unsupervised way, i.e., without using relation class labels, which are not very discriminative for some challenging tasks, e.g., face verification. In this paper, with the goal to perform supervised relation learning, we introduce relation class labels into conventional high-order multiplicative interactions with pairwise input samples, and propose a conditional high-order Boltzmann Machine (CHBM), which can learn to classify the data relation in a binary classification way. To be able to deal with more complex data relation, we develop two improved variants of CHBM: 1) latent CHBM, which jointly performs relation feature learning and classification, by using a set of latent variables to block the pathway from pairwise input samples to output relation labels and 2) gated CHBM, which untangles factors of variation in data relation, by exploiting a set of latent variables to multiplicatively gate the classification of CHBM. To reduce the large number of model parameters generated by the multiplicative interactions, we approximately factorize high-order parameter tensors into multiple matrices. Then, we develop efficient supervised learning algorithms, by first pretraining the models using joint likelihood to provide good parameter initialization, and then finetuning them using conditional likelihood to enhance the discriminant ability. We apply the proposed models to a series of tasks including invariant recognition, face verification, and action similarity labeling. Experimental results demonstrate that by exploiting supervised relation labels, our models can greatly improve the performance.
High order spectral difference lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible hydrodynamics
Li, Weidong
2017-09-01
This work presents a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) based high order spectral difference method for incompressible flows. In the present method, the spectral difference (SD) method is adopted to discretize the convection and collision term of the LBE to obtain high order (≥3) accuracy. Because the SD scheme represents the solution as cell local polynomials and the solution polynomials have good tensor-product property, the present spectral difference lattice Boltzmann method (SD-LBM) can be implemented on arbitrary unstructured quadrilateral meshes for effective and efficient treatment of complex geometries. Thanks to only first oder PDEs involved in the LBE, no special techniques, such as hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method (HDG), local discontinuous Galerkin method (LDG) and so on, are needed to discrete diffusion term, and thus, it simplifies the algorithm and implementation of the high order spectral difference method for simulating viscous flows. The proposed SD-LBM is validated with four incompressible flow benchmarks in two-dimensions: (a) the Poiseuille flow driven by a constant body force; (b) the lid-driven cavity flow without singularity at the two top corners-Burggraf flow; and (c) the unsteady Taylor-Green vortex flow; (d) the Blasius boundary-layer flow past a flat plate. Computational results are compared with analytical solutions of these cases and convergence studies of these cases are also given. The designed accuracy of the proposed SD-LBM is clearly verified.
THE PAN-STARRS 1 PHOTOMETRIC REFERENCE LADDER, RELEASE 12.01
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H. A.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Sweeney, W. E.; Schlafly, E.; Finkbeiner, D.; Juric, M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Price, P. A.
2013-01-01
As of 2012 January 21, the Pan-STARRS 1 3π Survey has observed the 3/4 of the sky visible from Hawaii with a minimum of 2 and mean of 7.6 observations in five filters, g P1 , r P1 , i P1 , z P1 , y P1 . Now at the end of the second year of the mission, we are in a position to make an initial public release of a portion of this unprecedented data set. This article describes the PS1 Photometric Ladder, Release 12.01. This is the first of a series of data releases to be generated as the survey coverage increases and the data analysis improves. The Photometric Ladder has rungs every hour in right ascension and at four intervals in declination. We will release updates with increased area coverage (more rungs) from the latest data set until the PS1 survey and the final re-reduction are completed. The currently released catalog presents photometry of ∼1000 objects per square degree in the rungs of the ladder. Saturation occurs at g P1 , r P1 , i P1 ∼ 13.5; z P1 ∼ 13.0; and y P1 ∼ 12.0. Photometry is provided for stars down to g P1 , r P1 , i P1 ∼ 19.1 in the AB system. This data release depends on the rigid 'Ubercal' photometric calibration using only the photometric nights, with systematic uncertainties of (8.0, 7.0, 9.0, 10.7, 12.4) mmag in (g P1 , r P1 , i P1 , z P1 , y P1 ). Areas covered only with lower quality nights are also included, and have been tied to the Ubercal solution via relative photometry; photometric accuracy of the non-photometric regions is lower and should be used with caution.
Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures
Hutchinson, Maxwell; Heinecke, Alexander; Pabst, Hans; Henry, Greg; Parsani, Matteo; Keyes, David E.
2016-01-01
High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.
Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures
Hutchinson, Maxwell
2016-06-14
High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.
On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density
Ghisoiu, Ioan; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Säppi, Matias; Vuorinen, Aleksi
2017-01-01
We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes. Applications of these rules will be discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.
High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge
Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.
2010-06-01
A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.
On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghişoiu, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.ghisoiu@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Gorda, Tyler, E-mail: tyler.gorda@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Kurkela, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.kurkela@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul, E-mail: paul.romatschke@colorado.edu [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Säppi, Matias, E-mail: matias.sappi@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Vuorinen, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.vuorinen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)
2017-02-15
We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes — a result reminiscent of a previously proposed “naive real-time formalism” for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.
Theoretical description of high-order harmonic generation in solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kemper, A F; Moritz, B; Devereaux, T P; Freericks, J K
2013-01-01
We consider several aspects of high-order harmonic generation in solids: the effects of elastic and inelastic scattering, varying pulse characteristics and inclusion of material-specific parameters through a realistic band structure. We reproduce many observed characteristics of high harmonic generation experiments in solids including the formation of only odd harmonics in inversion-symmetric materials, and the nonlinear formation of high harmonics with increasing field. We find that the harmonic spectra are fairly robust against elastic and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, we find that the pulse characteristics can play an important role in determining the harmonic spectra. (paper)
High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.
1992-12-01
Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals
Nitration Study of Cyclic Ladder Polyphenylsilsesquioxane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LIANG Jia-xiang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Several nitration reagents including fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4, KNO3-H2SO4, HNO3-KNO3, CH3COOH-KNO3, (CH3CO2O-HNO3 were used to nitrate cyclic ladder polyphenylsilsesquioxane (CL-PPSQ in different conditions in order to enhance the compatibility of the CL-PPSQ in polymers, the NO2-PPSQ was obtained. FTIR, element analysis, GPC, TGA and 1H NMR were used to characterize the structures of the nitrated products. The results show that the nitrating abilities of the fuming nitric acid, HNO3-H2SO4 and KNO3-H2SO4 are very strong. Many nitro groups can be linked with phenyl groups in CL-PPSQ, but with low molecular mass, fracture occurs in siloxane segment. However, the Mn of the product NO2-PPSQ sharply drops by 50% compared with that of CL-PPSQ, so the nitration reagents can break the cyclic structure of CL-PPSQ. The nitrating reagents of HNO3-KNO3 and CH3COOH-KNO3 have no nitration effects on CL-PPSQ. At last, NO2-CL-PPSQ was prepared using (CH3CO2O-HNO3 because of the moderate nitration process and ability. The cyclic structure of PPSQ is remained, although the number of —NO2 group is not too much. At the same time, the nitration mechanism using different nitration reagents was analyzed. A certain amount of NO2+, which is a kind of activator owning strong nitration ability, can be found in the fuming nitric acid and H2SO4-HNO3(KNO3 systems. As to the (CH3CO2O-HNO3 system, the main activator is CH3COONO2.
Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chacón, L.; Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W.; Willert, J.A.; Womeldorff, G.
2017-01-01
We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.
Benchmarking with high-order nodal diffusion methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomasevic, D.; Larsen, E.W.
1993-01-01
Significant progress in the solution of multidimensional neutron diffusion problems was made in the late 1970s with the introduction of nodal methods. Modern nodal reactor analysis codes provide significant improvements in both accuracy and computing speed over earlier codes based on fine-mesh finite difference methods. In the past, the performance of advanced nodal methods was determined by comparisons with fine-mesh finite difference codes. More recently, the excellent spatial convergence of nodal methods has permitted their use in establishing reference solutions for some important bench-mark problems. The recent development of the self-consistent high-order nodal diffusion method and its subsequent variational formulation has permitted the calculation of reference solutions with one node per assembly mesh size. In this paper, we compare results for four selected benchmark problems to those obtained by high-order response matrix methods and by two well-known state-of-the-art nodal methods (the open-quotes analyticalclose quotes and open-quotes nodal expansionclose quotes methods)
High-order perturbations of a spherical collapsing star
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2010-01-01
A formalism to deal with high-order perturbations of a general spherical background was developed in earlier work [D. Brizuela, J. M. Martin-Garcia, and G. A. Mena Marugan, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044039 (2006); D. Brizuela, J. M. Martin-Garcia, and G. A. Mena Marugan, Phys. Rev. D 76, 024004 (2007)]. In this paper, we apply it to the particular case of a perfect fluid background. We have expressed the perturbations of the energy-momentum tensor at any order in terms of the perturbed fluid's pressure, density, and velocity. In general, these expressions are not linear and have sources depending on lower-order perturbations. For the second-order case we make the explicit decomposition of these sources in tensor spherical harmonics. Then, a general procedure is given to evolve the perturbative equations of motions of the perfect fluid for any value of the harmonic label. Finally, with the problem of a spherical collapsing star in mind, we discuss the high-order perturbative matching conditions across a timelike surface, in particular, the surface separating the perfect fluid interior from the exterior vacuum.
Multiscale high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms and applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chacón, L., E-mail: chacon@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, G.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.; Park, H.; Taitano, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Willert, J.A. [Institute for Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Womeldorff, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
2017-02-01
We review the state of the art in the formulation, implementation, and performance of so-called high-order/low-order (HOLO) algorithms for challenging multiscale problems. HOLO algorithms attempt to couple one or several high-complexity physical models (the high-order model, HO) with low-complexity ones (the low-order model, LO). The primary goal of HOLO algorithms is to achieve nonlinear convergence between HO and LO components while minimizing memory footprint and managing the computational complexity in a practical manner. Key to the HOLO approach is the use of the LO representations to address temporal stiffness, effectively accelerating the convergence of the HO/LO coupled system. The HOLO approach is broadly underpinned by the concept of nonlinear elimination, which enables segregation of the HO and LO components in ways that can effectively use heterogeneous architectures. The accuracy and efficiency benefits of HOLO algorithms are demonstrated with specific applications to radiation transport, gas dynamics, plasmas (both Eulerian and Lagrangian formulations), and ocean modeling. Across this broad application spectrum, HOLO algorithms achieve significant accuracy improvements at a fraction of the cost compared to conventional approaches. It follows that HOLO algorithms hold significant potential for high-fidelity system scale multiscale simulations leveraging exascale computing.
A High-Order CFS Algorithm for Clustering Big Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fanyu Bu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available With the development of Internet of Everything such as Internet of Things, Internet of People, and Industrial Internet, big data is being generated. Clustering is a widely used technique for big data analytics and mining. However, most of current algorithms are not effective to cluster heterogeneous data which is prevalent in big data. In this paper, we propose a high-order CFS algorithm (HOCFS to cluster heterogeneous data by combining the CFS clustering algorithm and the dropout deep learning model, whose functionality rests on three pillars: (i an adaptive dropout deep learning model to learn features from each type of data, (ii a feature tensor model to capture the correlations of heterogeneous data, and (iii a tensor distance-based high-order CFS algorithm to cluster heterogeneous data. Furthermore, we verify our proposed algorithm on different datasets, by comparison with other two clustering schemes, that is, HOPCM and CFS. Results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in clustering heterogeneous data.
Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM
Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka
2016-03-01
Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).
High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reusch, Michael F.; Bruhwiler, David L.
1997-01-01
The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach
High-order space charge effects using automatic differentiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reusch, M.F.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Computer Accelerator Physics Conference Williamsburg, Virginia 1996)
1997-01-01
The Northrop Grumman Topkark code has been upgraded to Fortran 90, making use of operator overloading, so the same code can be used to either track an array of particles or construct a Taylor map representation of the accelerator lattice. We review beam optics and beam dynamics simulations conducted with TOPKARK in the past and we present a new method for modeling space charge forces to high-order with automatic differentiation. This method generates an accurate, high-order, 6-D Taylor map of the phase space variable trajectories for a bunched, high-current beam. The spatial distribution is modeled as the product of a Taylor Series times a Gaussian. The variables in the argument of the Gaussian are normalized to the respective second moments of the distribution. This form allows for accurate representation of a wide range of realistic distributions, including any asymmetries, and allows for rapid calculation of the space charge fields with free space boundary conditions. An example problem is presented to illustrate our approach. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Energy-efficient hydrogen separation by AB-type ladder-polymer molecular sieves
Ghanem, Bader
2014-07-19
The synthesis, microstructures, and exceptional gas transport properties of two new soluble ladder polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (TPIM-1 and TPIM-2) containing triptycene moieties substituted with branched isopropyl and linear propyl chains at the 9,10-bridgeheads were reported. The precursor A-B monomers were modified with an o -difluoride functionality for enhanced activation for nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In a Schlenk tube, a mixture of the A-B monomer, 18-crown-6, anhydrous DMF and anhydrous potassium carbonate was stirred at 155 °C under nitrogen atmosphere for 20 min followed by the addition of toluene. The reaction was continued for another 45 min and more toluene was added. After another 45 min the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into methanol. Slow evaporation of filtered, dilute 3-5 wt% chloroform solutions from a leveled glass plate yielded isotropic polymer films. Dry membranes were soaked in methanol for 24 h, air-dried, and then heated at 120°C for 24 h under high vacuum to remove any traces of residual solvent. TPIM-1 exhibits simultaneous boosts in permeability and selectivity, which highlights the significant potential of an isopropyl-substituted triptycene moiety as a contortion center for ladder PIMs.
Control of Porosity in Ladder Polymers by Solvent-induced Aggregation
Brady, Michael; Gamo, Eri; Wang, Cheng; Xia, Yan
Porous polymers hold promise as materials for gas absorption, membranes, and organic electronics. In all of these applications, attaining in-plane ordering of backbones and thus porous free volume impacts the ability to adsorb gas, selectively filter molecules, and conduct charges. In this work, hard and soft x-ray scattering and soft x-ray spectroscopy are of focus to study the pore structure, induced by the solution-driven aggregation of ladder polymer thin films made of LP-1 and LP-2. Using GISAXS and AFM it is shown that thermal annealing drives the growth of crystallites in thin films. Due to the completely sp2nature of the ladder polymer backbones, it is expected that backbones are extremely stiff and thus preventing them from packing once left in a metastable state following casting. Therefore, the combination of GIWAXS and GISAXS will be shown to be critical in correctly understanding how pores develop in this 700 m2/g sorbent (N2). Finally, application in CO2/N2 separation membranes towards carbon sequestration will be presented that show gas selectivity is achieved through heteroatom incorporation and polymer blending. In this talk, focus will be placed on state-of-the-art x-ray scattering and spectroscopy, highlighting the importance of chemically sensitive structural information enabled by the combination of spectroscopy and scattering at play with the use of resonant soft x-rays.
Energy-efficient hydrogen separation by AB-type ladder-polymer molecular sieves
Ghanem, Bader; Swaidan, Raja; Ma, Xiaohua; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo
2014-01-01
The synthesis, microstructures, and exceptional gas transport properties of two new soluble ladder polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (TPIM-1 and TPIM-2) containing triptycene moieties substituted with branched isopropyl and linear propyl chains at the 9,10-bridgeheads were reported. The precursor A-B monomers were modified with an o -difluoride functionality for enhanced activation for nucleophilic aromatic substitution. In a Schlenk tube, a mixture of the A-B monomer, 18-crown-6, anhydrous DMF and anhydrous potassium carbonate was stirred at 155 °C under nitrogen atmosphere for 20 min followed by the addition of toluene. The reaction was continued for another 45 min and more toluene was added. After another 45 min the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into methanol. Slow evaporation of filtered, dilute 3-5 wt% chloroform solutions from a leveled glass plate yielded isotropic polymer films. Dry membranes were soaked in methanol for 24 h, air-dried, and then heated at 120°C for 24 h under high vacuum to remove any traces of residual solvent. TPIM-1 exhibits simultaneous boosts in permeability and selectivity, which highlights the significant potential of an isopropyl-substituted triptycene moiety as a contortion center for ladder PIMs.
High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll
2010-01-01
Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...... of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors...... in audio processing. These predictors, successfully implemented in modeling the short-term and long-term redundancies present in speech signals, will be used to model tonal audio signals, both monophonic and polyphonic. We will show how the sparse predictors are able to model efﬁciently the different...
Wilson loops in very high order lattice perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Nakamura, Y.; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schierholz, G.; Regensburg Univ.
2009-10-01
We calculate Wilson loops of various sizes up to loop order n=20 for lattice sizes of L 4 (L=4,6,8,12) using the technique of Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory in quenched QCD. This allows to investigate the behaviour of the perturbative series at high orders. We discuss three models to estimate the perturbative series: a renormalon inspired fit, a heuristic fit based on an assumed power-law singularity and boosted perturbation theory. We have found differences in the behavior of the perturbative series for smaller and larger Wilson loops at moderate n. A factorial growth of the coefficients could not be confirmed up to n=20. From Monte Carlo measured plaquette data and our perturbative result we estimate a value of the gluon condensate left angle (α)/(π)GG right angle. (orig.)
High-order hydrodynamic algorithms for exascale computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morgan, Nathaniel Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-02-05
Hydrodynamic algorithms are at the core of many laboratory missions ranging from simulating ICF implosions to climate modeling. The hydrodynamic algorithms commonly employed at the laboratory and in industry (1) typically lack requisite accuracy for complex multi- material vortical flows and (2) are not well suited for exascale computing due to poor data locality and poor FLOP/memory ratios. Exascale computing requires advances in both computer science and numerical algorithms. We propose to research the second requirement and create a new high-order hydrodynamic algorithm that has superior accuracy, excellent data locality, and excellent FLOP/memory ratios. This proposal will impact a broad range of research areas including numerical theory, discrete mathematics, vorticity evolution, gas dynamics, interface instability evolution, turbulent flows, fluid dynamics and shock driven flows. If successful, the proposed research has the potential to radically transform simulation capabilities and help position the laboratory for computing at the exascale.
High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems
Ketcheson, David I.
2013-01-22
We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.
Very high order lattice perturbation theory for Wilson loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horsley, R.
2010-10-01
We calculate perturbativeWilson loops of various sizes up to loop order n=20 at different lattice sizes for pure plaquette and tree-level improved Symanzik gauge theories using the technique of Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory. This allows us to investigate the behavior of the perturbative series at high orders. We observe differences in the behavior of perturbative coefficients as a function of the loop order. Up to n=20 we do not see evidence for the often assumed factorial growth of the coefficients. Based on the observed behavior we sum this series in a model with hypergeometric functions. Alternatively we estimate the series in boosted perturbation theory. Subtracting the estimated perturbative series for the average plaquette from the non-perturbative Monte Carlo result we estimate the gluon condensate. (orig.)
A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Fang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is usually expected to be an efficient numerical tool for calculating the fluid-structure interactions in compressors; however, an endogenetic restriction is the problem of low-order consistency. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels, which is quite easy to be implemented but efficient, is proposed for solving this restriction. The basic inverse method and the special treatment near boundary are introduced with also the discussion of the combination of the Least-Square (LS and Moving-Least-Square (MLS methods. Then detailed analysis in spectral space is presented for people to better understand this method. Finally we show three test examples to verify the method behavior.
High-order multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of NO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carman, H.S. Jr.; Compton, R.N.
1987-01-01
Photoelectron energy angular distributions of NO following three different high-order multiphoton ionization (MPI) schemes have been measured. The 3 + 3 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the A 2 Σ + (v=O) level yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to all accessible vibrational levels (v + =O-6) of the nascent ion. Angular distributions of electrons corresponding to v + =O and v + =3 were significantly different. The 3 + 2 REMPI via the A 2 Σ + (v=1) level produced only one low-energy electron peak (v + =1). Nonresonant MPI at 532 nm yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to both four- and five-photon ionization. Prominent peaks in the five-photon photoelectron spectrum (PES) suggest contributions from near-resonant states at the three-photon level. 4 refs., 3 figs
High-order quantum algorithm for solving linear differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, Dominic W
2014-01-01
Linear differential equations are ubiquitous in science and engineering. Quantum computers can simulate quantum systems, which are described by a restricted type of linear differential equations. Here we extend quantum simulation algorithms to general inhomogeneous sparse linear differential equations, which describe many classical physical systems. We examine the use of high-order methods (where the error over a time step is a high power of the size of the time step) to improve the efficiency. These provide scaling close to Δt 2 in the evolution time Δt. As with other algorithms of this type, the solution is encoded in amplitudes of the quantum state, and it is possible to extract global features of the solution. (paper)
Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knápek, Alexandr, E-mail: knapek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic); Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel [Department of Physics, FEEC, Brno University of Technology, Technická 8, Brno (Czech Republic); Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno (Czech Republic)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.
Field emission from the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knápek, Alexandr; Sobola, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel; Pokorná, Zuzana; Urbánek, Michal
2017-01-01
Highlights: • HOPG shreds were created and analyzed in the UHV conditions. • Current-voltage measurements have been done to confirm electron tunneling, based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory. • Surface was characterized by other surface evaluation methods, in particular by: SNOM, SEM and AFM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the electrical characterization of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface based on field emission of electrons. The effect of field emission occurs only at disrupted surface, i.e. surface containing ripped and warped shreds of the uppermost layers of graphite. These deformations provide the necessary field gradients which are required for measuring tunneling current caused by field electron emission. Results of the field emission measurements are correlated with other surface characterization methods such as scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) or atomic force microscopy.
PT-symmetric ladders with a scattering core
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ambroise, J. [Department of Mathematics, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002-5000 (United States); Lepri, S. [CNR – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Malomed, B.A. [Department of Physical Electronics, School of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kevrekidis, P.G. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States)
2014-08-01
We consider a PT-symmetric chain (ladder-shaped) system governed by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation where the cubic nonlinearity is carried solely by two central “rungs” of the ladder. Two branches of scattering solutions for incident plane waves are found. We systematically construct these solutions, analyze their stability, and discuss non-reciprocity of the transmission associated with them. To relate the results to finite-size wavepacket dynamics, we also perform direct simulations of the evolution of the wavepackets, which confirm that the transmission is indeed asymmetric in this nonlinear system with the mutually balanced gain and loss. - Highlights: • We model a PT-symmetric ladder system with cubic nonlinearity on two central rungs. • We examine non-reciprocity and stability of incident plane waves. • Simulations of wavepackets confirm our results.
Controlled parity switch of persistent currents in quantum ladders
Filippone, Michele; Bardyn, Charles-Edouard; Giamarchi, Thierry
2018-05-01
We investigate the behavior of persistent currents for a fixed number of noninteracting fermions in a periodic quantum ladder threaded by Aharonov-Bohm and transverse magnetic fluxes Φ and χ . We show that the coupling between ladder legs provides a way to effectively change the ground-state fermion-number parity, by varying χ . Specifically, we demonstrate that varying χ by 2 π (one flux quantum) leads to an apparent fermion-number parity switch. We find that persistent currents exhibit a robust 4 π periodicity as a function of χ , despite the fact that χ →χ +2 π leads to modifications of order 1 /N of the energy spectrum, where N is the number of sites in each ladder leg. We show that these parity-switch and 4 π periodicity effects are robust with respect to temperature and disorder, and outline potential physical realizations using cold atomic gases and photonic lattices, for bosonic analogs of the effects.
DUNDRUM Restriction-Intrusion of Liberty Ladders (DRILL) Audit Toolkit
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Kennedy, Harry G
2011-09-01
This series of rating \\'ladders\\' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes, interactions and effects can be considered. The complexity of analysis possible is limited by the statistical power of the numbers of cases and events available. \\r\
Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use
Pinnau, Ingo
2015-02-05
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using triptycene-based ladder polymers, a structure incorporating triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of gas separation, and the like.
Air Force Occupational Measurement Center, Lackland AFB, TX.
The report describes the results of a detailed occupational survey of the corrosion control career ladder. Responses to a 457-task, time rating inventory from 1,015 personnel (representing 64 percent of the career field) were analyzed to produce seven specific findings and the career ladder structure. The career ladder includes a variety of jobs…
High-order adaptive secondary mirrors: where are we?
Salinari, Piero; Sandler, David G.
1998-09-01
We discuss the current developments and the perspective performances of adaptive secondary mirrors for high order adaptive a correction on large ground based telescopes. The development of the basic techniques involved a large collaborative effort of public research Institutes and of private companies is now essentially complete. The next crucial step will be the construction of an adaptive secondary mirror for the 6.5 m MMT. Problems such as the fabrication of very thin mirrors, the low cost implementation of fast position sensors, of efficient and compact electromagnetic actuators, of the control and communication electronics, of the actuator control system, of the thermal control and of the mechanical layout can be considered as solved, in some cases with more than one viable solution. To verify performances at system level two complete prototypes have been built and tested, one at ThermoTrex and the other at Arcetri. The two prototypes adopt the same basic approach concerning actuators, sensor and support of the thin mirror, but differ in a number of aspects such as the material of the rigid back plate used as reference for the thin mirror, the number and surface density of the actuators, the solution adopted for the removal of the heat, and the design of the electronics. We discuss how the results obtained by of the two prototypes and by numerical simulations will guide the design of full size adaptive secondary units.
Application of high-order uncertainty for severe accident management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Donghan; Ha, Jaejoo
1998-01-01
The use of probability distribution to represent uncertainty about point-valued probabilities has been a controversial subject. Probability theorists have argued that it is inherently meaningless to be uncertain about a probability since this appears to violate the subjectivists' assumption that individual can develop unique and precise probability judgments. However, many others have found the concept of uncertainty about the probability to be both intuitively appealing and potentially useful. Especially, high-order uncertainty, i.e., the uncertainty about the probability, can be potentially relevant to decision-making when expert's judgment is needed under very uncertain data and imprecise knowledge and where the phenomena and events are frequently complicated and ill-defined. This paper presents two approaches for evaluating the uncertainties inherent in accident management strategies: 'a fuzzy probability' and 'an interval-valued subjective probability'. At first, this analysis considers accident management as a decision problem (i.e., 'applying a strategy' vs. 'do nothing') and uses an influence diagram. Then, the analysis applies two approaches above to evaluate imprecise node probabilities in the influence diagram. For the propagation of subjective probabilities, the analysis uses the Monte-Carlo simulation. In case of fuzzy probabilities, the fuzzy logic is applied to propagate them. We believe that these approaches can allow us to understand uncertainties associated with severe accident management strategy since they offer not only information similar to the classical approach using point-estimate values but also additional information regarding the impact from imprecise input data
High order effects in cross section sensitivity analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Gilai, D.
1978-01-01
Two types of high order effects associated with perturbations in the flux shape are considered: Spectral Fine Structure Effects (SFSE) and non-linearity between changes in performance parameters and data uncertainties. SFSE are investigated in Part I using a simple single resonance model. Results obtained for each of the resolved and for representative unresolved resonances of 238 U in a ZPR-6/7 like environment indicate that SFSE can have a significant contribution to the sensitivity of group constants to resonance parameters. Methods to account for SFSE both for the propagation of uncertainties and for the adjustment of nuclear data are discussed. A Second Order Sensitivity Theory (SOST) is presented, and its accuracy relative to that of the first order sensitivity theory and of the direct substitution method is investigated in Part II. The investigation is done for the non-linear problem of the effect of changes in the 297 keV sodium minimum cross section on the transport of neutrons in a deep-penetration problem. It is found that the SOST provides a satisfactory accuracy for cross section uncertainty analysis. For the same degree of accuracy, the SOST can be significantly more efficient than the direct substitution method
RCS Leak Rate Calculation with High Order Least Squares Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jeong Hun; Kang, Young Kyu; Kim, Yang Ki
2010-01-01
As a part of action items for Application of Leak before Break(LBB), RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program is upgraded in Kori unit 3 and 4. For real time monitoring of operators, periodic calculation is needed and corresponding noise reduction scheme is used. This kind of study was issued in Korea, so there have upgraded and used real time RCS Leak Rate Calculation Program in UCN unit 3 and 4 and YGN unit 1 and 2. For reduction of the noise in signals, Linear Regression Method was used in those programs. Linear Regression Method is powerful method for noise reduction. But the system is not static with some alternative flow paths and this makes mixed trend patterns of input signal values. In this condition, the trend of signal and average of Linear Regression are not entirely same pattern. In this study, high order Least squares Method is used to follow the trend of signal and the order of calculation is rearranged. The result of calculation makes reasonable trend and the procedure is physically consistence
High-order above-threshold dissociation of molecules
Lu, Peifen; Wang, Junping; Li, Hui; Lin, Kang; Gong, Xiaochun; Song, Qiying; Ji, Qinying; Zhang, Wenbin; Ma, Junyang; Li, Hanxiao; Zeng, Heping; He, Feng; Wu, Jian
2018-03-01
Electrons bound to atoms or molecules can simultaneously absorb multiple photons via the above-threshold ionization featured with discrete peaks in the photoelectron spectrum on account of the quantized nature of the light energy. Analogously, the above-threshold dissociation of molecules has been proposed to address the multiple-photon energy deposition in the nuclei of molecules. In this case, nuclear energy spectra consisting of photon-energy spaced peaks exceeding the binding energy of the molecular bond are predicted. Although the observation of such phenomena is difficult, this scenario is nevertheless logical and is based on the fundamental laws. Here, we report conclusive experimental observation of high-order above-threshold dissociation of H2 in strong laser fields where the tunneling-ionized electron transfers the absorbed multiphoton energy, which is above the ionization threshold to the nuclei via the field-driven inelastic rescattering. Our results provide an unambiguous evidence that the electron and nuclei of a molecule as a whole absorb multiple photons, and thus above-threshold ionization and above-threshold dissociation must appear simultaneously, which is the cornerstone of the nowadays strong-field molecular physics.
High-order harmonic conversion efficiency in helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crane, J.K.
1992-01-01
Calculated results are presented for the energy, number of photons, and conversion efficiency for high-order harmonic generation in helium. The results show the maximum values that we should expect to achieve experimentally with our current apparatus and the important parameters for scaling this source to higher output. In the desired operating regime where the coherence length, given by L coh =πb/(q-1), is greater than the gas column length, l, the harmonic output can be summarized by a single equation: N q =[(π z n z b 3 τ q |d q | z )/4h]{(p/q)(2l/b) z }. N q - numbers of photons of q-th harmonic; n - atom density; b - laser confocal parameter; τ q - pulse width of harmonic radiation; q - harmonic order; p - effective order of nonlinearity. (Note the term in brackets, the phase-matching function, has been separated from the rest of the expression in order to be consistent with the relevant literature)
Mode of conception of triplets and high order multiple pregnancies.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Basit, I
2012-03-01
A retrospective audit was performed of all high order multiple pregnancies (HOMPs) delivered in three maternity hospitals in Dublin between 1999 and 2008. The mode of conception for each pregnancy was established with a view to determining means of reducing their incidence. A total of 101 HOMPs occurred, 93 triplet, 7 quadruplet and 1 quintuplet. Information regarding the mode of conception was available for 78 (81%) pregnancies. Twenty eight (27.7%) were spontaneous, 34 (33.7%) followedlVF\\/ICSI\\/FET treatment (in-vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, frozen embryo transfer), 16 (15.8%) resulted from Clomiphene Citrate treatment and 6 (6%) followed ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. Triplet and HOMPs are a major cause of maternal, feta land neonatal morbidity. Many are iatrogenic, arising from fertility treatments including Clomiphene. Reducing the numbers of embryos transferred will address IVF\\/ICSI\\/FET-related multiple pregnancy rates and this is currently happening in Ireland. Clomiphene and gonadotrophins should only be prescribed when appropriate resources are available to monitor patients adequately.
Design and high order optimization of the ATF2 lattices
Marin, E; Woodley, M; Kubo, K; Okugi, T; Tauchi, T; Urakawa, J; Tomas, R
2013-01-01
The next generation of future linear colliders (LC) demands nano-meter beam sizes at the interaction point (IP) in order to reach the required luminosity. The final focus system (FFS) of a LC is meant to deliver such small beam sizes. The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) aims to test the feasibility of the new local chromaticity correction scheme which the future LCs are based on. To this end the ATF2 nominal and ultra-low beta* lattices are design to vertically focus the beam at the IP to 37nm and 23nm, respectively if error-free lattices are considered. However simulations show that the measured field errors of the ATF2 magnets preclude to reach the mentioned spot sizes. This paper describes the optimization of high order aberrations of the ATF2 lattices in order to minimize the detrimental effect of the measured multipole components for both ATF2 lattices. Specifically three solutions are studied, the replacement of the last focusing quadrupole (QF1FF), insertion of octupole magnets and optics modification....
High orders of perturbation theory. Are renormalons significant?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suslov, I.M.
1999-01-01
According to Lipatov [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 216 (1977)], the high orders of perturbation theory are determined by saddle-point configurations, i.e., instantons, which correspond to functional integrals. According to another opinion, the contributions of individual large diagrams, i.e., renormalons, which, according to t'Hooft [The Whys of Subnuclear Physics: Proceedings of the 1977 International School of Subnuclear Physics (Erice, Trapani, Sicily, 1977), A. Zichichi (Ed.), Plenum Press, New York (1979)], are not contained in the Lipatov contribution, are also significant. The history of the conception of renormalons is presented, and the arguments in favor of and against their existence are discussed. The analytic properties of the Borel transforms of functional integrals, Green's functions, vertex parts, and scaling functions are investigated in the case of φ 4 theory. Their analyticity in a complex plane with a cut from the first instanton singularity to infinity (the Le Guillou-Zinn-Justin hypothesis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 95 (1977); Phys. Rev. B 21, 3976 (1980)] is proved. It rules out the existence of the renormalon singularities pointed out by t'Hooft and demonstrates the nonconstructiveness of the conception of renormalons as a whole. The results can be interpreted as an indication of the internal consistency of φ 4 theory
High Order Differential Frequency Hopping: Design and Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper considers spectrally efficient differential frequency hopping (DFH system design. Relying on time-frequency diversity over large spectrum and high speed frequency hopping, DFH systems are robust against hostile jamming interference. However, the spectral efficiency of conventional DFH systems is very low due to only using the frequency of each channel. To improve the system capacity, in this paper, we propose an innovative high order differential frequency hopping (HODFH scheme. Unlike in traditional DFH where the message is carried by the frequency relationship between the adjacent hops using one order differential coding, in HODFH, the message is carried by the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding. As a result, system efficiency is increased significantly since the additional information transmission is achieved by the higher order differential coding at no extra cost on either bandwidth or power. Quantitative performance analysis on the proposed scheme demonstrates that transmission through the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding essentially introduces another dimension to the signal space, and the corresponding coding gain can increase the system efficiency.
Dynamic parameterization and ladder operators for the Kratzer molecular potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devi, O Babynanda; Singh, C Amuba
2014-01-01
Introducing independent parameters k and δ to represent the strength of the attractive and repulsive components, respectively, we write the Kratzer molecular potential as V(k,δ)=(ℏ 2 /2 m)(−k/r+δ(δ−1)/r 2 ). This parameterisation is not only natural, but also convenient for the construction of ladder operators for the system. Adopting the straightforward method of deriving recurrence relations among confluent hypergeometric functions, we construct seven pairs of ladder operators for the Kratzer potential system. Detailed analysis of the laddering actions of these operators is given to show that they connect eigenstates of equal energy but belong to a hierarchy of Kratzer potential systems corresponding to different values of the parameters k and δ. Significantly, it is pointed out that it may not be possible to construct, in the position representation, a ladder operator which would connect different eigenstates belonging to the same potential V(k,δ). Transition to the hydrogen atom case is discussed. A number (14 altogether) of functional relations among the confluent hypergeometric functions have been derived and reported separately in an appendix. (paper)
Ground Radio Operator Career Ladder AFSC 293X3.
1981-07-01
formal resident training, OJT, and ,her Air Force management decisions . The structure of jobs within the Ground ! odio Operatoi career ladder was...33 ADJUST ANTENNA TUNING UNITS 33 TYPE RECORDS, REPORTS, OR FORMS :33 OPERATE AUXILLARY GENERATORS 33 A8 ’iT’ TASKS PERFORMED BY SUPERVISORS AND
29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart X of... - Ladders
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ladders A Appendix A to Subpart X of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... designed and built in accordance with the applicable national consensus standards, as set forth below, will...
46 CFR 116.438 - Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stairtowers, stairways, ladders, and elevators. 116.438 Section 116.438 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection §...
Chemodiversity of Ladder-Frame Prymnesin Polyethers in Prymnesium parvum
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Meier, Sebastian; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted
2016-01-01
Blooms of the microalga Prymnesium parvum cause devastating fish kills worldwide, which are suspected to be caused by the supersized ladder-frame polyether toxins prymnesin-1 and -2. These toxins have, however, only been detected from P. parvum in rare cases since they were originally described two...
Ladder Ising spin configurations. Pt. 1. Heat capacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejdani, R.; Lambros, A.
1996-01-01
We consider a ladder Ising spin model (with two coupled Ising spin chains), characterized by two couplings (interchain and intrachain couplings), to study in detail, in an analytical way, its thermal behaviour and particularly the variation of the specific heat versus temperature, the ratio of interaction constants, and the magnetic field. It is interesting that when the competition between interchain and intrachain interactions is strong the specific heat exhibits a double peak and when the competition is not so strong the specific heat has a single peak. Further, without entering into details, we give, in a numerical way, some similar results for more complicated ladder configurations (with more than two linear Ising chains). The spin-1/2 ladders or systems of spin chains may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate ((VO) 2 P 2 O 7 ) or similar materials. All these intermediate systems are today important to gain further insight into the physics of one-dimensional spin chains and two-dimensional high-T c spin systems, both of which have shown interesting and unusual magnetic and superconducting properties. It is plausible that experimental and theoretical studies of ladders may lead to other interesting physical phenomena. (orig.)
Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...
Direct observation of magnon fractionalization in the quantum spin ladder
Thielemann, B.; Rüegg, C.; Rønnow, H.M.; Läuchli, A.M.; Caux, J.S.; Normand, B.; Biner, D.; Krämer, K.W.; Güdel, H.U.; Stahn, J.; Habicht, K.; Kiefer, K.; Boehm, M.; McMorrow, D.F.; Mesot, J.
2009-01-01
We measure by inelastic neutron scattering the spin excitation spectra as a function of applied magnetic field in the quantum spin-ladder material (C5H12N)2CuBr4. Discrete magnon modes at low fields in the quantum disordered phase and at high fields in the saturated phase contrast sharply with a
A robustification of the chain-ladder method
Verdonck, T.; van Wouwe, M.; Dhaene, J.
2009-01-01
In a non-life insurance business an insurer often needs to build up a reserve to able to meet his or her future obligations arising from incurred but not reported completely claims. To forecast these claims reserves, a simple but generally accepted algorithm is the classical chain-ladder method.
High-order computer-assisted estimates of topological entropy
Grote, Johannes
The concept of Taylor Models is introduced, which offers highly accurate C0-estimates for the enclosures of functional dependencies, combining high-order Taylor polynomial approximation of functions and rigorous estimates of the truncation error, performed using verified interval arithmetic. The focus of this work is on the application of Taylor Models in algorithms for strongly nonlinear dynamical systems. A method to obtain sharp rigorous enclosures of Poincare maps for certain types of flows and surfaces is developed and numerical examples are presented. Differential algebraic techniques allow the efficient and accurate computation of polynomial approximations for invariant curves of certain planar maps around hyperbolic fixed points. Subsequently we introduce a procedure to extend these polynomial curves to verified Taylor Model enclosures of local invariant manifolds with C0-errors of size 10-10--10 -14, and proceed to generate the global invariant manifold tangle up to comparable accuracy through iteration in Taylor Model arithmetic. Knowledge of the global manifold structure up to finite iterations of the local manifold pieces enables us to find all homoclinic and heteroclinic intersections in the generated manifold tangle. Combined with the mapping properties of the homoclinic points and their ordering we are able to construct a subshift of finite type as a topological factor of the original planar system to obtain rigorous lower bounds for its topological entropy. This construction is fully automatic and yields homoclinic tangles with several hundred homoclinic points. As an example rigorous lower bounds for the topological entropy of the Henon map are computed, which to the best knowledge of the authors yield the largest such estimates published so far.
Global Monte Carlo Simulation with High Order Polynomial Expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
William R. Martin; James Paul Holloway; Kaushik Banerjee; Jesse Cheatham; Jeremy Conlin
2007-01-01
The functional expansion technique (FET) was recently developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The basic idea of the FET is to expand a Monte Carlo tally in terms of a high order expansion, the coefficients of which can be estimated via the usual random walk process in a conventional Monte Carlo code. If the expansion basis is chosen carefully, the lowest order coefficient is simply the conventional histogram tally, corresponding to a flat mode. This research project studied the applicability of using the FET to estimate the fission source, from which fission sites can be sampled for the next generation. The idea is that individual fission sites contribute to expansion modes that may span the geometry being considered, possibly increasing the communication across a loosely coupled system and thereby improving convergence over the conventional fission bank approach used in most production Monte Carlo codes. The project examined a number of basis functions, including global Legendre polynomials as well as 'local' piecewise polynomials such as finite element hat functions and higher order versions. The global FET showed an improvement in convergence over the conventional fission bank approach. The local FET methods showed some advantages versus global polynomials in handling geometries with discontinuous material properties. The conventional finite element hat functions had the disadvantage that the expansion coefficients could not be estimated directly but had to be obtained by solving a linear system whose matrix elements were estimated. An alternative fission matrix-based response matrix algorithm was formulated. Studies were made of two alternative applications of the FET, one based on the kernel density estimator and one based on Arnoldi's method of minimized iterations. Preliminary results for both methods indicate improvements in fission source convergence. These developments indicate that the FET has promise for speeding up Monte Carlo fission source convergence
De Basabe, Jonás D.
2010-04-01
We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, D.; Haas, S.; Kim, E.
1998-01-01
The Hubbard Hamiltonian on a two-leg ladder is studied numerically using quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization techniques. A rung interaction, V, is turned on such that the resulting model has an exact SO(5) symmetry when V=-U. The evolution of the low-energy excitation spectrum is presented from the pure Hubbard ladder to the SO(5) ladder. It is shown that the low-energy excitations in the pure Hubbard ladder have an approximate SO(5) symmetry. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
High-order harmonics generation from overdense plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quere, F.; Thaury, C.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Geindre, J.P.; Audebert, P.; Marjoribanks, R.
2006-01-01
Complete test of publication follows. When an intense laser beam reflects on an overdense plasma generated on a solid target, high-order harmonics of the incident laser frequency are observed in the reflected beam. This process provides a way to produce XUV femtosecond and attosecond pulses in the μJ range from ultrafast ultraintense lasers. Studying the mechanisms responsible for this harmonic emission is also of strong fundamental interest: just as HHG in gases has been instrumental in providing a comprehensive understanding of basic intense laser-atom interactions, HHG from solid-density plasmas is likely to become a unique tool to investigate many key features of laser-plasma interactions at high intensities. We will present both experimental and theoretical evidence that two mechanisms contribute to this harmonic emission: - Coherent Wake Emission: in this process, harmonics are emitted by plasma oscillations in te overdense plasma, triggered in the wake of jets of Brunel electrons generated by the laser field. - The relativistic oscillating mirror: in this process, the intense laser field drives a relativistic oscillation of the plasma surface, which in turn gives rise to a periodic phase modulation of the reflected beam, and hence to the generation of harmonics of the incident frequency. Left graph: experimental harmonic spectrum from a polypropylene target, obtained with 60 fs laser pulses at 10 19 W/cm 2 , with a very high temporal contrast (10 10 ). The plasma frequency of this target corresponds to harmonics 15-16, thus excluding the CWE mechanism for the generation of harmonics of higher orders. Images on the right: harmonic spectra from orders 13 et 18, for different distances z between the target and the best focus. At the highest intensity (z=0), harmonics emitted by the ROM mechanism are observed above the 15th order. These harmonics have a much smaller spectral width then those due to CWE (below the 15th order). These ROM harmonics vanish as soon
Study and development of a soft X-ray laser seeded by high-order harmonic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goddet, J.Ph.
2009-05-01
The work in this thesis aimed to study a geometry of X-UV lasers inspired by high power laser. This architecture, consisting of an injector (a source of high-order harmonics) coupled to an amplifier (plasma created by laser), corresponds to that of a laser chain in the spectral range of the X-UV. The laser at 32.8 nm studied here, is produced by the injection of high-order harmonic in a krypton plasma created by Optical Field Ionization (OFI). This scheme, initially tested by T. Ditmire in 1995, was validated in 2003 with a plasma amplifier created by the interaction of intense laser and a gaseous medium. This thesis is a continuation of that work in trying to address different aspects, not only a better understanding of the physical processes involved, but also of the spatio-temporal characterization of this type of source. We have demonstrated experimentally for the first time a source in the X-UV, which can be highly compact, energetic (1 μJ per pulse), close to the diffraction limit and Fourier transform limited. Indeed, through the spatial filtering of harmonics by the amplifying medium, the injected X-UV laser at 32.8 nm shows a Gaussian spatial profile with a divergence of 0.7 mrad (at 1/e 2 ). The wavefront was measured with a Hartmann sensor and presents a value of λ/17 in standard deviation, demonstrating that the X-UV source is diffraction limited. The temporal characterization of laser shows that the coherence time is of the order of the duration of spontaneous emission of the amplifier. The temporal coherence presents a Gaussian profile with a relative spectral width Δλ/λ equal to 10 -5 (FWHM) corresponding to a pulse duration of about 5 ps. (author)
Phase diagram of a bosonic ladder with two coupled chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luthra, Meetu Sethi; Mishra, Tapan; Pai, Ramesh V.; Das, B. P.
2008-01-01
We study a bosonic ladder with two coupled chains using the finite-size density-matrix renormalization group method. We show that in a commensurate bosonic ladder the critical on-site interaction (U C ) for the superfluid to Mott insulator transition gets larger as the interchain hopping (t perpendicular ) increases. We analyze this quantum phase transition and obtain the phase diagram in the t perpendicular -U plane. We also consider the asymmetric case where the on-site interactions are different in the two chains and have shown that the system as a whole will not be in the Mott insulator phase unless both the chains have on-site interactions greater than the critical value
Resonance self-shielding calculation with regularized random ladders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribon, P.
1986-01-01
The straightforward method for calculation of resonance self-shielding is to generate one or several resonance ladders, and to process them as resolved resonances. The main drawback of Monte Carlo methods used to generate the ladders, is the difficulty of reducing the dispersion of data and results. Several methods are examined, and it is shown how one (a regularized sampling method) improves the accuracy. Analytical methods to compute the effective cross-section have recently appeared: they are basically exempt from dispersion, but are inevitably approximate. The accuracy of the most sophisticated one is checked. There is a neutron energy range which is improperly considered as statistical. An examination is presented of what happens when it is treated as statistical, and how it is possible to improve the accuracy of calculations in this range. To illustrate the results calculations have been performed in a simple case: nucleus /sup 238/U, at 300 K, between 4250 and 4750 eV.
The resonance self-shielding calculation with regularized random ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ribon, P.
1986-01-01
The straightforward method for calculation of resonance self-shielding is to generate one or several resonance ladders, and to process them as resolved resonances. The main drawback of Monte Carlo methods used to generate the ladders, is the difficulty of reducing the dispersion of data and results. Several methods are examined, and it is shown how one (a regularized sampling method) improves the accuracy. Analytical methods to compute the effective cross-section have recently appeared: they are basically exempt from dispersion, but are inevitably approximate. The accuracy of the most sophisticated one is checked. There is a neutron energy range which is improperly considered as statistical. An examination is presented of what happens when it is treated as statistical, and how it is possible to improve the accuracy of calculations in this range. To illustrate the results calculations have been performed in a simple case: nucleus 238 U, at 300 K, between 4250 and 4750 eV. (author)
Pump-probe study of atoms and small molecules with laser driven high order harmonics
Cao, Wei
A commercially available modern laser can emit over 1015 photons within a time window of a few tens of femtoseconds (10-15second), which can be focused into a spot size of about 10 mum, resulting in a peak intensity above 1014W/cm2. This paves the way for table-top strong field physics studies such as above threshold ionization (ATI), non-sequential double ionization (NSDI), high order harmonic generation (HHG), etc.. Among these strong laser-matter interactions, high order harmonic generation, which combines many photons of the fundamental laser field into a single photon, offers a unique way to generate light sources in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) or extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region. High order harmonic photons are emitted within a short time window from a few tens of femtoseconds down to a few hundreds of attoseconds (10 -18second). This highly coherent nature of HHG allows it to be synchronized with an infrared (IR) laser pulse, and the pump-probe technique can be adopted to study ultrafast dynamic processes in a quantum system. The major work of this thesis is to develop a table-top VUV(EUV) light source based on HHG, and use it to study dynamic processes in atoms and small molecules with the VUV(EUV)-pump IR-probe method. A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus is used for momentum imaging of the interaction products. Two types of high harmonic pump pulses are generated and applied for pump-probe studies. The first one consists of several harmonics forming a short attosecond pulse train (APT) in the EUV regime (around 40 eV). We demonstrate that, (1) the auto-ionization process triggered by the EUV in cation carbon-monoxide and oxygen molecules can be modified by scanning the EUV-IR delay, (2) the phase information of quantum trajectories in bifurcated high harmonics can be extracted by performing an EUV-IR cross-correlation experiment, thus disclosing the macroscopic quantum control in HHG. The second type of high harmonic source
PSpice for filters and transmission lines
Tobin, Paul
2007-01-01
In this book, PSpice for Filters and Transmission Lines, we examine a range of active and passive filters where each design is simulated using the latest Cadence Orcad V10.5 PSpice capture software. These filters cannot match the very high order digital signal processing (DSP) filters considered in PSpice for Digital Signal Processing, but nevertheless these filters have many uses. The active filters considered were designed using Butterworth and Chebychev approximation loss functions rather than using the 'cookbook approach' so that the final design will meet a given specification in an exact
End States, Ladder Compounds, and Domain-Wall Fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1999-01-01
A magnetic field applied to a cross-linked ladder compound can generate isolated electronic states bound to the ends of the chain. After exploring the interference phenomena responsible, I discuss a connection to the domain-wall approach to chiral fermions in lattice gauge theory. The robust nature of the states under small variations of the bond strengths is tied to chiral symmetry and the multiplicative renormalization of fermion masses. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Recurrent variational approach to the two-leg Hubbard ladder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, E.H.; Sierra, G.; Duffy, D.
1999-01-01
We applied the recurrent variational approach to the two-leg Hubbard ladder. At half filling, our variational ansatz was a generalization of the resonating valence-bond state. At finite doping, hole pairs were allowed to move in the resonating valence-bond background. The results obtained by the recurrent variational approach were compared with results from density matrix renormalization group. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Spin ordering in three-leg ladders in Ludwigite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallejo, E.; Avignon, M.
2007-01-01
We study the spin ordering in a three-leg ladder present in Ludwigite systems formed of localized spins interacting with an extra electron per rung. We also consider the competition with super exchange interactions resulting in a very rich phase diagram. Among the phases we find the possibility of ferromagnetic rungs ordered antiferromagnetically and a zigzag spin ordering linked to the formation of a charge ordering as observed
Single-particle potential from resummed ladder diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, N.
2013-01-01
A recent work on the resummation of fermionic in-medium ladder diagrams to all orders is extended by calculating the complex single-particle potential U(p, k f ) + i W(p, k f ) p > k f . The on-shell single-particle potential is constructed by means of a complex-valued in-medium loop that includes corrections from a test particle of momentum vector p added to the filled Fermi sea. The single-particle potential U(k f , k f ) at the Fermi surface as obtained from the resummation of the combined particle and hole ladder diagrams is shown to satisfy the Hugenholtz-Van-Hove theorem. The perturbative contributions at various orders a n in the scattering length are deduced and checked against the known analytical results at order a 1 and a 2 . The limit a → ∞ is studied as a special case and a strong momentum dependence of the real (and imaginary) single-particle potential is found. This feature indicates an instability against a phase transition to a state with an empty shell inside the Fermi sphere such that the density gets reduced by about 5%. The imaginary single-particle potential vanishes linearly at the Fermi surface. For comparison, the same analysis is performed for the resummed particle-particle ladder diagrams alone. In this truncation an instability for hole excitations near the Fermi surface is found at strong coupling. For the set of particle-hole ring diagrams the single-particle potential is calculated as well. Furthermore, the resummation of in-medium ladder diagrams to all orders is studied for a two-dimensional Fermi gas with a short-range two-body contact interaction. (orig.)
Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method
Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.
2018-01-01
In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.
Creating a Professional Ladder for Interpreters for Improvement of Care.
Marshall, Lori; Fischer, Anna; Noyes Soeller, Allison; Cordova, Richard; Gutierrez, Yvonne R; Alford, Luis
2016-01-01
Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA), a metropolitan academic medical center, recognized limitations in how the professional interpreters from the Diversity Services Department were used to support effective patient-provider communication across the organization. Given the importance of mitigating language and communication barriers, CHLA sought to minimize clinical and structural barriers to health care for limited English proficiency populations through a comprehensive restructuring of the Diversity Services Department. This approach entailed a new delivery model for hospital language assistance and cultural consultancy resources. The intervention focused on restructuring the Diversity Services Department, redefining priorities, reallocating resources, and redefining the roles of the language staff positions in the department. The language staff role was redesigned to fit a four-level professional career ladder modeled after the professional career ladders commonly used in hospitals for the RN role and other professional disciplines. The approach involved creating new levels of language specialist, each with progressive requirements for performance, leadership, and accountability for patient care outcomes. Language staff in the inpatient, clinic, and emergency department settings worked alongside nurses, physicians, and other disciplines to care for a specific set of patients. The result of this work was a positive culture change resulting in service efficiencies, care improvements, and improved access to language services. A professional career ladder for language staff contributed to improving the quality and access of language services and advancing the interpreting profession by incorporating care coordination support, vital document translation, and cultural consultancy.
The search for competing charge orders in frustrated ladder systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lal, Siddhartha; Laad, Mukul S.
2007-08-01
A recent study revealed the dynamics of the charge sector of a one-dimensional quarter- filled electronic system with extended Hubbard interactions to be that of an effective pseudospin transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in the strong coupling limit. With the twin motivations of studying the co-existing charge and spin order found in strongly correlated chain systems and the effects of inter-chain couplings, we investigate the phase diagram of coupled effective (TFIM) systems. A bosonisation and RG analysis for a two-leg TFIM ladder yields a rich phase diagram showing Wigner/Peierls charge order and Neel/dimer spin order. In a broad parameter regime, the orbital antiferromagnetic phase is found to be stable. An intermediate gapless phase of finite width is found to lie in between two charge-ordered gapped phases. Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions are found to lead from the gapless phase to either of the charge-ordered phases. Low energy effective Hamiltonian analyses of a strongly coupled 2-chain ladder system confirm a phase diagram with in-chain CO, rung-dimer, and orbital antiferromagnetic ordered phases with varying interchain couplings as well as superconductivity upon hole-doping. Our work is potentially relevant for a unified description of a class of strongly correlated, quarter-filled chain and ladder systems. (autor)
Simulations of viscous and compressible gas-gas flows using high-order finite difference schemes
Capuano, M.; Bogey, C.; Spelt, P. D. M.
2018-05-01
A computational method for the simulation of viscous and compressible gas-gas flows is presented. It consists in solving the Navier-Stokes equations associated with a convection equation governing the motion of the interface between two gases using high-order finite-difference schemes. A discontinuity-capturing methodology based on sensors and a spatial filter enables capturing shock waves and deformable interfaces. One-dimensional test cases are performed as validation and to justify choices in the numerical method. The results compare well with analytical solutions. Shock waves and interfaces are accurately propagated, and remain sharp. Subsequently, two-dimensional flows are considered including viscosity and thermal conductivity. In Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, generated on an air-SF6 interface, the influence of the mesh refinement on the instability shape is studied, and the temporal variations of the instability amplitude is compared with experimental data. Finally, for a plane shock wave propagating in air and impacting a cylindrical bubble filled with helium or R22, numerical Schlieren pictures obtained using different grid refinements are found to compare well with experimental shadow-photographs. The mass conservation is verified from the temporal variations of the mass of the bubble. The mean velocities of pressure waves and bubble interface are similar to those obtained experimentally.
Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.
2017-08-01
The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.
Progress in the Supramolecular Architecture-directed Synthesis of Perfect Ladder Polysiloxanes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
C; C; Han
2007-01-01
1 Introduction Ladder polysiloxanes (LPSs) including organo-bridged ladder polyorganosiloxanes (R-OLPSs, R is side group) and ladder polyorganosilsesquioxanes (R-LPSQs) have intrigued polymer chemists for about 50 years due to their excellent resistance to all kinds of degradations. However, their synthesis has been a great challenge to polymer chemists. Here, we describe a new approach based on supramolecular concerted interactions as follows.2 Results2.1 Synthesis of Perfect R-OLPSsA series of real ...
Evaluation through research of a three-track career ladder program for registered nurses.
Korman, Carol; Eliades, Aris Beoglos
2010-01-01
A descriptive study design was employed to survey registered nurse participants in a career ladder program comprising of three tracks: clinical, education, and management. Findings indicate that participation allows nurses of varying education preparation and roles to demonstrate professional development. Implications for staff development include efficacy of the online survey technique, provision of a reliable tool to evaluate a career ladder, and evaluation of a career ladder that includes the staff development educator.
Non-ladder extended renormalization group analysis of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Takagi, Kaoru; Terao, Haruhiko; Tomoyose, Masashi [Kanazawa Univ., Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)
2000-04-01
The order parameters of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, the dynamical mass of quarks and the chiral condensates, are evaluated by numerically solving the non-perturbative renormalization group (NPRG) equations. We employ an approximation scheme beyond 'the ladder', that is, beyond the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equations. The chiral condensates are enhanced in comparison with the ladder approximation, which is phenomenologically favorable. The gauge dependence of the order parameters is reduced significantly in this scheme. (author)
Non-ladder extended renormalization group analysis of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Takagi, Kaoru; Terao, Haruhiko; Tomoyose, Masashi
2000-01-01
The order parameters of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD, the dynamical mass of quarks and the chiral condensates, are evaluated by numerically solving the non-perturbative renormalization group (NPRG) equations. We employ an approximation scheme beyond 'the ladder', that is, beyond the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equations. The chiral condensates are enhanced in comparison with the ladder approximation, which is phenomenologically favorable. The gauge dependence of the order parameters is reduced significantly in this scheme. (author)
Development of ultra-light pixelated ladders for an ILC vertex detector
Chon-Sen, N.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Dulinski, W.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Imhoff, M.; Muntz, C.; Nomerotski, A.; Santos, C.; Schrader, C.; Specht, M.; Stroth, J.; Winter, M.
2010-01-01
The development of ultra-light pixelated ladders is motivated by the requirements of the ILD vertex detector at ILC. This paper summarizes three projects related to system integration. The PLUME project tackles the issue of assembling double-sided ladders. The SERWIETE project deals with a more innovative concept and consists in making single-sided unsupported ladders embedded in an extra thin plastic enveloppe. AIDA, the last project, aims at building a framework reproducing the experimental running conditions where sets of ladders could be tested.
A high order multi-resolution solver for the Poisson equation with application to vortex methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik Juul; Walther, Jens Honore
A high order method is presented for solving the Poisson equation subject to mixed free-space and periodic boundary conditions by using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The high order convergence is achieved by deriving mollified Green’s functions from a high order regularization function which...
Development of a three-dimensional high-order strand-grids approach
Tong, Oisin
Development of a novel high-order flux correction method on strand grids is presented. The method uses a combination of flux correction in the unstructured plane and summation-by-parts operators in the strand direction to achieve high-fidelity solutions. Low-order truncation errors are cancelled with accurate flux and solution gradients in the flux correction method, thereby achieving a formal order of accuracy of 3, although higher orders are often obtained, especially for highly viscous flows. In this work, the scheme is extended to high-Reynolds number computations in both two and three dimensions. Turbulence closure is achieved with a robust version of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model that accommodates negative values of the turbulence working variable, and the Menter SST turbulence model, which blends the k-epsilon and k-o turbulence models for better accuracy. A major advantage of this high-order formulation is the ability to implement traditional finite volume-like limiters to cleanly capture shocked and discontinuous flows. In this work, this approach is explored via a symmetric limited positive (SLIP) limiter. Extensive verification and validation is conducted in two and three dimensions to determine the accuracy and fidelity of the scheme for a number of different cases. Verification studies show that the scheme achieves better than third order accuracy for low and high-Reynolds number flows. Cost studies show that in three-dimensions, the third-order flux correction scheme requires only 30% more walltime than a traditional second-order scheme on strand grids to achieve the same level of convergence. In order to overcome meshing issues at sharp corners and other small-scale features, a unique approach to traditional geometry, coined "asymptotic geometry," is explored. Asymptotic geometry is achieved by filtering out small-scale features in a level set domain through min/max flow. This approach is combined with a curvature based strand shortening
Multi-material size optimization of a ladder frame chassis
Baker, Michael
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is an American fuel standard that sets regulations on fuel economy in vehicles. This law ultimately shapes the development and design research for automakers. Reducing the weight of conventional cars offers a way to improve fuel efficiency. This research investigated the optimality of an automobile's ladder frame chassis (LFC) by conducting multi-objective optimization on the LFC in order to reduce the weight of the chassis. The focus of the design and optimization was a ladder frame chassis commonly used for mass production light motor vehicles with an open-top rear cargo area. This thesis is comprised of two major sections. The first looked to perform thickness optimization in the outer walls of the ladder frame. In the second section, many multi-material distributions, including steel and aluminium varieties, were investigated. A simplified model was used to do an initial hand calculation analysis of the problem. This was used to create a baseline validation to compare the theory with the modeling. A CAD model of the LFC was designed. From the CAD model, a finite element model was extracted and joined using weld and bolt connectors. Following this, a linear static analysis was performed to look at displacement and stresses when subjected to loading conditions that simulate harsh driving conditions. The analysis showed significant values of stress and displacement on the ends of the rails, suggesting improvements could be made elsewhere. An optimization scheme was used to find the values of an all steel frame an optimal thickness distribution was found. This provided a 13% weight reduction over the initial model. To advance the analysis a multi-material approach was used to push the weight savings even further. Several material distributions were analyzed and the lightest utilized aluminium in all but the most strenuous subjected components. This enabled a reduction in weight of 15% over the initial model, equivalent to
Third-order differential ladder operators and supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mateo, J; Negro, J
2008-01-01
Hierarchies of one-dimensional Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics admitting third-order differential ladder operators are studied. Each Hamiltonian has associated three-step Darboux (pseudo)-cycles and Painleve IV equations as a closure condition. The whole hierarchy is generated applying some operations on the cycles. These operations are investigated in the frame of supersymmetric quantum mechanics and mainly involve algebraic manipulations. A consistent geometric representation for the hierarchy and cycles is built that also helps in understanding the operations. Three kinds of hierarchies are distinguished and a realization based on the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian is supplied, giving an interpretation for the spectral properties of the Hamiltonians of each hierarchy
Two-loop ladder diagram contributions to Bhabha scattering. III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjoerkevoll, K.S.; Osland, P.; Faeldt, G.
1992-01-01
The authors evaluate, in the high-energy limit, the sum of the Feynman amplitudes corresponding the six two-loop ladder-like diagrams in Bhabha scattering. This is the limit where s→∞, while t, the electron mass m and the photon mass λ are all being held fixed. In this limit the sum of the six Feynman amplitudes does not depend on the electron mass. When specialized to the region s>>t>>m 2 >>λ 2 , this result complements the one previously obtained. The connection with Φ 3 theory is also investigated. 6 refs
Magnetic phase diagram of a frustrated spin ladder
Sugimoto, Takanori; Mori, Michiyasu; Tohyama, Takami; Maekawa, Sadamichi
2018-04-01
Frustrated spin ladders show magnetization plateaux depending on the rung-exchange interaction and frustration defined by the ratio of first and second neighbor exchange interactions in each chain. This paper reports on its magnetic phase diagram. Using the variational matrix-product state method, we accurately determine phase boundaries. Several kinds of magnetization plateaux are induced by the frustration and the strong correlation among quasiparticles on a lattice. The appropriate description of quasiparticles and their relevant interactions are changed by a magnetic field. We find that the frustration differentiates the triplet quasiparticle from the singlet one in kinetic energy.
Exact solutions and ladder operators for a new anharmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Shihai; Sun Guohua; Lozada-Cassou, M.
2005-01-01
In this Letter, we propose a new anharmonic oscillator and present the exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation with this oscillator. The ladder operators are established directly from the normalized radial wave functions and used to evaluate the closed expressions of matrix elements for some related functions. Some comments are made on the general calculation formula and recurrence relation for off-diagonal matrix elements. Finally, we show that this anharmonic oscillator possesses a hidden symmetry between E(r) and E(ir) by substituting r->ir
Gluon ladders in pp (pp-bar) collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno Valerio Trindade; Ducati, Maria Beatriz Gay
2000-01-01
Full text follows: We study the contribution of a finite sum of gluon ladders to the hadronic processes showing that a reliable description is obtained using two order on perturbation theory. The pp(pp-bar) total cross sections are described with good agreement, consistent with unitarity bound. We also calculate the elastic scattering amplitude at non zero momentum transfer t, introducing two distinct Ansatz for the proton impact factor. As a by product the elastic differential cross section is obtained at small t approximation and compared with the data. (author)
Ising versus S U (2) 2 string-net ladder
Vidal, Julien
2018-03-01
We consider the string-net model obtained from S U (2) 2 fusion rules. These fusion rules are shared by two different sets of anyon theories. In this paper, we study the competition between the two corresponding non-Abelian quantum phases in the ladder geometry. A detailed symmetry analysis shows that the nontrivial low-energy sector corresponds to the transverse-field cluster model that displays a critical point described by the s o (2) 1 conformal field theory. Other sectors are obtained by freezing spins in this model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. A. Bladyko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters.
Hidden discriminative features extraction for supervised high-order time series modeling.
Nguyen, Ngoc Anh Thi; Yang, Hyung-Jeong; Kim, Sunhee
2016-11-01
In this paper, an orthogonal Tucker-decomposition-based extraction of high-order discriminative subspaces from a tensor-based time series data structure is presented, named as Tensor Discriminative Feature Extraction (TDFE). TDFE relies on the employment of category information for the maximization of the between-class scatter and the minimization of the within-class scatter to extract optimal hidden discriminative feature subspaces that are simultaneously spanned by every modality for supervised tensor modeling. In this context, the proposed tensor-decomposition method provides the following benefits: i) reduces dimensionality while robustly mining the underlying discriminative features, ii) results in effective interpretable features that lead to an improved classification and visualization, and iii) reduces the processing time during the training stage and the filtering of the projection by solving the generalized eigenvalue issue at each alternation step. Two real third-order tensor-structures of time series datasets (an epilepsy electroencephalogram (EEG) that is modeled as channel×frequency bin×time frame and a microarray data that is modeled as gene×sample×time) were used for the evaluation of the TDFE. The experiment results corroborate the advantages of the proposed method with averages of 98.26% and 89.63% for the classification accuracies of the epilepsy dataset and the microarray dataset, respectively. These performance averages represent an improvement on those of the matrix-based algorithms and recent tensor-based, discriminant-decomposition approaches; this is especially the case considering the small number of samples that are used in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ERMI, A.M.
2000-01-01
The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (VandV) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification
Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.
2011-01-01
Research and development of a fish ladder for sturgeons requires understanding ladder hydraulics and sturgeon behaviour in the ladder to insure the ladder is safe and provides effective passage. After years of research and development, we designed and constructed a full-scale prototype side-baffle ladder inside a spiral flume (38.3m long??1m wide??1m high) on a 6% (1:16.5) slope with a 1.92-m rise in elevation (bottom to top) to test use by sturgeons. Twenty-eight triangular side baffles, each extending part way across the flume, alternated from inside wall to outside wall down the ladder creating two major flow habitats: a continuous, sinusoidal flow down the ladder through the vertical openings of side-baffles and an eddy below each side baffle. Ascent and behaviour was observed on 22 cultured Lake Sturgeon=LS (Acipenser fulvescens) repeatedly tested in groups as juveniles (as small as 105.1cm TL, mean) or as adults (mean TL, 118cm) during four periods (fall 2002 and 2003; spring 2003 and 2007). Percent of juveniles entering the ladder that ascended to the top was greater in spring (72.7%) than in fall (40.9-45.5%) and 90.9% of 11 adults, which ascended as juveniles, ascended to the top. Six LS (27.3%) never swam to the top and seven (31.8%) swam to the top in all tests, indicating great variability among individuals for ascent drive. Some LS swam directly to the top in <1min, but most rested in an eddy during ascent. Juveniles swimming through outside wall baffle slots (mean velocity, 1.2ms-1) swam at 1.8-2.2body lengthss-1 and 3.2-3.3tail beatss-1, either at or approaching prolonged swimming speed. The side-baffle ladder was stream-like and provided key factors for a sturgeon ladder: a continuous flow and no full cross-channel walls, abundant eddies for resting, an acceptable water depth, and a water velocity fish could ascend swimming 2bls-1. A side-baffle ladder passes LS and other moderate-swimming fishes. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.
Dissipation, Voltage Profile and Levy Dragon in a Special Ladder Network
Ucak, C.
2009-01-01
A ladder network constructed by an elementary two-terminal network consisting of a parallel resistor-inductor block in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor block sometimes is said to have a non-dispersive dissipative response. This special ladder network is created iteratively by replacing the elementary two-terminal network in place of the…
Role of Structural Asymmetry in Controlling Drop Spacing in Microfluidic Ladder Networks
Wang, William; Maddala, Jeevan; Vanapalli, Siva; Rengasamy, Raghunathan
2012-02-01
Manipulation of drop spacing is crucial to many processes in microfluidic devices including drop coalescence, detection and storage. Microfluidic ladder networks ---where two droplet-carrying parallel channels are connected by narrow bypass channels through which the motion of drops is forbidden---have been proposed as a means to control relative separation between pairs of drops. Prior studies in microfluidic ladder networks with vertical bypasses, which possess fore-aft structural symmetry, have revealed that pairs of drops can only undergo reduction in drop spacing at the ladder exit. We investigate the dynamics of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with both vertical and slanted bypasses. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative spacing between drops, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all the behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that ladders containing several identical bypasses can only linearly transform the input drop spacing. Finally, we find that ladders with specific combinations of vertical and slanted bypasses can generate non-linear transformation of input drop spacing, despite the absence of drop decision-making events at the bypass junctions.
Estimating ladder fuels: a new approach combining field photography with LiDAR
Heather Kramer; Brandon Collins; Frank Lake; Marek Jakubowski; Scott Stephens; Maggi Kelly
2016-01-01
Forests historically associated with frequent fire have changed dramatically due to fire suppression and past harvesting over the last century. The buildup of ladder fuels, which carry fire from the surface of the forest floor to tree crowns, is one of the critical changes, and it has contributed to uncharacteristically large and severe fires. The abundance of ladder...
Triptycene-based ladder monomers and polymers, methods of making each, and methods of use
Pinnau, Ingo; Ghanem, Bader; Swaidan, Raja
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a method of making a triptycene-based A-B monomer, a triptycene-based ladder polymer, a method of making a triptycene-based ladder polymers, a method of using
SUSY’s Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reece, Matthew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2016-04-07
Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY’s Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY’s Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.
Action–angle variables, ladder operators and coherent states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Gadella, M.; Kuru, Ş.; Negro, J.
2012-01-01
This Letter is devoted to the building of coherent states from arguments based on classical action–angle variables. First, we show how these classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators and a structure known as spectrum generating algebra. All this allows to generate coherent states and thereby the correspondence of classical–quantum properties by means of the aforementioned underlying structure. This approach is illustrated with the example of the one-dimensional Pöschl–Teller potential system. -- Highlights: ► We study the building of coherent states from classical action–angle variables arguments. ► The classical variables are associated to an algebraic structure in terms of Poisson brackets. ► In the quantum context these considerations are implemented by ladder type operators. ► All this allows to formulate coherent states and the correspondence of classical–quantum properties.
Topological phases in frustrated synthetic ladders with an odd number of legs
Barbarino, Simone; Dalmonte, Marcello; Fazio, Rosario; Santoro, Giuseppe E.
2018-01-01
The realization of the Hofstadter model in a strongly anisotropic ladder geometry has now become possible in one-dimensional optical lattices with a synthetic dimension. In this work, we show how the Hofstadter Hamiltonian in such ladder configurations hosts a topological phase of matter which is radically different from its two-dimensional counterpart. This topological phase stems directly from the hybrid nature of the ladder geometry and is protected by a properly defined inversion symmetry. We start our analysis by considering the paradigmatic case of a three-leg ladder which supports a topological phase exhibiting the typical features of topological states in one dimension: robust fermionic edge modes, a degenerate entanglement spectrum, and a nonzero Zak phase; then, we generalize our findings—addressable in the state-of-the-art cold-atom experiments—to ladders with a higher number of legs.
Assembly procedure for the silicon pixel ladder for PHENIX silicon vertex tracker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onuki, Y.; Akiba, Y.; En'yo, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Haki, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Ichimiya, R.; Kasai, M.; Kawashima, M.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Mannel, E.J.; Nakano, K.; Pak, R.; Sekimoto, M.; Sondheim, W.E.; Taketani, A.; Togawa, M.; Yamamoto, Y.
2009-01-01
The silicon vertex tracker (VTX) will be installed in the summer of 2010 to enhance the physics capabilities of the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VTX consists of two types of silicon detectors: a pixel detector and a strip detector. The pixel detector consists of 30 pixel ladders placed on the two inner cylindrical layers of the VTX. The ladders are required to be assembled with high precision, however, they should be assembled in both cost and time efficient manner. We have developed an assembly bench for the ladder with several assembly fixtures and a quality assurance (Q/A) system using a 3D measurement machine. We have also developed an assembly procedure for the ladder, including a method for dispensing adhesive uniformly and encapsulation of bonding wires. The developed procedures were adopted in the assembly of the first pixel ladder and satisfy the requirements.
Gais, Zakkina; Afriansyah, Ekasatya Aldila
2017-01-01
This research aims to know the effect of prior mathematical students ability to solve on high order thinking questions looked by analysis question, evaluation question, creating question and genera question.This research also aims to know about students ability in solving high order thinking question and to know about the factors that cause students to be wrong in solving high order thinking questions. The research method that used is mixed method with embedded concurrent type. From the resu...
Practical aspects of spherical near-field antenna measurements using a high-order probe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laitinen, Tommi; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund
2006-01-01
Two practical aspects related to accurate antenna pattern characterization by probe-corrected spherical near-field antenna measurements with a high-order probe are examined. First, the requirements set by an arbitrary high-order probe on the scanning technique are pointed out. Secondly, a channel...... balance calibration procedure for a high-order dual-port probe with non-identical ports is presented, and the requirements set by this procedure for the probe are discussed....
Formal Solutions for Polarized Radiative Transfer. II. High-order Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janett, Gioele; Steiner, Oskar; Belluzzi, Luca, E-mail: gioele.janett@irsol.ch [Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), 6605 Locarno-Monti (Switzerland)
2017-08-20
When integrating the radiative transfer equation for polarized light, the necessity of high-order numerical methods is well known. In fact, well-performing high-order formal solvers enable higher accuracy and the use of coarser spatial grids. Aiming to provide a clear comparison between formal solvers, this work presents different high-order numerical schemes and applies the systematic analysis proposed by Janett et al., emphasizing their advantages and drawbacks in terms of order of accuracy, stability, and computational cost.
Movements of adult Atlantic salmon in relation to a hydroelectric dam and fish ladder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gowans, A.R.D.; Priede, I.G.
1999-01-01
The movements of adult Atlantic salmon were recorded as they approached, entered and ascended the pool-and-orifice fish ladder at Pitlochry Dam, Scotland. Thirty-nine returning salmon were captured in the River Tummel by rod-and-line angling, radio-tagged and released near where they were caught. The subsequent movements of each fish were then monitored. An electronic fish counter collected additional data on movements of untagged fish past a fixed point in the ladder. Of the 39 fish that were radio-tagged, 29 individuals were recorded approaching and ascending the ladder. The remaining fish either did not approach the dam (three fish), approached the dam after detailed tracking had ended (two fish), were recaptured by anglers (three fish), or the radio tags failed (two fish). Salmon released earlier in the year delayed longer before first approaching the dam. Delays between first approaching the dam and ascent of the ladder were greater for fish that approached the dam earlier. The majority of salmon visited the ladder entrance more than once (maximum 10 visits) before ascending. Having entered, all but four salmon ascended the fish ladder successfully on their first attempt. The four individuals that failed to do so succeeded on their second attempt. The rate at which salmon ascended the ladder was related directly to temperature. The shortest ascent time of a radio-tagged salmon was 5.25 h. Movements of eight of 11 tagged fish through the ladder ceased with the onset of darkness but continued on the following morning. No radio-tagged fish entered the ladder at temperatures below 9 o C. Similarly, few untagged fish were recorded ascending the ladder by the electronic fish counter at water temperatures below 8.5 o C. Records from the fish counter indicated that 92% of upstream movements were made during daylight. (author)
A novel SFG structure for C-T high-pass filters
Nielsen, Ivan Riis
1993-01-01
A signal flow graph (SFG) structure for simulating passive high-pass ladder filters, called the incremental integration structure, is proposed. The structure requires the use of integrators with nonintegrating inputs, and an implementation based on the MOSFET-C technique is discussed. The incremental integration structure is compared to the leapfrog and direct SFG simulation structures. Leapfrog high-pass filters are relatively simple and show good noise properties, but they are based on diff...
Convergency analysis of the high-order mimetic finite difference method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veiga Da Beirao, L [UNIV DEGLI STUDI; Manzini, G [NON LANL
2008-01-01
We prove second-order convergence of the conservative variable and its flux in the high-order MFD method. The convergence results are proved for unstructured polyhedral meshes and full tensor diffusion coefficients. For the case of non-constant coefficients, we also develop a new family of high-order MFD methods. Theoretical result are confirmed through numerical experiments.
Superconducting states and depinning transitions of Josephson ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barahona, M.; Strogatz, S.H.; Orlando, T.P.
1998-01-01
We present analytical and numerical studies of pinned superconducting states of open-ended Josephson ladder arrays, neglecting inductances but taking edge effects into account. Treating the edge effects perturbatively, we find analytical approximations for three of these superconducting states emdash the no-vortex, fully frustrated, and single-vortex states emdash as functions of the dc bias current I and the frustration f. Bifurcation theory is used to derive formulas for the depinning currents and critical frustrations at which the superconducting states disappear or lose dynamical stability as I and f are varied. These results are combined to yield a zero-temperature stability diagram of the system with respect to I and f. To highlight the effects of the edges, we compare this dynamical stability diagram to the thermodynamic phase diagram for the infinite system where edges have been neglected. We briefly indicate how to extend our methods to include self-inductances. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
The power of engagement: implementation of a career ladder program.
Bourgeault, Robert; Newmark, Jason
2012-01-01
At Baystate Health in Massachusetts, the development and implementation of a career ladder program was implemented to reduce turnover and to improve employee satisfaction, morale, and recruitment efforts. There was significant initial expenditure in the program, as a result of promoting the large number of employees with significant experience and seniority. A smaller number of staff are expected to apply for advancement during successive cycles, allowing for decreased incremental expense going forward. Critical to the success of the program was understanding the time commitment, getting senior organizational support and staff buy-in, and justifying the associated expenses. The development and initiation of the program has done much to support a positive work environment with increased morale and higher performance among significant numbers of staff at all levels.
Crystal structure and thin film morphology of BBL ladder polymer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, H H [Department of Macromolecular Science, Han Nam University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Fratini, A V [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Chabinyc, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH (United States); Price, G E [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Agrawal, A K [Systran Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States); Wang, C S [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Burkette, J [University of Dayton Research, Dayton, OH (United States); Dudis, D S [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); Arnold, F E [Materials Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)
1995-03-01
Crystal structure and morphology of poly[7-oxo-7H-benz(d,e)imidazo(4`,5`:5,6)-benzimidazo(2,1-a)isoquinoline-3,4:10,11-tetrayl-10-carbonyl] (BBL) ladder-like polymer were studied. The polymer forms a two-dimensional lattice of nematic liquid crystalline structure. An orthorhombic unit cell with cell parameters of a=7.87 b=3.37 c=11.97A was determined from the fiber diffraction pattern. In thin films, the rigid chains spontaneously form a layered structure across the film thickness, but in a very unusual manner, i.e. the very large molecular plane is standing perpendicularly to the film surface plane. The results are identical to our recent results of poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBT) film [7]. The polymer, however, lost its anisotropic order upon extrusion into a film and resulted in a fiber-like structure. (orig.)
Measuring a Country's Product Ladder and Technology Level based on Trade Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-il Kim
2006-06-01
Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the technology level of products based on the concept of product ladder. While many studies on country technology competitiveness use the aggregate indices such as total factor productivity and revealed comparative advantage, this study estimates the ranking of about 2000 products in product ladder by using SITC 5 digit level export data. Based on the product ladder, this study measures the country and industry ranking and explores the characteristics of the ranking. It provides the international comparison of inter-industry and intra-industry ranking differences in product ladder. The statistical relationships between the ranking in product ladder and the determinants of technology level such as R&D and physical capital investment and wage, confirms that the measured ranking in product ladder could be regarded as an indirect indicator of technology level. The product ladder is applied to the estimation of production function to see the effect of the product differentiation on labor productivity.
Model Following and High Order Augmentation for Rotorcraft Control, Applied via Partial Authority
Spires, James Michael
This dissertation consists of two main studies, a few small studies, and design documentation, all aimed at improving rotorcraft control by employing multi-input multi-output (MIMO) command-modelfollowing control as a baseline, together with a selectable (and de-selectable) MIMO high order compensator that augments the baseline. Two methods of MIMO command-model-following control design are compared for rotorcraft flight control. The first, Explicit Model Following (EMF), employs SISO inverse plants with a dynamic decoupling matrix, which is a purely feed-forward approach to inverting the plant. The second is Dynamic Inversion (DI), which involves both feed-forward and feedback path elements to invert the plant. The EMF design is purely linear, while the DI design has some nonlinear elements in vertical rate control. For each of these methods, an architecture is presented that provides angular rate model-following with selectable vertical rate model-following. Implementation challenges of both EMF and DI are covered, and methods of dealing with them are presented. These two MIMO model-following approaches are evaluated regarding (1) fidelity to the command model, and (2) turbulence rejection. Both are found to provide good tracking of commands and reduction of cross coupling. Next, an architecture and design methodology for high order compensator (HOC) augmentation of a baseline controller for rotorcraft is presented. With this architecture, the HOC compensator is selectable and can easily be authority-limited, which might ease certification. Also, the plant for this augmentative MIMO compensator design is a stabilized helicopter system, so good flight test data could be safely gathered for more accurate plant identification. The design methodology is carried out twice on an example helicopter model, once with turbulence rejection as the objective, and once with the additional objective of closely following pilot commands. The turbulence rejection HOC is feedback
Nested Bethe Ansatz for Spin Ladder Model with Open Boundary Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Junfang; Zhang Chunmin; Yue Ruihong; Li Runling
2005-01-01
The nested Bethe ansatz (BA) method is applied to find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix for spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. Based on the reflection equation, we find the general diagonal solution, which determines the general boundary interaction in the Hamiltonian. We introduce the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions. By finding the solution K ± of the reflection equation which determines the nontrivial boundary terms in the Hamiltonian, we diagonalize the transfer matrix of the spin-ladder model with open boundary conditions in the framework of nested BA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butterworth, D.J.
1980-01-01
This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)
Ji, Xing; Zhao, Fengxiang; Shyy, Wei; Xu, Kun
2018-03-01
Most high order computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods for compressible flows are based on Riemann solver for the flux evaluation and Runge-Kutta (RK) time stepping technique for temporal accuracy. The advantage of this kind of space-time separation approach is the easy implementation and stability enhancement by introducing more middle stages. However, the nth-order time accuracy needs no less than n stages for the RK method, which can be very time and memory consuming due to the reconstruction at each stage for a high order method. On the other hand, the multi-stage multi-derivative (MSMD) method can be used to achieve the same order of time accuracy using less middle stages with the use of the time derivatives of the flux function. For traditional Riemann solver based CFD methods, the lack of time derivatives in the flux function prevents its direct implementation of the MSMD method. However, the gas kinetic scheme (GKS) provides such a time accurate evolution model. By combining the second-order or third-order GKS flux functions with the MSMD technique, a family of high order gas kinetic methods can be constructed. As an extension of the previous 2-stage 4th-order GKS, the 5th-order schemes with 2 and 3 stages will be developed in this paper. Based on the same 5th-order WENO reconstruction, the performance of gas kinetic schemes from the 2nd- to the 5th-order time accurate methods will be evaluated. The results show that the 5th-order scheme can achieve the theoretical order of accuracy for the Euler equations, and present accurate Navier-Stokes solutions as well due to the coupling of inviscid and viscous terms in the GKS formulation. In comparison with Riemann solver based 5th-order RK method, the high order GKS has advantages in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and robustness, for all test cases. The 4th- and 5th-order GKS have the same robustness as the 2nd-order scheme for the capturing of discontinuous solutions. The current high order MSMD GKS is a
High-order fractional partial differential equation transform for molecular surface construction.
Hu, Langhua; Chen, Duan; Wei, Guo-Wei
2013-01-01
Fractional derivative or fractional calculus plays a significant role in theoretical modeling of scientific and engineering problems. However, only relatively low order fractional derivatives are used at present. In general, it is not obvious what role a high fractional derivative can play and how to make use of arbitrarily high-order fractional derivatives. This work introduces arbitrarily high-order fractional partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe fractional hyperdiffusions. The fractional PDEs are constructed via fractional variational principle. A fast fractional Fourier transform (FFFT) is proposed to numerically integrate the high-order fractional PDEs so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order evolution PDEs. The proposed high-order fractional PDEs are applied to the surface generation of proteins. We first validate the proposed method with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. The impact of high-order fractional derivatives to surface analysis is examined. We also construct fractional PDE transform based on arbitrarily high-order fractional PDEs. We demonstrate that the use of arbitrarily high-order derivatives gives rise to time-frequency localization, the control of the spectral distribution, and the regulation of the spatial resolution in the fractional PDE transform. Consequently, the fractional PDE transform enables the mode decomposition of images, signals, and surfaces. The effect of the propagation time on the quality of resulting molecular surfaces is also studied. Computational efficiency of the present surface generation method is compared with the MSMS approach in Cartesian representation. We further validate the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of macromolecular surfaces, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, surface electrostatic potential and solvation free energy. Extensive numerical experiments and comparison with an established surface model
Sellahi, Mohamed; Seghilani, Mohamed Seghir; Sagnes, Isabelle; Beaudoin, Gregoire; Lafosse, Xavier; Legratiet, Luc; Lalanne, Philippe; Myara, Mikhal; Garnache, Arnaud
2017-11-01
Since years, the VeCSEL concept is pointed out as a technology of choice for beyond-state-of-the-art laser light sources. The targeted coherent state in CW is typically the common gaussian TEM00, single frequency, linearly polarized lightstate. In this work, we take advantage of the VeCSEL technology for the generation of other kinds of coherent states, thanks to the insertion of intracavity functions, such as low-loss intensity and phase filters integrated on a semiconductor chip. This technological development permitted to demonstrate very pure high-order Laguerre-Gauss mode, both degenerate and non-degenerate(vortex)modes, preserving the coherence properties of usual TEM00 VeCSELs. This technology paves the way for the generation of other coherences (Bessel beams) or new functionnalities (wavelength filtering, etc.). We also explore new time domain coherence : owing to a high gain semiconductor chip design and the insertion of intracavity AOM, we demonstrated the first Frequecy-Shifted-Feedback VeCSEL, with a broadband coherence state as wide as 300 GHz.
High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers
Valdes, Felipe
2013-05-01
Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers
Valdes, Felipe; Ghaffari-Miab, Mohsen; Andriulli, Francesco P.; Cools, Kristof; Michielssen,
2013-01-01
Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.
Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons
Jin, X. X.; Wu, Z. C.; Zhang, Q.; Li, L.; Tang, D. Y.; Shen, D. Y.; Fu, S. N.; Liu, D. M.; Zhao, L. M.
2015-01-01
We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS wit...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Belyi, VN
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The authors investigate the generation and transformation of Bessel beams through linear and nonlinear optical crystals. They outline the generation of high-order vortices due to propagation of Bessel beams along the optical axis of uniaxial...
Duru, Kenneth; Virta, Kristoffer
2014-01-01
to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions
A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Ye
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.
Guo, Zhongyi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Kai; Shen, Fei; Yin, Zhiping
2017-08-01
In this paper, a high-order dielectric metasurface based on silicon nanobrick array is proposed and investigated. By controlling the length and width of the nanobricks, the metasurfaces could supply two different incremental transmission phases for the X-linear-polarized (XLP) and Y-linear-polarized (YLP) light with extremely high efficiency over 88%. Based on the designed metasurface, two polarization beam splitters working in high-order diffraction modes have been designed successfully, which demonstrated a high transmitted efficiency. In addition, we have also designed two vortex-beam generators working in high-order diffraction modes to create vortex beams with the topological charges of 2 and 3. The employment of dielectric metasurfaces operating in high-order diffraction modes could pave the way for a variety of new ultra-efficient optical devices.
High-Order Quadratures for the Solution of Scattering Problems in Two Dimensions
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Duan, Ran; Rokhlin, Vladimir
2008-01-01
.... The scheme is based on the combination of high-order quadrature formulae, fast application of integral operators in Lippmann-Schwinger equations, and the stabilized biconjugate gradient method (BI-CGSTAB...
Convergence and periodic solutions for the input impedance of a standard ladder network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ucak, C; Acar, C
2007-01-01
The input impedance of an infinite ladder network is computed by using the recursive relation and by assuming that the input impedance does not change when a new block is added to the network. However, this assumption is not true in general and standard textbooks do not always treat these networks correctly. This paper develops a general solution to obtain the input impedance of a standard ladder network of impedances and admittances for any number of blocks. Then, this result is used to provide the convergence condition for the infinite ladder network. The conditions which lead to periodic input impedance are exploited. It is shown that there are infinite numbers of periodic points and no paradoxical behaviour exists in the standard ladder network
Surface Acoustic Analog of Bloch Oscillations, Wannier-Stark Ladders and Landau-Zener Tunneling
de Lima, M. M.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Santos, P. V.; Cantarero, A.
2011-12-01
In this contribution, we discuss the recent experimental demonstration of Wannier-Stark ladders, Bloch Oscillations and Landau Zener tunneling in a solid by means of surface acoustic waves propagating through perturbed grating structures.
Generalized ladder operators for the Dirac-Coulomb problem via SUSY QM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB
2003-12-01
The supersymmetry in quantum mechanics and shape invariance condition are applied as an algebraic method to solving the Dirac-Coulomb problem. The ground state and the excited states are investigated via new generalized ladder operators. (author)
Donato, M.; Hansen, K.; Kalavakuru, P.; Kirchgessner, M.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.; Reckleben, C.; Turcato, M.
2017-03-01
The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide every 0.1 s a train of 2700 spatially coherent ultrashort X-ray pulses at 4.5 MHz repetition rate. The Small Quantum Systems (SQS) instrument and the Spectroscopy and Coherent Scattering instrument (SCS) operate with soft X-rays between 0.5 keV-6 keV. The DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector is being developed to meet the requirements set by these two XFEL.EU instruments. The DSSC imager is a 1 mega-pixel camera able to store up to 800 single-pulse images per train. The so-called ladder is the basic unit of the DSSC detector. It is the single unit out of sixteen identical-units composing the DSSC-megapixel camera, containing all representative electronic components of the full-size system and allows testing the full electronic chain. Each DSSC ladder has a focal plane sensor with 128× 512 pixels. The read-out ASIC provides full-parallel readout of the sensor pixels. Every read-out channel contains an amplifier and an analog filter, an up-to 9 bit ADC and the digital memory. The ASIC amplifier have a double front-end to allow one to use either DEPFET sensors or Mini-SDD sensors. In the first case, the signal compression is a characteristic intrinsic of the sensor; in the second case, the compression is implemented at the first amplification stage. The goal of signal compression is to meet the requirement of single-photon detection capability and wide dynamic range. We present the first results of measurements obtained using a 64× 64 pixel DEPFET sensor attached to the full final electronic and data-acquisition chain.
Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications
Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.
2003-01-01
The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.
Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes
Zhao, Hao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Xue, Li-Xia; Dai, Yun; Liu, Qian; Rao, Xue-Jun
2008-04-01
Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.
High-brightness high-order harmonic generation at 13 nm with a long gas jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyung Taek; Kim, I Jong; Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Jong Ju; Hong, Kyung Han; Nam, Chang Hee
2002-01-01
The generation of high-order harmonics is well-known method producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation with pulse duration in the femtosecond regime. High-order harmonics have attracted much attention due to their unique features such as coherence, ultrashort pulse duration, and table-top scale system. Due to these unique properties, high-order harmonics have many applications of atomic and molecular spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics and solid-state physics. Bright generation of high-order harmonics is important for actual applications. Especially, the generation of strong well-collimated harmonics at 13 nm can be useful for the metrology of EUV lithography optics because of the high reflectivity of Mo-Si mirrors at this wavelength. The generation of bright high-order harmonics is rather difficult in the wavelength region below 15nm. Though argon and xenon gases have large conversion efficiency, harmonic generation from these gases is restricted to wavelengths over 20 nm due to low ionization potential. Hence, we choose neon for the harmonic generation around 13 nm; it has larger conversion efficiency than helium and higher ionization potential than argon. In this experiment, we have observed enhanced harmonic generation efficiency and low beam divergence of high-order harmonics from a elongated neon gas jet by the enhancement of laser propagation in an elongated gas jet. A uniform plasma column was produced when the gas jet was exposed to converging laser pulses.
Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao-Xin, Zhao; Bing, Xu; Li-Xia, Xue; Yun, Dai; Qian, Liu; Xue-Jun, Rao
2008-01-01
Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory
Cutting and dismantling of the South West ladder of the Atucha I nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anasco, Roberto
2006-01-01
The metallic ladder built in stainless steel was used originally to check the welding of the reactor pressure vessel. It was located between the thermal insulation and reactor pressure vessel. Because of a failure in the mechanism, which let the ladder runs around the vessel, it had to be removed. A special tool remotely operated was designed to make different cuts in the bottom of the structure in a very high radioactive location [es
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanin, V.R.
1990-01-01
The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)
Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.
Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José
2012-04-09
We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.
High-order dynamic lattice method for seismic simulation in anisotropic media
Hu, Xiaolin; Jia, Xiaofeng
2018-03-01
The discrete particle-based dynamic lattice method (DLM) offers an approach to simulate elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media by calculating the anisotropic micromechanical interactions between these particles based on the directions of the bonds that connect them in the lattice. To build such a lattice, the media are discretized into particles. This discretization inevitably leads to numerical dispersion. The basic lattice unit used in the original DLM only includes interactions between the central particle and its nearest neighbours; therefore, it represents the first-order form of a particle lattice. The first-order lattice suffers from numerical dispersion compared with other numerical methods, such as high-order finite-difference methods, in terms of seismic wave simulation. Due to its unique way of discretizing the media, the particle-based DLM no longer solves elastic wave equations; this means that one cannot build a high-order DLM by simply creating a high-order discrete operator to better approximate a partial derivative operator. To build a high-order DLM, we carry out a thorough dispersion analysis of the method and discover that by adding more neighbouring particles into the lattice unit, the DLM will yield different spatial accuracy. According to the dispersion analysis, the high-order DLM presented here can adapt the requirement of spatial accuracy for seismic wave simulations. For any given spatial accuracy, we can design a corresponding high-order lattice unit to satisfy the accuracy requirement. Numerical tests show that the high-order DLM improves the accuracy of elastic wave simulation in anisotropic media.
Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice
1969-01-01
In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.
Tumor Classification Using High-Order Gene Expression Profiles Based on Multilinear ICA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-gang Du
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Motivation. Independent Components Analysis (ICA maximizes the statistical independence of the representational components of a training gene expression profiles (GEP ensemble, but it cannot distinguish relations between the different factors, or different modes, and it is not available to high-order GEP Data Mining. In order to generalize ICA, we introduce Multilinear-ICA and apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Firstly, we introduce the basis conceptions and operations of tensor and recommend Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier and Multilinear-ICA. Secondly, the higher score genes of original high order GEP are selected by using t-statistics and tabulate tensors. Thirdly, the tensors are performed by Multilinear-ICA. Finally, the SVM is used to classify the tumor subtypes. Results. To show the validity of the proposed method, we apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Though we only use three datasets, the experimental results show that the method is effective and feasible. Through this survey, we hope to gain some insight into the problem of high order GEP tumor classification, in aid of further developing more effective tumor classification algorithms.
Compact high order schemes with gradient-direction derivatives for absorbing boundary conditions
Gordon, Dan; Gordon, Rachel; Turkel, Eli
2015-09-01
We consider several compact high order absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) for the Helmholtz equation in three dimensions. A technique called "the gradient method" (GM) for ABCs is also introduced and combined with the high order ABCs. GM is based on the principle of using directional derivatives in the direction of the wavefront propagation. The new ABCs are used together with the recently introduced compact sixth order finite difference scheme for variable wave numbers. Experiments on problems with known analytic solutions produced very accurate results, demonstrating the efficacy of the high order schemes, particularly when combined with GM. The new ABCs are then applied to the SEG/EAGE Salt model, showing the advantages of the new schemes.
High-order conservative discretizations for some cases of the rigid body motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlov, Roman
2008-01-01
Modified vector fields can be used to construct high-order structure-preserving numerical integrators for ordinary differential equations. In the present Letter we consider high-order integrators based on the implicit midpoint rule, which conserve quadratic first integrals. It is shown that these integrators are particularly suitable for the rigid body motion with an additional quadratic first integral. In this case high-order integrators preserve all four first integrals of motion. The approach is illustrated on the Lagrange top (a rotationally symmetric rigid body with a fixed point on the symmetry axis). The equations of motion are considered in the space fixed frame because in this frame Lagrange top admits a neat description. The Lagrange top motion includes the spherical pendulum and the planar pendulum, which swings in a vertical plane, as particular cases
High-order harmonic propagation in gases within the discrete dipole approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Perez-Hernandez, J. A.; Ramos, J.; Jarque, E. Conejero; Plaja, L.; Roso, L.
2010-01-01
We present an efficient approach for computing high-order harmonic propagation based on the discrete dipole approximation. In contrast with other approaches, our strategy is based on computing the total field as the superposition of the driving field with the field radiated by the elemental emitters of the sample. In this way we avoid the numerical integration of the wave equation, as Maxwell's equations have an analytical solution for an elementary (pointlike) emitter. The present strategy is valid for low-pressure gases interacting with strong fields near the saturation threshold (i.e., partially ionized), which is a common situation in the experiments of high-order harmonic generation. We use this tool to study the dependence of phase matching of high-order harmonics with the relative position between the beam focus and the gas jet.
Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie
2017-10-02
Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.
Polarization control of high order harmonics in the EUV photon energy range.
Vodungbo, Boris; Barszczak Sardinha, Anna; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Valentin, Constance; Lozano, Magali; Iaquaniello, Grégory; Delmotte, Franck; Sebban, Stéphane; Lüning, Jan; Zeitoun, Philippe
2011-02-28
We report the generation of circularly polarized high order harmonics in the extreme ultraviolet range (18-27 nm) from a linearly polarized infrared laser (40 fs, 0.25 TW) focused into a neon filled gas cell. To circularly polarize the initially linearly polarized harmonics we have implemented a four-reflector phase-shifter. Fully circularly polarized radiation has been obtained with an efficiency of a few percents, thus being significantly more efficient than currently demonstrated direct generation of elliptically polarized harmonics. This demonstration opens up new experimental capabilities based on high order harmonics, for example, in biology and materials science. The inherent femtosecond time resolution of high order harmonic generating table top laser sources renders these an ideal tool for the investigation of ultrafast magnetization dynamics now that the magnetic circular dichroism at the absorption M-edges of transition metals can be exploited.
Giant Faraday Rotation of High-Order Plasmonic Modes in Graphene-Covered Nanowires.
Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Bychkov, Igor V; Shavrov, Vladimir G; Temnov, Vasily V
2016-07-13
Plasmonic Faraday rotation in nanowires manifests itself in the rotation of the spatial intensity distribution of high-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes around the nanowire axis. Here we predict theoretically the giant Faraday rotation for SPPs propagating on graphene-coated magneto-optically active nanowires. Upon the reversal of the external magnetic field pointing along the nanowire axis some high-order plasmonic modes may be rotated by up to ∼100° on the length scale of about 500 nm at mid-infrared frequencies. Tuning the carrier concentration in graphene by chemical doping or gate voltage allows for controlling SPP-properties and notably the rotation angle of high-order azimuthal modes. Our results open the door to novel plasmonic applications ranging from nanowire-based Faraday isolators to the magnetic control in quantum-optical applications.
Quantum entanglement and thermal reduced density matrices in fermion and spin systems on ladders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Xiao; Fradkin, Eduardo
2013-01-01
Numerical studies of the reduced density matrix of a gapped spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-leg ladder find that it has the same form as the Gibbs density matrix of a gapless spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain at a finite temperature determined by the spin gap of the ladder. We investigate this interesting result by considering a model of free fermions on a two-leg ladder (gapped by the inter-chain tunneling operator) and in spin systems on a ladder with a gapped ground state using exact solutions and several controlled approximations. We calculate the reduced density matrix and the entanglement entropy for a leg of the ladder (i.e. a cut made between the chains). In the fermionic system we find the exact form of the reduced density matrix for one of the chains and determine the entanglement spectrum explicitly. Here we find that in the weak tunneling limit of the ladder the entanglement entropy of one chain of the gapped ladder has a simple and universal form dictated by conformal invariance. In the case of the spin system, we consider the strong coupling limit by using perturbation theory and get the reduced density matrix by the Schmidt decomposition. The entanglement entropies of a general gapped system of two coupled conformal field theories (in 1 + 1 dimensions) are discussed using the replica trick and scaling arguments. We show that (1) for a system with a bulk gap the reduced density matrix has the form of a thermal density matrix, (2) the long-wavelength modes of one subsystem (a chain) of a gapped coupled system are always thermal, (3) the von Neumann entropy equals the thermodynamic entropy of one chain, and (4) the bulk gap plays the role of effective temperature. (paper)
High order scheme for the non-local transport in ICF plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feugeas, J.L.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications (UMR 5107), 33 - Talence (France); Charrier, P.; Ahusborde, E. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)
2006-06-15
A high order practical scheme for a model of non-local transport is here proposed to be used in multidimensional radiation hydrodynamic codes. A high order scheme is necessary to solve non-local problems on strongly deformed meshes that are on hot point or ablation front zones. It is shown that the errors made by a classical 5 point scheme on a disturbed grid can be of the same order of magnitude as the non-local effects. The use of a 9 point scheme in a simulation of inertial confinement fusion appears to be essential.
On the exact solutions of high order wave equations of KdV type (I)
Bulut, Hasan; Pandir, Yusuf; Baskonus, Haci Mehmet
2014-12-01
In this paper, by means of a proper transformation and symbolic computation, we study high order wave equations of KdV type (I). We obtained classification of exact solutions that contain soliton, rational, trigonometric and elliptic function solutions by using the extended trial equation method. As a result, the motivation of this paper is to utilize the extended trial equation method to explore new solutions of high order wave equation of KdV type (I). This method is confirmed by applying it to this kind of selected nonlinear equations.
High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains
Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.
2013-01-01
Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.
Study of a high-order-mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, C. C.; Tsai, C. Y.; Kao, S. H.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.
2010-01-01
Physics and performance issues of a TE 01 -mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier are studied in theory. For a high order mode, absolute instabilities on neighboring modes at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonic frequencies impose severe constraints to the device capability. Methods for their stabilization are outlined, on the basis of which the performance characteristics are examined in a multidimensional parameter space under the marginal stability criterion. The results demonstrate the viability of a high-order-mode traveling-wave amplifier and provide a roadmap for design tradeoffs among power, bandwidth, and efficiency. General trends are observed and illustrated with specific examples.
Computational Aero-Acoustic Using High-order Finite-Difference Schemes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2007-01-01
are solved using the in-house flow solver EllipSys2D/3D which is a second-order finite volume code. The acoustic solution is found by solving the acoustic equations using high-order finite difference schemes. The incompressible flow equations and the acoustic equations are solved at the same time levels......In this paper, a high-order technique to accurately predict flow-generated noise is introduced. The technique consists of solving the viscous incompressible flow equations and inviscid acoustic equations using a incompressible/compressible splitting technique. The incompressible flow equations...
Scattering of a high-order Bessel beam by a spheroidal particle
Han, Lu
2018-05-01
Within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), scattering from a homogeneous spheroidal particle illuminated by a high-order Bessel beam is formulated analytically. The high-order Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spheroidal vector wave functions, where the spheroidal beam shape coefficients (BSCs) are computed conveniently using an intrinsic method. Numerical results concerning scattered field in the far zone are displayed for various parameters of the incident Bessel beam and of the scatter. These results are expected to provide useful insights into the scattering of a Bessel beam by nonspherical particles and particle manipulation applications using Bessel beams.
Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter
2015-01-01
We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process
Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steingrube, Daniel S.; Vockerodt, Tobias; Schulz, Emilia; Morgner, Uwe; Kovacev, Milutin
2009-01-01
Phase matching of high-order harmonic generation is investigated experimentally for various parameters in a semi-infinite gas-cell (SIGC) geometry. The optimized harmonic yield is identified using two different noble gases (Xe and He) and its parameter dependence is studied in a systematic way. Beside the straightforward setup of the SIGC, this geometry promises a high photon flux due to a large interaction region. Moreover, since the experimental parameters within this cell are known accurately, direct comparison to simulations is performed. Spectral splitting and blueshift of high-order harmonics are observed.
Nuclear material enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Fan; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Ren Yong
2013-01-01
In order to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear material identification system (NMIS) against the change of nuclear material enrichment, the principle of high order statistic feature is introduced and applied to traditional NMIS. We present a new enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectrum algorithm. By applying the identification method to NMIS, the 3D graphs with nuclear material character are presented and can be used as new signatures to identify the enrichment of nuclear materials. The simulation result shows that the identification method could suppress the background noises, electronic system noises, and improve the sensitivity against enrichment change to exponential order with no system structure modification. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irmler, C.; Bauer, A.; Bergauer, T.; Adamczyk, K.; Bacher, S.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bosi, F.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A.K.; Behera, P.K.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.
2016-01-01
The Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), consisting of ladders with two to five sensors each. All sensors are individually read out by APV25 chips with the Origami chip-on-sensor concept for the central DSSDs of the ladders. The chips sit on flexible circuits that are glued on the top of the sensors. This concept allows a low material budget and an efficient cooling of the chips by a single pipe per ladder. We present the construction of the first SVD ladders and results from precision measurements and electrical tests
Overlay control methodology comparison: field-by-field and high-order methods
Huang, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Chui-Fu; Wu, Wen-Bin; Shih, Chiang-Lin; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Huang, Healthy; Choi, DongSub; Pierson, Bill; Robinson, John C.
2012-03-01
Overlay control in advanced integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing is becoming one of the leading lithographic challenges in the 3x and 2x nm process nodes. Production overlay control can no longer meet the stringent emerging requirements based on linear composite wafer and field models with sampling of 10 to 20 fields and 4 to 5 sites per field, which was the industry standard for many years. Methods that have emerged include overlay metrology in many or all fields, including the high order field model method called high order control (HOC), and field by field control (FxFc) methods also called correction per exposure. The HOC and FxFc methods were initially introduced as relatively infrequent scanner qualification activities meant to supplement linear production schemes. More recently, however, it is clear that production control is also requiring intense sampling, similar high order and FxFc methods. The added control benefits of high order and FxFc overlay methods need to be balanced with the increased metrology requirements, however, without putting material at risk. Of critical importance is the proper control of edge fields, which requires intensive sampling in order to minimize signatures. In this study we compare various methods of overlay control including the performance levels that can be achieved.
Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis
2015-01-01
The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2010-01-01
A recent paper reported elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned N2 using a linearly polarized driving field [X. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)]. This observation cannot be explained in the standard treatment of the Lewenstein model and has been ascribed to many...
Zhang, Kemei; Zhao, Cong-Ran; Xie, Xue-Jun
2015-12-01
This paper considers the problem of output feedback stabilisation for stochastic high-order feedforward nonlinear systems with time-varying delay. By using the homogeneous domination theory and solving several troublesome obstacles in the design and analysis, an output feedback controller is constructed to drive the closed-loop system globally asymptotically stable in probability.
Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)
2012-04-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.
Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.
2007-12-06
high order well-balanced schemes to a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms, Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada, v34 (2006...schemes to a class of hyperbolic systems with source terms, Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Matematica Aplicada, v34 (2006), pp.69-80. 39. Y. Xu and C.-W
Bayesian Modeling of ChIP-chip Data Through a High-Order Ising Model
Mo, Qianxing; Liang, Faming
2010-01-01
approach to ChIP-chip data through an Ising model with high-order interactions. The proposed method naturally takes into account the intrinsic spatial structure of the data and can be used to analyze data from multiple platforms with different genomic
Dynamic analysis of high-order Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Zhang; Zhao Donghua; Ruan Jiong
2007-01-01
In this paper, a class of high-order Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with time delay is studied. Several sufficient conditions are obtained for global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability using Lyapunov and LMI method. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our method
M. Denche; A. L. Marhoune
2003-01-01
In this paper, we study a mixed problem with integral boundary conditions for a high order partial differential equation of mixed type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The proof is based on energy inequality, and on the density of the range of the operator generated by the considered problem.
A hierarchy of high-order theories for modes in an elastic layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey V.; Chapman, C. John
2015-01-01
A hierarchy of high-order theories for symmetric and skew-symmetric modes in an infinitely long elastic layer of the constant thickness is derived. For each member of the hierarchy, boundary conditions for layers of the finite length are formulated. The forcing problems at several approximation...
High order curvilinear finite elements for elastic–plastic Lagrangian dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrev, Veselin A.; Kolev, Tzanio V.; Rieben, Robert N.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a high-order finite element method for calculating elastic–plastic flow on moving curvilinear meshes and is an extension of our general high-order curvilinear finite element approach for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a Lagrangian frame [1,2]. In order to handle transition to plastic flow, we formulate the stress–strain relation in rate (or incremental) form and augment our semi-discrete equations for Lagrangian hydrodynamics with an additional evolution equation for the deviatoric stress which is valid for arbitrary order spatial discretizations of the kinematic and thermodynamic variables. The semi-discrete equation for the deviatoric stress rate is developed for 2D planar, 2D axisymmetric and full 3D geometries. For each case, the strain rate is approximated via a collocation method at zone quadrature points while the deviatoric stress is approximated using an L 2 projection onto the thermodynamic basis. We apply high order, energy conserving, explicit time stepping methods to the semi-discrete equations to develop the fully discrete method. We conclude with numerical results from an extensive series of verification tests that demonstrate several practical advantages of using high-order finite elements for elastic–plastic flow
High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.
2012-01-01
We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.
Exact Sampling and Decoding in High-Order Hidden Markov Models
Carter, S.; Dymetman, M.; Bouchard, G.
2012-01-01
We present a method for exact optimization and sampling from high order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which are generally handled by approximation techniques. Motivated by adaptive rejection sampling and heuristic search, we propose a strategy based on sequentially refining a lower-order language
High-Order Approximation of Chromatographic Models using a Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Kristian; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens
2018-01-01
by Javeed et al. (2011a,b, 2013) with an efficient quadrature-free implementation. The framework is used to simulate linear and non-linear multicomponent chromatographic systems. The results confirm arbitrary high-order accuracy and demonstrate the potential for accuracy and speed-up gains obtainable...
High Order Sliding Mode Control of Doubly-fed Induction Generator under Unbalanced Grid Faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie
2013-01-01
This paper deals with a doubly-fed induction generator-based (DFIG) wind turbine system under grid fault conditions such as: unbalanced grid voltage, three-phase grid fault, using a high order sliding mode control (SMC). A second order sliding mode controller, which is robust with respect...
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-07-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratures along with an extrapolation technique, leading to an arbitrarily high-order quadrature; in addition, a high-order (temporal) integration factor method, based on explicit representation of the mean curvature, is used to reduce the stability constraint on time-step. To apply this method to a periodic (in axial direction) and axi-symmetric elastically stressed cylinder, we also present a fast and accurate summation method for the periodic Green's functions of isotropic elasticity. Using the high-order boundary integral method, we demonstrate that in absence of elasticity the cylinder surface pinches in finite time at the axis of the symmetry and the universal cone angle of the pinching is found to be consistent with the previous studies based on a self-similar assumption. In the presence of elastic stress, we show that a finite time, geometrical singularity occurs well before the cylindrical solid collapses onto the axis of symmetry, and the angle of the corner singularity on the cylinder surface is also estimated.
J.F. Schouten revisited : pitch of complex tones having many high-order harmonics
Smurzynski, J.; Houtsma, A.J.M.
1988-01-01
Four experiments are reported which deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing many high-order, aurally unresolvable partials. Melodic-interval identilication performance ill the case of sounds with increasing harmonic order remains significantly above chalice level, even if the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer
A correction term is introduced in the stationary-point analysis on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules. Arising from a multi-centre expansion of the electron wave function, this term brings our numerical calculations of the Lewenstein model into qualitative agreement...
High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter
2010-01-01
This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme O...
Comparison of high order algorithms in Aerosol and Aghora for compressible flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mbengoue D. A.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This article summarizes the work done within the Colargol project during CEMRACS 2012. The aim of this project is to compare the implementations of high order finite element methods for compressible flows that have been developed at ONERA and at INRIA for about one year, within the Aghora and Aerosol libraries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Friston
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Audrey Barbakoff
2011-03-01
Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...
Biomechanical analysis of loading/unloading a ladder on a truck.
Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Carnaz, Leticia; de Miranda, Luiz Carlos; Marklin, Richard William; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil
2012-01-01
Loading/unloading a ladder on vehicles are frequent tasks and involve overhead handling that may expose workers to risk factors of shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate posture, forces required and perceived exertion when loading and unloading the ladder on a utility truck. Thirteen male overhead line workers from an electric utility in Brazil participated in this study. Shoulder elevation angle was measured using inclinometers. The required force to load/unload the ladder was measured by dynamometer. Subjective assessment of the perceived exertion was recorded to compare the exertion reported during the test conditions to the field conditions. The task of loading/unloading the ladder presented risks of shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) to workers because it requires high levels of force (approximately 60% of the maximal force) combined with overhead posture of the shoulders (more than 100° from the neutral posture). Age and height presented to interfere in biomechanical risks presented in load/unload task. There was no significant difference between the subjective exertion during the test conditions and handling the ladder in the field. Ergonomic intervention is recommended to reduce these risks for shoulder MSDs.
Doped spin ladders under magnetic field; Echelles de spins dopees sous champ magnetique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roux, G
2007-07-15
This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)
Estimating Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Combining Field Photography with LiDAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heather A. Kramer
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Forests historically associated with frequent fire have changed dramatically due to fire suppression and past harvesting over the last century. The buildup of ladder fuels, which carry fire from the surface of the forest floor to tree crowns, is one of the critical changes, and it has contributed to uncharacteristically large and severe fires. The abundance of ladder fuels makes it difficult to return these forests to their natural fire regime or to meet management objectives. Despite the importance of ladder fuels, methods for quantifying them are limited and imprecise. LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging, a form of active remote sensing, is able to estimate many aspects of forest structure across a landscape. This study investigates a new method for quantifying ladder fuel in the field (using photographs with a calibration banner and remotely (using LiDAR data. We apply these new techniques in the Klamath Mountains of Northern California to predict ladder fuel levels across the study area. Our results demonstrate a new utility of LiDAR data to identify fire hazard and areas in need of fuels reduction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susilaturochman Hendrawan Koestanto
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare: (1 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the agility; (2 the effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on speed; (3 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill for the speed (4 the difference effect of circuit training game and circuit ladder drill on agility. The type of this research was quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this research was Factorial Design, with analysing data using ANOVA. The process of data collection was done by using 30 meters sprint speed test and shuttle run test during the pretest and posttest. Furthermore, the data was analyzed by using SPSS 22.0 series. Result: The circuit training game exercise program and circuit ladder drill were significant to increase agility and speed (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005 Group I, II, III had significant differences (sig 0.000 < α = 0.005. The mean of increase in speed of group I = 0.20 seconds, group II = 0.31 seconds, and group III = 0.11 seconds. The average increase agility to group I = 0.34 seconds group II = 0.60 seconds, group III = 0.13 seconds. Based on the analysis above, it could be concluded that there was an increase in the speed and agility of each group after being given a training.
High-order FDTD methods via derivative matching for Maxwell's equations with material interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Shan; Wei, G.W.
2004-01-01
This paper introduces a series of novel hierarchical implicit derivative matching methods to restore the accuracy of high-order finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) schemes of computational electromagnetics (CEM) with material interfaces in one (1D) and two spatial dimensions (2D). By making use of fictitious points, systematic approaches are proposed to locally enforce the physical jump conditions at material interfaces in a preprocessing stage, to arbitrarily high orders of accuracy in principle. While often limited by numerical instability, orders up to 16 and 12 are achieved, respectively, in 1D and 2D. Detailed stability analyses are presented for the present approach to examine the upper limit in constructing embedded FDTD methods. As natural generalizations of the high-order FDTD schemes, the proposed derivative matching methods automatically reduce to the standard FDTD schemes when the material interfaces are absent. An interesting feature of the present approach is that it encompasses a variety of schemes of different orders in a single code. Another feature of the present approach is that it can be robustly implemented with other high accuracy time-domain approaches, such as the multiresolution time-domain method and the local spectral time-domain method, to cope with material interfaces. Numerical experiments on both 1D and 2D problems are carried out to test the convergence, examine the stability, access the efficiency, and explore the limitation of the proposed methods. It is found that operating at their best capacity, the proposed high-order schemes could be over 2000 times more efficient than their fourth-order versions in 2D. In conclusion, the present work indicates that the proposed hierarchical derivative matching methods might lead to practical high-order schemes for numerical solution of time-domain Maxwell's equations with material interfaces
Quantum-orbit theory of high-order atomic processes in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosevic, D.B.
2005-01-01
Full text: Atoms submitted to strong laser fields can emit electrons and photons of very high energies. These processes find a highly intuitive and also quantitative explanation in terms of Feynman's path integral and the concept of quantum orbits. The quantum-orbit formalism is particularly useful for high-order atomic processes in strong laser fields. For such multi-step processes there is an intermediate step during which the electron is approximately under the influence of the laser field only and can absorb energy from the field. This leads to the appearance of the plateau structures in the emitted electron or photon spectra. Usual examples of such processes are high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and high-order above threshold ionization (HATI). These structures were also observed in high-order above-threshold detachment, laser-assisted x-ray-atom scattering, laser-assisted electron-ion recombination, and electron-atom scattering. We will present high-order strong-field approximation (SFA) and show how the quantum-orbit formalism follows from it. This will be done for various above-mentioned processes. For HHG a classification of quantum orbits will be given [10) and generalized to the presence of a static field. The low-energy part of the HHG spectra and the enhancement of HHG near the channel closings can be explained taking into account a large number of quantum orbits. For HATI we will concentrate on the case of few-cycle laser pulse. The influence of the carrier-envelope relative phase on the HATI spectrum can easily be explained in terms of quantum orbits. The SFA and the quantum-orbit results will be compared with the results obtained by Dieter Bauer using ab initio solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. It will be shown that the Coulomb effects are important for low-energy electron spectra. Refs. 11 (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Sang Won; Lee, Sangwoo; Najafi, Khalil; Perkins, Noel C
2011-01-01
This paper presents the analysis and preliminary design, fabrication, and measurement for mechanical vibration-isolation platforms especially designed for resonating MEMS devices including gyroscopes. Important parameters for designing isolation platforms are specified and the first platform (in designs with cascaded multiple platforms) is crucial for improving vibration-isolation performance and minimizing side-effects on integrated gyroscopes. This isolation platform, made from a thick silicon wafer substrate for an environment-resistant MEMS package, incorporates the functionalities of a previous design including vacuum packaging and thermal resistance with no additional resources. This platform consists of platform mass, isolation beams, vertical feedthroughs, and bonding pads. Two isolation platform designs follow from two isolation beam designs: lateral clamped–clamped beams and vertical torsion beams. The beams function simultaneously as mechanical springs and electrical interconnects. The vibration-isolation platform can yield a multi-dimensional, high-order mechanical low pass filter. The isolation platform possesses eight interconnects within a 12.2 × 12.2 mm 2 footprint. The contact resistance ranges from 4–11 Ω depending on the beam design. Vibration measurements using a laser-Doppler vibrometer demonstrate that the lateral vibration-isolation platform suppresses external vibration having frequencies exceeding 2.1 kHz.
Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grunert, Klaus G.; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin
2001-01-01
and unconscious (or, at least, semiconscious) factors. It is intuitively appealing to the practitioner but has, likewise, attracted academic research. Increased acceptance and use of a new approach inevitably leads to the detection of unresolved issues and problems. Many of these unresolved issues are related...... to the collection and analysis of laddering data. However, many of these also point at problems of a more theoretical nature. In this chapter presented are some of the issues regarded as unresolved and suggested research that could help in solving these problems. The mayor part of this chapter deals...... with methodological problems of the interview technique called laddering, og coding laddering data, and of analysing the coded data. However, also shown, methodological and theoretical issues are partly interlinked: resolutions of methodological problems may require theoretical progress or at least a clarification...
Means-end chains and laddering: An inventory of problems and an agenda for research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.; Sørensen, Elin
Executive summary 1. Means-end chains are a device used to understand how consumers mentally link products to self-relevant consequences. Means-end chains are usually measured by a method called laddering. 2. Means-end chains may fall short of tapping all relevant aspects of how consumers think...... about products. Specifically, nonverbal imagery, episodic information, and procedural knowledge are not included in means-end chains. 3. A number of methodological problems can be identified in the collection of means-end chain data. Major problems, which should be addressed in research, are methods...... to elicit the product attributes the laddering is to start with, the integration of a usage situation in the interview, and the basic decision on how much direct the respondent. 4. Concerning the coding of laddering data, a higher degree of transparency of the coding process would be desirable. 5...
High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newton, C.L.J.
1990-01-01
Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory. He shows that in the limit s much-gt |t| much-gt m 2 , the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s -1 |t| -N+1 times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N - 2 and ln s and ln |t|. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln |t| to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln |t| = γ ln s for γ = 1/2, 1/3, hor-ellipsis, 1/N-2
Phase diagram and re-entrant fermionic entanglement in a hybrid Ising-Hubbard ladder
Sousa, H. S.; Pereira, M. S. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Strečka, J.; Lyra, M. L.
2018-05-01
The degree of fermionic entanglement is examined in an exactly solvable Ising-Hubbard ladder, which involves interacting electrons on the ladder's rungs described by Hubbard dimers at half-filling on each rung, accounting for intrarung hopping and Coulomb terms. The coupling between neighboring Hubbard dimers is assumed to have an Ising-like nature. The ground-state phase diagram consists of four distinct regions corresponding to the saturated paramagnetic, the classical antiferromagnetic, the quantum antiferromagnetic, and the mixed classical-quantum phase. We have exactly computed the fermionic concurrence, which measures the degree of quantum entanglement between the pair of electrons on the ladder rungs. The effects of the hopping amplitude, the Coulomb term, temperature, and magnetic fields on the fermionic entanglement are explored in detail. It is shown that the fermionic concurrence displays a re-entrant behavior when quantum entanglement is being generated at moderate temperatures above the classical saturated paramagnetic ground state.
Groundstate fidelity phase diagram of the fully anisotropic two-leg spin-½ XXZ ladder
Li, Sheng-Hao; Shi, Qian-Qian; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang
2017-11-01
The fully anisotropic two-leg spin-\\tfrac{1}{2} XXZ ladder model is studied in terms of an algorithm based on the tensor network (TN) representation of quantum many-body states as an adaptation of projected entangled pair states to the geometry of translationally invariant infinite-size quantum spin ladders. The TN algorithm provides an effective method to generate the groundstate wave function, which allows computation of the groundstate fidelity per lattice site, a universal marker to detect phase transitions in quantum many-body systems. The groundstate fidelity is used in conjunction with local order and string order parameters to systematically map out the groundstate phase diagram of the ladder model. The phase diagram exhibits a rich diversity of quantum phases. These are the ferromagnetic, stripe ferromagnetic, rung singlet, rung triplet, Néel, stripe Néel and Haldane phases, along with the two XY phases XY1 and XY2.
Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers
Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.
2013-01-01
We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.
Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States
Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan
2017-08-01
The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.
High order aberrations calculation of a hexapole corrector using a differential algebra method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kang, Yongfeng, E-mail: yfkang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Xing [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhao, Jingyi, E-mail: jingyi.zhao@foxmail.com [School of Science, Chang’an University, Xi’an 710064 (China); Tang, Tiantong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2017-02-21
A differential algebraic (DA) method is proved as an unusual and effective tool in numerical analysis. It implements conveniently differentiation up to arbitrary high order, based on the nonstandard analysis. In this paper, the differential algebra (DA) method has been employed to compute the high order aberrations up to the fifth order of a practical hexapole corrector including round lenses and hexapole lenses. The program has been developed and tested as well. The electro-magnetic fields of arbitrary point are obtained by local analytic expressions, then field potentials are transformed into new forms which can be operated in the DA calculation. In this paper, the geometric and chromatic aberrations up to fifth order of a practical hexapole corrector system are calculated by the developed program.
High-order dispersion control of 10-petawatt Ti:sapphire laser facility.
Li, Shuai; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Yanqi; Xu, Yi; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Xingyan; Gan, Zebiao; Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin
2017-07-24
A grism pair is utilized to control the high-order dispersion of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Lasers Facility, which is a large-scale project aimed at delivering 10-PW laser pulses. We briefly present the characteristics of the laser system and calculate the cumulative B-integral, which determines the nonlinear phase shift influence on material dispersion. Three parameters are selected, grism separation, angle of incidence and slant distance of grating compressor, to determine their optimal values through an iterative searching procedure. Both the numerical and experimental results confirm that the spectral phase distortion is controlled, and the recompressed pulse with a duration of 24 fs is obtained in the single-shot mode. The distributions and stabilities of the pulse duration at different positions of the recompressed beam are also investigated. This approach offers a new feasible solution for the high-order dispersion compensation of femtosecond petawatt laser systems.
A multiresolution method for solving the Poisson equation using high order regularization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore
2016-01-01
We present a novel high order multiresolution Poisson solver based on regularized Green's function solutions to obtain exact free-space boundary conditions while using fast Fourier transforms for computational efficiency. Multiresolution is a achieved through local refinement patches and regulari......We present a novel high order multiresolution Poisson solver based on regularized Green's function solutions to obtain exact free-space boundary conditions while using fast Fourier transforms for computational efficiency. Multiresolution is a achieved through local refinement patches...... and regularized Green's functions corresponding to the difference in the spatial resolution between the patches. The full solution is obtained utilizing the linearity of the Poisson equation enabling super-position of solutions. We show that the multiresolution Poisson solver produces convergence rates...
A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion
Huynh, H. T.
2009-01-01
We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.
Quantum-path control in high-order harmonic generation at high photon energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiaoshi; Lytle, Amy L; Cohen, Oren; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C
2008-01-01
We show through experiment and calculations how all-optical quasi-phase-matching of high-order harmonic generation can be used to selectively enhance emission from distinct quantum trajectories at high photon energies. Electrons rescattered in a strong field can traverse short and long quantum trajectories that exhibit differing coherence lengths as a result of variations in intensity of the driving laser along the direction of propagation. By varying the separation of the pulses in a counterpropagating pulse train, we selectively enhance either the long or the short quantum trajectory, and observe distinct spectral signatures in each case. This demonstrates a new type of coupling between the coherence of high-order harmonic beams and the attosecond time-scale quantum dynamics inherent in the process
Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty; Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D
2008-01-01
We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N 2 , O 2 and CO 2 molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible
Pricing Exotic Options under a High-Order Markovian Regime Switching Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wai-Ki Ching
2007-10-01
Full Text Available We consider the pricing of exotic options when the price dynamics of the underlying risky asset are governed by a discrete-time Markovian regime-switching process driven by an observable, high-order Markov model (HOMM. We assume that the market interest rate, the drift, and the volatility of the underlying risky asset's return switch over time according to the states of the HOMM, which are interpreted as the states of an economy. We will then employ the well-known tool in actuarial science, namely, the Esscher transform to determine an equivalent martingale measure for option valuation. Moreover, we will also investigate the impact of the high-order effect of the states of the economy on the prices of some path-dependent exotic options, such as Asian options, lookback options, and barrier options.
Multiple-state Feshbach resonances mediated by high-order couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemming, Christopher J.; Krems, Roman V.
2008-01-01
We present a study of multistate Feshbach resonances mediated by high-order couplings. Our analysis focuses on a system with one open scattering state and multiple bound states. The scattering state is coupled to one off-resonant bound state and multiple Feshbach resonances are induced by a sequence of indirect couplings between the closed channels. We derive a general recursive expression that can be used to fit the experimental data on multistate Feshbach resonances involving one continuum state and several bound states and present numerical solutions for several model systems. Our results elucidate general features of multistate Feshbach resonances induced by high-order couplings and suggest mechanisms for controlling collisions of ultracold atoms and molecules with external fields
Decomposition of conditional probability for high-order symbolic Markov chains
Melnik, S. S.; Usatenko, O. V.
2017-07-01
The main goal of this paper is to develop an estimate for the conditional probability function of random stationary ergodic symbolic sequences with elements belonging to a finite alphabet. We elaborate on a decomposition procedure for the conditional probability function of sequences considered to be high-order Markov chains. We represent the conditional probability function as the sum of multilinear memory function monomials of different orders (from zero up to the chain order). This allows us to introduce a family of Markov chain models and to construct artificial sequences via a method of successive iterations, taking into account at each step increasingly high correlations among random elements. At weak correlations, the memory functions are uniquely expressed in terms of the high-order symbolic correlation functions. The proposed method fills the gap between two approaches, namely the likelihood estimation and the additive Markov chains. The obtained results may have applications for sequential approximation of artificial neural network training.
Energy stable and high-order-accurate finite difference methods on staggered grids
O'Reilly, Ossian; Lundquist, Tomas; Dunham, Eric M.; Nordström, Jan
2017-10-01
For wave propagation over distances of many wavelengths, high-order finite difference methods on staggered grids are widely used due to their excellent dispersion properties. However, the enforcement of boundary conditions in a stable manner and treatment of interface problems with discontinuous coefficients usually pose many challenges. In this work, we construct a provably stable and high-order-accurate finite difference method on staggered grids that can be applied to a broad class of boundary and interface problems. The staggered grid difference operators are in summation-by-parts form and when combined with a weak enforcement of the boundary conditions, lead to an energy stable method on multiblock grids. The general applicability of the method is demonstrated by simulating an explosive acoustic source, generating waves reflecting against a free surface and material discontinuity.
Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty [Department of Physics, University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)
2008-04-28
We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible.
Efficient and tunable high-order harmonic light sources for photoelectron spectroscopy at surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiang, Cheng-Tien; Huth, Michael; Trützschler, Andreas; Schumann, Frank O.; Kirschner, Jürgen; Widdra, Wolf
2015-01-01
Highlights: • An overview of photoelectron spectroscopy using high-order harmonics is presented. • Photoemission spectra on Ag(0 0 1) using megahertz harmonics are shown. • A gas recycling system for harmonic generation is presented. • Non-stop operation of megahertz harmonics up to 76 h is demonstrated. • The bandwidth and pulse duration of the harmonics are discussed. - Abstract: With the recent progress in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) using femtosecond lasers, laboratory photoelectron spectroscopy with an ultrafast, widely tunable vacuum-ultraviolet light source has become available. Despite the well-established technique of HHG-based photoemission experiments at kilohertz repetition rates, the efficiency of these setups can be intrinsically limited by the space-charge effects. Here we present recent developments of compact HHG light sources for photoelectron spectroscopy at high repetition rates up to megahertz, and examples for angle-resolved photoemission experiments are demonstrated.
Level set methods for detonation shock dynamics using high-order finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobrev, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grogan, F. C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, T. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, R [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tomov, V. Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-05-26
Level set methods are a popular approach to modeling evolving interfaces. We present a level set ad- vection solver in two and three dimensions using the discontinuous Galerkin method with high-order nite elements. During evolution, the level set function is reinitialized to a signed distance function to maintain ac- curacy. Our approach leads to stable front propagation and convergence on high-order, curved, unstructured meshes. The ability of the solver to implicitly track moving fronts lends itself to a number of applications; in particular, we highlight applications to high-explosive (HE) burn and detonation shock dynamics (DSD). We provide results for two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems as well as applications to DSD.
European Workshop on High Order Nonlinear Numerical Schemes for Evolutionary PDEs
Beaugendre, Héloïse; Congedo, Pietro; Dobrzynski, Cécile; Perrier, Vincent; Ricchiuto, Mario
2014-01-01
This book collects papers presented during the European Workshop on High Order Nonlinear Numerical Methods for Evolutionary PDEs (HONOM 2013) that was held at INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Talence, France in March, 2013. The central topic is high order methods for compressible fluid dynamics. In the workshop, and in this proceedings, greater emphasis is placed on the numerical than the theoretical aspects of this scientific field. The range of topics is broad, extending through algorithm design, accuracy, large scale computing, complex geometries, discontinuous Galerkin, finite element methods, Lagrangian hydrodynamics, finite difference methods and applications and uncertainty quantification. These techniques find practical applications in such fields as fluid mechanics, magnetohydrodynamics, nonlinear solid mechanics, and others for which genuinely nonlinear methods are needed.
Duru, Kenneth
2014-12-01
© 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.
Validation of a RANS transition model using a high-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme
Tu, GuoHua; Deng, XiaoGang; Mao, MeiLiang
2013-04-01
A modified transition model is given based on the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and an intermittency transport equation. The energy gradient term in the original model is replaced by flow strain rate to saving computational costs. The model employs local variables only, and then it can be conveniently implemented in modern computational fluid dynamics codes. The fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme and the fourth-order staggered scheme are applied to discrete the governing equations for the purpose of minimizing discretization errors, so as to mitigate the confusion between numerical errors and transition model errors. The high-order package is compared with a second-order TVD method on simulating the transitional flow of a flat plate. Numerical results indicate that the high-order package give better grid convergence property than that of the second-order method. Validation of the transition model is performed for transitional flows ranging from low speed to hypersonic speed.
Trask, Nathaniel; Maxey, Martin; Hu, Xiaozhe
2018-02-01
A stable numerical solution of the steady Stokes problem requires compatibility between the choice of velocity and pressure approximation that has traditionally proven problematic for meshless methods. In this work, we present a discretization that couples a staggered scheme for pressure approximation with a divergence-free velocity reconstruction to obtain an adaptive, high-order, finite difference-like discretization that can be efficiently solved with conventional algebraic multigrid techniques. We use analytic benchmarks to demonstrate equal-order convergence for both velocity and pressure when solving problems with curvilinear geometries. In order to study problems in dense suspensions, we couple the solution for the flow to the equations of motion for freely suspended particles in an implicit monolithic scheme. The combination of high-order accuracy with fully-implicit schemes allows the accurate resolution of stiff lubrication forces directly from the solution of the Stokes problem without the need to introduce sub-grid lubrication models.
Frequency dependence of quantum path interference in non-collinear high-order harmonic generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Shi-Yang; He Xin-Kui; Teng Hao; Ye Peng; Wang Li-Feng; He Peng; Wei Zhi-Yi
2016-01-01
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) driven by two non-collinear beams including a fundamental and its weak second harmonic is numerically studied. The interference of harmonics from adjacent electron quantum paths is found to be dependent on the relative delay of the driving pulse, and the dependences are different for different harmonic orders. This frequency dependence of the interference is attributed to the spatial frequency chirp in the HHG beam resulting from the harmonic dipole phase, which in turn provides a potential way to gain an insight into the generation of high-order harmonics. As an example, the intensity dependent dipole phase coefficient α is retrieved from the interference fringe. (paper)
Intense multimicrojoule high-order harmonics generated from neutral atoms of In2O3 nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elouga Bom, L. B.; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Vidal, F.; Ozaki, T.; Ganeev, R. A.
2009-01-01
We studied high-order harmonic generation from plasma that contains an abundance of indium oxide nanoparticles. We found that harmonics from nanoparticle-containing plasma are considerably more intense than from plasma produced on the In 2 O 3 bulk target, with high-order harmonic energy ranging from 6 μJ (for the ninth harmonic) to 1 μJ (for the 17th harmonic) in the former case. The harmonic cutoff from nanoparticles was at the 21st order, which is lower than that observed using indium oxide solid target. By comparing the harmonic spectra obtained from solid and nanoparticle indium oxide targets, we concluded that intense harmonics in the latter case are dominantly generated from neutral atoms of the In 2 O 3 nanoparticles
Dependence of high order harmonics intensity on laser focal spot position in preformed plasma plumes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singhal, H.; Ganeev, R.; Naik, P. A.; Arora, V.; Chakravarty, U.; Gupta, P. D.
2008-01-01
The dependence of the high-order harmonic intensity on the laser focal spot position in laser produced plasma plumes is experimentally studied. High order harmonics up to the 59th order (λ∼13.5 nm) were generated by focusing 48 fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system in silver plasma plume produced using 300 ps uncompressed laser radiation as the prepulse. The intensity of harmonics nearly vanished when the best focus was located in the plume center, whereas it peaked on either side with unequal intensity. The focal spot position corresponding to the peak harmonic intensity moved away from the plume center for higher order harmonics. The results are explained in terms of the variation of phase mismatch between the driving laser beam and harmonics radiation produced, relativistic drift of electrons, and defocusing effect due to radial ionization gradient in the plasma for different focal spot positions
Development of a high-order finite volume method with multiblock partition techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. M. Lemos
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This work deals with a new numerical methodology to solve the Navier-Stokes equations based on a finite volume method applied to structured meshes with co-located grids. High-order schemes used to approximate advective, diffusive and non-linear terms, connected with multiblock partition techniques, are the main contributions of this paper. Combination of these two techniques resulted in a computer code that involves high accuracy due the high-order schemes and great flexibility to generate locally refined meshes based on the multiblock approach. This computer code has been able to obtain results with higher or equal accuracy in comparison with results obtained using classical procedures, with considerably less computational effort.
Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yavuz, I; Altun, Z [Department of Physics, Marmara University, 34722 Ziverbey, Istanbul (Turkey); Topcu, T, E-mail: ilhan.yavuz@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Auburn University, AL 36849-5311 (United States)
2011-07-14
We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.
Enhancement of high-order harmonic generation in the presence of noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yavuz, I; Altun, Z; Topcu, T
2011-01-01
We report on our simulations of the generation of high-order harmonics from atoms driven by an intense femtosecond laser field in the presence of noise. We numerically solve the non-perturbative stochastic time-dependent Schroedinger equation and observe how varying noise levels affect the frequency components of the high harmonic spectrum. Our calculations show that when an optimum amount of noise is present in the driving laser field, roughly a factor of 45 net enhancement can be achieved in high-order harmonic yield, especially, around the cut-off region. We observe that, for a relatively weak noise, the enhancement mechanism is sensitive to the carrier-envelope phase. We also investigate the possibility of generating ultra-short intense attosecond pulses by combining the laser field and noise and observe that a roughly four orders of magnitude enhanced isolated attosecond burst can be generated.
Highly ordered uniform single-crystal Bi nanowires: fabrication and characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisrat, Y; Luo, Z P; Davis, D; Lagoudas, D
2007-01-01
A mechanical pressure injection technique has been used to fabricate uniform bismuth (Bi) nanowires in the pores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The AAO template was prepared from general purity aluminum by a two-step anodization followed by heat treatment to achieve highly ordered nanochannels. The nanowires were then fabricated by an injection technique whereby the molten Bi was injected into the AAO template using a hydraulic pressure method. The Bi nanowires prepared by this method were found to be dense and continuous with uniform diameter throughout the length. Electron diffraction experiments using the transmission electron microscope on cross-sectional and free-standing longitudinal Bi nanowires showed that the majority of the individual nanowires were single crystalline, with preferred orientation of growth along the [011] zone axis of the pseudo-cubic structure. The work presented here provides an inexpensive and effective way of fabricating highly ordered single-crystalline Bi nanowires, with uniform size distributions
49 CFR 214.519 - Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines.
2010-10-01
... roadway maintenance machines. 214.519 Section 214.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.519 Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway maintenance machines. Floors, decks, stairs, and ladders of on-track roadway...
High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA
1987-01-01
Relativistic quantum field theories may give us useful guidance to understanding high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, we study the ladder diagrams in φ 3 theory. In this paper, some of the necessary techniques are developed and applied to the simplest cases of the fourth- and sixth-order ladder diagrams. (orig.)
Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino
2005-01-01
option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...... elicited by the laddering method increase explanatory power with regard to choice option attractiveness beyond the beliefs elicited by the Ajzen and Fishbein method, and that this additional explanatory power was due to those beliefs which relate the choice option to concepts with a higher level...
Analytical recursive method to ascertain multisite entanglement in doped quantum spin ladders
Roy, Sudipto Singha; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2017-08-01
We formulate an analytical recursive method to generate the wave function of doped short-range resonating valence bond (RVB) states as a tool to efficiently estimate multisite entanglement as well as other physical quantities in doped quantum spin ladders. We prove that doped RVB ladder states are always genuine multipartite entangled. Importantly, our results show that within specific doping concentration and model parameter regimes, the doped RVB state essentially characterizes the trends of genuine multiparty entanglement in the exact ground states of the Hubbard model with large on-site interactions, in the limit that yields the t -J Hamiltonian.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, Paramita; Karmakar, S. N. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata-700 108 (India)
2014-09-15
Electric field induced localization properties of a tight-binding ladder network in presence of backbone sites are investigated. Based on Green's function formalism we numerically calculate two-terminal transport together with density of states for different arrangements of atomic sites in the ladder and its backbone. Our results lead to a possibility of getting multiple mobility edges which essentially plays a switching action between a completely opaque to fully or partly conducting region upon the variation of system Fermi energy, and thus, support in fabricating mesoscopic or DNA-based switching devices.
"Ladder" structure in tonal noise generated by laminar flow around an airfoil.
Chong, Tze Pei; Joseph, Phillip
2012-06-01
The presence of a "ladder" structure in the airfoil tonal noise was discovered in the 1970s, but its mechanism hitherto remains a subject of continual investigation in the research community. Based on the measured noise results and some numerical analysis presented in this letter, the variations of four types of airfoil tonal noise frequencies with the flow velocity were analyzed individually. The ladder structure is proposed to be caused by the acoustic/hydrodynamic frequency lag between the scattering of the boundary layer instability noise and the discrete noise produced by an aeroacoustic feedback loop.
Siswoyo, Siswoyo; Sunaryo, Sunaryo
2017-01-01
Abstract This study investigated the implementation of High Order Thinking Skills in high school physics teaching focused on the analysis of the questions that were developed by teachers in Jakarta. Data obtained in training physics teachers in Jakarta. Teachers followed training on how to develop the learning of physics to develop higher order thinking skills. Then the teachers were asked to develop physics problems test as an instrument measuring tool of learning physics at school. Pro...
Lattice Boltzmann model for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations
Chai, Zhenhua; He, Nanzhong; Guo, Zhaoli; Shi, Baochang
2018-01-01
In this paper, a general lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation with the form ∂tϕ +∑k=1mαk∂xkΠk(ϕ ) =0 (1 ≤k ≤m ≤6 ), αk are constant coefficients, Πk(ϕ ) are some known differential functions of ϕ . As some special cases of the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation, the classical (m)KdV equation, KdV-Burgers equation, K (n ,n ) -Burgers equation, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, and Kawahara equation can be solved by the present LB model. Compared to the available LB models, the most distinct characteristic of the present model is to introduce some suitable auxiliary moments such that the correct moments of equilibrium distribution function can be achieved. In addition, we also conducted a detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis, and found that the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation can be correctly recovered from the proposed LB model. Finally, a large number of simulations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree with the analytical solutions, and usually the present model is also more accurate than the existing LB models [H. Lai and C. Ma, Sci. China Ser. G 52, 1053 (2009), 10.1007/s11433-009-0149-3; H. Lai and C. Ma, Phys. A (Amsterdam) 388, 1405 (2009), 10.1016/j.physa.2009.01.005] for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.
Further results on global state feedback stabilization of nonlinear high-order feedforward systems.
Xie, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Hui
2014-03-01
In this paper, by introducing a combined method of sign function, homogeneous domination and adding a power integrator, and overcoming several troublesome obstacles in the design and analysis, the problem of state feedback control for a class of nonlinear high-order feedforward systems with the nonlinearity's order being relaxed to an interval rather than a fixed point is solved. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar
2010-01-01
We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.
Fast magnetic energy dissipation in relativistic plasma induced by high order laser modes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gu, Yanjun; Yu, Q.; Klimo, Ondřej; Esirkepov, T.Z.; Bulanov, S.V.; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg
2016-01-01
Roč. 4, Jun (2016), 1-5, č. článku e19. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high order laser mode * laser–plasma interaction * magnetic annihilation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
On global exponential stability of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Baoyong; Xu Shengyuan; Li Yongmin; Chu Yuming
2007-01-01
This Letter investigates the problem of stability analysis for a class of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays. The delays are bounded but not necessarily differentiable. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and the use of Halanay inequality, sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the considered neural networks are presented. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria
On global exponential stability of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Baoyong [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail: baoyongzhang@yahoo.com.cn; Xu Shengyuan [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)]. E-mail: syxu02@yahoo.com.cn; Li Yongmin [School of Automation, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China) and Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)]. E-mail: ymlwww@163.com; Chu Yuming [Department of Mathematics, Huzhou Teacher' s College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China)
2007-06-18
This Letter investigates the problem of stability analysis for a class of high-order neural networks with time-varying delays. The delays are bounded but not necessarily differentiable. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory together with the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach and the use of Halanay inequality, sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the considered neural networks are presented. Two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability criteria.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamou, M.; Xu, H.; Khalid, M.
2004-01-01
The present paper contains a comprehensive literature survey on helicopter flow analyses and describes some true unsteady flows past helicopter rotors obtained using low and high order CFD models. The low order model is based on a panel method coupled with a viscous boundary layer approach and a compressibility correction. The USAERO software is used for the computations. The high order model is based on Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. For the high order models, a true unsteady scheme, as implemented in the CFD-FASTRAN code using the Euler equations, is considered for flows past hovering rotor. On the other hand, a quasi-steady approach, using the WIND code with the Navier-Stokes equations and the SST turbulence model, is used to assess the validity of the approach for the simulation of flows past a helicopter in forward flight conditions. When using the high order models, a Chimera grid technique is used to describe the blade motions within the parent stationary grid. Comparisons with experimental data are performed and the true unsteady simulations provide a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The panel method and the quasisteady approach are found to overestimate the loads on the helicopter rotors. The USAERO panel code is found to produce more thrust owing to some error sources in the computations when a wake-surface collision occurs, as the blades interact with their own wakes. The automatic cutting of the wake sheets, as they approach the model surface, is not working properly at every time step. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mamou, M.; Xu, H.; Khalid, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: Mahmoud.Mamou@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
2004-07-01
The present paper contains a comprehensive literature survey on helicopter flow analyses and describes some true unsteady flows past helicopter rotors obtained using low and high order CFD models. The low order model is based on a panel method coupled with a viscous boundary layer approach and a compressibility correction. The USAERO software is used for the computations. The high order model is based on Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. For the high order models, a true unsteady scheme, as implemented in the CFD-FASTRAN code using the Euler equations, is considered for flows past hovering rotor. On the other hand, a quasi-steady approach, using the WIND code with the Navier-Stokes equations and the SST turbulence model, is used to assess the validity of the approach for the simulation of flows past a helicopter in forward flight conditions. When using the high order models, a Chimera grid technique is used to describe the blade motions within the parent stationary grid. Comparisons with experimental data are performed and the true unsteady simulations provide a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The panel method and the quasisteady approach are found to overestimate the loads on the helicopter rotors. The USAERO panel code is found to produce more thrust owing to some error sources in the computations when a wake-surface collision occurs, as the blades interact with their own wakes. The automatic cutting of the wake sheets, as they approach the model surface, is not working properly at every time step. (author)
A high-order q-difference equation for q-Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arvesú, J.; Esposito, Chiara
2012-01-01
A high-order linear q-difference equation with polynomial coefficients having q-Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials as eigenfunctions is given. The order of the equation coincides with the number of orthogonality conditions that these polynomials satisfy. Some limiting situations when are studie....... Indeed, the difference equation for Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials given in Lee [J. Approx. Theory (2007), ), doi: 10.1016/j.jat.2007.06.002] is obtained as a limiting case....
Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws
Guermond, J. L.
2010-09-17
A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.
Lattice Boltzmann model for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.
Chai, Zhenhua; He, Nanzhong; Guo, Zhaoli; Shi, Baochang
2018-01-01
In this paper, a general lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation with the form ∂_{t}ϕ+∑_{k=1}^{m}α_{k}∂_{x}^{k}Π_{k}(ϕ)=0 (1≤k≤m≤6), α_{k} are constant coefficients, Π_{k}(ϕ) are some known differential functions of ϕ. As some special cases of the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation, the classical (m)KdV equation, KdV-Burgers equation, K(n,n)-Burgers equation, Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, and Kawahara equation can be solved by the present LB model. Compared to the available LB models, the most distinct characteristic of the present model is to introduce some suitable auxiliary moments such that the correct moments of equilibrium distribution function can be achieved. In addition, we also conducted a detailed Chapman-Enskog analysis, and found that the high-order nonlinear partial differential equation can be correctly recovered from the proposed LB model. Finally, a large number of simulations are performed, and it is found that the numerical results agree with the analytical solutions, and usually the present model is also more accurate than the existing LB models [H. Lai and C. Ma, Sci. China Ser. G 52, 1053 (2009)1672-179910.1007/s11433-009-0149-3; H. Lai and C. Ma, Phys. A (Amsterdam) 388, 1405 (2009)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2009.01.005] for high-order nonlinear partial differential equations.
Research on Appraisal System of Procurator Performance by Using High-Order CFA Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong-mao Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The prosecutor is the main body of procuratorial organs. The performance appraisal system plays an important role in promoting the work efficiency of procurator. In this paper, we establish the performance appraisal system of procurators by high-order confirmatory factor analysis method and evaluate procurators’ performance by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the 360 degrees. The results have some help to performance management of procuratorial organs.
High order P-G finite elements for convection-dominated problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmo, E.D. do; Galeao, A.C.
1989-06-01
From the error analysis presented in this paper it is shown that de CCAU method derived by Dutra do Carmo and Galeao [3] preserves the same order of approximation obtained with SUPH (cf. Books and Hughes [2]) when advection-diffusion regular solutions are considered, and improves the accuracy of the approximate boundary layer solution when high order interpolating polynomials are used near sharp layers [pt
High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids
2015-06-22
for efficient CFD calculations in high-order methods,3 because the grid adaptation almost necessarily introduces irregularity in the grid. In fact...problems. References 1P.A. Gnoffo. Multi-dimensional, inviscid flux reconstruction for simulation of hypersonic heating on tetrahedral grids. In Proc. of...Kitamura, E. Shima, Y. Nakamura, and P.L. Roe. Evaluation of euler fluxes for hypersonic heating computations. AIAA J., 48(4):763–776, 2010. 3Z.J. Wang, K
Detecting high-order interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms using genetic programming.
Nunkesser, Robin; Bernholt, Thorsten; Schwender, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja; Wegener, Ingo
2007-12-15
Not individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but high-order interactions of SNPs are assumed to be responsible for complex diseases such as cancer. Therefore, one of the major goals of genetic association studies concerned with such genotype data is the identification of these high-order interactions. This search is additionally impeded by the fact that these interactions often are only explanatory for a relatively small subgroup of patients. Most of the feature selection methods proposed in the literature, unfortunately, fail at this task, since they can either only identify individual variables or interactions of a low order, or try to find rules that are explanatory for a high percentage of the observations. In this article, we present a procedure based on genetic programming and multi-valued logic that enables the identification of high-order interactions of categorical variables such as SNPs. This method called GPAS cannot only be used for feature selection, but can also be employed for discrimination. In an application to the genotype data from the GENICA study, an association study concerned with sporadic breast cancer, GPAS is able to identify high-order interactions of SNPs leading to a considerably increased breast cancer risk for different subsets of patients that are not found by other feature selection methods. As an application to a subset of the HapMap data shows, GPAS is not restricted to association studies comprising several 10 SNPs, but can also be employed to analyze whole-genome data. Software can be downloaded from http://ls2-www.cs.uni-dortmund.de/~nunkesser/#Software
Tsunami generation, propagation, and run-up with a high-order Boussinesq model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.
2009-01-01
In this work we extend a high-order Boussinesq-type (finite difference) model, capable of simulating waves out to wavenumber times depth kh landslide-induced tsunamis. The extension is straight forward, requiring only....... The Boussinesq-type model is then used to simulate numerous tsunami-type events generated from submerged landslides, in both one and two horizontal dimensions. The results again compare well against previous experiments and/or numerical simulations. The new extension compliments recently developed run...
Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws
Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.
2010-01-01
A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.
Modulated phase matching and high-order harmonic enhancement mediated by the carrier-envelope phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faccio, Daniele; Serrat, Carles; Cela, Jose M.; Farres, Albert; Di Trapani, Paolo; Biegert, Jens
2010-01-01
The process of high-order harmonic generation in gases is numerically investigated in the presence of a few-cycle pulsed-Bessel-beam pump, featuring a periodic modulation in the peak intensity due to large carrier-envelope-phase mismatch. A two-decade enhancement in the conversion efficiency is observed and interpreted as the consequence of a mechanism known as a nonlinearly induced modulation in the phase mismatch.
Calculation of neutron flux and reactivity by perturbation theory at high order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, W.L.P. da; Silva, F.C. da; Thome Filho, Z.D.
1982-01-01
A high order pertubation theory is studied, independent of time, applied to integral parameter calculation of a nuclear reactor. A pertubative formulation, based on flux difference technique, which gives directy the reactivity and neutron flux up to the aproximation order required, is presented. As an application of the method, global pertubations represented by fuel temperature variations, are used. Tests were done aiming to verify the relevancy of the approximation order for several intensities of the pertubations considered. (E.G.) [pt
Li, Xiaofan; Nie, Qing
2009-01-01
Many applications in materials involve surface diffusion of elastically stressed solids. Study of singularity formation and long-time behavior of such solid surfaces requires accurate simulations in both space and time. Here we present a high-order boundary integral method for an elastically stressed solid with axi-symmetry due to surface diffusions. In this method, the boundary integrals for isotropic elasticity in axi-symmetric geometry are approximated through modified alternating quadratu...
High-Order Multioperator Compact Schemes for Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Subsonic Airfoil Flow
Savel'ev, A. D.
2018-02-01
On the basis of high-order schemes, the viscous gas flow over the NACA2212 airfoil is numerically simulated at a free-stream Mach number of 0.3 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 103 to 107. Flow regimes sequentially varying due to variations in the free-stream viscosity are considered. Vortex structures developing on the airfoil surface are investigated, and a physical interpretation of this phenomenon is given.
Global stability of stochastic high-order neural networks with discrete and distributed delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zidong; Fang Jianan; Liu Xiaohui
2008-01-01
High-order neural networks can be considered as an expansion of Hopfield neural networks, and have stronger approximation property, faster convergence rate, greater storage capacity, and higher fault tolerance than lower-order neural networks. In this paper, the global asymptotic stability analysis problem is considered for a class of stochastic high-order neural networks with discrete and distributed time-delays. Based on an Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and the stochastic stability analysis theory, several sufficient conditions are derived, which guarantee the global asymptotic convergence of the equilibrium point in the mean square. It is shown that the stochastic high-order delayed neural networks under consideration are globally asymptotically stable in the mean square if two linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) are feasible, where the feasibility of LMIs can be readily checked by the Matlab LMI toolbox. It is also shown that the main results in this paper cover some recently published works. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed global stability criteria
Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian
2013-08-01
Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.
A high-order mode extended interaction klystron at 0.34 THz
Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang; Zeng, Peng; Teng, Yan
2017-02-01
We propose the concept of high-order mode extended interaction klystron (EIK) at the terahertz band. Compared to the conventional fundamental mode EIK, it operates at the TM31-2π mode, and its remarkable advantage is to obtain a large structure and good performance. The proposed EIK consists of five identical cavities with five gaps in each cavity. The method is discussed to suppress the mode competition and self-oscillation in the high-order mode cavity. Particle-in-cell simulation demonstrates that the EIK indeed operates at TM31-2π mode without self-oscillation while other modes are well suppressed. Driven by the electron beam with a voltage of 15 kV and a current of 0.3 A, the saturation gain of 43 dB and the output power of 60 W are achieved at the center frequency of 342.4 GHz. The EIK operating at high-order mode seems a promising approach to generate high power terahertz waves.
Time-Frequency Analysis Using Warped-Based High-Order Phase Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioana Cornel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The high-order ambiguity function (HAF was introduced for the estimation of polynomial-phase signals (PPS embedded in noise. Since the HAF is a nonlinear operator, it suffers from noise-masking effects and from the appearance of undesired cross-terms when multicomponents PPS are analyzed. In order to improve the performances of the HAF, the multi-lag HAF concept was proposed. Based on this approach, several advanced methods (e.g., product high-order ambiguity function (PHAF have been recently proposed. Nevertheless, performances of these new methods are affected by the error propagation effect which drastically limits the order of the polynomial approximation. This phenomenon acts especially when a high-order polynomial modeling is needed: representation of the digital modulation signals or the acoustic transient signals. This effect is caused by the technique used for polynomial order reduction, common for existing approaches: signal multiplication with the complex conjugated exponentials formed with the estimated coefficients. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method to reduce the polynomial order, based on the successive unitary signal transformation, according to each polynomial order. We will prove that this method reduces considerably the effect of error propagation. Namely, with this order reduction method, the estimation error at a given order will depend only on the performances of the estimation method.
photon-plasma: A modern high-order particle-in-cell code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haugbølle, Troels; Frederiksen, Jacob Trier; Nordlund, Åke
2013-01-01
We present the photon-plasma code, a modern high order charge conserving particle-in-cell code for simulating relativistic plasmas. The code is using a high order implicit field solver and a novel high order charge conserving interpolation scheme for particle-to-cell interpolation and charge deposition. It includes powerful diagnostics tools with on-the-fly particle tracking, synthetic spectra integration, 2D volume slicing, and a new method to correctly account for radiative cooling in the simulations. A robust technique for imposing (time-dependent) particle and field fluxes on the boundaries is also presented. Using a hybrid OpenMP and MPI approach, the code scales efficiently from 8 to more than 250.000 cores with almost linear weak scaling on a range of architectures. The code is tested with the classical benchmarks particle heating, cold beam instability, and two-stream instability. We also present particle-in-cell simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and new results on radiative collisionless shocks
Impact of leakage delay on bifurcation in high-order fractional BAM neural networks.
Huang, Chengdai; Cao, Jinde
2018-02-01
The effects of leakage delay on the dynamics of neural networks with integer-order have lately been received considerable attention. It has been confirmed that fractional neural networks more appropriately uncover the dynamical properties of neural networks, but the results of fractional neural networks with leakage delay are relatively few. This paper primarily concentrates on the issue of bifurcation for high-order fractional bidirectional associative memory(BAM) neural networks involving leakage delay. The first attempt is made to tackle the stability and bifurcation of high-order fractional BAM neural networks with time delay in leakage terms in this paper. The conditions for the appearance of bifurcation for the proposed systems with leakage delay are firstly established by adopting time delay as a bifurcation parameter. Then, the bifurcation criteria of such system without leakage delay are successfully acquired. Comparative analysis wondrously detects that the stability performance of the proposed high-order fractional neural networks is critically weakened by leakage delay, they cannot be overlooked. Numerical examples are ultimately exhibited to attest the efficiency of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Work-related falls from ladders--a follow-back study of US emergency department cases.
Lombardi, David A; Smith, Gordon S; Courtney, Theodore K; Brennan, Melanye J; Kim, Jae Young; Perry, Melissa J
2011-11-01
Ladder falls comprise 16% of all US workplace fall-related fatalities, and ladder use may be particularly hazardous among older workers. This follow-back study of injured workers from a nationally representative sample of US emergency departments (ED) focused on factors related to ladder falls in three domains of the work environment: work equipment, work practices, and worker-related factors. Risk factors for fractures, the most frequent and severe outcome, were also evaluated. Workers injured from a ladder fall, treated in one of the 65 participating ED in the occupational National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) were asked to participate. The questionnaire included worker demographics, injury, ladder and work equipment and environment characteristics, work tasks, and activities. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of a work-related fracture. Three-hundred and six workers experiencing an injury from an--on average--7.5-foot-fall from a step, extension, or straight ladder were interviewed primarily from construction, installation, maintenance, and repair professions. Injuries were most frequently to the arm, elbow or shoulder; head, neck, or face with diagnoses were primarily fracture, strain, sprain, contusion or abrasion. Workers were most frequently standing or sitting on the ladder while installing, hanging an item, or performing a repair when they fell. Ladder movement was the mechanism in 40% of falls. Environmental conditions played a role in cases. There was a significant association between fracture risk and fall height while working on the ladder that was also influenced by older work age. This study advances knowledge of falls from ladders to support those who specify means and methods, select equipment, and plan, supervise, or manage the performance of employees working at heights.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sérgio Makrakis
Full Text Available Utilization of the fish ladder installed at the Engenheiro Sergio Motta Dam (also known as Porto Primavera on the Paraná River, Southern Brazil, by long-distance migrating potamodromous species (sampling Protocol I, and ascending and descending movements (Protocol II were evaluated. Three pools along the fish ladder (designated as lower, middle, and upper were sampled monthly between December, 2004 and March, 2005 to determine the abundance of species in the ladder. The ascending and descending movements of the species in the ladder were also analyzed in the same period. In the samples for both protocols, 37 species representing 17 families and 5 orders (Characiformes, Siluriformes, Perciformes, Gymnotiformes, and Myliobatiformes were recorded. Characiformes were represented by 21 species. Long- distance migratory species (11 species predominated in the ladder (60% of the total number of individuals, with high abundance of Rhinelepis aspera (5645 individuals. For protocol I, mean abundance varied greatly among the months and pools, with lowest values in December and March for all pools, and highest in January for the lower pool due to high capture of R. aspera. Fish abundance declined from the lower to the upper pool, especially for R. aspera and Rhaphiodon vulpinus. For Protocol II, 17 species were recorded ascending the ladder, where Astyanax altiparanae and Leporinus friderici were the most abundant species (684 and 111 individuals, respectively. However, 18 species showed descending movements, with high captures of Metynnis maculatus and A. altiparanae (339 and 319 individuals, respectively. Twelve species (52% moved in both directions, and among the seven migratory species sampled, four were recorded ascending and descending, and three species only ascending the ladder. The fish ladder appears to selectively favor species with high swimming capabilities. A discussion is presented on the requirements for future research on attraction to the
High Order Voltage and Current Harmonic Mitigation Using the Modular Multilevel Converter STATCOM
Kontos, E.; Tsolaridis, Georgios; Teodorescu, Remus; Bauer, P.
2017-01-01
Due to the increase of power electronic-based loads, the maintenance of high power quality poses a challenge in modern power systems. To limit the total harmonic distortion in the line voltage and currents at the point of the common coupling (PCC), active power filters are commonly employed. This
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K
1982-01-01
Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.
Hamming, Richard W
1997-01-01
Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s
Liu, Xiaolin; Lauer, Kathryn K; Ward, Barney D; Rao, Stephen M; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G
2012-10-01
Current theories suggest that disrupting cortical information integration may account for the mechanism of general anesthesia in suppressing consciousness. Human cognitive operations take place in hierarchically structured neural organizations in the brain. The process of low-order neural representation of sensory stimuli becoming integrated in high-order cortices is also known as cognitive binding. Combining neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience, and anesthetic manipulation, we examined how cognitive networks involved in auditory verbal memory are maintained in wakefulness, disrupted in propofol-induced deep sedation, and re-established in recovery. Inspired by the notion of cognitive binding, an functional magnetic resonance imaging-guided connectivity analysis was utilized to assess the integrity of functional interactions within and between different levels of the task-defined brain regions. Task-related responses persisted in the primary auditory cortex (PAC), but vanished in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and premotor areas in deep sedation. For connectivity analysis, seed regions representing sensory and high-order processing of the memory task were identified in the PAC and IFG. Propofol disrupted connections from the PAC seed to the frontal regions and thalamus, but not the connections from the IFG seed to a set of widely distributed brain regions in the temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes (with exception of the PAC). These later regions have been implicated in mediating verbal comprehension and memory. These results suggest that propofol disrupts cognition by blocking the projection of sensory information to high-order processing networks and thus preventing information integration. Such findings contribute to our understanding of anesthetic mechanisms as related to information and integration in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A comparison of high-order polynomial and wave-based methods for Helmholtz problems
Lieu, Alice; Gabard, Gwénaël; Bériot, Hadrien
2016-09-01
The application of computational modelling to wave propagation problems is hindered by the dispersion error introduced by the discretisation. Two common strategies to address this issue are to use high-order polynomial shape functions (e.g. hp-FEM), or to use physics-based, or Trefftz, methods where the shape functions are local solutions of the problem (typically plane waves). Both strategies have been actively developed over the past decades and both have demonstrated their benefits compared to conventional finite-element methods, but they have yet to be compared. In this paper a high-order polynomial method (p-FEM with Lobatto polynomials) and the wave-based discontinuous Galerkin method are compared for two-dimensional Helmholtz problems. A number of different benchmark problems are used to perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the relative merits of these two methods in terms of interpolation properties, performance and conditioning. It is generally assumed that a wave-based method naturally provides better accuracy compared to polynomial methods since the plane waves or Bessel functions used in these methods are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. Results indicate that this expectation does not necessarily translate into a clear benefit, and that the differences in performance, accuracy and conditioning are more nuanced than generally assumed. The high-order polynomial method can in fact deliver comparable, and in some cases superior, performance compared to the wave-based DGM. In addition to benchmarking the intrinsic computational performance of these methods, a number of practical issues associated with realistic applications are also discussed.
Large-eddy simulation in a mixing tee junction: High-order turbulent statistics analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, Richard J.A.; Serre, Eric
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Mixing and thermal fluctuations in a junction are studied using large eddy simulation. • Adiabatic and conducting steel wall boundaries are tested. • Wall thermal fluctuations are not the same between the flow and the solid. • Solid thermal fluctuations cannot be predicted from the fluid thermal fluctuations. • High-order turbulent statistics show that the turbulent transport term is important. - Abstract: This study analyses the mixing and thermal fluctuations induced in a mixing tee junction with circular cross-sections when cold water flowing in a pipe is joined by hot water from a branch pipe. This configuration is representative of industrial piping systems in which temperature fluctuations in the fluid may cause thermal fatigue damage on the walls. Implicit large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed for equal inflow rates corresponding to a bulk Reynolds number Re = 39,080. Two different thermal boundary conditions are studied for the pipe walls; an insulating adiabatic boundary and a conducting steel wall boundary. The predicted flow structures show a satisfactory agreement with the literature. The velocity and thermal fields (including high-order statistics) are not affected by the heat transfer with the steel walls. However, predicted thermal fluctuations at the boundary are not the same between the flow and the solid, showing that solid thermal fluctuations cannot be predicted by the knowledge of the fluid thermal fluctuations alone. The analysis of high-order turbulent statistics provides a better understanding of the turbulence features. In particular, the budgets of the turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance allows a comparative analysis of dissipation, production and transport terms. It is found that the turbulent transport term is an important term that acts to balance the production. We therefore use a priori tests to evaluate three different models for the triple correlation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.
1995-01-01
Starting from a general model of measuring cognitive structures for predicting consumer behaviour, we discuss laddering as a possible method to obtain estimates of consumption-relevant cognitive structures which will have predictive validity. Four criteria for valid measurement are derived and ap...
A Demonstration of Helping Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability Climb Ladders
Chan, Kok Hoe Anthony; Varahan, Jayashree Lakshmi; Loh, Peng Loong Daniel; Tan, Sey Ing
2011-01-01
A research team at a vocational school in Singapore, catering mainly to students between the ages of 17-21 with mild intellectual disability, studied how to best address the challenge of enabling students to learn how to climb ladders (a skill necessary at many job placements). They documented the approach used and suggested extrapolations and…
THE COMPARISON OF USING SNAKE LADDERS AND SCRABBLE MEDIA TOWARDS VOCABULARY MASTERY OF STUDENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eka Pra Setiawati
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Vocabulary is an essential component in learning English. It influences four English skills; they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing, for getting a good result in English. In teaching learning process, the teacher often implements the less interesting method, technique, or even media of vocabulary mastery in teaching and learning process which make the students to be bored, inactive, an uniterested in memorizing English vocabulary. Some media can be interested as the solutions in vocabulary mastery, they are Snake Ladders media and Scrabble media. The investigation was undergone by quantitative research. The researcher applied experimental research. This research underwent pre-test post-test control group design. To analyze data, t-test formula is used to measure the result of collected data. From the t-test measurement, it showed that t-test is 3.15 and t-table is 2.66. It means that t-hit > t-table. Based on the collected data, there is different result of using Snake Ladders from Scrabble media toward students’ vocabulary mastery. It was found that the students who are taught by using Snake Ladders resulted significant outcome than those are instructed by Scrabble media. It means that Snake Ladders is effective to improve the students’ vocabulary mastery.
Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.
Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C
2014-12-01
Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parents' Participation on School Councils Analysed through Arnstein's Ladder of Participation
Stelmach, Bonnie
2016-01-01
Although parent school councils are the archetypal arrangement for engaging parents in school improvement planning, their effectiveness is negligible when it comes to building parents' capacity for and confidence in educational decision-making. Using Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation, this qualitative case study investigated the nature…
Laughlin-like States in Bosonic and Fermionic Atomic Synthetic Ladders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcello Calvanese Strinati
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The combination of interactions and static gauge fields plays a pivotal role in our understanding of strongly correlated quantum matter. Cold atomic gases endowed with a synthetic dimension are emerging as an ideal platform to experimentally address this interplay in quasi-one-dimensional systems. A fundamental question is whether these setups can give access to pristine two-dimensional phenomena, such as the fractional quantum Hall effect, and how. We show that unambiguous signatures of bosonic and fermionic Laughlin-like states can be observed and characterized in synthetic ladders. We theoretically diagnose these Laughlin-like states focusing on the chiral current flowing in the ladder, on the central charge of the low-energy theory, and on the properties of the entanglement entropy. Remarkably, Laughlin-like states are separated from conventional liquids by Lifschitz-type transitions, characterized by sharp discontinuities in the current profiles, which we address using extensive simulations based on matrix-product states. Our work provides a qualitative and quantitative guideline towards the observability and understanding of strongly correlated states of matter in synthetic ladders. In particular, we unveil how state-of-the-art experimental settings constitute an ideal starting point to progressively tackle two-dimensional strongly interacting systems from a ladder viewpoint, opening a new perspective for the observation of non-Abelian states of matter.
Using career ladders to motivate and retain employees: an implementation success story.
Garletts, Joseph A
2002-01-01
In October 2000, Phoenix-based Sonora Quest Laboratories, LLC (SQL), commissioned The Gelfond Group to survey SQL employees. Responding to negative survey scores, SQL developed and implemented an entry-level career ladder for line staff of the specimen management/referral testing department. The program was piloted in February 2001, and was implemented fully shortly thereafter. The ladder was designed to provide job enrichment opportunities through company-conducted training and advancement provisions. It contained requirements for productivity and quality of work performed in addition to increasingly rigorous training and competency documentation. Employees were accountable for their own advancement and for ensuring that all documentation was complete. Advancement was automatic once requirements were completed. Pay increases accompanied each advancement on a predetermined scale. At the end of 12 months, employee turnover dropped from 39% to less than 20% annually. Both productivity and morale improved, and results on a second employee survey indicated dramatic improvement in five key areas. The career ladder concept has been replicated successfully in several other departments, including phlebotomy, and a six-tiered ladder is under development for the clinical laboratory. It will encompass CLA, MLT, and MT positions from entry level to technical coordinator.
Horeni, O.; Arentze, T.A.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
2014-01-01
This paper introduces the online Causal Network Elicitation Technique (CNET), as a technique for measuring components of mental representations of choice tasks and compares it with the more common technique of online 'hard' laddering (HL). While CNET works in basically two phases, one in open
O. Horeni (Oliver); T.A. Arentze (Theo); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)
2013-01-01
textabstractThis paper introduces the online Causal Network Elicitation Technique (CNET), as a technique for measuring components of mental representations of choice tasks and compares it with the more common technique of online ‘hard’ laddering (HL). While CNET works in basically two phases, one in
ABC of ladder operators for rationally extended quantum harmonic oscillator systems
Cariñena, José F.; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2017-07-01
The problem of construction of ladder operators for rationally extended quantum harmonic oscillator (REQHO) systems of a general form is investigated in the light of existence of different schemes of the Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations by which such systems can be generated from the quantum harmonic oscillator. Any REQHO system is characterized by the number of separated states in its spectrum, the number of ‘valence bands’ in which the separated states are organized, and by the total number of the missing energy levels and their position. All these peculiarities of a REQHO system are shown to be detected and reflected by a trinity (A^+/- , B^+/- , C^+/-) of the basic (primary) lowering and raising ladder operators related between themselves by certain algebraic identities with coefficients polynomially-dependent on the Hamiltonian. We show that all the secondary, higher-order ladder operators are obtainable by a composition of the basic ladder operators of the trinity which form the set of the spectrum-generating operators. Each trinity, in turn, can be constructed from the intertwining operators of the two complementary minimal schemes of the Darboux-Crum-Krein-Adler transformations.
29 CFR 1910.29 - Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).
2010-07-01
... HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Walking-Working... edges, burrs or other safety hazards. (3) Work levels. (i) The maximum work level height shall not... rigid platforms at each work level. (iv) The steps of ladder stands shall be fabricated from slip...
Effects of high-order deformation on high-K isomers in superheavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, H. L.; Bertulani, C. A.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.
2011-01-01
Using, for the first time, configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations with the inclusion of β 6 deformation, we find remarkable effects of the high-order deformation on the high-K isomers in 254 No, the focus of recent spectroscopy experiments on superheavy nuclei. For shapes with multipolarity six, the isomers are more tightly bound and, microscopically, have enhanced deformed shell gaps at N=152 and Z=100. The inclusion of β 6 deformation significantly improves the description of the very heavy high-K isomers.
Fast Algorithms for High-Order Sparse Linear Prediction with Applications to Speech Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon
2016-01-01
In speech processing applications, imposing sparsity constraints on high-order linear prediction coefficients and prediction residuals has proven successful in overcoming some of the limitation of conventional linear predictive modeling. However, this modeling scheme, named sparse linear prediction...... problem with lower accuracy than in previous work. In the experimental analysis, we clearly show that a solution with lower accuracy can achieve approximately the same performance as a high accuracy solution both objectively, in terms of prediction gain, as well as with perceptual relevant measures, when...... evaluated in a speech reconstruction application....
Synchronization of a coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons via high order sliding-mode feedback
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguilar-Lopez, R. [Division de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo No. 180, Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: raguilar@correo.azc.uam.mx; Martinez-Guerra, R. [Departamento de Control Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico, D.F. C.P. 07360 (Mexico)], E-mail: rguerra@ctrl.cinvestav.mx
2008-07-15
This work deals with the synchronizations of two both coupled Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neurons, where the master neuron posses inner noise and the slave neuron is considered in a resting state, (without inner noise) and an exciting state (with inner noise). The synchronization procedure is done via a feedback control, considering a class of high order sliding-mode controller which provides chattering reduction and finite time synchronization convergence, with a satisfactory performance. Theoretical analysis is done in order to show the closed-loop stability of the proposed controller and the calculated finite time for convergence. The main results are illustrated via numerical experiments.
Synchronization of a coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons via high order sliding-mode feedback
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar-Lopez, R.; Martinez-Guerra, R.
2008-01-01
This work deals with the synchronizations of two both coupled Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) neurons, where the master neuron posses inner noise and the slave neuron is considered in a resting state, (without inner noise) and an exciting state (with inner noise). The synchronization procedure is done via a feedback control, considering a class of high order sliding-mode controller which provides chattering reduction and finite time synchronization convergence, with a satisfactory performance. Theoretical analysis is done in order to show the closed-loop stability of the proposed controller and the calculated finite time for convergence. The main results are illustrated via numerical experiments
Matrix form of Legendre polynomials for solving linear integro-differential equations of high order
Kammuji, M.; Eshkuvatov, Z. K.; Yunus, Arif A. M.
2017-04-01
This paper presents an effective approximate solution of high order of Fredholm-Volterra integro-differential equations (FVIDEs) with boundary condition. Legendre truncated series is used as a basis functions to estimate the unknown function. Matrix operation of Legendre polynomials is used to transform FVIDEs with boundary conditions into matrix equation of Fredholm-Volterra type. Gauss Legendre quadrature formula and collocation method are applied to transfer the matrix equation into system of linear algebraic equations. The latter equation is solved by Gauss elimination method. The accuracy and validity of this method are discussed by solving two numerical examples and comparisons with wavelet and methods.
A high-order solver for aerodynamic flow simulations and comparison of different numerical schemes
Mikhaylov, Sergey; Morozov, Alexander; Podaruev, Vladimir; Troshin, Alexey
2017-11-01
An implementation of high order of accuracy Discontinuous Galerkin method is presented. Reconstruction is done for the conservative variables. Gradients are calculated using the BR2 method. Coordinate transformations are done by serendipity elements. In computations with schemes of order higher than 2, curvature of the mesh lines is taken into account. A comparison with finite volume methods is performed, including WENO method with linear weights and single quadrature point on a cell side. The results of the following classical tests are presented: subsonic flow around a circular cylinder in an ideal gas, convection of two-dimensional isentropic vortex, and decay of the Taylor-Green vortex.
Orbiting binary black hole evolutions with a multipatch high order finite-difference approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazos, Enrique; Tiglio, Manuel; Duez, Matthew D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2009-01-01
We present numerical simulations of orbiting black holes for around 12 cycles, using a high order multipatch approach. Unlike some other approaches, the computational speed scales almost perfectly for thousands of processors. Multipatch methods are an alternative to adaptive mesh refinement, with benefits of simplicity and better scaling for improving the resolution in the wave zone. The results presented here pave the way for multipatch evolutions of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries, where high resolution grids are needed to resolve details of the matter flow.
Application of organic compounds for high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses
Ganeev, R. A.
2016-02-01
The studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of a few organic compounds (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene, sugar, coffee, and leaf) are reported. Harmonic generation in the laser-produced plasmas containing the molecules and large particles of above materials is demonstrated. These studies showed that the harmonic distributions and harmonic cutoffs from organic compound plasmas were similar to those from the graphite ablation. The characteristic feature of observed harmonic spectra was the presence of bluesided lobes near the lower-order harmonics.
Guiding of low-energy electrons by highly ordered Al2 O3 nanocapillaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milosavljević, A.R.; Víkor, G.; Pešić, Z.D.
2007-01-01
We report an experimental study of guided transmission of low-energy (200-350 eV) electrons through highly ordered Al2 O3 nanocapillaries with large aspect ratio (140 nm diameter and 15 μm length). The nanochannel array was prepared using self-ordering phenomena during a two-step anodization...... process of a high-purity aluminum foil. The experimental results clearly show the existence of the guiding effect, as found for highly charged ions. The guiding of the electron beam was observed for tilt angles up to 12°. As seen for highly charged ions, the guiding efficiency increases with decreasing...
HIERtalker: A default hierarchy of high order neural networks that learns to read English aloud
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
An, Z.G.; Mniszewski, S.M.; Lee, Y.C.; Papcun, G.; Doolen, G.D.
1988-01-01
A new learning algorithm based on a default hierarchy of high order neural networks has been developed that is able to generalize as well as handle exceptions. It learns the ''building blocks'' or clusters of symbols in a stream that appear repeatedly and convey certain messages. The default hierarchy prevents a combinatoric explosion of rules. A simulator of such a hierarchy, HIERtalker, has been applied to the conversion of English words to phonemes. Achieved accuracy is 99% for trained words and ranges from 76% to 96% for sets of new words. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
FEA identification of high order generalized equivalent circuits for MF high voltage transformers
Candolfi, Sylvain; Cros, Jérôme; Aguglia, Davide
2015-01-01
This paper presents a specific methodology to derive high order generalized equivalent circuits from electromagnetic finite element analysis for high voltage medium frequency and pulse transformers by splitting the main windings in an arbitrary number of elementary windings. With this modeling approach, the dynamic model of the transformer over a large bandwidth is improved and the order of the generalized equivalent circuit can be adapted to a specified bandwidth. This efficient tool can be used by the designer to quantify the influence of the local structure of transformers on their dynamic behavior. The influence of different topologies and winding configurations is investigated. Several application examples and an experimental validation are also presented.
Orbital angular momentum of a high-order Bessel light beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volke-Sepulveda, K; Garces-Chavez, V; Chavez-Cerda, S; Arlt, J; Dholakia, K
2002-01-01
The orbital angular momentum density of Bessel beams is calculated explicitly within a rigorous vectorial treatment. This allows us to investigate some aspects that have not been analysed previously, such as the angular momentum content of azimuthally and radially polarized beams. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally the mechanical transfer of orbital angular momentum to trapped particles in optical tweezers using a high-order Bessel beam. We set transparent particles of known dimensions into rotation, where the sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the sign of the singularity. Quantitative results are obtained for rotation rates. This paper's animations are available from the Multimedia Enhancements page
High-order FDTD methods for transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive inhomogeneous media.
Zhao, Shan
2011-08-15
This Letter introduces a novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation for solving transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive media. Based on the auxiliary differential equation approach, the Debye dispersion model is coupled with Maxwell's equations to derive a supplementary ordinary differential equation for describing the regularity changes in electromagnetic fields at the dispersive interface. The resulting time-dependent jump conditions are rigorously enforced in the FDTD discretization by means of the matched interface and boundary scheme. High-order convergences are numerically achieved for the first time in the literature in the FDTD simulations of dispersive inhomogeneous media. © 2011 Optical Society of America
High Order Finite Element Method for the Lambda modes problem on hexagonal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Pintor, S.; Ginestar, D.; Verdu, G.
2009-01-01
A High Order Finite Element Method to approximate the Lambda modes problem for reactors with hexagonal geometry has been developed. This method is based on the expansion of the neutron flux in terms of the modified Dubiner's polynomials on a triangular mesh. This mesh is fixed and the accuracy of the method is improved increasing the degree of the polynomial expansions without the necessity of remeshing. The performance of method has been tested obtaining the dominant Lambda modes of different 2D reactor benchmark problems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm
ring dynamics is presented based on the alignment of the vorticity vector with the principal axis of the strain rate tensor.A novel iterative implementation of the Brinkman penalisation method is introduced for the enforcement of a fluid-solid interface in re-meshed vortex methods. The iterative scheme...... is included to explicitly fulfil the kinematic constraints of the flow field. The high order, unbounded particle-mesh based vortex method is used to simulate the instability, transition to turbulence and eventual destruction of a single vortex ring. From the simulation data, a novel analysis on the vortex...
Fabrication of Highly Ordered Anodic Aluminium Oxide Templates on Silicon Substrates
2007-01-01
followed by the first anodisation step at 40 V in a 0.3 M oxalic acid at 10 8C for several hours. After chemically removing the anodised Al in the...M phosphoric acid or by dry-etching using chlorine-based gases. For a second method of forming a highly ordered nano- pore array in a thin Al film on...together, e apply a wet-etching process, using a mixture of 6% 3PO4 and 1.8% CrO3 with dispersant of polymethacrylic cid or Gum Arabic, which we developed
High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2010-01-01
In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid for f...... from an undular sea bed; (8) Run-up of non-breaking solitary waves on a beach; and (9) Tsunami generation from submerged landslides....
Temporally coherent x-ray laser with the high order harmonic light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Maki; Sukegawa, Kouta; Tanaka, Momoko; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawazome, Hayato; Nagashima, Keisuke
2005-01-01
We obtained the neon-like manganese x-ray laser with the injection of the high order harmonic light as the seed x-ray at the wavelength of 26.9 nm for the purpose of generation of the temporally coherent x-ray laser. The x-ray amplifier, which has quite narrow spectral width, selected and amplified the temporally coherent mode of the harmonic light. The temporal coherence of the mode selected harmonic light was nearly transform limited pulse, and the obtained x-ray laser with the seed x-ray expected to be nearly temporally coherent x-ray. (author)
Computation of nonlinear water waves with a high-order Boussinesq model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry
2005-01-01
Computational highlights from a recently developed high-order Boussinesq model are shown. The model is capable of treating fully nonlinear waves (up to the breaking point) out to dimensionless depths of (wavenumber times depth) kh \\approx 25. Cases considered include the study of short......-crested waves in shallow/deep water, resulting in hexagonal/rectangular surface patterns; crescent waves, resulting from unstable perturbations of plane progressive waves; and highly-nonlinear wave-structure interactions. The emphasis is on physically demanding problems, and in eachcase qualitative and (when...
Finite-time output feedback stabilization of high-order uncertain nonlinear systems
Jiang, Meng-Meng; Xie, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Kemei
2018-06-01
This paper studies the problem of finite-time output feedback stabilization for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with the unknown output function and control coefficients. Under the weaker assumption that output function is only continuous, by using homogeneous domination method together with adding a power integrator method, introducing a new analysis method, the maximal open sector Ω of output function is given. As long as output function belongs to any closed sector included in Ω, an output feedback controller can be developed to guarantee global finite-time stability of the closed-loop system.
Tunneling-induced shift of the cutoff law for high-order above-threshold ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, X. Y.; Quan, W.; Liu, X.
2011-01-01
We investigate the cutoff law for high-order above-threshold ionization (HATI) within a semiclassical framework. By explicitly adopting the tunneling effect and considering the initial position shift of the tunneled electron from the origin in the model, the cutoff energy position in HATI spectrum exhibits a well-defined upshift from the simple-man model prediction. The comparison between numerical results from our improved semiclassical model and the quantum-orbit theory shows a good agreement for small values of the Keldysh parameter γ, implying the important role of the inherent quantum tunneling effect in HATI dynamics.
Enhancement of high-order harmonics in a plasma waveguide formed in clustered Ar gas.
Geng, Xiaotao; Zhong, Shiyang; Chen, Guanglong; Ling, Weijun; He, Xinkui; Wei, Zhiyi; Kim, Dong Eon
2018-02-05
Generation of high-order harmonics (HHs) is intensified by using a plasma waveguide created by a laser in a clustered gas jet. The formation of a plasma waveguide and the guiding of a laser beam are also demonstrated. Compared to the case without a waveguide, harmonics were strengthened up to nine times, and blue-shifted. Numerical simulation by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in strong field approximation agreed well with experimental results. This result reveals that the strengthening is the result of improved phase matching and that the blue shift is a result of change in fundamental laser frequency due to self-phase modulation (SPM).
Propagation effects in the generation process of high-order vortex harmonics.
Zhang, Chaojin; Wu, Erheng; Gu, Mingliang; Liu, Chengpu
2017-09-04
We numerically study the propagation of a Laguerre-Gaussian beam through polar molecular media via the exact solution of full-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations where the rotating-wave and slowly-varying-envelope approximations are not included. It is found that beyond the coexistence of odd-order and even-order vortex harmonics due to inversion asymmetry of the system, the light propagation effect results in the intensity enhancement of a high-order vortex harmonics. Moreover, the orbital momentum successfully transfers from the fundamental laser driver to the vortex harmonics which topological charger number is directly proportional to its order.
Application of the Arbitrarily High Order Method to Coupled Electron Photon Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duo, Jose Ignacio
2004-01-01
This work is about the application of the Arbitrary High Order Nodal Method to coupled electron photon transport.A Discrete Ordinates code was enhanced and validated which permited to evaluate the advantages of using variable spatial development order per particle.The results obtained using variable spatial development and adaptive mesh refinement following an a posteriori error estimator are encouraging.Photon spectra for clinical accelerator target and, dose and charge depositio profiles are simulated in one-dimensional problems using cross section generated with CEPXS code.Our results are in good agreement with ONELD and MCNP codes
Mitri, F G; Fellah, Z E A
2011-08-01
The present investigation examines the instantaneous force resulting from the interaction of an acoustical high-order Bessel vortex beam (HOBVB) with a rigid sphere. The rigid sphere case is important in fluid dynamics applications because it perfectly simulates the interaction of instantaneous sound waves in a reduced gravity environment with a levitated spherical liquid soft drop in air. Here, a closed-form solution for the instantaneous force involving the total pressure field as well as the Bessel beam parameters is obtained for the case of progressive, stationary and quasi-stationary waves. Instantaneous force examples for progressive waves are computed for both a fixed and a movable rigid sphere. The results show how the instantaneous force per unit cross-sectional surface and unit pressure varies versus the dimensionless frequency ka (k is the wave number in the fluid medium and a is the sphere's radius), the half-cone angle β and the order m of the HOBVB. It is demonstrated here that the instantaneous force is determined only for (m,n) = (0,1) (where n is the partial-wave number), and vanishes for m>0 because of symmetry. In addition, the instantaneous force and normalized amplitude velocity results are computed and compared with those of a rigid immovable (fixed) sphere. It is shown that they differ significantly for ka values below 5. The proposed analysis may be of interest in the analysis of instantaneous forces on spherical particles for particle manipulation, filtering, trapping and drug delivery. The presented solutions may also serve as a method for comparison to other solutions obtained by strictly numerical or asymptotic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fast bilateral filtering of CT-images
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steckmann, Sven; Baer, Matthias; Kachelriess, Marc [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics (IMP)
2011-07-01
The Bilateral filter is able to get a lower noise level while retaining the edges in images. The downside of a bilateral filter is the high order of the problem itself. While having a Volume size of N with a dimension of d and a filter window of r the problem is of size N{sup d} . r{sup d}. In the literature there are some proposals for speeding up by reducing this order by approximating a component of the filter. This leads to inaccurate results which often implies non acceptable artifacts for medical imaging. A better way for medical imaging is to speed up the filter itself while leaving the basic structure intact. This is the way our implementation uses. We solve the problem of calculating the function of e{sup -x} in an efficient way on modern architectures, and the problem of vectorizing the filtering process. As result we implemented a filter which is 2.5 times faster than the highly optimized basic approach. By comparing the basic analytical approach with the final algorithm, the differences in quality of the computing process is negligible to the human eye. We are able to process a volume with 512{sup 3} voxels with a filter of 25 x 25 x 1 in 21 s on a modern Intel Xeon platform with two X5590 processors running at 3.33 GHz. (orig.)
Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Song, Jinlin; Xu, Xiao; Xu, Anxiu; Wang, Mengke; Xie, Bingwu; Huang, Enyi; Deng, Feng; Wei, Shicheng
2015-01-01
The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA) was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than cells on randomly oriented nanofibers. Furthermore, the aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides could direct osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells even in the absence of osteoinducting factors, suggesting superior osteogenic efficacy of biomimetic design that combines the advantages of osteoinductive peptide signal and highly ordered nanofibers on cell fate decision. The presented peptide-decorated bone-mimic nanofiber scaffolds hold a promising potential in the context of bone tissue engineering.
Shah, Syed Awais Wahab
2017-11-24
This paper addresses the problem of blind demixing of instantaneous mixtures in a multiple-input multiple-output communication system. The main objective is to present efficient blind source separation (BSS) algorithms dedicated to moderate or high-order QAM constellations. Four new iterative batch BSS algorithms are presented dealing with the multimodulus (MM) and alphabet matched (AM) criteria. For the optimization of these cost functions, iterative methods of Givens and hyperbolic rotations are used. A pre-whitening operation is also utilized to reduce the complexity of design problem. It is noticed that the designed algorithms using Givens rotations gives satisfactory performance only for large number of samples. However, for small number of samples, the algorithms designed by combining both Givens and hyperbolic rotations compensate for the ill-whitening that occurs in this case and thus improves the performance. Two algorithms dealing with the MM criterion are presented for moderate order QAM signals such as 16-QAM. The other two dealing with the AM criterion are presented for high-order QAM signals. These methods are finally compared with the state of art batch BSS algorithms in terms of signal-to-interference and noise ratio, symbol error rate and convergence rate. Simulation results show that the proposed methods outperform the contemporary batch BSS algorithms.
Electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols on single gold particles in highly ordered SiO2 cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Na; Zhou, Qun; Tian, Shu; Zhao, Hong; Li, Xiaowei; Adkins, Jason; Gu, Zhuomin; Zhao, Lili; Zheng, Junwei
2013-01-01
In the present work, we report a new and simple approach for preparing a highly ordered Au (1 1 1) nanoparticle (NP) array in SiO 2 cavities on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. We fabricated a SiO 2 cavity array on the surface of an ITO electrode using highly ordered self-assembly of polystyrene spheres as a template. Gold NPs were electrodeposited at the bottom of the SiO 2 cavities, and single gold NPs dominated with (1 1 1) facets were generated in each cavity by annealing the electrode at a high temperature. Such (1 1 1) facets were the predominate trait of the single gold particle which exhibited considerable electrocatalytic activity toward oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and glycerol. This has been attributed to the formation of incipient hydrous oxides at unusually low potential on the specific (1 1 1) facet of the gold particles. Moreover, each cavity of the SiO 2 possibly behaves as an independent electrochemical cell in which the methanol molecules are trapped; this produces an environment advantageous to catalyzing electrooxidation. The oxidation of methanol on the electrodes is a mixed control mechanism (both by diffusion and electrode kinetics). This strategy both provided an approach to study electrochemical reactions on a single particle in a microenvironment and may supply a way to construct alcohols sensors
Moosavifard, Seyyed E; El-Kady, Maher F; Rahmanifar, Mohammad S; Kaner, Richard B; Mousavi, Mir F
2015-03-04
The increasing demand for energy has triggered tremendous research efforts for the development of lightweight and durable energy storage devices. Herein, we report a simple, yet effective, strategy for high-performance supercapacitors by building three-dimensional pseudocapacitive CuO frameworks with highly ordered and interconnected bimodal nanopores, nanosized walls (∼4 nm) and large specific surface area of 149 m(2) g(-1). This interesting electrode structure plays a key role in providing facilitated ion transport, short ion and electron diffusion pathways and more active sites for electrochemical reactions. This electrode demonstrates excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 431 F g(-1) (1.51 F cm(-2)) at 3.5 mA cm(-2) and retains over 70% of this capacitance when operated at an ultrafast rate of 70 mA cm(-2). When this highly ordered CuO electrode is assembled in an asymmetric cell with an activated carbon electrode, the as-fabricated device demonstrates remarkable performance with an energy density of 19.7 W h kg(-1), power density of 7 kW kg(-1), and excellent cycle life. This work presents a new platform for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors for the next generation of portable electronics and electric vehicles.
Electrochemical synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole on copper modified aluminium substrates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddaramanna, Ashoka; Saleema, N.; Sarkar, D.K.
2014-01-01
Fabrication of highly ordered conducting polymers on metal surfaces has received a significant interest owing to their potential applications in organic electronic devices. In this context, we have developed a simple method for the synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole (PPy) on copper modified aluminium surfaces via electrochemical polymerization process. A series of characteristic peaks of PPy evidenced on the infrared spectra of these surfaces confirm the formation of PPy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of PPy deposited on copper modified aluminium surfaces also confirmed the deposition of PPy as a sharp and intense peak at 2θ angle of 23° attributable to PPy is observed while this peak is absent on PPy deposited on as-received aluminium surfaces. An atomic model of the interface of PPy/Cu has been presented based on the inter-atomic distance of copper–copper of (1 0 0) plane and the inter-monomer distance of PPy, to describe the ordering of PPy on Cu modified Al surfaces.
Effective high-order solver with thermally perfect gas model for hypersonic heating prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Zhenhua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian; Qu, Feng; Ma, Libin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Design proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. • Line-implicit LUSGS enhances efficiency without extra memory consumption. • Develop unified framework for both second-order MUSCL and fifth-order WENO. • The designed gas model can be applied to much wider temperature range. - Abstract: Effective high-order solver based on the model of thermally perfect gas has been developed for hypersonic heat transfer computation. The technique of polynomial curve fit coupling to thermodynamics equation is suggested to establish the current model and particular attention has been paid to the design of proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. We present procedures that unify five-order WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) scheme in the existing second-order finite volume framework and a line-implicit method that improves the computational efficiency without increasing memory consumption. A variety of hypersonic viscous flows are performed to examine the capability of the resulted high order thermally perfect gas solver. Numerical results demonstrate its superior performance compared to low-order calorically perfect gas method and indicate its potential application to hypersonic heating predictions for real-life problem.
Reliability-based design optimization via high order response surface method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Hong Shuang
2013-01-01
To reduce the computational effort of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the response surface method (RSM) has been widely used to evaluate reliability constraints. We propose an efficient methodology for solving RBDO problems based on an improved high order response surface method (HORSM) that takes advantage of an efficient sampling method, Hermite polynomials and uncertainty contribution concept to construct a high order response surface function with cross terms for reliability analysis. The sampling method generates supporting points from Gauss-Hermite quadrature points, which can be used to approximate response surface function without cross terms, to identify the highest order of each random variable and to determine the significant variables connected with point estimate method. The cross terms between two significant random variables are added to the response surface function to improve the approximation accuracy. Integrating the nested strategy, the improved HORSM is explored in solving RBDO problems. Additionally, a sampling based reliability sensitivity analysis method is employed to reduce the computational effort further when design variables are distributional parameters of input random variables. The proposed methodology is applied on two test problems to validate its accuracy and efficiency. The proposed methodology is more efficient than first order reliability method based RBDO and Monte Carlo simulation based RBDO, and enables the use of RBDO as a practical design tool.
Shah, Syed Awais Wahab; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2017-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of blind demixing of instantaneous mixtures in a multiple-input multiple-output communication system. The main objective is to present efficient blind source separation (BSS) algorithms dedicated to moderate or high-order QAM constellations. Four new iterative batch BSS algorithms are presented dealing with the multimodulus (MM) and alphabet matched (AM) criteria. For the optimization of these cost functions, iterative methods of Givens and hyperbolic rotations are used. A pre-whitening operation is also utilized to reduce the complexity of design problem. It is noticed that the designed algorithms using Givens rotations gives satisfactory performance only for large number of samples. However, for small number of samples, the algorithms designed by combining both Givens and hyperbolic rotations compensate for the ill-whitening that occurs in this case and thus improves the performance. Two algorithms dealing with the MM criterion are presented for moderate order QAM signals such as 16-QAM. The other two dealing with the AM criterion are presented for high-order QAM signals. These methods are finally compared with the state of art batch BSS algorithms in terms of signal-to-interference and noise ratio, symbol error rate and convergence rate. Simulation results show that the proposed methods outperform the contemporary batch BSS algorithms.
An Automated Approach to Very High Order Aeroacoustic Computations in Complex Geometries
Dyson, Rodger W.; Goodrich, John W.
2000-01-01
Computational aeroacoustics requires efficient, high-resolution simulation tools. And for smooth problems, this is best accomplished with very high order in space and time methods on small stencils. But the complexity of highly accurate numerical methods can inhibit their practical application, especially in irregular geometries. This complexity is reduced by using a special form of Hermite divided-difference spatial interpolation on Cartesian grids, and a Cauchy-Kowalewslci recursion procedure for time advancement. In addition, a stencil constraint tree reduces the complexity of interpolating grid points that are located near wall boundaries. These procedures are used to automatically develop and implement very high order methods (>15) for solving the linearized Euler equations that can achieve less than one grid point per wavelength resolution away from boundaries by including spatial derivatives of the primitive variables at each grid point. The accuracy of stable surface treatments is currently limited to 11th order for grid aligned boundaries and to 2nd order for irregular boundaries.
High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.
2009-01-01
We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of ''Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions''(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.
High-order harmonic generation in a laser plasma: a review of recent achievements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganeev, R A
2007-01-01
A review of studies of high-order harmonic generation in plasma plumes is presented. The generation of high-order harmonics (up to the 101st order, λ = 7.9 nm) of Ti:sapphire laser radiation during the propagation of short laser pulses through a low-excited, low-ionized plasma produced on the surfaces of different targets is analysed. The observation of considerable resonance-induced enhancement of a single harmonic (λ = 61.2 nm) at the plateau region with 10 -4 conversion efficiency in the case of an In plume can offer some expectations that analogous processes can be realized in other plasma samples in the shorter wavelength range. Recent achievements of single-harmonic enhancement at mid- and end-plateau regions are discussed. Various methods for the optimization of harmonic generation are analysed, such as the application of the second harmonic of driving radiation and the application of prepulses of different durations. The enhancement of harmonic generation efficiency during the propagation of femtosecond pulses through a nanoparticle-containing plasma is discussed. (topical review)
High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration
Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M.
2016-07-01
In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations.
A study and simulation of the impact of high-order aberrations to overlay error distribution
Sun, G.; Wang, F.; Zhou, C.
2011-03-01
With reduction of design rules, a number of corresponding new technologies, such as i-HOPC, HOWA and DBO have been proposed and applied to eliminate overlay error. When these technologies are in use, any high-order error distribution needs to be clearly distinguished in order to remove the underlying causes. Lens aberrations are normally thought to mainly impact the Matching Machine Overlay (MMO). However, when using Image-Based overlay (IBO) measurement tools, aberrations become the dominant influence on single machine overlay (SMO) and even on stage repeatability performance. In this paper, several measurements of the error distributions of the lens of SMEE SSB600/10 prototype exposure tool are presented. Models that characterize the primary influence from lens magnification, high order distortion, coma aberration and telecentricity are shown. The contribution to stage repeatability (as measured with IBO tools) from the above errors was predicted with simulator and compared to experiments. Finally, the drift of every lens distortion that impact to SMO over several days was monitored and matched with the result of measurements.
High-order-harmonic generation from H2+ molecular ions near plasmon-enhanced laser fields
Yavuz, I.; Tikman, Y.; Altun, Z.
2015-08-01
Simulations of plasmon-enhanced high-order-harmonic generation are performed for a H2+ molecular cation near the metallic nanostructures. We employ the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in reduced coordinates. We assume that the main axis of H2+ is aligned perfectly with the polarization direction of the plasmon-enhanced field. We perform systematic calculations on plasmon-enhanced harmonic generation based on an infinite-mass approximation, i.e., pausing nuclear vibrations. Our simulations show that molecular high-order-harmonic generation from plasmon-enhanced laser fields is possible. We observe the dispersion of a plateau of harmonics when the laser field is plasmon enhanced. We find that the maximum kinetic energy of the returning electron follows 4 Up . We also find that when nuclear vibrations are enabled, the efficiency of the harmonics is greatly enhanced relative to that of static nuclei. However, the maximum kinetic energy 4 Up is largely maintained.
Cummings, Brian J.; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Anderson, Aileen J.
2007-01-01
Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing. PMID:17197044
Cummings, Brian J; Engesser-Cesar, Christie; Cadena, Gilbert; Anderson, Aileen J
2007-02-27
Locomotor impairments after spinal cord injury (SCI) are often assessed using open-field rating scales. These tasks have the advantage of spanning the range from complete paralysis to normal walking; however, they lack sensitivity at specific levels of recovery. Additionally, most supplemental assessments were developed in rats, not mice. For example, the horizontal ladder beam has been used to measure recovery in the rat after SCI. This parametric task results in a videotaped archival record of the event, is easily administered, and is unambiguously scored. Although a ladder beam apparatus for mice is available, its use in the assessment of recovery in SCI mice is rare, possibly because normative data for uninjured mice and the type of step misplacements injured mice exhibit is lacking. We report the development of a modified ladder beam instrument and scoring system to measure hindlimb recovery in vertebral T9 contusion spinal cord injured mice. The mouse ladder beam allows for the use of standard parametric statistical tests to assess locomotor recovery. Ladder beam performance is consistent across four strains of mice, there are no sex differences, and inter-rater reliability between observers is high. The ladder beam score is proportional to injury severity and can be used to easily separate mice capable of weight-supported stance up to mice with consistent forelimb to hindlimb coordination. Critically, horizontal ladder beam testing discriminates between mice that score identically in terms of stepping frequency in open-field testing.
Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones
Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina
Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high-order
A high-order Petrov-Galerkin method for the Boltzmann transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pain, C.C.; Candy, A.S.; Piggott, M.D.; Buchan, A.; Eaton, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de
2005-01-01
We describe a new Petrov-Galerkin method using high-order terms to introduce dissipation in a residual-free formulation. The method is developed following both a Taylor series analysis and a variational principle, and the result has much in common with traditional Petrov-Galerkin, Self Adjoint Angular Flux (SAAF) and Even Parity forms of the Boltzmann transport equation. In addition, we consider the subtleties in constructing appropriate boundary conditions. In sub-grid scale (SGS) modelling of fluids the advantages of high-order dissipation are well known. Fourth-order terms, for example, are commonly used as a turbulence model with uniform dissipation. They have been shown to have superior properties to SGS models based upon second-order dissipation or viscosity. Even higher-order forms of dissipation (e.g. 16.-order) can offer further advantages, but are only easily realised by spectral methods because of the solution continuity requirements that these higher-order operators demand. Higher-order operators are more effective, bringing a higher degree of representation to the solution locally. Second-order operators, for example, tend to relax the solution to a linear variation locally, whereas a high-order operator will tend to relax the solution to a second-order polynomial locally. The form of the dissipation is also important. For example, the dissipation may only be applied (as it is in this work) in the streamline direction. While for many problems, for example Large Eddy Simulation (LES), simply adding a second or fourth-order dissipation term is a perfectly satisfactory SGS model, it is well known that a consistent residual-free formulation is required for radiation transport problems. This motivated the consideration of a new Petrov-Galerkin method that is residual-free, but also benefits from the advantageous features that SGS modelling introduces. We close with a demonstration of the advantages of this new discretization method over standard Petrov
Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.
2006-01-01
We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... functions of arbitrary order in space on each element of an unstructured computational domain. A fourth order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used to advance the solution in time. Methods for introducing artificial damping to control mild nonlinear instabilities are also discussed. The accuracy...... and convergence of the model with both h (grid size) and p (order) refinement are verified for the linearized equations, and calculations are provided for two nonlinear test cases in one horizontal dimension: harmonic generation over a submerged bar; and reflection of a steep solitary wave from a vertical wall...
High-Order Finite-Difference Solution of the Poisson Equation with Interface Jump Conditions II
Marques, Alexandre; Nave, Jean-Christophe; Rosales, Rodolfo
2010-11-01
The Poisson equation with jump discontinuities across an interface is of central importance in Computational Fluid Dynamics. In prior work, Marques, Nave, and Rosales have introduced a method to obtain fourth-order accurate solutions for the constant coefficient Poisson problem. Here we present an extension of this method to solve the variable coefficient Poisson problem to fourth-order of accuracy. The extended method is based on local smooth extrapolations of the solution field across the interface. The extrapolation procedure uses a combination of cubic Hermite interpolants and a high-order representation of the interface using the Gradient-Augmented Level-Set technique. This procedure is compatible with the use of standard discretizations for the Laplace operator, and leads to modified linear systems which have the same sparsity pattern as the standard discretizations. As a result, standard Poisson solvers can be used with only minimal modifications. Details of the method and applications will be presented.
A fast, high-order solver for the Grad–Shafranov equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pataki, Andras; Cerfon, Antoine J.; Freidberg, Jeffrey P.; Greengard, Leslie; O’Neil, Michael
2013-01-01
We present a new fast solver to calculate fixed-boundary plasma equilibria in toroidally axisymmetric geometries. By combining conformal mapping with Fourier and integral equation methods on the unit disk, we show that high-order accuracy can be achieved for the solution of the equilibrium equation and its first and second derivatives. Smooth arbitrary plasma cross-sections as well as arbitrary pressure and poloidal current profiles are used as initial data for the solver. Equilibria with large Shafranov shifts can be computed without difficulty. Spectral convergence is demonstrated by comparing the numerical solution with a known exact analytic solution. A fusion-relevant example of an equilibrium with a pressure pedestal is also presented
High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input
Belkhatir, Zehor
2017-05-20
In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.
Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation
Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Farkas, Gyozo; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin
2011-08-01
High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.
Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin
2011-01-01
High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.
Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balogh, Emeric [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kovacs, Katalin [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Pecs, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Tosa, Valer [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varju, Katalin [HAS Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)
2011-08-15
High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.
High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naymeh, L.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.
2013-01-01
The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)
Yan, Jie-Yun
2017-08-01
The theory of excitonic high-order sideband generation (HSG) in a semiconductor quantum well irradiated by two orthogonal terahertz (THz) fields (one frequency is an integral multiple of the other) is presented. The exact analytical solution to the sideband spectrum is given with the help of the generalized Bessel functions. As a special case, the HSG when the frequencies of these two THz fields are the same is derived and its dependence on the ellipticity of the THz field is discussed. The theory could explain the experiments, especially concerning the sensitive dependence of HSG signals on the ellipticity of the THz field: the signals are strong when the THz field has a linear polarization and totally vanish in case of a circular polarization. More interestingly, it was found that the strongest signal is not produced in the case of linear polarization for some sidebands. The theory is supported by numerical calculations.
Development of highly-ordered, ferroelectric inverse opal films using sol gel infiltration
Matsuura, N.; Yang, S.; Sun, P.; Ruda, H. E.
2005-07-01
Highly-ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, inverse opal films were fabricated by spin-coating a sol gel precursor into a polystyrene artificial opal template followed by heat treatment. Thin films of the ferroelectric were independently studied and were shown to exhibit good dielectric properties and high refractive indices. The excellent quality of the final inverse opal film using this spin-coating infiltration method was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images and the good correspondence between optical reflection data and theoretical simulations. Using this method, the structural and material parameters of the final ferroelectric inverse opal film were easily adjusted by template heating and through repeated infiltrations, without changes in the initial template or precursor. Also, crack-free inverse opal thin films were fabricated over areas comparable to that of the initial crack-free polystyrene template (˜100 by 100 μm2).
High-order Composite Likelihood Inference for Max-Stable Distributions and Processes
Castruccio, Stefano; Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.
2015-01-01
In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of locations is a very challenging problem in computational statistics, and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely-used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.
Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization
Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng
2016-07-01
Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.
Solution of stochastic nonlinear PDEs using Wiener-Hermite expansion of high orders
El Beltagy, Mohamed
2016-01-06
In this work, the Wiener-Hermite Expansion (WHE) is used to solve stochastic nonlinear PDEs excited with noise. The generation of the equivalent set of deterministic integro-differential equations is automated and hence allows for high order terms of WHE. The automation difficulties are discussed, solved and implemented to output the final system to be solved. A numerical Pikard-like algorithm is suggested to solve the resulting deterministic system. The automated WHE is applied to the 1D diffusion equation and to the heat equation. The results are compared with previous solutions obtained with WHEP (WHE with perturbation) technique. The solution obtained using the suggested WHE technique is shown to be the limit of the WHEP solutions with infinite number of corrections. The automation is extended easily to account for white-noise of higher dimension and for general nonlinear PDEs.
High-order Composite Likelihood Inference for Max-Stable Distributions and Processes
Castruccio, Stefano
2015-09-29
In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of locations is a very challenging problem in computational statistics, and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely-used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.
Solution of stochastic nonlinear PDEs using Wiener-Hermite expansion of high orders
El Beltagy, Mohamed
2016-01-01
In this work, the Wiener-Hermite Expansion (WHE) is used to solve stochastic nonlinear PDEs excited with noise. The generation of the equivalent set of deterministic integro-differential equations is automated and hence allows for high order terms of WHE. The automation difficulties are discussed, solved and implemented to output the final system to be solved. A numerical Pikard-like algorithm is suggested to solve the resulting deterministic system. The automated WHE is applied to the 1D diffusion equation and to the heat equation. The results are compared with previous solutions obtained with WHEP (WHE with perturbation) technique. The solution obtained using the suggested WHE technique is shown to be the limit of the WHEP solutions with infinite number of corrections. The automation is extended easily to account for white-noise of higher dimension and for general nonlinear PDEs.
High-order sliding mode observer for fractional commensurate linear systems with unknown input
Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2017-01-01
In this paper, a high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) is proposed for the joint estimation of the pseudo-state and the unknown input of fractional commensurate linear systems with single unknown input and a single output. The convergence of the proposed observer is proved using a Lyapunov-based approach. In addition, an enhanced variant of the proposed fractional-HOSMO is introduced to avoid the peaking phenomenon and thus to improve the estimation results in the transient phase. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed fractional observer in both noise-free and noisy cases. The effect of the observer’s gains on the estimated pseudo-state and unknown input is also discussed.
Wang, Guoxiu; Liu, Hao; Horvat, Josip; Wang, Bei; Qiao, Shizhang; Park, Jinsoo; Ahn, Hyojun
2010-09-24
Highly ordered mesoporous Co(3)O(4) nanostructures were prepared using KIT-6 and SBA-15 silica as hard templates. The structures were confirmed by small angle X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. Both KIT-6 cubic and SBA-15 hexagonal mesoporous Co(3)O(4) samples exhibited a low Néel temperature and bulk antiferromagnetic coupling due to geometric confinement of antiferromagnetic order within the nanoparticles. Mesoporous Co(3)O(4) electrode materials have demonstrated the high lithium storage capacity of more than 1200 mAh g(-1) with an excellent cycle life. They also exhibited a high specific capacitance of 370 F g(-1) as electrodes in supercapacitors.
Fabrication of highly ordered nanoporous alumina films by stable high-field anodization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yanbo; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li; Shen Wenzhong
2006-01-01
Stable high-field anodization (1500-4000 A m -2 ) for the fabrication of highly ordered porous anodic alumina films has been realized in a H 3 PO 4 -H 2 O-C 2 H 5 OH system. By maintaining the self-ordering voltage and adjusting the anodizing current density, high-quality self-ordered alumina films with a controllable inter-pore distance over a large range are achieved. The high anodizing current densities lead to high-speed film growth (4-10 μm min -1 ). The inter-pore distance is not solely dependent on the anodizing voltage, but is also influenced by the anodizing current density. This approach is simple and cost-effective, and is of great value for applications in diverse areas of nanotechnology
Synthesis of highly ordered nanopores on alumina by two-step anodization process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bwana, Nicholas N. [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering Science (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Nicholas.Bwana@eng.ox.ac.uk
2008-02-15
Highly ordered anodic alumina was produced, on RF sputtered aluminium on a conductive glass substrate, by two step anodizing process in 0.4 M sulphuric acid at constant cell potentials of between 5 and 25 V and at a constant current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2}. The temperature was kept constant at 15 deg. C during both anodization processes. The effects of the anodizing potential, current density, and time on the pore diameters were established. Longer anodization periods result in wider irregular pores with reduced porosity for both constant potential and constant current density anodization processes. The current density increases with increasing constant anodizing potential and generally remains constant with time after a sharp rise. Potential drop during constant current density anodization behaves in a similar manner. We confirm that sulphuric acid has a self-ordering potential of 25 V above which burning occurs.
Effects of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation of Cu electrodeposits.
Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang
2010-05-01
We investigated the effects of TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation density of Cu during electrodeposition in a solution of CuSO4 and H2SO4 at 50 degrees C compared with those of pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates. During electrodeposition, the density of Cu nuclei on the TiO2 nanotube substrate increased and the average size of Cu nuclei decreased with increasing anodizing voltage and time for the synthesis of the substrate. In addition, the nucleation density of Cu electrodeposits on the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrate was much higher than that on pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates.
Synthesis of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube in malonic acid solution by anodization.
Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang
2008-10-01
We synthesized TiO2 nanotube array by anodizing in a solution of malonic acid (HOOCCH2COOH) and NH4F, and analyzed the morphology of the nanotube using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of TiO2 nanotube was largely affected by anodizing time, anodizing voltage, and malonic acid concentration. With increasing the anodizing voltage from 5 V to 20 V, the diameter of TiO2 nanotube was increased from about 20 nm to 110 nm and its length from about 10 nm to 700 nm. In addition, the length of TiO2 nanotube was increased with increasing anodizing time up to 6 h at 20 V. We obtained the longest and the most highly ordered nanotube structure when anodizing Ti in a solution of 0.5 wt% NH4F and 1 M malonic acid at 20 V for 6 h.
An innovative approach to synthesize highly-ordered TiO2 nanotubes.
Isimjan, Tayirjan T; Yang, D Q; Rohani, Sohrab; Ray, Ajay K
2011-02-01
An innovative route to prepare highly-ordered and dimensionally controlled TiO2 nanotubes has been proposed using a mild sonication method. The nanotube arrays were prepared by the anodization of titanium in an electrolyte containing 3% NH4F and 5% H2O in glycerol. It is demonstrated that the TiO2 nanostructures has two layers: the top layer is TiO2 nanowire and underneath is well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes. The top layer can easily fall off and form nanowires bundles by implementing a mild sonication after a short annealing time. We found that the dimensions of the TiO2 nanotubes were only dependent on the anodizing condition. The proposed technique may be extended to fabricate reproducible well-ordered TiO2 nanotubes with large area on other metals.
Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing
2014-05-01
This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Output Feedback Distributed Containment Control for High-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.
Li, Yafeng; Hua, Changchun; Wu, Shuangshuang; Guan, Xinping
2017-01-31
In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback distributed containment control for a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems under a fixed undirected graph and a fixed directed graph, respectively. Only the output signals of the systems can be measured. The novel reduced order dynamic gain observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured state variables of the system with the less conservative condition on nonlinear terms than traditional Lipschitz one. Via the backstepping method, output feedback distributed nonlinear controllers for the followers are designed. By means of the novel first virtual controllers, we separate the estimated state variables of different agents from each other. Consequently, the designed controllers show independence on the estimated state variables of neighbors except outputs information, and the dynamics of each agent can be greatly different, which make the design method have a wider class of applications. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khabiboulline, T.N.; Sukhanov, A.AUTHOR = Awida, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.AUTHOR = Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab
2012-05-01
Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.
A Modified AH-FDTD Unconditionally Stable Method Based on High-Order Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Pan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The unconditionally stable method, Associated-Hermite FDTD, has attracted more and more attentions in computational electromagnetic for its time-frequency compact property. Because of the fewer orders of AH basis needed in signal reconstruction, the computational efficiency can be improved further. In order to further improve the accuracy of the traditional AH-FDTD, a high-order algorithm is introduced. Using this method, the dispersion error induced by the space grid can be reduced, which makes it possible to set coarser grid. The simulation results show that, on the condition of coarse grid, the waveforms obtained from the proposed method are matched well with the analytic result, and the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than the traditional AH-FDTD. And the efficiency of the proposed method is higher than the traditional FDTD method in analysing 2D waveguide problems with fine-structure.
Dynamic modification of the fragmentation of COq+ excited states generated with high-order harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, W.; De, S.; Singh, K. P.; Chen, S.; Laurent, G.; Ray, D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.; Schoeffler, M. S.; Belkacem, A.; Osipov, T.; Rescigno, T.; Alnaser, A. S.; Bocharova, I. A.; Zherebtsov, S.; Kling, M. F.; Litvinyuk, I. V.
2010-01-01
The dynamic process of fragmentation of CO q+ excited states is investigated using a pump-probe approach. EUV radiation (32-48 eV) generated by high-order harmonics was used to ionize and excite CO molecules and a time-delayed infrared (IR) pulse (800 nm) was used to influence the evolution of the dissociating multichannel wave packet. Two groups of states, separable experimentally by their kinetic-energy release (KER), are populated by the EUV and lead to C + -O + fragmentation: direct double ionization of the neutral molecule and fragmentation of the cation leading to C + -O*, followed by autoionization of O*. The IR pulse was found to modify the KER of the latter group in a delay-dependent way which is explained with a model calculation.
Superconducting linac beam dynamics with high-order maps for RF resonators
Geraci, A A; Pardo, R C; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.177
2004-01-01
The arbitrary-order map beam optics code COSY Infinity has recently been adapted to calculate accurate high-order ion-optical maps for electrostatic and radio-frequency accelerating structures. The beam dynamics of the superconducting low-velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab is used to demonstrate some advantages of the new simulation capability. The injector linac involves four different types of superconducting accelerating structures and has a total of 18 resonators. The detailed geometry for each of the accelerating cavities is included, allowing an accurate representation of the on- and off-axis electric fields. The fields are obtained within the code from a Poisson-solver for cylindrically symmetric electrodes of arbitrary geometry. The transverse focusing is done with superconducting solenoids. A detailed comparison of the transverse and longitudinal phase space is made with the conventional ray-tracing code LINRAY. The two codes are evaluated for ease ...
Sjogreen, Bjoern; Yee, H. C.
2007-01-01
Flows containing steady or nearly steady strong shocks in parts of the flow field, and unsteady turbulence with shocklets on other parts of the flow field are difficult to capture accurately and efficiently employing the same numerical scheme even under the multiblock grid or adaptive grid refinement framework. On one hand, sixth-order or higher shock-capturing methods are appropriate for unsteady turbulence with shocklets. On the other hand, lower order shock-capturing methods are more effective for strong steady shocks in terms of convergence. In order to minimize the shortcomings of low order and high order shock-capturing schemes for the subject flows,a multi- block overlapping grid with different orders of accuracy on different blocks is proposed. Test cases to illustrate the performance of the new solver are included.
Probe of Multielectron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High-Order Harmonic Generation
Faccialà, D.; Pabst, S.; Bruner, B. D.; Ciriolo, A. G.; De Silvestri, S.; Devetta, M.; Negro, M.; Soifer, H.; Stagira, S.; Dudovich, N.; Vozzi, C.
2016-08-01
We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this Letter we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two-color driving field allow us to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.
Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozaki, T.
2013-01-01
The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid
LABAN-PEL: a two-dimensional, multigroup diffusion, high-order response matrix code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, E.Z.
1991-06-01
The capabilities of LABAN-PEL is described. LABAN-PEL is a modified version of the two-dimensional, high-order response matrix code, LABAN, written by Lindahl. The new version extends the capabilities of the original code with regard to the treatment of neutron migration by including an option to utilize full group-to-group diffusion coefficient matrices. In addition, the code has been converted from single to double precision and the necessary routines added to activate its multigroup capability. The coding has also been converted to standard FORTRAN-77 to enhance the portability of the code. Details regarding the input data requirements and calculational options of LABAN-PEL are provided. 13 refs
High order harmonic generation in noble gases using plasmonic field enhancement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Shaaran, Tahir; Lewenstein, Maciej
2013-01-01
Theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases driven by plasmonic field enhancement are presented. This kind of fields appears when plasmonic nanostructures are illuminated by an intense few-cycle laser and have a particular spatial dependency, depending on the geometrical shape of the nanostructure. It is demonstrated that the strong nonhomogeneous character of the laser enhanced field plays an important role in the HHG process and significantly extends the harmonic cutoff. The models are based on numerical solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) and supported by classical and semiclassical calculations. (copyright 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Castruccio, Stefano; Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.
2016-01-01
In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of points is a very challenging problem and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.
Computational Performance of a Parallelized Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Element Toolbox
Bosshard, Christoph; Bouffanais, Roland; Clémençon, Christian; Deville, Michel O.; Fiétier, Nicolas; Gruber, Ralf; Kehtari, Sohrab; Keller, Vincent; Latt, Jonas
In this paper, a comprehensive performance review of an MPI-based high-order three-dimensional spectral element method C++ toolbox is presented. The focus is put on the performance evaluation of several aspects with a particular emphasis on the parallel efficiency. The performance evaluation is analyzed with help of a time prediction model based on a parameterization of the application and the hardware resources. A tailor-made CFD computation benchmark case is introduced and used to carry out this review, stressing the particular interest for clusters with up to 8192 cores. Some problems in the parallel implementation have been detected and corrected. The theoretical complexities with respect to the number of elements, to the polynomial degree, and to communication needs are correctly reproduced. It is concluded that this type of code has a nearly perfect speed up on machines with thousands of cores, and is ready to make the step to next-generation petaflop machines.
Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation Soft X-Ray Lasers and High-Order Harmonic Generation
Jaeglé, Pierre
2006-01-01
Extreme ultraviolet radiation, also referred to as soft X-rays or XUV, offers very special optical properties. The X-UV refractive index of matter is such that normal reflection cannot take place on polished surfaces whereas beam transmission through one micrometer of almost all materials reduces to zero. Therefore, it has long been a difficult task to imagine and to implement devices designed for complex optics experiments in this wavelength range. Thanks to new sources of coherent radiation - XUV-lasers and High Order Harmonics - the use of XUV radiation, for interferometry, holography, diffractive optics, non-linear radiation-matter interaction, time-resolved study of fast and ultrafast phenomena and many other applications, including medical sciences, is ubiquitous.
Resonance Excitation of Longitudinal High Order Modes in Project X Linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonin, I.V.; Khabiboulline, T.N.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Sukhanov, A.I.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Awida, M.H.
2012-01-01
Results of simulation of power loss due to excitation of longitudinal high order modes (HOMs) in the accelerating superconducting RF system of CW linac of Project X are presented. Beam structures corresponding to the various modes of Project X operation are considered: CW regime for 3 GeV physics program; pulsed mode for neutrino experiments; and pulsed regime, when Project X linac operates as a driver for Neutrino Factory/Muon Collider. Power loss and associated heat load due to resonance excitation of longitudinal HOMs are shown to be small in all modes of operation. Conclusion is made that HOM couplers can be removed from the design of superconducting RF cavities of Project X linac.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaretsky, D F; Korneev, Ph; Becker, W
2010-01-01
Extending the Lewenstein model of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a laser-irradiated atom, a model of HHG in a cluster is formulated. The constituent atoms of the cluster are assumed to be partly ionized. An electron freed through tunnelling may recombine either with its parent ion or with another ion in the vicinity. Harmonics due to the former process are coherent within the same cluster and may be coherent between different clusters, while harmonics due to the latter process are incoherent. Depending on the density of available ions, the incoherent mechanism may dominate the total harmonic yield, and the harmonic spectrum, which extends to higher energies, has a less distinct cutoff and an enhanced low-energy part.
Selective suppression of high-order harmonics within phase-matched spectral regions.
Lerner, Gavriel; Diskin, Tzvi; Neufeld, Ofer; Kfir, Ofer; Cohen, Oren
2017-04-01
Phase matching in high-harmonic generation leads to enhancement of multiple harmonics. It is sometimes desired to control the spectral structure within the phase-matched spectral region. We propose a scheme for selective suppression of high-order harmonics within the phase-matched spectral region while weakly influencing the other harmonics. The method is based on addition of phase-mismatched segments within a phase-matched medium. We demonstrate the method numerically in two examples. First, we show that one phase-mismatched segment can significantly suppress harmonic orders 9, 15, and 21. Second, we show that two phase-mismatched segments can efficiently suppress circularly polarized harmonics with one helicity over the other when driven by a bi-circular field. The new method may be useful for various applications, including the generation of highly helical bright attosecond pulses.
Immersed boundary method combined with a high order compact scheme on half-staggered meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Księżyk, M; Tyliszczak, A
2014-01-01
This paper presents the results of computations of incompressible flows performed with a high-order compact scheme and the immersed boundary method. The solution algorithm is based on the projection method implemented using the half-staggered grid arrangement in which the velocity components are stored in the same locations while the pressure nodes are shifted half a cell size. The time discretization is performed using the predictor-corrector method in which the forcing terms used in the immersed boundary method acts in both steps. The solution algorithm is verified based on 2D flow problems (flow in a lid-driven skewed cavity, flow over a backward facing step) and turns out to be very accurate on computational meshes comparable with ones used in the classical approaches, i.e. not based on the immersed boundary method.
A CMOS Gm-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor network application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan Chuanchuan; Li Zhiqun; Hou Ningbing
2011-01-01
A G m -C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor networks is designed and implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS process. This filter is synthesized from a low-pass 5th-order Chebyshev RLC ladder filter prototype by means of capacitors and fully balanced transconductors. A conventional phase-locked loop is used to realize the on-chip automatic tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is centered at 2 MHz with a bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. The measured results show that the filter provides more than 45 dB image rejection while the ripple in the pass-band is less than 1.2 dB. The complete filter including on-chip tuning circuit consumes 4.9 mA with 1.8 V single supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
High-Order Local Pooling and Encoding Gaussians Over a Dictionary of Gaussians.
Li, Peihua; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Qilong; Shiu, Simon C K; Zhang, Lei
2017-07-01
Local pooling (LP) in configuration (feature) space proposed by Boureau et al. explicitly restricts similar features to be aggregated, which can preserve as much discriminative information as possible. At the time it appeared, this method combined with sparse coding achieved competitive classification results with only a small dictionary. However, its performance lags far behind the state-of-the-art results as only the zero-order information is exploited. Inspired by the success of high-order statistical information in existing advanced feature coding or pooling methods, we make an attempt to address the limitation of LP. To this end, we present a novel method called high-order LP (HO-LP) to leverage the information higher than the zero-order one. Our idea is intuitively simple: we compute the first- and second-order statistics per configuration bin and model them as a Gaussian. Accordingly, we employ a collection of Gaussians as visual words to represent the universal probability distribution of features from all classes. Our problem is naturally formulated as encoding Gaussians over a dictionary of Gaussians as visual words. This problem, however, is challenging since the space of Gaussians is not a Euclidean space but forms a Riemannian manifold. We address this challenge by mapping Gaussians into the Euclidean space, which enables us to perform coding with common Euclidean operations rather than complex and often expensive Riemannian operations. Our HO-LP preserves the advantages of the original LP: pooling only similar features and using a small dictionary. Meanwhile, it achieves very promising performance on standard benchmarks, with either conventional, hand-engineered features or deep learning-based features.
Highly ordered macroporous woody biochar with ultra-high carbon content as supercapacitor electrodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Junhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinying; Holm, Nancy; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Chen, Fanglin; Ma, Shuguo
2013-01-01
Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750 °C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98 wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400 m 2 g −1 . We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3 V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14 F g −1 . Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115 F g −1 ). Because the HNO 3 -activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO 3 -activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications
High-order multi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for problems of reactive flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourlioux, Anne; Layton, Anita T.; Minion, Michael L.
2003-01-01
Models for reacting flow are typically based on advection-diffusion-reaction (A-D-R) partial differential equations. Many practical cases correspond to situations where the relevant time scales associated with each of the three sub-processes can be widely different, leading to disparate time-step requirements for robust and accurate time-integration. In particular, interesting regimes in combustion correspond to systems in which diffusion and reaction are much faster processes than advection. The numerical strategy introduced in this paper is a general procedure to account for this time-scale disparity. The proposed methods are high-order multi-implicit generalizations of spectral deferred correction methods (MISDC methods), constructed for the temporal integration of A-D-R equations. Spectral deferred correction methods compute a high-order approximation to the solution of a differential equation by using a simple, low-order numerical method to solve a series of correction equations, each of which increases the order of accuracy of the approximation. The key feature of MISDC methods is their flexibility in handling several sub-processes implicitly but independently, while avoiding the splitting errors present in traditional operator-splitting methods and also allowing for different time steps for each process. The stability, accuracy, and efficiency of MISDC methods are first analyzed using a linear model problem and the results are compared to semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods. Furthermore, numerical tests on simplified reacting flows demonstrate the expected convergence rates for MISDC methods of orders three, four, and five. The gain in efficiency by independently controlling the sub-process time steps is illustrated for nonlinear problems, where reaction and diffusion are much stiffer than advection. Although the paper focuses on this specific time-scales ordering, the generalization to any ordering combination is straightforward
Highly ordered Ni–Ti–O nanotubes for non-enzymatic glucose detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hang, Ruiqiang, E-mail: hangruiqiang@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Yanlian [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Ang [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Tang, Bin, E-mail: tangbin@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2015-06-01
Anodization is used to fabricate Ni–Ti–O nanotube (NT) electrodes for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the materials are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show amorphous and highly ordered NTs with diameter of 50 nm, length of 800 nm, and Ni/Ti ratio (at %) of 0.35 can be fabricated in ethylene glycol electrolyte supplemented with 0.2 wt.% NH{sub 4}F and 0.5 vol.% H{sub 2}O at 30 °C and 25 V for 1 h. Electrochemical experiments indicate that at an applied potential of 0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the electrode exhibits a linear response window for glucose concentrations from 0.002 mM to 0.2 mM with a response time of 10 s, detection limit of 0.13 μM (S/N = 3), and sensitivity of 83 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. The excellent performance of the electrode is attributed to its large specific area and fast electron transfer between the NT walls. The good electrochemical performance of the Ni–Ti–O NTs as well as their simple and low-cost preparation method make the strategy promising in non-enzymatic glucose detection. - Highlights: • Highly ordered Ni–Ti–O nanotubes have been fabricated by one-step anodization. • We find H{sub 2}O contents in the electrolyte is critical to successful fabrication of the NTs. • The Ni–Ti–O nanotubes are ideal electrode materials for non-enzymatic glucose detection.
High-order polygonal discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (PolyDPG) methods using ultraweak formulations
Vaziri Astaneh, Ali; Fuentes, Federico; Mora, Jaime; Demkowicz, Leszek
2018-04-01
This work represents the first endeavor in using ultraweak formulations to implement high-order polygonal finite element methods via the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) methodology. Ultraweak variational formulations are nonstandard in that all the weight of the derivatives lies in the test space, while most of the trial space can be chosen as copies of $L^2$-discretizations that have no need to be continuous across adjacent elements. Additionally, the test spaces are broken along the mesh interfaces. This allows one to construct conforming polygonal finite element methods, termed here as PolyDPG methods, by defining most spaces by restriction of a bounding triangle or box to the polygonal element. The only variables that require nontrivial compatibility across elements are the so-called interface or skeleton variables, which can be defined directly on the element boundaries. Unlike other high-order polygonal methods, PolyDPG methods do not require ad hoc stabilization terms thanks to the crafted stability of the DPG methodology. A proof of convergence of the form $h^p$ is provided and corroborated through several illustrative numerical examples. These include polygonal meshes with $n$-sided convex elements and with highly distorted concave elements, as well as the modeling of discontinuous material properties along an arbitrary interface that cuts a uniform grid. Since PolyDPG methods have a natural a posteriori error estimator a polygonal adaptive strategy is developed and compared to standard adaptivity schemes based on constrained hanging nodes. This work is also accompanied by an open-source $\\texttt{PolyDPG}$ software supporting polygonal and conventional elements.
The stratigraphic filter and bias in measurement of geologic rates
Schumer, Rina; Jerolmack, Douglas; McElroy, Brandon
2011-01-01
Erosion and deposition rates estimated from the stratigraphic record frequently exhibit a power-law dependence on measurement interval. This dependence can result from a power-law distribution of stratigraphic hiatuses. By representing the stratigraphic filter as a stochastic process called a reverse ascending ladder, we describe a likely origin of power-law hiatuses, and thus, rate scaling. While power-law hiatuses in certain environments can be a direct result of power-law periods of stasis (no deposition or erosion), they are more generally the result of randomness in surface fluctuations irrespective of mean subsidence or uplift. Autocorrelation in fluctuations can make hiatuses more or less heavy-tailed, but still exhibit power-law characteristics. In addition we show that by passing stratigraphic data backward through the filter, certain statistics of surface kinematics from their formative environments can be inferred.
Highly ordered self-assembly of one-dimensional nanoparticles in amphiphilic molecular systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Tae Hwan
2009-02-01
Two kinds of one-dimensional (1D) nanoparticles, stable rod-like nanoparticles with highly controlled surface charge density (cROD) and non-covalently functionalized isolated single wall carbon nanotubes (p-SWNT) that were readily redispersible in water, have been developed. Using these 1D nanoparticles, various highly ordered superstructures of 1D nanoparticles by molecular self-assembling based on electrostatic interaction in amphiphilic molecular systems (two different cationic liposome systems) have been investigated. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of highly ordered self-assembly of 1D nanoparticles based on electrostatic interaction between 1D nanoparticles and amphiphilic molecules. The cRODs have been developed by free radical polymerization of a mixture of polymerizable cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium 4-vinylbenzoate (CTVB), and hydrotropic salt sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NaSS) in aqueous solution. The surface charge of the cROD was controlled by varying the NaSS concentration during the polymerization process and the charge variation was interpreted in terms of the overcharging effect in colloidal systems. The small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements showed that the diameter of cROD is constant at 4 nm and the particle length ranges from 20 nm to 85 nm, depending on the NaSS concentration. The cRODs are longest when the NaSS concentration is 5 mol % which corresponds to the charge inversion or neutral point. The SANS and zeta potential measurements showed that the Coulomb interactions between the particles are strongly dependent on the NaSS concentration and the zeta potential of the cRODs changes from positive to negative (+ 12.8 mV ∼ - 44.2 mV) as the concentration of NaSS increases from 0 mol % to 40 mol %. As the NaSS concentration is further increased, the zeta potential is saturated at approximately - 50 mV. The p-SWNTs have been developed by 1) dispersing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water using
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coghetto Roland
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.
Effects of high-order correlations on personalized recommendations for bipartite networks
Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Che, Hong-An; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
2010-02-01
In this paper, we introduce a modified collaborative filtering (MCF) algorithm, which has remarkably higher accuracy than the standard collaborative filtering. In the MCF, instead of the cosine similarity index, the user-user correlations are obtained by a diffusion process. Furthermore, by considering the second-order correlations, we design an effective algorithm that depresses the influence of mainstream preferences. Simulation results show that the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, is further improved by 20.45% and 33.25% in the optimal cases of MovieLens and Netflix data. More importantly, the optimal value λ depends approximately monotonously on the sparsity of the training set. Given a real system, we could estimate the optimal parameter according to the data sparsity, which makes this algorithm easy to be applied. In addition, two significant criteria of algorithmic performance, diversity and popularity, are also taken into account. Numerical results show that as the sparsity increases, the algorithm considering the second-order correlation can outperform the MCF simultaneously in all three criteria.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nataliya Chukhrova
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed overview of the current state of research in relation to the use of state space models and the Kalman-filter in the field of stochastic claims reserving. Most of these state space representations are matrix-based, which complicates their applications. Therefore, to facilitate the implementation of state space models in practice, we present a scalar state space model for cumulative payments, which is an extension of the well-known chain ladder (CL method. The presented model is distribution-free, forms a basis for determining the entire unobservable lower and upper run-off triangles and can easily be applied in practice using the Kalman-filter for prediction, filtering and smoothing of cumulative payments. In addition, the model provides an easy way to find outliers in the data and to determine outlier effects. Finally, an empirical comparison of the scalar state space model, promising prior state space models and some popular stochastic claims reserving methods is performed.
Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters
Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC
2016-01-01
Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.
4-bit digital to analog converter using R-2R ladder and binary weighted resistors
Diosanto, J.; Batac, M. L.; Pereda, K. J.; Caldo, R.
2017-06-01
The use of a 4-bit digital-to-analog converter using two methods; Binary Weighted Resistors and R-2R Ladder is designed and presented in this paper. The main components that were used in constructing both circuits were different resistor values, operational amplifier (LM741) and single pole double throw switches. Both circuits were designed using MULTISIM software to be able to test the circuit for its ideal application and FRITZING software for the layout designing and fabrication to the printed circuit board. The implementation of both systems in an actual circuit benefits in determining and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. It was realized that the binary weighted circuit is more efficient DAC, having lower percentage error of 0.267% compared to R-2R ladder circuit which has a minimum of percentage error of 4.16%.
Analysis of an "off-ladder" allele at the Penta D short tandem repeat locus.
Yang, Y L; Wang, J G; Wang, D X; Zhang, W Y; Liu, X J; Cao, J; Yang, S L
2015-11-25
Kinship testing of a father and his son from Guangxi, China, the location of the Zhuang minority people, was performed using the PowerPlex® 18D System with a short tandem repeat typing kit. The results indicated that both the father and his son had an off-ladder allele at the Penta D locus, with a genetic size larger than that of the maximal standard allelic ladder. To further identify this locus, monogenic amplification, gene cloning, and genetic sequencing were performed. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that the fragment size of the Penta D-OL locus was 469 bp and the core sequence was [AAAGA]21, also called Penta D-21. The rare Penta D-21 allele was found to be distributed among the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China; therefore, this study improved the range of DNA data available for this locus and enhanced our ability for individual identification of gene loci.
In-line digital holography with phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves
Xie, Jing; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Shenlei; Zhu, Jianqiang
2018-04-01
Phase shifting is the key technique in in-line digital holography, but traditional phase shifters have their own limitations in short wavelength regions. Here, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves with amplitude-only modulation are introduced into in-line digital holography, which are essentially a kind of diffraction lens with three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci. In the in-line digital holographic experiment, we design two kinds of sieves by lithography and verify the validity of their phase-shifting function by measuring a 1951 U.S. Air Force resolution test target and three-dimensional array foci. With advantages of high resolving power, low cost, and no limitations at shorter wavelengths, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves have great potential in X-ray holography or biochemical microscopy for the next generation of synchrotron light sources.
Mi Kyung Kim; Hyojung Kim; Jung, Yeon Su; Adem, Kenana M A; Bawazir, Sarah S; Stefanini, Cesare; Lee, Hyunjoo J
2017-07-01
An accurate bladder volume monitoring system is a critical component in diagnosis and treatment of urological disorders. Here, we report an implantable bladder volume sensor with a multi-level resistor ladder which estimates the bladder volume through discrete resistance values. Discretization allows the sensor output to be resilient to the long-term drift, hysteresis, and degradation of the sensor materials. Our sensor is composed of biocompatible polypyrrole/agarose hydrogel composite. Because Young's modulus of this composite is comparable to that of the bladder wall, the effect of mechanical loading of the sensor on the bladder movement is minimized which allows more accurate volume monitoring. We also demonstrate the patterning and molding capability of this material by fabrication various structures. Lastly, we successfully demonstrate the functionality of the multi-level resistor ladder sensor as a bladder volume sensor by attaching the sensor on the pig's bladder and observing the impedance change of the sensor.
Hopping ladder and power relaxation due to donor-acceptor pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostadinov, I.Z.
1985-11-01
Hopping between donor-acceptor pairs leads to peculiar temperature dependence of the conductivity and the photoconductivity under subband gap illumination in the form of non-linear activation energies ladder. The correlated and uncorrelated distributions of pairs are considered and the conditions for the ladder existence are determined. The relaxation of the carrier concentration fluctuations is studied and power type decay is found. The temperature dependence of the exponent is calculated in agreement with the non-exponential decay of the pulse excited luminescence observed by Dean et al. The temperature dependence of the luminescence intensity also shows variable activation energy as found here. The exponent value α=1.316 is also in agreement with the data for crystalline and amorphous materials. (author)
Low-Field Bi-Skyrmion Formation in a Noncentrosymmetric Chimney Ladder Ferromagnet
Takagi, R.; Yu, X. Z.; White, J. S.; Shibata, K.; Kaneko, Y.; Tatara, G.; Rønnow, H. M.; Tokura, Y.; Seki, S.
2018-01-01
The real-space spin texture and the relevant magnetic parameters were investigated for an easy-axis noncentrosymmetric ferromagnet Cr11 Ge19 with Nowotny chimney ladder structure. Using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, we report the formation of bi-Skyrmions, i.e., pairs of spin vortices with opposite magnetic helicities. The quantitative evaluation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) proves that the magnetic dipolar interaction plays a more important role than the DMI on the observed bi-Skyrmion formation. Notably, the critical magnetic field value required for the formation of bi-Skyrmions turned out to be extremely small in this system, which is ascribed to strong easy-axis anisotropy associated with the characteristic helix crystal structure. The family of Nowotny chimney ladder compounds may offer a unique material platform where two distinctive Skyrmion formation mechanisms favoring different topological spin textures can become simultaneously active.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao X
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2,* Xiaohong Zhang,3,* Jinlin Song,1,2 Xiao Xu,4 Anxiu Xu,1 Mengke Wang,4 Bingwu Xie,1 Enyi Huang,2 Feng Deng,1,2 Shicheng Wei2–41College of Stomatology, 2Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 3Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Essadki Mohamed
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Predictive simulation of liquid fuel injection in automotive engines has become a major challenge for science and applications. The key issue in order to properly predict various combustion regimes and pollutant formation is to accurately describe the interaction between the carrier gaseous phase and the polydisperse evaporating spray produced through atomization. For this purpose, we rely on the EMSM (Eulerian Multi-Size Moment Eulerian polydisperse model. It is based on a high order moment method in size, with a maximization of entropy technique in order to provide a smooth reconstruction of the distribution, derived from a Williams-Boltzmann mesoscopic model under the monokinetic assumption [O. Emre (2014 PhD Thesis, École Centrale Paris; O. Emre, R.O. Fox, M. Massot, S. Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent (2014 Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 93, 689-722; O. Emre, D. Kah, S. Jay, Q.-H. Tran, A. Velghe, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Atomization Sprays 25, 189-254; D. Kah, F. Laurent, M. Massot, S. Jay (2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231, 394-422; D. Kah, O. Emre, Q.-H. Tran, S. de Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Int. J. Multiphase Flows 71, 38-65; A. Vié, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2013 J. Comp. Phys. 237, 277-310]. The present contribution relies on a major extension of this model [M. Essadki, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, A. Larat, M. Massot (2016 Submitted to SIAM J. Appl. Math.], with the aim of building a unified approach and coupling with a separated phases model describing the dynamics and atomization of the interface near the injector. The novelty is to be found in terms of modeling, numerical schemes and implementation. A new high order moment approach is introduced using fractional moments in surface, which can be related to geometrical quantities of the gas-liquid interface. We also provide a novel algorithm for an accurate resolution of the evaporation. Adaptive mesh refinement properly scaling on massively
Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiara Corsi; Angela Pirri; Emiliano Sali
2006-01-01
Complete test of publication follows. For low gas densities and negligible ionization, the so-called atomic dipole phase, connected with the electronic dynamics involved in the generation process, is the main source of phase modulation and incoherence of high-order harmonics. To accurately determine these laser-intensity-induced phase shifts is therefore of great importance, both for the possible spectroscopic applications of harmonics and for the controlled generation of attosecond pulses. In a semiclassical description, only two electronic trajectories contribute to generate plateau harmonics during each pump optical half-cycle. Electrons appearing in the continuum by tunnel ionization may follow two different quantum paths, namely a long (l) and a short (s) trajectory before recombination. According to the SFA approximation, the harmonic of q th order acquires a phase proportional to the electronic classical action, and simply given by: ψ 0 j (r,t) -α q j I(r,t) with j = l, s where α q j are non-linear phase coefficients, roughly proportional to the time that the originating electron spends in the continuum before recombination. The space and time variation of the laser intensity (I(r,t), causes just a little phase modulation for the s-trajectory harmonic component, while the l-trajectory component becomes strongly chirped and spatially defocused; this gives rise to two spatially-separated regions having different temporal coherence. Here we report the first direct measurement of such atomic dipole phase in the process of high-order harmonic generation. Differently from previous measurements based in the most natural way, i.e., by interferometry. Two phase-locked pump pulses generate two phase-locked harmonic pulses in two nearby positions in a gas jet; one of them is used as a fixed phase reference while the generating intensity of the other is varied. The shift of the XUV interference fringes observed in the far field then gives a direct estimate of the
A highly linear fully integrated powerline filter for biopotential acquisition systems.
Alzaher, Hussain A; Tasadduq, Noman; Mahnashi, Yaqub
2013-10-01
Powerline interference is one of the most dominant problems in detection and processing of biopotential signals. This work presents a new fully integrated notch filter exhibiting high linearity and low power consumption. High filter linearity is preserved utilizing active-RC approach while IC implementation is achieved through replacing passive resistors by R-2R ladders achieving area saving of approximately 120 times. The filter design is optimized for low power operation using an efficient circuit topology and an ultra-low power operational amplifier. Fully differential implementation of the proposed filter shows notch depth of 43 dB (78 dB for 4th-order) with THD of better than -70 dB while consuming about 150 nW from 1.5 V supply.
Feeney, Stephen M.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Dalmasso, Niccolò
2018-05-01
Estimates of the Hubble constant, H0, from the local distance ladder and from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are discrepant at the ˜3σ level, indicating a potential issue with the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology. A probabilistic (i.e. Bayesian) interpretation of this tension requires a model comparison calculation, which in turn depends strongly on the tails of the H0 likelihoods. Evaluating the tails of the local H0 likelihood requires the use of non-Gaussian distributions to faithfully represent anchor likelihoods and outliers, and simultaneous fitting of the complete distance-ladder data set to ensure correct uncertainty propagation. We have hence developed a Bayesian hierarchical model of the full distance ladder that does not rely on Gaussian distributions and allows outliers to be modelled without arbitrary data cuts. Marginalizing over the full ˜3000-parameter joint posterior distribution, we find H0 = (72.72 ± 1.67) km s-1 Mpc-1 when applied to the outlier-cleaned Riess et al. data, and (73.15 ± 1.78) km s-1 Mpc-1 with supernova outliers reintroduced (the pre-cut Cepheid data set is not available). Using our precise evaluation of the tails of the H0 likelihood, we apply Bayesian model comparison to assess the evidence for deviation from ΛCDM given the distance-ladder and CMB data. The odds against ΛCDM are at worst ˜10:1 when considering the Planck 2015 XIII data, regardless of outlier treatment, considerably less dramatic than naïvely implied by the 2.8σ discrepancy. These odds become ˜60:1 when an approximation to the more-discrepant Planck Intermediate XLVI likelihood is included.
Magneto-optical polarization rotation in a ladder-type atomic system for tunable offset locking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parniak, Michał, E-mail: michal.parniak@fuw.edu.pl; Leszczyński, Adam; Wasilewski, Wojciech [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2016-04-18
We demonstrate an easily tunable locking scheme for stabilizing frequency-sum of two lasers on a two-photon ladder transition based on polarization rotation in warm rubidium vapors induced by magnetic field and circularly polarized drive field. Unprecedented tunability of the two-photon offset frequency is due to strong splitting and shifting of magnetic states in external field. In our experimental setup, we achieve two-photon detuning of up to 700 MHz.
Star-shaped ladder-type ter(p-phenylene)s for efficient multiphoton absorption.
Guo, Lei; Li, King Fai; Wong, Man Shing; Cheah, Kok Wai
2013-05-04
Star-shaped ladder-type ter(p-phenylene)s exhibit remarkably efficient multiphoton absorption properties with 2PA cross-section up to 2579 GM at 700 nm and 3PA cross-section up to 3.35 × 10(-76) cm(6) s(2) in the femtosecond regime for a blue-emissive molecule despite having such a short π-conjugated framework.
The Earnings Ladder. Who's at the Bottom? Who's at the Top? Statistical Brief.
Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Economics and Statistics Administration.
Data collected by the March Current Population Survey were used to identify which groups of year-round, full-time civilian workers aged 16 and older were most likely to be at the top and bottom of the earnings ladder. Women, young workers, less-educated individuals, and Hispanics were most likely to earn less than $13,091 (1992 constant dollars),…
Hydroxyl-substituted ladder polyethers via selective tandem epoxidation/cyclization sequence.
Czabaniuk, Lara C; Jamison, Timothy F
2015-02-20
A new and highly selective method for the synthesis of hydroxyl-substituted tetrahydropyrans is described. This method utilizes titanium(IV) isopropoxide and diethyl tartrate to perform a diastereoselective epoxidation followed by in situ epoxide activation and highly selective endo-cyclization to form the desired tetrahydropyran ring. The HIJ ring fragment of the marine ladder polyether yessotoxin was synthesized using this two-stage tactic that proceeds with high efficiency and excellent regioselectivity.
Telecast of Astronaut Neil Armstrong descending ladder to surface of the moon
1969-01-01
Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, descends the ladder of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module prior to making the first step by man on the moon. This view is a black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface camera during extravehicular activity. The black bar running through the center of the picture is an anamoly in the television ground data system at the Goldstone Tracking Station.
Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module ladder
1969-01-01
Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, are seen standing by the Lunar Module ladder in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishine, Jun-Ichiro; Yonemitsu, Kenji
1998-01-01
Physical nature of dimensional crossovers in weakly coupled Hubbard chains and ladders has been discussed within the framework of the perturbative renormalization-group (PRG) approach. The difference between these two cases originates from different universality classes which the corresponding isolated systems belong to. In the present work, we discuss the nature of the dimensional crossovers in the weakly coupled chains and ladders, with emphasis on the difference between the two cases within the framework of the PRG approach. The difference of the universality class of the isolated chain and ladder profoundly affects the relevance or irrelevance of the inter-chain/ladder one-particle hopping. The strong coupling phase of the isolated ladder makes the one-particle process irrelevant so that the d-wave superconducting transition can be induced via the two-particle crossover in the weakly coupled ladders. The weak coupling phase of the isolated chain makes the one-particle process relevant so that the two-particle crossover can hardly be realized in the coupled chains. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)
The overview of damping methods for three-phase grid-tied inverter with LLCL-filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang
2014-01-01
Compared with LCL filter, an LLCL-filter is characterized with smaller size and lower cost for grid-connected inverters. But this high order filter may also have resonant problem which will affect the system stability. Many methods can be used to alleviate the resonant problem including active da...... and shows the advantages as well as disadvantages of these methods....
High-order noise analysis for low dose iterative image reconstruction methods: ASIR, IRIS, and MBAI
Do, Synho; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Karl, W. Clem; Brady, Thomas J.; Pien, Homer
2011-03-01
Iterative reconstruction techniques (IRTs) has been shown to suppress noise significantly in low dose CT imaging. However, medical doctors hesitate to accept this new technology because visual impression of IRT images are different from full-dose filtered back-projection (FBP) images. Most common noise measurements such as the mean and standard deviation of homogeneous region in the image that do not provide sufficient characterization of noise statistics when probability density function becomes non-Gaussian. In this study, we measure L-moments of intensity values of images acquired at 10% of normal dose and reconstructed by IRT methods of two state-of-art clinical scanners (i.e., GE HDCT and Siemens DSCT flash) by keeping dosage level identical to each other. The high- and low-dose scans (i.e., 10% of high dose) were acquired from each scanner and L-moments of noise patches were calculated for the comparison.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Bing-Nan; Liu Chong-Xin; Ni Jun-Kang; Zhao Liang
2016-01-01
In order to grasp the downhole situation immediately, logging while drilling (LWD) technology is adopted. One of the LWD technologies, called acoustic telemetry, can be successfully applied to modern drilling. It is critical for acoustic telemetry technology that the signal is successfully transmitted to the ground. In this paper, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is used to modulate carrier waves for the transmission and a new BPSK demodulation scheme based on Duffing chaos is investigated. Firstly, a high-order system is given in order to enhance the signal detection capability and it is realized through building a virtual circuit using an electronic workbench (EWB). Secondly, a new BPSK demodulation scheme is proposed based on the intermittent chaos phenomena of the new Duffing system. Finally, a system variable crossing zero-point equidistance method is proposed to obtain the phase difference between the system and the BPSK signal. Then it is determined that the digital signal transmitted from the bottom of the well is ‘0’ or ‘1’. The simulation results show that the demodulation method is feasible. (paper)
High order statistical signatures from source-driven measurements of subcritical fissile systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattingly, J.K.
1998-01-01
This research focuses on the development and application of high order statistical analyses applied to measurements performed with subcritical fissile systems driven by an introduced neutron source. The signatures presented are derived from counting statistics of the introduced source and radiation detectors that observe the response of the fissile system. It is demonstrated that successively higher order counting statistics possess progressively higher sensitivity to reactivity. Consequently, these signatures are more sensitive to changes in the composition, fissile mass, and configuration of the fissile assembly. Furthermore, it is shown that these techniques are capable of distinguishing the response of the fissile system to the introduced source from its response to any internal or inherent sources. This ability combined with the enhanced sensitivity of higher order signatures indicates that these techniques will be of significant utility in a variety of applications. Potential applications include enhanced radiation signature identification of weapons components for nuclear disarmament and safeguards applications and augmented nondestructive analysis of spent nuclear fuel. In general, these techniques expand present capabilities in the analysis of subcritical measurements
Imaginary geometric phases of quantum trajectories in high-order terahertz sideband generation
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2014-03-01
Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be described by a small number of quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integral. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand the high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG) in semiconductors. Due to the nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials, the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors can accumulate geometric phases under the driving of an elliptically polarized THz field. We find that the geometric phase of the stationary trajectory is generally complex with both real and imaginary parts. In monolayer MoS2, the imaginary parts of the geometric phase leads to a changing of the polarization ellipticity of the sideband. We further show that the imaginary part originates from the quantum interference of many trajectories with different phases. Thus the observation of the polarization ellipticity of the sideband shall be a good indication of the quantum nature of the stationary trajectory. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.
Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices
Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.
2009-01-01
We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
Dynamic analysis of spiral bevel and hypoid gears with high-order transmission errors
Yang, J. J.; Shi, Z. H.; Zhang, H.; Li, T. X.; Nie, S. W.; Wei, B. Y.
2018-03-01
A new gear surface modification methodology based on curvature synthesis is proposed in this study to improve the transmission performance. The generated high-order transmission error (TE) for spiral bevel and hypoid gears is proved to reduce the vibration of geared-rotor system. The method is comprised of the following steps: Firstly, the fully conjugate gear surfaces with pinion flank modified according to the predesigned relative transmission movement are established based on curvature correction. Secondly, a 14-DOF geared-rotor system model considering backlash nonlinearity is used to evaluate the effect of different orders of TE on the dynamic performance a hypoid gear transmission system. For case study, numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the dynamic response of hypoid gear pair with parabolic, fourth-order and sixth-order transmission error derived. The results show that the parabolic TE curve has higher peak to peak amplitude compared to the other two types of TE. Thus, the excited dynamic response also shows larger amplitude at response peaks. Dynamic responses excited by fourth and sixth order TE also demonstrate distinct response components due to their different TE period which is expected to generate different sound quality or other acoustic characteristics.