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Sample records for high-molecular weight adiponectin

  1. Evaluation of high-molecular weight adiponectin in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Edwards, Heather Gray; Plaisance, Eric P; Applegate, Rory; Taylor, Debra R; Taintor, Jennifer; Zhong, Qiao; Judd, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    To characterize adiponectin protein complexes in lean and obese horses. 26 lean horses and 18 obese horses. Procedures-Body condition score (BCS) and serum insulin activity were measured for each horse. Denaturing and native western blot analyses were used to evaluate adiponectin complexes in serum. A human ELISA kit was validated and used to quantify high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Correlations between variables were made, and HMW values were compared between groups. Adiponectin was present as a multimer consisting of HMW (> 720-kDa), low-molecular weight (180-kDa), and trimeric (90-kDa) complexes in serum. All complexes were qualitatively reduced in obese horses versus lean horses, but the percentage of complexes < 250 kDa was higher in obese versus lean horses. High-molecular weight adiponectin concentration measured via ELISA was negatively correlated with serum insulin activity and BCS and was lower in obese horses (mean ± SD, 3.6 ± 3.9 μg/mL), compared with lean horses (8.0 ± 4.6 μg/mL). HMW adiponectin is measurable via ELISA, and concentration is negatively correlated with BCS and serum insulin activity in horses. A greater understanding of the role of adiponectin in equine metabolism will provide insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease conditions.

  2. A 7-d exercise program increases high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Blaszczak, Alecia; Haus, Jacob M

    2012-01-01

    High-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin is the biologically active form of adiponectin and is related to enhanced insulin sensitivity and metabolic function. Previously, we found that 7 d of exercise improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects; however, whether short-term exercise training...

  3. Elevated levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, H.; Andersen, K.K.; Frystyk, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that type 1 diabetic patients have elevated total levels of the adipocyte-derived adipocytokine adiponectin. However, adiponectin circulates in three different subforms, and the high-molecular-weight (HMW) subform is believed to be the primary biologically...... active form. The effects of the medium-molecular-weight (MMW) subform and the low-molecular-weight (LMW) subform are still unresolved. PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the distribution of the three molecular subforms of adiponectin in well-characterized groups of type 1 diabetics...... with varying degrees of nephropathy as well as in healthy control subjects. STUDY POPULATION: Two hundred seven individuals were included: 58 type 1 diabetics with normoalbuminuria, 46 with microalbuminuria, 46 with macroalbuminuria, and 57 matched controls. METHODS: The HMW, MMW, and LMW subforms were...

  4. The ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin and total adiponectin differs in preterm and term infants.

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    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2009-05-01

    Adiponectin consists of three subspecies (high-, middle- and low-molecular weight adiponectin). Among these, high-molecular weight adiponectin (H-adn) is suggested to be an active form of this protein. To assess the relationship between H-adn and postnatal growth in preterm infants (PIs), serum H-adn and total adiponectin (T-adn) were measured in 46 PIs at birth and at corrected term, and 26 term infants (TI) at birth. T-adn and H-adn concentrations, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly greater in TI and PI at corrected term than in PI at birth (p adn and H-adn concentrations in PI at corrected term were similar to those in TI, but H/T-adn in PI at corrected term was less than that in TI (p adn and serum concentrations of T- and H-adn in PI at corrected term were different from those in TI. These data suggest that quality of early postnatal growth in PIs is different from that in normally developed TI. Postnatal growth accompanying adipose tissue similar to TI may be important for PI to prevent future development of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level and incident dementia in patients with vascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, K; Miwa, K; Okazaki, S; Sakaguchi, M; Mochizuki, H

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of metabolic factors in the development of dementia has received much attention. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting results regarding how blood adipocytokine level impacts cognitive decline and dementia. This study aimed to clarify whether serum high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin level is related to incident dementia. Data were from 466 patients (mean age 67.8 years, male 57%)--who had normal cognitive function and received brain magnetic resonance imaging--from amongst the 1106 patients in the Osaka Follow-up Study for Carotid Atherosclerosis, Part 2, a prospective cohort study of cardiovascular events and dementia amongst patients with vascular risk factors enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Baseline HMW adiponectin levels were measured using frozen serum. Dementia occurrence was examined in June 2013. Serum HMW adiponectin level was 4.33 ± 2.95 μg/ml; the levels were lower in men than in women and negatively correlated with body mass index. During the follow-up period (median 6.9 years), 47 patients had incident dementia including Alzheimer's disease dementia (27), vascular dementia (13), mixed dementia (four), other dementia (three). Risks of dementia in patients with high versus low HMW adiponectin levels were almost identical (P = 0.689). No association was found between adiponectin levels and Alzheimer's disease dementia or vascular dementia in the whole group or amongst men and women separately. This study demonstrated that serum HMW adiponectin level has little association with future dementia. Determination of metabolic factors involved in dementia requires evaluation of other biomarkers or parameters. © 2015 EAN.

  6. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Effect of berberine on the ratio of high-molecular weight adiponectin to total adiponectin and adiponectin receptors expressions in high-fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Yue; Zha, Ying; Liu, Jun; Wang, Fang; Xu, Jiong; Chen, Zao-Ping; Ding, He-Yuan; Sheng, Li; Han, Xiao-Jie

    2016-11-17

    To assess the effects of berberine (BBR) on high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (adipoR1/adipoR2) expressions in high-fat (HF) diet fed rats. Forty Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into a normal diet fed group and three HF diet (fat for 45% calories) fed groups (n=10 for each group). All rats underwent 12 weeks of feeding. After 4 weeks feeding, rats in the two of three HF diet fed groups were treated with 150 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) BBR (HF+LBBR group) and 380 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) BBR (HF+HBBR group) by gavage once a day respectively for the next 8 weeks while the rats in other groups treated with vehicle (NF+Veh and HF+Veh). Body weight and food intake were observed and recorded on daily basis. At the end of 12 weeks, the blood, liver, epididymal fat tissues and quadriceps femoris muscles were collected. Fasting insulin, plasma fasting glucose, serum free fatty acid (FFA), total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed to determine the insulinsensitizing. Meanwhile the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method was used to determine insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The expressions of adipoR1, adipoR2 and adenosine monophophate activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation level in skeletal muscle and liver tissue were detected by Western blot. Liver and kidney toxicity were evaluated during treatment. The body weight of rats in high- or low-dose BBR group reduced as well as HOMA-IR, FFA concentrations and fasting insulin levels decreased compared with HF+Veh group (Pinsulin resistance by increasing the expression of adiponectin receptors and the ratio of HMW to total adiponectin.

  8. Circulating High-Molecular-Weight (HMW) Adiponectin Level Is Related with Breast Cancer Risk Better than Total Adiponectin: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-ming; Duan, Xue-ning; Cui, Shu-de; Tian, Fu-guo; Cao, Xu-chen; Geng, Cui-zhi; Fan, Zhi-min; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Hong-chuan; Zhang, Jian-guo; Jin, Feng; Tang, Jin-hai; Liang, Hong; Yang, Zhen-lin; Wang, Hai-bo; Wang, Qi-tang; Li, Guo-lou; Li, Liang; Zhu, Shi-guang; Zuo, Wen-shu; Liu, Li-yuan; Wang, Lu; Ma, Dan-dan; Liu, Shu-chen; Xiang, Yu-juan; Liu, Lu; Ye, Chun-miao; Zhou, Wen-zhong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Li-xiang; Ma, Zhong-bing; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2015-01-01

    The level of total adiponectin, a mixture of different adiponectin forms, has been reported associated with breast cancer risk with inconsistent results. Whether the different forms play different roles in breast cancer risk prediction is unclear. To examine this, we measured total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in a case-control study (1167 sets). Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was negatively associated with breast cancer risk after adjusting for menopausal status and family history of breast cancer (P=0.024). We analyzed the relationship between adiponectin and breast cancer risk in 6 subgroups. Higher circulating HMW adiponectin was also negatively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.020, 0.014, 0.035) in the subgroups of postmenopausal women, negative family history of breast cancer, BMI>=24.0. Total adiponectin was positively associated with breast cancer (P=0.028) in the subgroup of BMItotal adiponectin ratio was negatively associated with breast cancer (P=0.019) in the subgroup of postmenopausal women. Interestingly, in the subgroup of women with family history of breast cancer, higher circulating total and HMW adiponectin were positively associated with breast cancer risk (P=0.034, 0.0116). This study showed different forms of circulating adiponectin levels might play different roles in breast cancer risk. A higher circulating HMW adiponectin is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk, especially in postmenopausal, without family history of breast cancer or BMI>=24.0 subgroups, whereas higher circulating HMW adiponectin levels is a risk factor in women with a family history of breast cancer. Further investigation of different forms of adiponectin on breast cancer risk is needed.

  9. Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, K.; Boeing, H.; Jenab, M.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Jansen, E.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Fedirko, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin-an adipose tissue-derived protein-may provide a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation

  10. High-molecular weight adiponectin/HOMA-IR ratio as a biomarker of metabolic syndrome in urban multiethnic Brazilian subjects.

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    Virgínia Genelhu de Abreu

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has an important epidemiological relevance due to its increasing prevalence and association with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is a core feature of the MetS. HOMA-IR is a robust clinical and epidemiological marker of MetS. Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory functions; its levels decrease as number of components of MetS increases. High-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA is the multimer responsible for the relationship of adiponectin with insulin sensitivity. HOMA-IR and HMWA are suitable candidates for MetS biomarkers. The ratio of adiponectin to HOMA-IR has been validated as a powerful index of MetS and considered a better marker of its presence, than either HOMA-IR or adiponectin alone, in selected homogeneous populations. We compared the strength of association between HMWA, HOMA-IR and HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio with MetS and its key components. Our data have shown that the median (25th, 75th percentile of HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio was lower in subjects with MetS [0.51 (0.33, 1.31] as compared to those without it [2.19 (1.13, 4.71]. The correlation coefficient (r was significantly higher for HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio as compared to HMWA for waist circumference (-0.65; -0.40, respectively; mean blood pressure (-0.27; -0.14, respectively; fasting glucose (-0.38; -0.19, respectively; HDL-cholesterol (0.44; 0.40, respectively; and triglycerides (-0.35; -0.18, respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio was a sensitive predictor for MetS, being the only marker that was significantly associated with each and all the individual components of the syndrome. These results expand on previous studies in that we used the active circulating form of adiponectin, i.e. HMWA, and represent a typical Brazilian cohort characterized by intense interethnic admixture. Thus, the HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio is a minimally invasive biomarker for MetS that could

  11. Sex-dependent reductions in high-molecular weight adiponectin during acute hyperinsulinemia are prevented with endurance training in older females.

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    Consitt, Leslie A; Saxena, Gunjan; Schaefer, Megan

    2018-02-07

    The high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin isoform is considered the active form of adiponectin and is linked to insulin sensitivity and the reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the first study was to determine the effects of age and sex on the plasma HMW adiponectin response to acute hyperinsulinemia, and secondly determine if either endurance or resistance exercise training could affect this response. Twenty-six, healthy males (19-84 years) and twenty-six, healthy females (18-76 years) were recruited and matched for BMI to examine the effects of sex and age on the plasma adiponectin response to a 2 hour hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To examine the effects of exercise training, a subgroup of young (55 years) individuals were randomized into a 12-week endurance or resistance training program and had their adiponectin response to hyperinsulinemia measured before and after training. HMW and total adiponectin were measured by ELISA. In response to hyperinsulinemia, plasma HMW adiponectin decreased in females (-9%, Pendurance training, the response of plasma HMW adiponectin to hyperinsulinemia increased in older females (36%, Ptraining had no effect on the plasma adiponectin response to hyperinsulinemia. Despite no age or sex differences at baseline, skeletal muscle AdipoR1 increased in response to endurance training (~120%, Ptraining (~38%, Pendurance training protects older females against the hyperinsulinemic inhibition of plasma HMW adiponectin, which could promote healthy aging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

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    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  13. Alterations in total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin after 3 weeks of moderate alcohol consumption in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased concentrations of adiponectin. Whether this is the case for both total and high–molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin is uncertain. Furthermore, the rate at which this increase occurs is unclear. Therefore, we examined the effect of moderate

  14. Short term dietary sodium restriction decreases HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and high molecular weight adiponectin in healthy young men : Relationships with renal hemodynamics and RAAS activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J. A.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Navis, G.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Background and aims: We aimed to determine the effect of short-term dietary sodium restriction on plasma total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in non-obese, normotensive young men. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR),

  15. The impact of visceral adipose tissue and high-molecular weight adiponectin on cardio-ankle vascular index in asymptomatic Japanese subjects.

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    Ohashi, Norihiko; Ito, Chikako; Fujikawa, Rumi; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2009-07-01

    Few studies addressed the relation of visceral adiposity and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin to arterial stiffness. We investigated the impact of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and HMW adiponectin on cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in asymptomatic Japanese subjects. We studied 487 consecutive subjects (271 men and 216 women) who underwent general health examination between October 2005 and May 2008. The abdominal, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were determined by low-dose x-ray computed tomography. Serum levels of total and HMW adiponectin were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system based on a monoclonal antibody to humans. Cardio-ankle vascular index was positively correlated with VAT area and negatively correlated with HMW adiponectin levels. We also found the positive association of the number of metabolic syndrome components with CAVI in both sexes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age, VAT area, serum HMW adiponectin levels, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were independent determinants of CAVI. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that the predictive value of the VAT area for the extent of CAVI (mild: 75th percentile) exceeded that of total or HMW adiponectin levels in both sexes. In conclusion, increased CAVI is associated with both amounts of VAT measured by computed tomography and serum HMW adiponectin levels in asymptomatic Japanese subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicates that the VAT area is a lot better predictor of arterial stiffness than adiponectin levels.

  16. High-molecular-weight adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome independent of body mass index and severity of insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2010-03-01

    Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

  17. High-molecular-weight adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome independent of body mass index and severity of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A; Phelan, N; Tun, T Kyaw; Boran, G; Gibney, J; Roche, H M

    2010-03-01

    High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. This was a cross-sectional study. A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

  18. Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin Expression Is Decreased in Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Correlation with Ig Replacement Therapy

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    Antonio Pecoraro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin (Acrp30 is an adipokine widely studied for its beneficial metabolic properties. It circulates as low molecular weight (LMW, medium molecular weight (MMW, and high molecular weight (HMW oligomers. The latter exerts the most potent biological effects. Acrp30 attracted renewed interest with the finding that it was associated with the development and progression of immune disorders. The mechanisms underlying this association and the role of Acrp30 in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated conditions remain unknown. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by chronic activation of the immune system, impaired antibody production, and imbalanced cytokine production. In the attempt to shed light on the expression of Acrp30 in CVID, we: (a investigated total Acrp30 and its oligomerization state in CVID patients undergoing maintenance Ig replacement therapy; (b assessed the effects of Ig replacement therapy on Acrp30 expression in treatment-naïve CVID patients, namely, patients not treated before diagnosis, before and after the first Ig administration; and (c evaluated the correlation between Acrp30 levels and clinical phenotypes of the disease. As controls, we analyzed healthy subjects and patients affected by a non-immunodeficiency chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP, before and after Ig infusion. We found that total Acrp30 and HMW oligomers were decreased in CVID but not in CIDP patients versus controls. Moreover, Acrp30 levels were correlated with IgA levels and were associated with two CVID phenotypes, namely, autoimmune cytopenia and enteropathy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that Acrp30 modulation is specific for CVID patients. Acrp30 and HMW levels quickly and dramatically increased after Ig infusion only in eight treatment-naïve CVID patients but not in five CIDP patients. This finding indicates that Ig administration per se is not able to

  19. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Serum Levels of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate Could Reflect Distinct Aspects of Longevity in Japanese Centenarians

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    Yuji Aoki MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length and serum levels of high-molecular-weight adiponectin and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S were assessed in association with nutrition and performance status (PS in Japanese centenarians. Twenty-three centenarians (five men, 18 women were classified according to their PS 1 (nearly fully ambulatory, n = 2, 2 (in bed less than 50% of daytime, n = 10, 3 (in bed greater than 50%, n = 6, and 4 (completely bedridden, n = 5. Leukocyte telomere length was determined by the hybridization protection assay, and the adiponectin and DHEA-S levels were measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. Among variables of PS, body mass index (BMI, albumin, adiponectin, DHEA-S, and telomere length, there were significant correlations between PS and albumin ( r = −.694, p < .01, between telomere length and BMI ( r = .522, p < .05, between adiponectin and BMI ( r = −.574, p < .01, and between DHEA-S and albumin ( r = .530, p < .01. When excluding two cancer-bearing centenarians with short telomere, telomere length significantly correlated with PS ( r = −.632, p < .01. It was indicated that the short leukocyte telomere was associated with poor PS and cancer development and that the adiponectin or DHEA-S was associated with adiposity or nutritional status. Despite a small number of subjects, these biomarkers seemed to reflect distinct aspects of longevity in Japanese centenarians.

  20. Effects of body fat on the associations of high-molecular-weight adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor with metabolic syndrome in Chinese.

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    Danxia Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the associations between high-molecular-weight (HMW- adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R and metabolic syndrome (MetS in Chinese. Also few studies elucidate the effects of inflammation and body fat mass on the relations. METHODS: Plasma HMW-adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured among 1055 Chinese men and women (35∼54 yrs. Whole body and trunk fat mass were determined by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. MetS was defined by the updated NCEP/ATPIII criterion for Asian-Americans. RESULTS: HMW-adiponectin was inversely associated with MetS in multivariate model including fat mass index (FMI, inflammatory markers, leptin and sOB-R (OR in the highest quartile= 0.30, 95%CI 0.18∼0.50, P<.0001. Plasma sOB-R was also inversely associated with MetS independent of body fatness and inflammatory markers, whereas the association was somewhat attenuated after adjusting HMW-adiponectin (OR for the highest quartile = 0.78, 95%CI 0.47∼1.32, P = 0.15. In contrast, leptin was associated with increased odds of MetS independent of inflammatory markers, HMW-adiponectin, and sOB-R (OR for the highest quartile= 2.64, 95%CI 1.35∼5.18, P = 0.006, although further adjustment for FMI abolished this association. CONCLUSIONS: HMW-adiponectin exhibited strong inverse associations with MetS independent of body composition, inflammation, leptin and sOB-R; while the associations of leptin and sOB-R were largely explained by fat mass or HMW-adiponectin, respectively.

  1. C-reactive protein, high-molecular-weight adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome in the Japanese general population: a longitudinal cohort study.

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    Yoshifumi Saisho

    Full Text Available AIMS: To clarify predictive values of C-reactive protein (CRP and high-molecular-weight (HMW adiponectin for development of metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of Japanese workers who had participated in an annual health checkup in 2007 and 2011. A total of 750 subjects (558 men and 192 women, age 46±8 years who had not met the criteria of metabolic syndrome and whose CRP and HMW-adiponectin levels had been measured in 2007 were enrolled in this study. Associations between CRP, HMW-adiponectin and development of metabolic syndrome after 4 years were assessed by logistic regression analysis and their predictive values were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Among 750 subjects, 61 (8.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III criteria and 53 (7.1% developed metabolic syndrome defined by Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (JASSO in 2011. Although CRP and HMW-adiponectin were both significantly correlated with development of metabolic syndrome, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HMW-adiponectin but not CRP was associated with metabolic syndrome independently of BMI or waist circumference. Adding these biomarkers to BMI or waist circumference did not improve the predictive value for metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the traditional markers of adiposity such as BMI or waist circumference remain superior markers for predicting metabolic syndrome compared to CRP, HMW-adiponectin, or the combination of both among the Japanese population.

  2. The association of carotid intima media thickness with retinol binding protein-4 and total and high molecular weight adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Mansouri Masoumeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether carotid intima media thickness (CIMT is associated with serum level of retinol- binding protein-4 (RBP4 and total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM without clinical symptom of atherosclerotic disease. Method 101 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 53.63 ± 8.42 years and 42 body mass index (BMI matched control (mean age 50.1 ± 8.4 were recruited. The CIMT was assessed by using B-mode ultrasonography, while serum levels of RBP4 and total and HMW adiponectin were measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Linear regression analysis was performed with CIMT as dependent variable and adipokines and cardio metabolic risk factors as independent variables. Result The CIMT was higher in diabetic group compared to control group (p Age (B = 0.44 P Conclusion In conclusion, the present study showed that serum levels of RBP4 or total and HMW adiponectin were not potential predictors of CIMT in type 2 diabetic patients who exposed to this risk factor at least for nine years.

  3. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Frystyk, Jan; Højlund, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    and controls and examined possible mechanisms for increased insulin sensitivity during pioglitazone treatment. STUDY SUBJECTS: Thirty PCOS patients randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day, or placebo for 16 weeks and 14 weight-matched healthy females were studied. DESIGN: Total and HMW adiponectin levels were...... measured, and euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps and indirect calorimetry were performed. Delta-values denoted changes during pioglitazone treatment (16 weeks--basal). RESULTS: Pretreatment adiponectin levels were decreased in PCOS patients vs. controls (P ...OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...

  4. Circulating anti-inflammatory adipokines High Molecular Weight Adiponectin and Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) are inhibited in early sepsis, but increase with clinical recovery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, Ingeborg D; Bing, Chen; Ding, Cherlyn; Leuwer, Martin; Hall, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue has been identified as an endocrine organ secreting adipokines involved in metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is reduced in sepsis. High Molecular Weight (HMW) adiponectin, the biologically most relevant molecule, has been investigated very little in human sepsis. Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a novel adipokine and its expression in adipose tissue is positively correlated with adiponectin expression. It is not yet known whether ZAG has a role in sepsis. In this study we assessed levels of HMW adiponectin and ZAG during different stages of sepsis. A prospective observational pilot study was carried out on 21 septic patients. Serum samples were taken on day 1 and 2 post ICU admission and on day of discharge. Samples were analysed for total and HMW adiponectin, HMW/total adiponectin ratio, and ZAG. Results were correlated with clinical and metabolic data. There were no differences in total adiponectin, HMW adiponectin and ZAG plasma concentrations between day 1 (admission) and day 2 of the sepsis episode. Compared to admission, a significant increase in total and HMW adiponectin and ZAG was observed on the day of discharge when clinical improvement had been achieved. There was also an increase in the HMW/total adiponectin ratio at that time. Our data demonstrate an increase in both HMW adiponectin and total adiponectin in patients who had clinically recovered from sepsis. The increase in HMW/total adiponectin ratio with improvement of the clinical condition suggests that HMW adiponectin may have a greater role in the inflammatory process and insulin resistance seen in sepsis. In this pilot study, we have also demonstrated a significant increase in ZAG in critically ill patients temporally related to recovery from sepsis.

  5. High-molecular-weight adiponectin and anthropometric variables among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies about the relationship between high-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMW-adn and anthropometric variables among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been too limited, especially in Japan, where blood collection is not usually performed in the annual health examination at elementary schools. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HMW-adn and anthropometric variables (body mass index [BMI], percent body fat [%BF], waist circumference [WC], and waist-to-height ratio [WHtR] among population-based elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age in the town of Ina, Saitama Prefecture, Japan during 2005–2008 (N = 1675. After excluding 21 subjects because of refusal to participate or incomplete data, data from a total of 1654 subjects (846 boys and 808 girls were analyzed. The height, weight, %BF, and WC of each subject were measured, while blood samples were drawn from the subjects to measure adiponectin levels (HMW-adn and total adiponectin. Childhood obesity was determined according to the age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between adiponectin levels and anthropometric variables were calculated for each sex. Results The anthropometric variables were negatively correlated with HMW-adn in both boys and girls. Correlation coefficients of HMW-adn with anthropometric variables in the obesity group were consistently higher than those in the non-obesity group among both boys and girls. In addition, only WHtR was significantly correlated with HMW-adn regardless of sex and physique (obesity or non-obesity; the correlation coefficient was -0.386 among boys and -0.543 among girls in the obesity group, while it was -0.124 among boys and -0.081 among girls in the non-obesity group. Conclusions HMW-adn was negatively correlated

  6. Sustained High Levels of Both Total and High Molecular Weight Adiponectin in Plasma during the Convalescent Phase of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Are Associated with Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is characterised by an uncontrolled immune response that causes vascular leakage. Adiponectin (APN is an adipocytokine involved in prorevascularisation and immunomodulation. To investigate the possible effects of APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS, total and high molecular weight (HMW APN levels in the plasma of patients with HFRS were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Compared with those in healthy controls, the plasma total and HMW APN levels in patients were elevated to different degrees from the fever onset and remained high at the convalescent phase. Consistent with these results, western blot analysis additionally showed that low molecular weight (LMW, middle molecular weight (MMW, and HMW APN levels were all elevated and contributed to the elevation of the total APN level. Importantly, sustained high levels of total and HMW APN at the convalescent phase were significantly higher in patients with critical disease than those in patients with mild or moderate disease. Moreover, total and HMW APN levels negatively correlated with white blood cell count and positively correlated with platelet count and serum albumin level. These results may provide insights into understanding the roles of total and HMW APN in the pathogenesis of HFRS.

  7. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, p<0.001). When normalised for BMI, total-, HMW-adiponectin concentrations and HMW/total-adiponectin ratio were significantly lower in obese compared to lean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, p<0.001). Our data suggests that there is no significant difference in the circulating concentration of fasting early morning total- or HMW-adiponectin in post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis. The correlation between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and OPG may indicate that adiponectin could influence bone metabolism by altering osteoblast production of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  8. Total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and measures of glucose and lipid metabolism following pioglitazone treatment in a randomized placebo-controlled study in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Frystyk, J.; Hojlund, K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggested that the effect of adiponectin on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism is mediated primarily by the high molecular weight (HMW) form of adiponectin. In the present study we evaluated total and HMW adiponectin in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients...... measured, and euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps and indirect calorimetry were performed. Delta-values denoted changes during pioglitazone treatment (16 weeks--basal). RESULTS: Pretreatment adiponectin levels were decreased in PCOS patients vs. controls (P ....89) and Delta-oxidative glucose metabolism (r = 0.71) and inversely with Delta-fasting free fatty acid (FFA) levels (r = -0.69) and Delta-lipid oxidation (r = -0.73) during insulin stimulation (all P

  9. Gender-Specific Associations between Circulating T-Cadherin and High Molecular Weight-Adiponectin in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W Schoenenberger

    Full Text Available Close relationships exist between presence of adiponectin (APN within vascular tissue and expression of T-cadherin (T-cad on vascular cells. APN and T-cad are also present in the circulation but here their relationships are unknown. This study investigates associations between circulating levels of high molecular weight APN (HMW-APN and T-cad in a population comprising 66 women and 181 men with angiographically proven stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Plasma HMW-APN and T-cad were measured by ELISA and analysed for associations with baseline clinical characteristics and with each other. In multivariable analysis BMI and HDL were independently associated with HMW-APN in both genders, while diabetes and extent of coronary stenosis were independently associated with T-cad in males only. Regression analysis showed no significant association between HMW-APN and T-cad in the overall study population. However, there was a negative association between HMW-APN and T-cad (P=0.037 in a subgroup of young men (age <60 years, had no diabetes and no or 1-vessel CAD which persisted after multivariable analysis with adjustment for all potentially influential variables (P=0.021. In the corresponding subgroup of women there was a positive association between HMW-APN and T-cad (P=0.013 which disappeared after adjustment for HDL. After exclusion of the young men, a positive association (P=0.008 between HMW-APN and T-cad was found for the remaining participants of the overall population which disappeared after adjustment for HDL and BMI. The existence of opposing correlations between circulating HMW-APN and T-cad in male and female patient populations underscores the necessity to consider gender as a confounding variable when evaluating biomarker potentials of APN and T-cad.

  10. Reduction Levels and the Effects of High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin via AMPK/eNOS in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, K; Guo, X; Huang, Q; Tan, Z; Xia, C; Wang, R; Yi, F; Li, W; Liu, J; Li, Y; Guo, S; Wang, H; Ji, Q; Tao, L

    2016-10-01

    Aim: This study was to investigate the change of high-molecula-weight (HMW) adiponectin (APN) isoform, the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and HMW APN isoform, the variation of Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), the effect of HMW APN isoform on AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in Chinese T2DM. Method: 169 patients aged at (48.7±9.4) years and 107 healthy control subjects aged at (42.6±7.8) years took part in this study. Anthropometric measures of the characters were assayed and different APN isoforms, DsbA-L, AMPK and eNOS levels were determined. Results: Ln(sRAGE) and Ln(Adiponectin) were significantly lower and significantly higher for the other characteristics in T2DM. Ln(Adiponectin) was negatively and significantly correlated with WHR, Ln(triglycerides), fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c (%) in control subjects and T2DM patients. Plasma and adipose tissue total APN and HMW APN were significantly reduced in newly diagnosed T2DM patients. DsbA-L was markedly down-regulated in diabetic adipose tissue. HMW APN caused significant decreases in AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation levels of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that total APN levels was closely related to the risk of T2DM and HMW APN reduction was involved in the diabetic vascular AMPK/eNOS signal pathway. The findings will provide insight into novel therapeutic approaches for reducing the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with T2DM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  12. High Molecular Weight Melanoidins from Coffee Brew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of high molecular weight (HMw) coffee melanoidin populations, obtained after ethanol precipitation, was studied. The specific extinction coefficient (Kmix) at 280, 325, 405 nm, sugar composition, phenolic group content, nitrogen content, amino acid composition, and non-protein

  13. Solvothermal synthesis of high molecular weight dithienogermole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solvothermal synthesis of high molecular weight dithienogermole containing conjugated polymers. FEI-BAO ZHANG∗, SU-FANG LV, JIANG-XIONG JIANG and YONG NI∗. Key Laboratory of Organosilicon Chemistry and Material Technology of Ministry of Education, Hangzhou. Normal University, Hangzhou 310012, China.

  14. Sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a high performance polymer having low coefficient of friction, good abrasion resistance, good chemical resistance etc. It is used in shipbuilding, textile industries and also in biomedical applications. UHMWPE is processed by powder processing technique because of ...

  15. Diet-induced weight loss and exercise alone and in combination enhance the expression of adiponectin receptors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but only diet-induced weight loss enhanced circulating adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren K; Bruun, Jens M

    2009-01-01

    by the intervention. Conclusion: Exercise alone and in combination with a diet-induced weight loss enhance the mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors in AT and in SM but only a pronounced hypocaloric-induced weight-loss increases circulating adiponectin in obese subjects.......Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of weight loss and exercise independently and in combination on circulating levels of adiponectin including low molecular weight, medium molecular weight, and high molecular weight adiponectin and expression of adiponectin...... and adiponectin receptors (AdipoR) in adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle (SM). Design and Methods: Seventy-nine obese males and females were randomized into the following: 1) exercise only (12 wk of exercise without diet restriction); 2) hypocaloric diet [8 wk of very low energy diet (600 kcal/d) followed...

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of high molecular weight dithienogermole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dithiadiazole alternate polymers were synthesized by the solvothermal method. Optical properties and molecular weight were investigated by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography. Compared with the results achieved ...

  17. High Molecular Weight Polymers in the New Chemicals Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three categories or types of High Molecular Weight (HMW, 10,000 daltons) polymers typically reviewed by the New Chemicals Program: Soluble, insoluble, and water absorbing. Each of the three types are treated differently.

  18. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and ...

  19. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  20. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W.; Konowalchuk, Jack

    2017-07-18

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods of inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further includes methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  1. Identification of the High Molecular Weight Isoform of Phostensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phostensin is encoded by KIAA1949. 5'-RACEanalysis has been used to identify the translation start site of phostensin mRNA, indicating that it encodes 165 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa on SDS-PAGE. This low-molecular-weight phostensin is present in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and many leukemic cell lines. Phostensin is a protein phosphatase-1(PP1 binding protein. It also contains one actin-binding motif at its C-terminal region and binds to the pointed ends of actin filaments, modulating actin dynamics. In the current study, a high-molecular-weight phostensin is identified by using immunoprecipitationin combination with a proteomic approach. This new species of phostensin is also encoded by KIAA1949 and consists of 613 amino acids with an apparent molecular weight of 110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The low-molecular-weight and high-molecular-weight phostensins were named as phostensin-α and phostensin-β, respectively. Although phostensin-α is the C-terminal region of phostensin-β, it is not degraded from phostensin-β. Phostensin-β is capable of associating with PP1 and actin filaments, and is present in many cell lines.

  2. High-molecular-weight hemolysin of Clostridium tetani.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsui, K; Mitsui, N.; Kobashi, K.; Hase, J

    1982-01-01

    Clostridium tetani excretes hemolysins of two size classes, a high-molecular-weight hemolysin (HMH), which was eluted near void volume of a Sepharose 6B column, and conventional tetanolysin (molecular weight, approximately 50,000). The total hemolysin activity in the culture supernatant increased sharply with growth of bacteria and remained at a high level during autolysis. The content of HMH, however, decreased from 41% at 4 h of culture to 0.4% at the early stage of autolysis. The cell bodi...

  3. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219.......0001). Prospectively, plasma adiponectin concentrations at baseline were not associated with change in weight or BMI before or after adjustment for time of follow-up or after additional adjustment for age at follow-up and sex (all P > 0.3). Our data suggest that low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not play...

  4. Delamination toughness of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Rodriguez J.P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE fibre reinforced composites are an important group of material for armours solutions, where their unique combination of properties could be utilized. A commonly observed failure mode in this kind of unidirectional laminated composites under impact ballistic is delamination between the composite layers. In the present study, an investigation on the delamination toughness behaviour exhibited by UHMWPE composites laminated was made. The interlaminar Mode II critical strain energy release rates of (UHMWPE fibre reinforced composites were characterized using the End Notch Flexural (ENF test. Critical strain energy release rate was obtained from the load – deflection test data using the beam theory expression. It was found that the energy release rate of the composite exhibited a very low value of around 60J/m2 using a moulding pressure of approximately 1200 psi. In order to analyse the delamination resistance of composite, the effects of changing the manufacture process variables and the use of a thermoplastic adhesive film in the composites were investigated. The composite laminates were produced by hot compressing moulding using a film-stacking procedure. It was found that the damage resistance of the UHMWPE composite was influenced by the manufacture method, which affects the Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and the ballistic response of composites.

  5. High molecular weight forms of mammalian respiratory chain complex II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Kovářová

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial respiratory chain is organised into supramolecular structures that can be preserved in mild detergent solubilisates and resolved by native electrophoretic systems. Supercomplexes of respiratory complexes I, III and IV as well as multimeric forms of ATP synthase are well established. However, the involvement of complex II, linking respiratory chain with tricarboxylic acid cycle, in mitochondrial supercomplexes is questionable. Here we show that digitonin-solubilised complex II quantitatively forms high molecular weight structures (CIIhmw that can be resolved by clear native electrophoresis. CIIhmw structures are enzymatically active and differ in electrophoretic mobility between tissues (500 - over 1000 kDa and cultured cells (400-670 kDa. While their formation is unaffected by isolated defects in other respiratory chain complexes, they are destabilised in mtDNA-depleted, rho0 cells. Molecular interactions responsible for the assembly of CIIhmw are rather weak with the complexes being more stable in tissues than in cultured cells. While electrophoretic studies and immunoprecipitation experiments of CIIhmw do not indicate specific interactions with the respiratory chain complexes I, III or IV or enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, they point out to a specific interaction between CII and ATP synthase.

  6. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal....../d less than energy requirements). Plasma HMW, MMW, and LMW forms of adiponectin were quantified using Western blot method. RESULTS: LCD induced comparable weight reduction in responders and non-responders by 8.2 and 7.6 kg. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index decreased by 48......, and LMW were negatively associated with fasting insulin levels at baseline. CONCLUSION: No differences in total plasma adiponectin, HMW, MMW, and LMW forms were observed between responders and non-responders following 10-week LCD, suggesting that adiponectin is not a major determinant of weight loss...

  7. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  8. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic

  9. Synthesis of high molecular weight PEO using non-metal initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-05-19

    A new synthetic method to prepare high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) with a very narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI<1.5) is described. The method involves a metal free initiator system, thus avoiding dangerous, flammable organometallic compounds.

  10. High-molecular-weight HPMA-based polymer drug carriers for delivery to tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, L; Etrych, T

    2016-10-20

    In this work, design and synthesis of high-molecular-weight N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-based polymer drug delivery systems tailored for cancer therapy is summarized. Moreover, the influence of their architecture on tumor accumulation and in vivo anti-cancer efficacy is discussed. Mainly, the high-molecular-weight delivery systems, such as branched, grafted, multi-block, star-like or micellar systems, with molecular weights greater than the renal threshold are discussed and reviewed in detail.

  11. High Molecular Weight Polybenzimidazole Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Steenberg, T.

    2014-01-01

    High temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells under ambient pressure has been achieved by using phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes. To optimize the membrane and fuel cells, high performance polymers were synthesized of molecular weights from 30 to 94 k......Da with good solubility in organic solvents. Membranes fabricated from the polymers were systematically characterized in terms of oxidative stability, acid doping and swelling, conductivity, mechanical strength and fuel cell performance and durability. With increased molecular weights the polymer membranes...

  12. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Charles

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Nural H, He P, Beach T, Sue L, Xia W, Shen Y. Disassembled DJ-1 high molecular weight complex in cortex mitochondria from Parkinson's disease patients Molecular Neurodegeneration 2009, 4:23.

  13. Autoadhesion of High-Molecular-Weight Monodisperse Glassy Polystyrene at unexpected low temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Healing of symmetric interfaces of amorphous anionically polymerized high- and ultra-high-molecular weight (HMW and UHMW, respectively) polystyrene (PS) in a range of the weight-average molecular weight M-w from 102.5 (M-w/M-n = 1.05) to 1110 kg/ mol (M-w/M-n = 1.15) was followed at a constant...

  14. Relationships between lipid profiles and metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and serum high molecular adiponectin in Japanese community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayama Shuzo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies to demonstrate the associations between newly addressed lipid profiles and metabolic syndrome (MetS-associated variables. Methods Study participants without medications for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia {614 men aged 58 ± 14 (mean ± standard deviation; range, 20-89 years and 779 women aged 60 ± 12 (range, 21-88 years} were randomly recruited from a single community at the time of their annual health examination. The association between lipid profiles (total cholesterol (T-C, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-HDL-C, T-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and MetS, Insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and serum HMW adiponectin were analyzed. Results In multiple linear regression analysis, TG/HDL-C and T-C/HDL-C ratios as well as TG showed significantly strong associations with all three MetS-associated variables in both men and women. In men, the ROC curve analyses showed that the best marker for these variables was TG/HDL-C ratio, with the AUC for presence of MetS (AUC, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.87, HOMA-IR (AUC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.70-0.80, and serum HMW adiponectin (AUC, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71, respectively. The T-C/HDL-C ratio, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, and non-HDL-C also discriminated these markers; however all their AUC estimates were lower than TG/HDL-C ratio. These results were similar in women. Conclusion In Japanese community-dwelling adults, lipid ratios of TG/HDL-C, T-C/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C as well as TG and HDL-C were consistently associated with MetS, insulin resistance and serum HMW adiponectin. Lipid ratios may be used as reliable markers.

  15. Short aramid-fiber reinforced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofste, JM; Bergmans, KJR; deBoer, J; Wevers, R; Pennings, AJ

    Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is frequently used in artificial joints because of its high wear resistance. To extend the lifetime of these joints even further, it is necessary to decrease the wear rate. The wear rate may be decreased by blending UHMWPE with short aramid fibers.

  16. Extension induced phase separation and crystallization in semidilute solutions of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Imperiali, Luna; Stepanyan, Roman

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We investigate the influence of controlled uniaxial extension on various flow induced phenomena in semidilute solutions of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMwPE). Concentrations range from 9 w% to 29 w% and the choice of solvent is paraffin oil (PO). The start-up extensional...

  17. Investigation of Plasma Eects in Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Cords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodoru, Steluta; Kusano, Yukihiro; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been widely used because of its high chemical stabil- ity, high impact strength, exibility and low cost. Its eld of applications includes use in composites, packing for microelectronic components and biomaterials, usually requiring its surface...

  18. Isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight ( sup 3 H)hyaluronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrecek, P. (Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology); Soltes, L.; Kallay, Z. (Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Farmakologie); Fugedi, A. (Slovenska Akademia, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Computing Centre)

    1990-10-01

    A high-performance gel permeation chromatographic separation method was developed for the isolation and characterisation of high molecular weight ({sup 3}H)hyaluronic acid. The molecular characteristics of the labelled sample were M{sub w}=3.92 x 10{sup 5} Da, M{sub w}/M{sub n}=1.55. (author).

  19. Autoadhesion of high-molecular-weight polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Y.M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the shear strength of adhesion joints revealed the autoadhesion of high-molecular-weight PS (polydisperse and monodisperse polymers) and PMMA at 24 degrees C, that is 75-85 degrees C below the calorimetric glass transition temperature of the polymer bulk, provided that the time of...

  20. Synthesis of Disentangled Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene for Ultimate Tensile Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Dario; Rastogi, Sanjay; Ronca, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-High Molecular Weight PolyEthylene (UHMWPE) is known to be an engineering material rather than a commodity plastic due to its excellent mechanical properties together with the chemical and high abrasion resistance. The main drawback of this material is the processability due to the very high

  1. High molecular weight poly(L-lactide) and poly(ethylene oxide) blends : Thermal characterization and physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, AJ; Colstee, E; Grijpma, DW; Pennings, AJ

    1996-01-01

    The miscibility of high molecular weight poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) with high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEG) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Ail blends containing up to 50 weight% PEO showed single glass transition temperatures. The PLLA and PEO melting temperatures were

  2. Anti-aging effects of high molecular weight proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masashi; Yamazaki, Shota; Kato, Yoji; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Katagata, Yohtaro

    2012-05-01

    Proteoglycans comprise a family of complex macromolecules consisting of a core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The skin anti-aging effects of oral administration of proteoglycan fractions with different molecular weights from salmon nasal cartilage were investigated in a hairless mouse model of skin aging; aging was caused by repeated ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Three proteoglycan fractions of different molecular weights were prepared from salmon nasal cartilage water extract by ion-exchange column chromatography and gel filtration column chromatography. Physiological and histological analysis of the skin indicated that oral administration of high molecular weight proteoglycan inhibited UVB-induced skin aging, defined as increased erythema, increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL), decreased hydration, and epidermal and dermal hypertrophies. The serum and dorsal skin inflammatory cytokine levels indicated that high molecular weight proteoglycan acts on gut immunity and improves skin by inhibiting surplus inflammatory cytokines produced by UVB irradiation. These results suggest that high molecular weight proteoglycan from salmon nasal cartilage is effective in preventing skin aging.

  3. Synthesis of Ultra High Molecular Weight HPAM and Viscosity Forecast by BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohao CHEN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM is widely used to increase the sweep efficiency of water phase in oil reservoirs. It is very important to select proper polymer for the reservoirs. In this study, a series of ultra high molecular weight HPAMs were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR analysis. Their physical properties were tested under reservoir condition. BP neural network (BPNN was employed to forecast the viscosity of high molecular weight HPAM in produced water. The input indices including molecular weight, solid content, degree of hydrolysis, water-insoluble residue, polymer concentration, temperature of reservoir and salinity of produced water. The results show that all physical properties fulfill the requirements of Q/SY DQ1059-2005. This BPNN can predict the viscosity of ultra high molecular weight HPAM accurately. It is proposed that this BPNN can be used to screen proper polymers for enhance oil recovery.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9698

  4. High molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo for synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2017-05-01

    DNA assembly is the key technology of the emerging interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology. While the assembly of smaller DNA fragments is usually performed in vitro, high molecular weight DNA molecules are assembled in vivo via homologous recombination in the host cell. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the main hosts used for DNA assembly in vivo. Progress in DNA assembly over the last few years has paved the way for the construction of whole genomes. This review provides an update on recent synthetic biology advances with particular emphasis on high molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo in E. coli, B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae. Special attention is paid to the assembly of whole genomes, such as those of the first synthetic cell, synthetic yeast and minimal genomes.

  5. Healing of interfaces of high and ultra-high-molecular- weight polystyrene below the bulk glass transition temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous bulk samples of high-molecular-weight (HMW) polystyrene (PS) with a weight-average molecular weight M-w of 102.5 kg/mol and a number-average molecular weight M. of 97 kg/mol and of ultra-high-molecular-weight PS (UHMWPS) with M-w=1110.5 kg/mol and M-n = 965.6 kg/mol were brought...

  6. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieko Higuchi-Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide.

  7. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  8. Effects of High Molecular Weight Species on Shear-Induced Orientation and Crystallization of Isotactic Polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somani,R.; Yang, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    In situ rheo-SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering) and rheo-WAXD (wide-angle X-ray diffraction) techniques were used to investigate the role of high molecular weight species on the evolution of oriented microstructure in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) melt under shear flow. The two iPP samples, designated as PP-A and PP-B, respectively, had the same number-average (M{sub n}) but different weight-average (M{sub w}) and Z-average (M{sub z}) molecular weights. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) of PP-A and PP-B was such that for MW<10{sup 5} the MWD curves overlapped; whereas in the high MW tail region, the amount of high molecular weight species was higher in PP-B than PP-A. Both samples were subjected to an identical shear condition (rate=60 s{sup -1}, duration=5 s, T=155 degC). In situ 2D SAXS and WAXD images allowed the tracking of shear-induced oriented structures in the melt. It was found that the shish structures evolved much earlier, and the degree of crystal orientation and oriented crystal fractions were higher in PP-B than PP-A. Moreover, PP-B exhibited faster crystallization kinetics than PP-A. These results, along with the predictions of double reptation models of chain motion and experimental studies of chain conformation dynamics in dilute solutions under flow, suggest the following: When a polymer melt that consists of entangled chains of different lengths is deformed, the chain segments aligned with the flow eigenvector can undergo the abrupt coil-stretch-like transition, while other segments would remain in the coiled state. Since, flow-induced orientation decays much more slowly for long chains than for short chains, oriented high molecular weight species play a prominent role in formation of the stretched sections, where shish originates. Our experimental results are strong evidence of the hypothesis that even a small increase in the concentration of high molecular weight species causes a significant increase in the formation, stability and

  9. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siitonen, Niina; Pulkkinen, Leena; Lindström, Jaana; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Eriksson, Johan G; Venojärvi, Mika; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2011-01-01

    ...) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance...

  10. Antarctic snow: metals bound to high molecular weight dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calace, Nicoletta; Nardi, Elisa; Pietroletti, Marco; Bartolucci, Eugenia; Pietrantonio, Massimiliana; Cremisini, Carlo

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we studied some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, U) probably associated to high molecular weight organic compounds present in the Antarctic snow. Snow-pit samples were collected and analysed for high molecular weight fraction and heavy metals bound to them by means of ultrafiltration treatment. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMW-DOM) recovered by ultrafiltration showed a dissolved organic carbon concentration (HMW-DOC) of about 18-83% of the total dissolved organic carbon measured in Antarctic snow. The characterisation of HMW-DOM fraction evidenced an ageing of organic compounds going from surface layers to the deepest ones with a shift from aliphatic compounds and proteins/amino sugars to more high unsaturated character and less nitrogen content. The heavy metals associated to HMW-DOM fraction follows the order: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd ∼ As ∼ U. The percentage fraction of metals bound to HMW-DOM respect to total metal content follows the order: Cu > Pb > Zn, Cd in agreement with humic substance binding ability (Irwing-William series). Going down to depth of trench, all metals except arsenic, showed a high concentration peak corresponding to 2.0-2.5 m layer. This result was attributed to particular structural characteristic of organic matter able to form different type of complexes (1:1, 1:2, 1:n) with metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterisation of the high-molecular weight fructan isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; Dax, T G; Praznik, W; Falk, H

    2000-09-08

    A high molecular weight fructan was isolated from garlic and the structure determined by enzymatic, chemical and spectroscopic (NMR) methods. It was found that the garlic fructan belongs to the neokestose family. It has a (2 --> 1)-linked beta-D-Fruf backbone with (2 --> 6)-linked beta-D-Fruf side chains. A structural model was postulated for a degree of polymerisation of about 58. This model was substantiated using an endo-inulinase purified from Aspergillus ficuum and by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  12. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  13. Equal channel angular extrusion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinitz, Steven D., E-mail: Steven.D.Reinitz.TH@Dartmouth.edu; Engler, Alexander J.; Carlson, Evan M.; Van Citters, Douglas W.

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common bearing surface in total joint arthroplasty, is subject to material property tradeoffs associated with conventional processing techniques. For orthopaedic applications, radiation-induced cross-linking is used to enhance the wear resistance of the material, but cross-linking also restricts relative chain movement in the amorphous regions and hence decreases toughness. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) is proposed as a novel mechanism by which entanglements can be introduced to the polymer bulk during consolidation, with the aim of imparting the same tribological benefits of conventional processing without complete inhibition of chain motion. ECAE processing at temperatures near the crystalline melt for UHMWPE produces (1) increased entanglements compared to control materials; (2) increasing entanglements with increasing temperature; and (3) mechanical properties between values for untreated polyethylene and for cross-linked polyethylene. These results support additional research in ECAE-processed UHMWPE for joint arthroplasty applications. - Highlights: • A new processing method for ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is introduced. • The process produces a highly entangled polyethylene material. • Entanglements are hypothesized to enhance the wear resistance of polyethylene. • This process eliminates the trade-off between mechanical and wear properties.

  14. Effect of Weight Reduction Following Bariatric Surgery on Serum Visfatin and Adiponectin Levels in Morbidly Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adipokines are signaling and mediator proteins secreted from adipose tissue. A novel adipokine, visfatin, was reported as a protein which was mainly expressed in visceral adipose tissue. Controversial results have been shown regarding the changes of adipokines following weight reduction. So we investigated the effects of weight reduction on serum concentrations of adiponectin and visfatin in morbidly obese subjects. Methods: 35 severely obese patients (26 females and 9 males, aged 15-58 years, were studied. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical parameters as well as adiponectin and visfatin were analyzed before and 6 weeks after weight reduction. Results: Anthropometric indices decreased significantly. Blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride were reduced significantly. The reduction of visfatin and the elevation of adiponectin were significant as well. However, other parameters like fasting glucose and insulin did not change. Moreover, we could not find any significant correlation between the change of serum visfatin and that of adiponectin. Conclusions: 6-week weight reduction after bariatric surgery resulted in decreased serum visfatin and increased adiponectin levels. However, we cannot find any significant correlation between changes of adiponectin, visfatin, BMI, waist circumference, and insulin resistance. Further studies with different design are suggested to clarify these associations.

  15. Adiponectin promoter activator NP-1 reduces body weight and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonia; Pavón, Francisco J; Suarez, Juan; Rivera, Patricia; Vida, Margarita; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; Alonso, Mónica; Martínez, Ana; López-Ogalla, Javier; Alonso-Gascón, Mercedes; Santamaría, Gema; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Pérez-Valero, Vidal; Baixeras, Elena; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Enhancement of adiponectin level has been shown to have beneficial effects, including antiobesity, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. This evidence supports the therapeutic utility of adiponectin in complicated obesity. The present study characterized the in vivo effects of sustained adiponectin release by NP-1, a new class of thiazol derivative that increases adiponectin levels. Acute administration of NP-1 reduced feeding, increased plasma adiponectin, and improved insulin sensitivity without inducing malaise, as revealed by conditioned taste aversion studies. Short-term (7 days) treatment with NP-1 also reduced feeding and body weight gain and increased phosphorylation of AMPK in muscle, a main intracellular effector of adiponectin. NP-1 was also evaluated in diet-induced obesity, and adult male Wistar rats were fed two different types of diet: a standard high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (SD) and a high-fat diet (HFD). Once obesity was established, animals were treated daily with NP-1 (5 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days. Chronic NP-1 induced body weight loss and reduction of food intake and resulted in both a marked decrease in liver steatosis and an improvement of biochemical indexes of liver damage in HFD-fed rats. However, a marked induction of tolerance in adiponectin gene transcription and release was observed after chronic NP-1 with respect to the acute actions of this drug. The present results support the role of adiponectin signaling in diet-induced obesity and set in place a potential use of compounds able to induce adiponectin release for the treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver, with the limits imposed by the induction of pharmacological tolerance.

  16. Surface modification of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers via the sequential photoinduced graft polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhi; Zhang Wei; Wang Xinwei [Research and Development Center of Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry, 345 YunLing Road (East), Shanghai 200062 (China); Mai Yongyi, E-mail: SRICIshanghai@163.com [Research and Development Center of Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry, 345 YunLing Road (East), Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhang Yumei [Research and Development Center of Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry, 345 YunLing Road (East), Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2011-06-15

    In this study, a sequential photoinduced graft polymerization process was proposed to improve the poor interfacial bonding property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers. The polymerization was initiated by dormant semipinacol (SP) groups and carried out in a thin liquid layer. Methacrylic acid (MAA) and acryl amide (AM) were grafted stepwise onto the surface of UHMWPE fibers. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the grafting. The analysis result of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) indicated the structure of grafted chains. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the apparent morphology changing, and the grafted layers were observed. Interfacial shear stress (IFSS) test of the modified fibers showed an extensively improved interfacial bonding property. The active groups grafted onto the fibers would supply enough anchor points for the chemical bonding with various resins or further reactions.

  17. Effect of a high-molecular-weight component of cranberry on constituents of dental biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Doron; Feldman, Mark; Ofek, Itzhak; Weiss, Ervin I

    2004-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that high molecular-weight non-dialysable material derived from cranberry juice (NDM) inhibits co-aggregation of a variety of oral bacteria. In the present study, we examined the effect of NDM on several constituents of the dental biofilm, glucosyltransferase (GTF) and fructosyltransferase (FTF), as well as on the adhesion of Streptococcus sobrinus. The activity of immobilized and soluble GTF and FTF was inhibited by NDM (P > 0.05). NDM also inhibited adhesion of S. sobrinus to hydroxyapatite (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that NDM may affect biofilm formation. One of the proposed mechanisms is via inhibition of extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, which promote the sucrose-dependent adhesion of oral bacteria as S. sobrinus.

  18. Possible hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions on type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Akira; Hegazy, Sahar; Kabbash, Amal; Wahab, Engy Abd-El

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vera L. high molecular weight fractions (AHM) containing less than 10 ppm of barbaloin and polysaccharide (MW: 1000 kDa) with glycoprotein, verectin (MW: 29 kDa), were prepared by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze–dry technique with microwave and far infrared radiation. AHM produced significant decrease in blood glucose level sustained for 6 weeks of the start of the study. Significant decrease in triglycerides was only observed 4 weeks after treatment and continued thereafter. No deterious effects on kidney and liver functions were apparent. Treatment of diabetic patients with AHM may relief vascular complications probably via activation of immunosystem. PMID:23964163

  19. Mobile-bearing knee systems: ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear and design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, A Seth; Heim, Christine S

    2005-01-01

    In June 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Orthopaedic Advisory Panel recommended the reclassification of mobile-bearing knee systems for general use. This reflects the increasing use of mobile-bearing knee systems internationally, which is currently limited in the United States by regulatory requirement. Mobile-bearing knee systems are distinguished from conventional, fixed-plateau systems in that they allow dual-surface articulation between an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene insert and metallic femoral and tibial tray components. Their in vivo success is dependent on patient selection, design, and material choice, as well as surgical precision during implantation. Laboratory and clinical experience extending over 25 years with individual systems suggests that mobile-bearing knee systems represent a viable treatment option for patients with knee arthrosis.

  20. Preparation of high molecular weight gDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Siddanagouda S; Nie, Xiaojun; Feng, Kewei; Weining, Song

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable large-insert DNA libraries for physical mapping, positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis, complete genome sequencing, and evolutionary studies. Due to their stability and relative simplicity BAC libraries are most preferred over other approaches for cloning large genomic DNA fragments for large-insert libraries. Isolation of intact high molecular weight (HMW) DNA is a critical step underlying the success of large-insert genomic DNA library construction. It requires the isolation of purified nuclei, embedding them into LMP agarose plugs, restriction digestion of the plugs, and quite often size selection using PFGE and electro-elution of insert DNA. The construction of BAC libraries is complex and challenging for most molecular laboratories. To facilitate the construction of BAC libraries, we present a step-by-step protocol for isolation of HMW DNA and construction of plant BAC libraries.

  1. Synthesis of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene: A differentiate material for specialty applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmanabhan, Sudhakar, E-mail: sudhakar.padmanabhan@ril.co [Research Centre, Vadodara Manufacturing Division, Reliance Industries Limited, Vadodara, 391 346, Gujarat (India); Sarma, Krishna R.; Rupak, Kishor; Sharma, Shashikant [Research Centre, Vadodara Manufacturing Division, Reliance Industries Limited, Vadodara, 391 346, Gujarat (India)

    2010-04-15

    Tailoring the synthesis of a suitable Ziegler-Natta (ZN) catalyst coupled with optimized polymerization conditions using a suitable activator holds the key for an array of differentiated polymers with diverse and unique properties. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is one such polymer which we have synthesized using TiCl{sub 4} anchored on MgCl{sub 2} as the support and activated using AlRR'{sub 2} (where R, R' = iso-prenyl or isobutyl) under specific conditions. Here in we have accomplished a process for synthesizing UHMWPE in hydrocarbon as the medium with molecular weights ranging from 5 to 10 million g/mole. The differentiated polymers exhibited the desired properties such as particle size distribution (PSD), average particle size (APS), bulk density (BD) and molecular weight (MW) with controlled amount of fine and coarse particles. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) reflected the material to have uniform particle size distribution with a spherical morphology. The extent of entanglement was determined from thermal studies and it was found to be highly entangled.

  2. Characteristics and potential functions of human milk adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, David S; Woo, Jessica G; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2010-02-01

    Adiponectin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue, whose circulating levels are inversely related to adiposity and inflammation. Adiponectin circulates as oligomers, from the low-molecular-weight trimer to the high-molecular-weight octodecamer (18 mer). Each oligomer has distinct biological activities, which include enhancement of insulin sensitivity and metabolic control and suppression of inflammation. Adiponectin occurs in human milk at higher concentrations than leptin. The adiponectin in human milk is almost entirely of the high-molecular-weight form, the form with the highest activity in controlling many types of metabolic processes. Human adiponectin fed to infant mice is transported across the intestinal mucosa into the serum. An inverse relationship between adiponectin levels in milk and adiposity (weight-for-height) of the breast-fed infant was observed and could be due to modulation of infant metabolism by milk adiponectin and may be related to the observed protection against obesity by breast-feeding. Human milk may be a medium whereby the hormonal milieu (in response to internal factors and the environment) of the mother can be used to communicate with the breast-fed infant to modify infant metabolic processes. Transmission of information from mother to infant through milk may allow adaptation to fluctuating environmental conditions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New and rapid procedure for the isolation of ultra-high molecular weight eukaryotic DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.; Meincke, L.J.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have developed a novel procedure that permits the rapid extraction and isolation of ultra-high molecular weight DNA from avian or mammalian cells using dialysis against a solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Cells harvested by centrifugation and washed twice in ice-cold Ca/sup + +/- and Mg/sup + +/-free phosphate buffered saline were resuspended in 5 ml 0.01 M Tris-Cl (pH 8.0); 0.001 M EDTA (TE); sodium dodecyl sulfate and proteinase K were added to final concentrations of 0.1% and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. After incubation at 37/sup 0/C overnight, the viscous solution was transferred to a mini-collodian bag and concentrated by dialysis against 4-5 changes of 20% PEG in TE over a period of 5 hours at RT. Concentrated samples were desalted by dialysis against fresh TE for two 15 minute intervals. DNA obtained using this procedure gives A/sub 260//A/sub 280/ consistently >1.8. Analysis of DNA size using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a distribution of fragments >500 Kb in length. Further measurements examined were (1) restriction enzyme digestibility, (2) ligation efficiency of restricted DNA, and (3) cloning efficiency using the lambda vector Ch21A. This novel methodology offers a valuable alternative protocol for rapid purification of ultrahigh molecular weight DNA for various applications in molecular biology.

  4. Effects of Microbubble Size on Ultrasound-Induced Transdermal Delivery of High-Molecular-Weight Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ho Liao

    Full Text Available The transdermal delivery of a wide range of high-molecular-weight drugs is limited by the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis representing a significant barrier to penetration across the skin. This study first determined the different effects of different-size ultrasound (US contrast agents and microbubbles (MBs for enhancing the transdermal delivery of high-molecular-weight drugs. The effects of US-mediated different-size (1.4, 2.1, and 3.5 μm MBs (as a contrast agent and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate (VC-IP on enhancing skin transdermal delivery were demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that at a power density of 3 W/cm2 the penetration depth in group US combined with 3.5-μm MBs and penetrating VC-IP (U+3.5 was 34% and 14% higher than those in groups US combined with 1.4-μm MBs and penetrating VC-IP (U+1.4 and US combined with 2.1-μm MBs and penetrating VC-IP (U+2.1, respectively, for the agarose phantoms, while the corresponding increases for pigskin were 37% and 19%.In terms of the skin permeation of VC-IP, the VC-IP concentration in group U+3.5 was 23% and 10% higher in than those in groups U+1.4 and U+2.1, respectively. The whitening effect (luminosity index of mice skin in group U+3.5 had increased (significantly by 28% after 1 week, by 34% after 2 weeks, and tended to stabilize after 3 weeks (45% in C57BL/6J mice over a 4-week experimental period. The results obtained in this study indicate that combining US with MBs of different sizes can produce different degrees of skin permeability so as to enhance the delivery of VC-IP to inhibit melanogenesis, without damaging the skin in mice.

  5. The impact of rapid weight loss on the leptin, adiponectin levels, and insulinresistance among adult free style wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, T; Farzad, N; Tagie, G Mohammad; Ranjbar, K

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies, shows the effective role of adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ. Leptin level increases in obese bodies while adiponectin as an antirisk factor reduction that contributes to decrease insulin resistance and anthropometric profiles. Hence, expected to the negative effects of weight loss on wrestlers' physiological function; leptin and adiponectin behaviors and insulin resistance in young wrestlers during their rapid weight loss program were examined. Fifteen young (23±1 yr) freestyle wrestlers with (weight 67.6±0.8 kg, BMI 22.5±0.2 kg/m²) in two (60 and 66 kg) weight categories were selected randomly. Caloric intake and anthropometric characteristics measured by standard methods. The leptin and adiponectin hormones and insulin resistance index were measured by sandwich and HOMA-IR methods respectively. Wrestlers performed a week rapid weight loss Protocol (average of 4% of body weight loss) under the supervision of their coach. Eventually, selected factors were measured after 12 and 24 hours of recovery, again. The rapid weight loss (4%) program had a significantly reduced impact on anthropometric factors; leptin level, insulin resistance, and increased beta cell function, while the changes of adiponectin were not significant after weight loss. Findings of this study shows that dramatic decrease in anthropometric factors follow the weight loss program that having a significant decrease on leptin, L/A ratio and HOMA-IR, without significant changes in adiponectin levels. These changes may have harmful physiological effects on wrestlers' bodies but they can be useful to regulate of fatty acid, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance.

  6. Synthesis of Disentangled Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Influence of Reaction Medium on Material Properties

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    Giuseppe Forte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of ethylene to Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE in certain reaction conditions allows synthesis of nascent powders with a considerably lower amount of entanglements: the material obtained is of great interest from both academic and industrial viewpoints. From an academic point of view, it is interesting to follow the evolution of the metastable melt state with the progressive entanglements formation. Industrially, it is valuable to have a solvent-free processing route for the production of high modulus, high strength tapes. Since the polymer synthesis is performed in the presence of a solvent, it is interesting to investigate the influence that the reaction medium can have on the catalyst activity, resultant molecular characteristics, and polymer morphology at the macroscopic as wells as microscopic level. In this paper, we present the effect that two typical polymerization solvents, toluene and heptane, and mixtures of them, have on the catalytic performance and on the polymer properties. The observations are that an unexpected increase of catalyst activity, accompanied by a significant improvement in mechanical properties, is found when using a carefully chosen mixture of solvents. A tentative explanation is given on the basis of the presented results.

  7. Unique fluorescence and high-molecular weight characteristics of protein isolates from manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Hohmann, Christoph; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the fluorescence properties (λex/em=350/450nm) and molecular size of proteins from manuka and non-manuka honey. The fluorescence characteristics of non-manuka and manuka proteins differ markedly, whereby manuka honey protein fluorescence increases with increasing methylglyoxal (MGO) content of the honey. It was concluded that manuka honey proteins are modified due to MGO-derived glycation and crosslinking reactions, thus resulting in fluorescent structures. The molecular size of honey proteins was studied using size exclusion chromatography. Manuka honey proteins contain a significantly higher amount of high molecular weight (HMW) fraction compared to non-manuka honey proteins. Moreover, HMW fraction of manuka honey proteins was stable against reducing agents such as dithiothreitol, whereas HMW fraction of non-manuka honey proteins was significantly decreased. Thus, the chemical nature of manuka honey HMW fraction is probably covalent MGO crosslinking, whereas non-manuka HMW fraction is caused by disulfide bonds. Storage of a non-manuka honey, which was artificially spiked with MGO and DHA, did not induce above mentioned fluorescence properties of proteins during 84days of storage. Hence, MGO-derived fluorescence and crosslinking of honey proteins can be useful parameters to characterize manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lithium-Salt-Containing High-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene-block-Polyethylene Oxide Block Copolymer Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Rasool, Majid; Brunner, Simon; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-08-10

    Ionic conductivity in relation to the morphology of lithium-doped high-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer films was investigated as solid-state membranes for lithium-ion batteries. The tendency of the polyethylene (PEO) block to crystallize was highly suppressed by increasing both the salt-doping level and the temperature. The PEO crystallites completely vanished at a salt-doping ratio of Li/EO>0.08, at which the PEO segments were hindered from entering the crystalline unit of the PEO chain. A kinetically trapped lamella morphology of PS-b-PEO was observed, due to PEO crystallization. The increase in the lamella spacing with increasing salt concentration was attributed to the conformation of the PEO chain rather than the volume contribution of the salt or the previously reported increase in the effective interaction parameter. Upon loading the salt, the PEO chains changed from a compact/highly folded conformation to an amorphous/expanded-like conformation. The ionic conductivity was enhanced by amorphization of PEO and thereby the mobility of the PEO blocks increased upon increasing the salt-doping level. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A Transposon Screen Identifies Genetic Determinants of Vibrio cholerae Resistance to High-Molecular-Weight Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Tobias; Delgado, Fernanda; Umans, Benjamin D; Gerding, Matthew A; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-08-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are notoriously resistant to a variety of high-molecular-weight antibiotics due to the limited permeability of their outer membrane (OM). The basis of OM barrier function and the genetic factors required for its maintenance remain incompletely understood. Here, we employed transposon insertion sequencing to identify genes required for Vibrio cholerae resistance to vancomycin and bacitracin, antibiotics that are thought to be too large to efficiently penetrate the OM. The screen yielded several genes whose protein products are predicted to participate in processes important for OM barrier functions and for biofilm formation. In addition, we identified a novel factor, designated vigA (for vancomycin inhibits growth), that has not previously been characterized or linked to outer membrane function. The vigA open reading frame (ORF) codes for an inner membrane protein, and in its absence, cells became highly sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics (vancomycin and ramoplanin) and bacitracin but not to other large antibiotics or detergents. In contrast to wild-type (WT) cells, the vigA mutant was stained with fluorescent vancomycin. These observations suggest that VigA specifically prevents the periplasmic accumulation of certain large antibiotics without exerting a general role in the maintenance of OM integrity. We also observed marked interspecies variability in the susceptibilities of Gram-negative pathogens to glycopeptides and bacitracin. Collectively, our findings suggest that the OM barrier is not absolute but rather depends on specific OM-antibiotic interactions. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. [Influence of high molecular weight polyethylene on viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gaohong; Lin, Angru; Pei, Guoxian; Hu, Basheng

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the influence of high molecular weight polyethylene (HMWP) on the viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation in the process of fracture healing, the osteoblasts derived from adult human bone marrow were cultured in HMWP maceration extract and normal culture medium. The viability of the osteoblasts was measured by MTT assay, and the function of the osteoblasts was detected by use of alkaline phosphatase test kit. The locked double-plating (steel plate and HMWP plate) was implanted and fixed at the artificial fracture of distal femur of dogs. Specimens were gained at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks postoperatively, examined with macroscopy, microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that HMWP did no harm to osteoblasts. There is no significant difference in activities of proliferation and alkaline phosphatase between HMWP maceration extract and normal culture medium at each observation time of at 2,4,8, and 14 dyas (P>0. 05). Bone tissue under the implanted HMWP plate manifested no absorption; the new bones formed under the HMWP plate and gradually matured as time went on. It is demonstrated in this study that HMWP has no adverse influence on the viability of osteoblasts and new bone formation and it can be used as internal fixation implant in treating fractures.

  11. Impact of static pressure on transmembrane fluid exchange in high molecular weight cut off microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiangtao; Hjort, Klas; Larsson, Anders; Dahlin, Andreas P

    2014-04-01

    With the interest of studying larger biomolecules by microdialysis (MD), this sampling technique has reached into the ultrafiltration region of fluid exchange, where fluid recovery (FR) has a strong dependence on pressure. Hence in this study, we focus on the fluid exchange across the high molecular weight cut off MD membrane under the influence of the static pressure in the sampling environment. A theoretical model is presented for MD with such membranes, where FR has a linear dependence upon the static pressure of the sample. Transmembrane (TM) osmotic pressure difference and MD perfusion rate decide how fast FR increases with increased static pressure. A test chamber for in vitro MD under static pressure was constructed and validated. It can hold four MD probes under controlled pressurized conditions. Comparison showed good agreement between experiment and theory. Moreover, test results showed that the fluid recovery of the test chamber MD can be set accurately via the chamber pressure, which is controlled by sample injection into the chamber at precise rate. This in vitro system is designed for modelling in vivo MD in cerebrospinal fluid and studies with biological samples in this system may be good models for in vivo MD.

  12. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them.

  13. Chronic Toxicity Of High Molecular Weight Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon- Pyrene On Freshwater Cyanobacterium Anabaena Fertlissima Rao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasha G Patel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the consequences of Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon – Pyrene in response to growth, pigments and metabolic study on Anabaena fertilissima Rao. Test organisms were treated at different doses and encountered LC50 (Lethal concentration at which 50% growth reduction occur concentration separately at 1.5 mg/l, 3.0 mg/l and 6.0 mg/l respectively for Anabaena fertilissima Rao. The influence of Pyrene on growth, pigments, release of metabolites such as carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, phenols was carried out. The test doses caused a concentration dependent decrease in pigments like carotenoids and phycobilliproteins and showed more sensitivity to pyrene. Depletion of carbohydrate by 13% to 81% and proteins by 47% to 93% was encountered with rise in pyrene concentrations after 16th day of exposure. However, phenols were found to rise by 27% to 50% with increased pyrene concentrations on the contrary, amino acids were reported to decline by 79% to 92%. This study therefore suggests high molecular weight pyrene that decreases in metabolite content and enzyme activity can be used as a signal of PAHs toxicity in cyanobacteria. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 175-183 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9220

  14. Effects of a high molecular weight toxin from Physalia physalis on glutamate responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, R; Menéndez, R; Garateix, A; Garcia, M; Chávez, M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a high molecular weight toxin from Physalia physalis (P3) were investigated on glutamate evoked potentials in snail (Zachrysia guanesis) neurons and in crayfish (Cambarus clarkii) neuromuscular junction. The glutamate evoked potentials of snail neurons were reversibly blocked by P3 in a dose-dependent manner (2-200 microM). A reversible blocking action was also found for P3 on excitatory junctional potentials and on glutamate potentials of crayfish at a concentration range of 6 nM-60 microM. Experiments carried out with independent stimulation of the excitatory and inhibitory nerves showed that the effect of P3 (60 nM-10 microM) was exerted predominantly on excitatory junctional potentials. However, at higher doses (greater than 10 microM) a slight reduction of the inhibitory potentials was also observed. These results suggest that P3 reversibly blocks glutamate receptors. Thus, it could be a promising tool for further studies on glutamatergic transmission.

  15. Selective laser sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimell, J T; Marquis, P M

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a relatively new technology, which although prominent in the engineering industry is only just starting to make an impact in the medical field. Its current medical uses are mainly confined to surgical planning and teaching, but the technology also has the potential to allow for patient-tailored prostheses. The work reported here describes the application of a simplified selective laser sintering apparatus with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The morphology and chemistry of the starting powders and lased material have been characterized using Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy and a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that solid linear continuous bodies could be formed, but material shrinkage caused problems when trying to form sheet-like structures. The porosity of the formed material was also a concern. The material exposed to the laser beam was shown to have undergone degradation in terms of chain scission, cross-linking, and oxidation. It has been concluded that to apply this technology to the fabrication of UHMWPE devices requires the development of improved starting powders, in particular with increased density. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Effect of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene thickness on contact mechanics in total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deen, M; García-Fiñana, M; Jin, Z M

    2006-10-01

    One of the important design parameters in current knee joint replacements is the thickness of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial insert, yet there is no clear definition of the upper limit of the 'thick' polyethylene insert. Using one design knee implant and subjecting it to the physiological loads encountered throughout the gait cycle, measurements of the lengths of contact imprints generated were compared with the corresponding theoretical predictions for different insert thicknesses under the same applied load. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test whether the dimensions of contact imprints are influenced by UHMWPE thickness. Good agreement was obtained between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements of the dimensions of contact imprints when the knee was at 60 degrees flexion. Therefore, it was possible to estimate the contact pressure at the articulating surface using the theoretical model. Contact imprint dimensions increased with increasing applied load. Statistical analysis of the experimental data revealed that, at 0 degree flexion, the overall imprint dimensions increased as the UHMWPE thickness increased from 8 to 20 mm. However, the increment was not significant when the thickness subinterval 10-15 mm was considered. Furthermore, at 60 degrees flexion, thickness was not a significant factor for the overall imprint dimensions. No evidence was found from the data to suggest that an increment in polyethylene thickness over 10 mm would significantly reduce the contact imprint dimensions. These findings suggest that thicker inserts can be avoided, as they require unnecessary bone resection.

  17. Effect of surface roughness and sterilization on bacterial adherence to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnari, T J; Esteban, J; Zamora, N; Fernandez, R; López-Santos, C; Yubero, F; Mariscal, D; Puertolas, J A; Gomez-Barrena, E

    2010-07-01

    Sterilization with ethylene oxide (EO) and gas plasma (GP) are well-known methods applied to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) surfaces in the belief that they prevent major material changes caused by gamma irradiation. However, the influence of these surface sterilization methods on bacterial adherence to UHMWPE is unknown. UHMWPE samples with various degrees of roughness (0.3, 0.8 and 2.0 μm) were sterilized with either GP or EO. The variations in hydrophobicity, surface free energy and surface functional groups were investigated before and after sterilization. Sterilized samples were incubated with either Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis in order to study bacterial adherence to these materials. Fewer bacteria adhered to UHMWPE after sterilization with EO than after sterilization with GP, especially to the smoothest surfaces. No changes in chemical composition of the UHMWPE surface due to sterilization were observed using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis. The decreased bacterial adherence to UHMWPE found at the smoothest surfaces after sterilization with EO was not directly related to changes in chemical composition. Increased bacterial adherence to rougher surfaces was associated with increased polar surface energy of EO-sterilized surfaces.

  18. Protective Effect of Intravenous High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycol on Fatty Liver Preservation

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    Mohamed Bejaoui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI leads to significant tissue damage in liver surgery. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs are water soluble nontoxic polymers that have proved their effectiveness against IRI. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential protective effects of intravenous administration of a high molecular weight PEG of 35 kDa (PEG 35 in steatotic livers subjected to cold ischemia reperfusion. In this study, we used isolated perfused rat liver model to assess the effects of PEG 35 intravenous administration after prolonged cold ischemia (24 h, 4°C and after reperfusion (2 h, 37°C. Liver injury was measured by transaminases levels and mitochondrial damage was determined by confocal microscopy assessing mitochondrial polarization (after cold storage and by measuring glutamate dehydrogenase activity (after reperfusion. Also, cell signaling pathways involved in the physiopathology of IRI were assessed by western blot technique. Our results show that intravenous administration of PEG 35 at 10 mg/kg ameliorated liver injury and protected the mitochondria. Moreover, PEG 35 administration induced a significant phosphorylation of prosurvival protein kinase B (Akt and activation of cytoprotective factors e-NOS and AMPK. In conclusion, intravenous PEG 35 efficiently protects steatotic livers exposed to cold IRI.

  19. The physical and chemical properties of plasma treated ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Teodoru, Steluta; Hansen, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    polymer assures maximum physical adhesion to transfer loads uniformly. Plasma treatment of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers is shown to significantly increase the amount of oxygen in the surface. There are two distinct types of surfaces in both the plasma treated and the untreated...... UHMWPE fibers. One type is typical of polyethylene (PE) polymers while the other is characteristic of the oxygenated surface at much higher values of HSP. The oxygenated surface of the plasma treated fibers has the HSP δD, δP, and δH equal to 16.5, 15.3, and 8.2, compared to the pure PE surface with HSP...... at 18.0, 1.2, and 1.4, all in MPa½. The dispersion parameter has been lowered somewhat by the plasma treatment, while the polar and hydrogen bonding parameters are much higher. The HSP methodology predicts enhanced adhesion is possible by skillful use of anhydride and nitrile functional groups in matrix...

  20. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments on Epoxy/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Composite Panels Reinforced with Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Suman; Laughman, Jay W.; Armada, Carlos A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Barrera, Enrique V.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composites with multi-functional capabilities are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) reinforced with high strength fibers provide a lightweight and high strength alternative to metals and metal alloys conventionally used in aerospace architectures. Novel reinforcements such as nanofillers offer potential to improve the mechanical properties and add multi-functionality such as radiation resistance and sensing capabilities to the PMCs. This paper reports the hypervelocity impact (HVI) test results on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites reinforced with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT). Woven UHMWPE fabrics, in addition to providing excellent impact properties and high strength, also offer radiation resistance due to inherent high hydrogen content. SWCNT have exceptional mechanical and electrical properties. BNNT (figure 1) have high neutron cross section and good mechanical properties that add multi-functionality to this system. In this project, epoxy based UHMWPE composites containing SWCNT and BNNT are assessed for their use as bumper shields and as intermediate plates in a Whipple Shield for HVI resistance. Three composite systems are prepared to compare against one another: (I) Epoxy/UHMWPE, (II) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT and (III) Epoxy/UHMWPE/SWCNT/BNNT. Each composite is a 10.0 by 10.0 by 0.11 cm3 panel, consisting of 4 layers of fabrics arranged in cross-ply orientation. Both SWCNT and BNNT are 0.5 weight % of the fabric preform. Hypervelocity impact tests are performed using a two-stage light gas gun at Rice University

  1. High molecular weight of polysaccharides from Hericium erinaceus against amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jai-Hong; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Lien, Yi-Yang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Sheu, Shyang-Chwen

    2016-06-07

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese food and medicine. HE extracts from the fruiting body and mycelia not only exhibit immunomodulatory, antimutagenic and antitumor activity but also have neuroprotective properties. Here, we purified HE polysaccharides (HEPS), composed of two high molecular weight polysaccharides (1.7 × 10(5) Da and 1.1 × 10(5) Da), and evaluated their protective effects on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. HEPS were prepared and purified using a 95 % ethanol extraction method. The components of HEPS were analyzed and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The neuroprotective effects of the polysaccharides were evaluated through a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and an MTT assay and by quantifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cells. Our results showed that 250 μg/ml HEPS was harmless and promoted cell viability with 1.2 μM Aβ treatment. We observed that the free radical scavenging rate exceeded 90 % when the concentration of HEPS was higher than 1 mg/mL in cells. The HEPS decreased the production of ROS from 80 to 58 % in a dose-dependent manner. Cell pretreatment with 250 μg/mL HEPS significantly reduced Aβ-induced high MMPs from 74 to 51 % and 94 to 62 % at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Finally, 250 μg/mL of HEPS prevented Aβ-induced cell shrinkage and nuclear degradation of PC12 cells. Our results demonstrate that HEPS exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in neurons.

  2. Antiedematogenic and antioxidant properties of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction of Calotropis procera latex in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; de Araújo Viana, Carolina; Ramos, Marcio V; Kumar, Vijay L

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of Calotropis procera latex on edema formation and oxidative stress in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation. A sub-plantar injection of carrageenan was given to induce edema in the hind paw of the rat. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex was evaluated following intravenous administration (5 and 25 mg/kg body weight) and was compared with that of diclofenac given orally (5 mg/kg). The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the inflamed paw tissue at the end of the study. The high molecular weight protein fraction obtained from the latex of C. procera produced a dose-dependent inhibition of edema formation that was accompanied by normalization of levels of oxidative stress markers (GSH and TBARS) and MPO, a marker for neutrophils in the paw tissue. The high molecular weight protein fraction of C. procera latex ameliorates acute inflammation in the paw through its antioxidant effect.

  3. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siitonen, Niina; Pulkkinen, Leena; Lindström, Jaana; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Eriksson, Johan G; Venojärvi, Mika; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2011-01-10

    Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507) were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34) years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p body weight at baseline and in the longitudinal analyses. The rs266729 C allele and the rare minor alleles of rs2241766 and rs2082940 were associated with an increased adjusted hazard ratio of developing T2DM. The differences in baseline serum adiponectin concentrations were seen according to rs16861210, rs17366568, rs2241766, rs6773957 and rs2082940 and differences in the change of serum adiponectin levels from baseline to the four year examination were seen according to rs16861205, especially in subjects who were able to lose weight during the first

  4. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  5. Radiation sterilization of medical devices. Effects of ionizing radiation on ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchalla, R.; Schüttler, C.; Bögl, K. W.

    1995-02-01

    Sterilization by ionizing radiation has become, next to ethylene oxide treament, the most important "cold" sterilization process for medical devices made from plastics. The effects of ionizing radiation on the most important polymer for medical devices, ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene, are briefly described in this review.

  6. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT COPOLYMERS OF L-LACTIDE AND EPSILON-CAPROLACTONE AS BIODEGRADABLE ELASTOMERIC IMPLANT MATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRIJPMA, DW; ZONDERVAN, GJ; PENNINGS, AJ

    High molecular weight copolymers of L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone have been synthesized by ring opening copolymerization with stannous octoate as catalyst. The good mechanical properties of the 50/50 copolymers make it a suitable material for biomedical applications such as nerve guides etc.,

  7. Size and shape of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight wheat gluten proteins. II. Hydrodynamic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swieten, E; Friesen, RR; de Kruif, CG; Robillard, GT; Kruif, Cees G. de

    This study describes the hydrodynamic properties of the repetitive domain of high molecular weight (HMW) wheat proteins, which complement the small-angle scattering (SANS) experiments performed in the first paper of this series. The sedimentation coefficients, so, and diffusion coefficients, D, were

  8. TLR2- and 4-independent immunomodulatory effect of high molecular weight components from Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Silva, Sandriana R; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Câmara, Niels O S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2014-03-01

    Components of high molecular-weight (PI) obtained from Ascaris suum extract down-regulate the Th1/Th2-related immune responses induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization in mice. Furthermore, the PI down-modulates the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate T lymphocytes by an IL-10-mediated mechanism. Here, we evaluated the role of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4) in the modulatory effect of PI on OVA-specific immune response and the PI interference on DC full activation. An inhibition of OVA-specific cellular and humoral responses were observed in wild type (WT) or in deficient in TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)) or 4 (TLR4(-/-)) mice immunized with OVA plus PI when compared with OVA-immunized mice. Low expression of class II MHC, CD40, CD80 and CD86 molecules was observed in lymph node (LN) cells from WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice immunized with OVA plus PI compared with OVA-primed cells. We also verified that PI was able to modulate the activation of DCs derived from bone marrow of WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice induced in vitro by agonists of TLRs, as observed by a decreased expression of class II MHC and costimulatory molecules and by low secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its effect was accompanied by IL-10 synthesis. In this sense, the modulatory effect of PI on specific-immune response and DC activation is independent of TLR2 or TLR4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid limits astrocyte activation and scar formation after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaing, Zin Z.; Milman, Brian D.; Vanscoy, Jennifer E.; Seidlits, Stephanie K.; Grill, Raymond J.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2011-08-01

    A major hurdle for regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the ability of axons to penetrate and grow through the scar tissue. After SCI, inflammatory cells, astrocytes and meningeal cells all play a role in developing the glial scar. In addition, degradation of native high molecular weight (MW) hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to induce activation and proliferation of astrocytes. However, it is not known if the degradation of native HA actually enhances glial scar formation. We hypothesize that the presence of high MW HA (HA with limited degradation) after SCI will decrease glial scarring. Here, we demonstrate that high MW HA decreases cell proliferation and reduces chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) production in cultured neonatal and adult astrocytes. In addition, stiffness-matched high MW HA hydrogels crosslinked to resist degradation were implanted in a rat model of spinal dorsal hemisection injury. The numbers of immune cells (macrophages and microglia) detected at the lesion site in animals with HA hydrogel implants were significantly reduced at acute time points (one, three and ten days post-injury). Lesioned animals with HA implants also exhibited significantly lower CSPG expression at ten days post-injury. At nine weeks post-injury, animals with HA hydrogel implants exhibited a significantly decreased astrocytic response, but did not have significantly altered CSPG expression. Combined, these data suggest that high MW HA, when stabilized against degradation, mitigates astrocyte activation in vitro and in vivo. The presence of HA implants was also associated with a significant decrease in CSPG deposition at ten days after SCI. Therefore, HA-based hydrogel systems hold great potential for minimizing undesired scarring as part of future repair strategies after SCI.

  10. Effect of cyclic strain on the mechanical behavior of virgin ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, A

    2011-10-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polymeric material employed in critical biomedical applications. Knowledge of its mechanical behavior is essential in order to obtain accurate prediction of stresses and deformations in real components, in particular when cyclic loading is considered. In the present research the effects of alternating and pulsating cyclic strain on the mechanical response of UHMWPE were studied by means of an experimental procedure based on tests carried out in strain control at different mean cyclic strain levels. During the tests the temperature increase due to hysteretic heating was controlled by means of a compressed air cooling apparatus specifically devised. By taking advantage of the possibility to control and stabilize temperature, cyclic steady-state mechanical response was investigated at room temperature and at 37 and 50 °C, comparing the effects of alternating and pulsating loading cycles. A transient thermal analysis using the finite element method (FEM) was also carried out to analyze temperature distribution within the specimen. UHMWPE exhibited cyclic softening as a result of a thermal contribution due to temperature increase and of a mechanical contribution related to the effects of applied load on the microstructure. The material exhibited different peak stress percent reductions for pulsating and alternating loading and during tensile and compressive loading phases. For pulsating tests significant cyclic mean stress relaxation was also observed. Based on the experimental procedure described the cyclic curve was determined as a function of temperature and fitted with a Ramberg-Osgood type constitutive equation, in which material parameters are temperature dependent. In this way the combined effects of temperature rises, such as those that might occur in biological environments or due to frictional heating, and mechanical loads could effectively be taken into account for constitutive modeling purposes of

  11. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene as a base material for shielding cosmic radiation in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marlon A., E-mail: marlon@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Fisica Aplicada; Goncalez, Odair L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (PG/CTE/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias Espaciais

    2013-07-01

    Materials with high content of hydrogen have good properties of shielding against the effects of cosmic rays (CR) because are less effective than materials with high nuclear masses in the generation of secondary radiation. Beside the Aluminum, Polyethylene has been used as a reference and as a base material for composites applied in structures and in shielding of ionizing radiation for aerospace applications. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), pure and doped 10% by mass with cadmium chloride, had its shielding properties for CR evaluated in this paper. Methodology used was based in conventional radioactive sources employed on simple geometries experiments and then computational simulation for isotropic fluxes of cosmic-ray high energy particles. Transmission experiments were performed with a3.7GBq (100 mCi){sup 241}Am-Be neutron source and a set of conventional calibration gamma radiation sources. Samples were characterized according to their gamma total attenuation coefficients from 59 to 1,408 keV, dose deposition curve for {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, fast neutron transmission coefficient, generation and self-absorption of thermal neutrons as well as their generation of internal cascades of secondary electrons and gamma-rays by nuclear interactions of fast neutrons with shielding material. Main effects of the additive in the polyethylene base were the most effective removal of gamma radiation and of secondary electrons with energies below 200 keV, the reduction of the albedo as well as the thermal neutrons transmission. Dose reduction due to primary CR were not significant, since the largest contribution to the doses due to high energy ionizing particles transmitted and, also, due to secondary radiation with energy above 1 MeV produced in shielding. (author)

  12. Isolation and identification of a high molecular weight protein in sow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y; Qi, N; Tang, Y; He, J; Li, X; Gu, F; Zou, S

    2015-05-01

    A high molecular weight protein (HMWP) was isolated and purified from sow milk, and some of its biochemical characteristics and biological functions were identified. The origin of HMWP was also investigated. The molecular weight of HMWP was determined to be about 115 000 and 114 800 by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. The sequence of 10 amino acids in N-terminal of HMWP was Ala-Leu-Val-Gln-Ser-Cys-Leu-Asn-Leu-Val. The sequence was blasted against GenBank. No protein showed significant similarity with this sequence suggesting the HMWP may be novel. The result of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) also proved HMWP could be a novel protein. By amino acid assay, HMWP was rich in glutamate (including glutamine), cysteine, glycine, aspartic acid (including asparagines) and proline. The content of hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe and Pro) was lower at 18.59% of the total amino acids suggesting HMWP has high solubility in water. Western blots of lectins were used to identify the kinds of carbohydrate residues attached to HMWP qualitatively. The result showed that HMWP was a kind of glycoprotein containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc), mannose (Man) and/or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). By isoelectric focusing, HMWP pI was found to be 5.1. Compared with milk fat globule membrane protein (MFGMP) isolated from the sow milk in SDS-PAGE, MFGMP did not contain HMWP. HMWP was assumed to be a secretory milk protein. HMWP was not found in bovine, goat, rabbit or human milk in SDS-PAGE gel suggesting HMWP may be unique to sow milk. By Western blot, HMWP could be detected in sow milk, not in sow serum, which suggests it is synthesized and secreted by the mammary gland. HMWP concentrations in sows milk were the lowest in the first day of lactation, rose significantly during lactation 1 to 7 days. The HMWP content of sows milk remained relatively constant ((1.95±0.13) g/l) during lactation 7 to 20 days. HMWP significantly inhibited

  13. In vitro evaluation of antiviral and virucidal activity of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blasi Elisabetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background hyaluronic acid (HA, a non-sulphated glycosaminoglycan, is present in synovial fluid, vitreous humour serum and many connective tissues. Pharmaceutical preparations of HA are used in clinical practice for wound healing, joint pain, kerato-conjunctivitis, asthma, mouth care, oesophageal-reflux, and gastritis. Moreover, it is used as a filler to counteract ageing and facial lipoatrophy. Our study aims at investigating the in vitro antiviral activity of a high molecular weight HA. Methods the MTT test was used to rule out the potential toxic effects of HA on the different cell lines used in the antiviral assays. The antiviral activity of HA against Coxsackievirus B5, Herpes Simplex Virus-1, Mumps Virus, Adenovirus-5, Influenza Virus A/H1N1, Human Herpesvirus-6, Porcine Parvovirus, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus was assessed by virus yield assays. Results the most effective inhibition was observed against Coxsackievirus B5, with 3Log reduction of the virus yield at 4 mg/ml, and a reduction of 3.5Log and 2Log, at 2 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively: the selectivity index was 16. Mumps virus was highly inhibited too showing a reduction of 1.7Log at 1 mg/ml and 1Log at 4 mg/ml and 2 mg/ml (selectivity index = 12. The selectivity index for Influenza Virus was 12 with the highest inhibition (1Log observed at 4 mg/ml. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Porcine Parvovirus were mildly inhibited, whereas no antiviral activity was observed with respect to Adenovirus-5, Human Herpesvirus-6, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. No HA virucidal activity was ever observed against any of the viruses tested. Kinetic experiments showed that both Coxsackievirus B5 and Herpes simplex virus-1 replication were consistently inhibited, not influenced by the time of HA addition, during the virus replication cycle. Conclusions the spectrum of the antiviral activity exhibited by HA against both RNA and DNA viruses, known to have

  14. Hybrid hyaluronic acid versus high molecular weight hyaluronic acid for the treatment of osteoarthritis in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Russo, F; Torre, G; Albo, E; Grimaldi, V; Papalia, G; Sterzi, S; Vadalà, G; Bressi, F; Denaro, V

    2017-12-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the most relevant and debilitating health problems. Obesity represents one of the major risk factor for early development of OA. In the obese population, knee replacement should be delayed and eventually avoided and prefer conservative treatments including intrarticular hyaluronic acid (HA) viscosupplementation. In the present clinical randomized trial, we present a comparison between two groups of 24 obese patients which were randomized to be treated with two intrarticular injections of hybrid (low and high molecular weight) hyaluronic acid (Group A) or two injections of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (Group B). Patients were followed-up through to 6 months and assessed though IKDC and KOOS scores, pain was evaluated with VAS. All patients reported a significant improvement when compared to baseline value in all outcome measures. At 3-month follow-up, IKDC had significantly improved in patients of Group A, compared to Group B (53.1±1.9 vs 51.4±2.4, p=0.0079) and the same for KOOS (52.1±2.0 vs 50.1±2.9, p=0.010). Furthermore, the difference in KOOS was persistently significant at 6-month follow-up (54.7±2.3 vs 51.7±4.9, p=0.014). The VAS reduced significantly more in Group A at 3 months (3.7±0.5 vs 5.2±0.7, p less than 0.001). In an obese population, where basal inflammatory pattern increases symptoms of OA and conservative treatment is recommended, HA viscosupplementation improved function and pain of the knee. The treatment with hybrid HA showed better outcomes than high molecular weight HA in obese patients. The combination of the anti-inflammatory action of low molecular weight HA on chondrocytes and the biomechanical role of high molecular weight HA might explain the different results.

  15. The metabolism of high-molecular-weight ribonucleic acid in hypothalamic and cortical regions of the developing female rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C; Lim, L

    1978-01-01

    The regional metabolism of high-molecular-weight RNA in the developing female rat brain was investigated after the intracranial injection of [32P]P1. The synthesis of polyadenylated RNA relative to high-molecular-weight RNA was determined after oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography of total cellular high-molecular-weight RNA labelled after 4h. In both hypothalamus and cortex this synthesis was significantly higher during the first 10 days post partum than at subsequent ages. In both regions apparently more mRNA is synthesized in the young. The ratio of the specific radioactivity of cytoplasmic high-molecular-weight RNA relative to that of the nucleus, measured after a 48 h period of labelling, was considered to be an index of the nucleocytoplasmic transport of newly synthesized RNA [Berthold & Lim (1976) Biochem. J. 154, 529--539]. In the cortex, nucleo-cytoplasmic RNA transport in rats aged up to 20 days was significantly higher than in older rats, with the maximal value being attained between 16 and 19 days post partum. In contrast, in the hypothalamus, nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA was low during the neonatal period and comparable with that of the mature animal. However, there were two periods of increased transport at later stages of development, the first between 15 and 19 days post partum and the second between 25 and 29 days post partum. These prepubertal changes in the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA in the female hypothalamus during weeks 3 and 4 post partum are coincident with other reported changes occurring during sexual differentiation. Differences in the timing of the maturational changes of the two brain regions thus appear to be reflected in developmental changes in RNA transport. PMID:743256

  16. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction...

  17. THE ANTIMICROBIAL BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITION BASED ON HIGH-MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE FOR THE PROPHYLAXIS OF EXPERIMENTAL OSTHEOMYELITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Afinogenov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial composition of amikacin with dioxydin and polyvinylpyrrolidone as a biodegradable prolonging agent for the post-surgery infections prophylaxis. The data obtained show the efficacy of the amikacin combination with dioxydin based on high-molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone and an opportunity to it's application for the post-surgery infections prophylaxis in traumatology, orthopedics and other surgery areas.

  18. Organic solar cells using a high-molecular-weight benzodithiophene-benzothiadiazole copolymer with an efficiency of 9.4%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Jegadesan; Purushothaman, Balaji; Chen, Ming; Qin, Tianshi; Gao, Mei; Vak, Doojin; Scholes, Fiona H; Chen, Xiwen; Watkins, Scott E; Wilson, Gerard J; Holmes, Andrew B; Wong, Wallace W H; Jones, David J

    2015-01-27

    A high molecular weight donor-acceptor conjugated polymer is synthesized using the Suzuki polycondensation method. Using this polymer, a single-junction bulk-heterojunction solar cell is fabricated giving a power conversion efficiency of 9.4% using a fullerene-modified ZnO interlayer at the cathode contact. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The activities of lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3 regulate the amount and oligomerization status of adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Ruotsalainen

    Full Text Available Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3 has lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase, and glucosyltransferase activities, which are sequentially required for the formation of glucosylgalactosyl hydroxylysines in collagens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that LH3 also modifies the lysine residues in the collagenous domain of adiponectin, which has important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Hydroxylation and, especially, glycosylation of the lysine residues of adiponectin have been shown to be essential for the formation of the more active high molecular weight adiponectin oligomers and thus for its function. In cells that totally lack LH3 enzyme, the galactosylhydroxylysine residues of adiponectin were not glucosylated to glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysine residues and the formation of high and middle molecular weight adiponectin oligomers was impaired. Circulating adiponectin levels in mutant mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3 were significantly reduced, which indicates that LH3 is required for complete modification of lysine residues in adiponectin and the loss of some of the glycosylated hydroxylysine residues severely affects the secretion of adiponectin. LH mutant mice with reduced adiponectin level showed a high fat diet-induced increase in glucose, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol levels, hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in humans. Our results reveal the first indication that LH3 is an important regulator of adiponectin biosynthesis, secretion and activity and thus might be a potential candidate for therapeutic applications in diseases associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

  20. Effect of a high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) preparation on the stimulation of polymorphonulcear leukocytes (PMNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, J.; Chow, D.C.; Skosey, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    During the process of joint inflammation PMNL are attracted into the joint space by chemotactic agents and are stimulated by immune complexes, particular matter (eg, crystals, cartilage debris) and other phlogistic agents. This process occurs in an environment rich in HA. The authors have examined the effect of high molecular weight HA. They have examined the effect of high molecular weight HA upon PMNL stimulation. PMNL were isolated from human blood and stimulated with either opsonized zymosan or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fmlp). The authors assessed stimulation by measuring the ability of cell supernatants to promote the release of /sup 35/S from chips of rabbit articular cartilage labeled in vivo, and the enhancement of oxidation of (1-/sup 14/C)glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Stimulation of cells with zym in the presence of HA, 0.125-2.5 mg/ml, resulted in enhanced /sup 35/S release (33-59% over zym alone) and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production (0.5-64%). However, HA failed to enhance responses when fmlp (+cytochalasin B) was used as the stimulus. It has been demonstrated that high molecular weight HA inhibits phagocytosis of both latex and aggregated IgG. In our studies, it is likely that HA interference with ingestion of zym leads to frustrated phagocytosis and enhancement of PMNL responses. Similar modification of responses of inflammatory mediator cells could occur in inflamed joints.

  1. Inverse Emulsion Polymerization for the Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Polyacrylamide and Its Application as Sand Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Mohsin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamides constitute a class of polymers that can entirely dissolve or swell in water to form a solution or hydrogel, respectively. Free radical polymerization of acrylamide monomer, using both solution and inverse emulsion polymerization, was applied to produce polyacrylamide with various molecular weights. This investigation was focused on the production of polymers with varying molecular weight, depending on monomer to initiator ratio. Experimental conditions were designed to produce high molecular weight polymers that can be used in stabilization of sand dunes in the arid regions. Synthesized polyacrylamide samples were characterized using Gel Permeation Chromatography and solution viscosity in order to determine the molecular weights and molecular weights distribution. The rheological behavior was also investigated in different polymer concentrations and at various temperatures using Brookfield Rheometer. Lab-scale wind tunnel was used to determine the stability of the sand before and after treatment with the polymer. Compressive stress-strain test was also used to establish the mechanical behavior of the polymer-sand composite under controlled compressive load up to failure. The results showed that the use of high molecular weight polymer gave excellent mechanical and thermal stability.

  2. Improving Adiponectin Levels in Individuals With Diabetes and Obesity: Insights From Look AHEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Schwenke, Dawn C; Kriska, Andrea; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Tracy, Russell P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether fitness changes resulting from lifestyle interventions for weight loss may independently contribute to the improvement of low adiponectin levels in obese individuals with diabetes. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) randomized overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes to intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss or to diabetes support and education (DSE). Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin (adiponectins), weight, and cardiorespiratory fitness (submaximal exercise stress test) were measured in 1,397 participants at baseline and at 1 year, when ILI was most intense. Regression analyses examined the associations of 1-year weight and fitness changes with change in adiponectins. ILI resulted in greater improvements in weight, fitness, and adiponectins at 1 year compared with DSE (P < 0.0001). Weight loss and improved fitness were each associated with changes in adiponectins in men and women (P < 0.001 for all), after adjusting for baseline adiponectins, demographics, clinical variables, and treatment arm. Weight loss contributed an additional 4-5% to the variance of change in adiponectins than did increased fitness in men; in women, the contributions of improved fitness (1% greater) and of weight loss were similar. When weight and fitness changes were both accounted for, weight loss in men and increased fitness in women retained their strong associations (P < 0.0001) with adiponectin change. Improvements in fitness and weight with ILI were favorably but distinctly associated with changes in adiponectin levels in overweight/obese men and women with diabetes. Future studies need to investigate whether sex-specific biological determinants contribute to the observed associations. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Differential effects of endurance training and weight loss on plasma adiponectin multimers and adipose tissue macrophages in younger, moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auerbach, Pernille; Nordby, Pernille; Bendtsen, Line Quist

    2013-01-01

    in obese subjects which may be due to modulations of inflammatory pathways. In this randomized clinical trial we investigated the separate effects of endurance training-induced weight loss, diet-induced weight loss and endurance training per se (without weight loss) on plasma adiponectin multimer...... composition (Western blotting) and adipose tissue macrophage content (immunohistochemistry) in young, moderately overweight men. Weight loss and endurance training per se decreased whole body fat percentage in an additive manner. No intervention-induced changes were observed for plasma total adiponectin....... Surprisingly, endurance training, irrespectively of any associated weight loss, shifted the adiponectin multimer distribution towards a lower molecular weight (21% decrease in HMW/LMW, P=0.015) whereas diet-induced weight loss shifted the distribution towards a higher molecular weight (42% increase in HMW...

  4. Concurrent Diurnal Variations of High-molecular-weight Dissolved Arsenic and Organic Phosphorus in the Upper Euphotic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. P.; Cheng, C. Y.; Wen, L. S.

    2016-02-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in the global ocean has received concerned interests due to its potential competitive inhibition to phosphate. Arsenate can be uptake by phytoplankton or bacterioplankton, followed by transformation into arsenite or methylated arsenic and released into seawater by certain detoxification pathways. The arsenic/phosphate ratio in seawater has been proposed as the factor determining the arsenic speciation in the global ocean, however, the regeneration processes are much more complicated. In this study, ultra-clean sampling and cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF) were used to differentiate the molecular weight distribution of arsenic and phosphorous in the oligotrophic Western Philippine Sea. Our results indicated that 21±8% of total dissolved arsenic were in the high-molecular-weight (HMW, 1 kDa - 0.4μm) phase, and HMW phosphorous accounted for a significant amount of 61±16% in the DOP fraction. In the upper euphotic zone, HMW-As exhibited short-term temporal variations, corresponding to the change of the high-molecular-weight dissolved organic phosphorus (HMW-DOP). The low-molecular-weight (LMW, MW < 1 kDa) arsenic, by contrast, was relatively unchanged. The concurrent variations between HMW-As and HMW-DOP may resulted from photoheterotrophy, marine ectoenzymes such as alkaline phosphatase might play an important role in recycling processes. All these evidences highlight the strong biological effect on production and assimilation of HMW materials and its vital importance in marine P and As cycle.

  5. Adiponectin in mice with altered GH action: links to insulin sensitivity and longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Jara, Adam; Sackman-Sala, Lucila; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Gahete, Manuel D; Kineman, Rhonda D; Boparai, Ravneet; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2013-03-01

    Adiponectin is positively correlated with longevity and negatively correlated with many obesity-related diseases. While there are several circulating forms of adiponectin, the high-molecular-weight (HMW) version has been suggested to have the predominant bioactivity. Adiponectin gene expression and cognate serum protein levels are of particular interest in mice with altered GH signaling as these mice exhibit extremes in obesity that are positively associated with insulin sensitivity and lifespan as opposed to the typical negative association of these factors. While a few studies have reported total adiponectin levels in young adult mice with altered GH signaling, much remains unresolved, including changes in adiponectin levels with advancing age, proportion of total adiponectin in the HMW form, adipose depot of origin, and differential effects of GH vs IGF1. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address these issues using assorted mouse lines with altered GH signaling. Our results show that adiponectin is generally negatively associated with GH activity, regardless of age. Further, the amount of HMW adiponectin is consistently linked with the level of total adiponectin and not necessarily with previously reported lifespan or insulin sensitivity of these mice. Interestingly, circulating adiponectin levels correlated strongly with inguinal fat mass, implying that the effects of GH on adiponectin are depot specific. Interestingly, rbGH, but not IGF1, decreased circulating total and HMW adiponectin levels. Taken together, these results fill important gaps in the literature related to GH and adiponectin and question the frequently reported associations of total and HMW adiponectin with insulin sensitivity and longevity.

  6. The effects of androgen deprivation therapy with weight management on serum aP2 and adiponectin levels in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushima, Hayato; Inomata-Kurashiki, Yukiko; Nishimura, Kazuo; Sumi, Ryoko; Shimomura, Iichiro; Nonomura, Norio; Ito, Toshinori; Maeda, Kazuhisa

    2015-06-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) causes an increase in total body fat, leading to a net gain in body weight. Moreover, the use of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists in ADT causes a decrease in serum androgen levels, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Androgen blockade significantly increases plasma adiponectin levels, which has some efficacy against MetS, whereas ADT increases fasting plasma insulin and decreases insulin sensitivity, suggesting that there are other mechanisms involved in the onset of MetS besides adiponectin activation. We investigated the effects of ADT on serum aP2 and adiponectin in PCa patients. Six months post-ADT, serum aP2 and adiponectin levels were significantly increased, although there were no changes in patient body weight and no correlation between the changes in serum aP2 and total adiponectin levels. The serum adiponectin and aP2 levels have independent implications in ADT for PCa; therefore, their combined measurement will clarify the impact on the development of obesity-related diseases during ADT. Contrary to adiponectin, high serum aP2 levels were correlated with the late development of MetS. Further studies are needed to investigate the future occurrence of metabolic diseases post-ADT.

  7. Ultra-Fast RAFT-HDA Click Conjugation: An Efficient Route to High Molecular Weight Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Andrew J; Stenzel, Martina H; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2009-11-02

    The use of the reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer-hetero Diels-Alder (RAFT-HDA) click reaction for the modular construction of block copolymers is extended to the generation of high molecular weight materials. Cyclopentadienyl end-functionalized polystyrene (PS-Cp) prepared via both atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and the RAFT process are conjugated to poly(isobornyl acrylate) (PiBoA) (also prepared via RAFT polymerization) to achieve well-defined block copolymers with molecular weights ranging from 34 000 to over 100 000 g · mol(-1) and with small polydispersities (PDI < 1.2). The conjugation reactions proceeded in a very rapid fashion (less than 10 min in the majority of cases) under ambient conditions of temperature and atmosphere. The present study demonstrates-for the first time-that RAFT-HDA click chemistry can provide access to high molecular weight block copolymers in a simple and straight-forward fashion. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and its application in microporous separators for lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. C.; Harvey, M. K.; Ng, J. C.; Scheunemann, U.

    The polyethylene (PE) used in separators for automotive lead/acid batteries is actually UHMW-PE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene). Microporous PE separators were commercialized in the early 1970s. Since then, they have gained in popularity in the lead/acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) automotive applications. This paper provides an introductory overview of the UHMW-PE polymer and its contributions to the PE battery separator manufacturing process, battery assembly and battery performance, in comparison with other conventional separators such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass fibre.

  9. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) and its application in microporous separators for lead/acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.C.; Harvey, M.K. [Ticona, League City, TX (United States); Ng, J.C. [Hoechst Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Scheunemann, U. [Ticona, Ruhrchemie Works, GUR R and D, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-05-18

    The polyethylene (PE) used in separators for automotive lead/acid batteries is actually UHMW-PE (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene). Microporous PE separators were commercialized in the early 1970s. Since then, they have gained in popularity in the lead/acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (starting, lighting and ignition) automotive applications. This paper provides an introductory overview of the UHMW-PE polymer and its contributions to the PE battery separator manufacturing process, battery assembly and battery performance, in comparison with other conventional separators such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and glass fibre. (orig.)

  10. Distinct Regions within the Erlins Are Required for Oligomerization and Association with High Molecular Weight Complexes*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegg, Maja B.; Browman, Duncan T.; Resek, Mary E.; Robbins, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The group of stomatin/prohibitin/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain-containing proteins comprise members of diverse subcellular localization and function. Association with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and the propensity to form oligomers are two common properties of SPFH domain proteins and likely important for the function of these proteins. Our laboratory recently discovered two novel members of this protein group, which, based on their endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization and association with DRMs, were named ER lipid raft-associated protein (erlin)-1 and -2. Here we characterized erlin oligomerization and identified domains within the erlins responsible for oligomerization and DRM association. Using co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation approaches on endogenous and ectopically expressed erlin proteins, we found that they formed homo- and hetero-oligomers and were part of large multimeric complexes. These properties were independent of their DRM association. By analyzing truncation and point mutants of erlin-2 we discovered that interaction between erlin monomers (oligomerization) and association with high molecular weight complexes require distinct regions within the protein. Although oligomerization and DRM association were mediated by a region immediately downstream of the SPFH domain (residues 228–300), integration into high molecular weight complexes was absolutely dependent on a phenylalanine residue C-terminal of this region (Phe-305), which lies within a short stretch of hydrophobic residues. Our data demonstrate that lower order oligomerization and incorporation into multimeric complexes are two separate biochemical properties of the erlins, because they are mediated by distinct regions. PMID:19131330

  11. Pilot study on the effects of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, C A; Caruso, A Armone; Allocca, V; Barra, E; Leone, R

    2015-12-01

    Although several therapeutic approaches are available at present for the treatment of chronic pharyngitis, new therapeutic strategies acting on pharyngeal mucous function should be investigated in order to improve symptoms and quality of life. High-molecular weight hyaluronate performs important functions on mucociliary clearance, tissues hydration, defense against micro-organisms, and on tissue repair as well, but at present there is no clinical evidence of its exogenous use in patients with chronic pharyngitis. Our open, randomized controlled study was carried out to investigate efficacy, and tolerability of exogenous high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate (SH) at the dosage of 9 mg three times a day for a period of 30 days, in patients with chronic pharyngitis. Results show significant improvements of symptoms and cytology in active group (A, n = 10) vs. control group (B, n = 10). Good compliance and no adverse events were reported in group A. In conclusion, SH was effective and safe in patients with chronic pharyngitis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Identification of unprecedented anticancer properties of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (HMW-bLf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Ebrahim

    Full Text Available With the successful clinical trials, multifunctional glycoprotein bovine lactoferrin is gaining attention as a safe nutraceutical and biologic drug targeting cancer, chronic-inflammatory, viral and microbial diseases. Interestingly, recent findings that human lactoferrin oligomerizes under simulated physiological conditions signify the possible role of oligomerization in the multifunctional activities of lactoferrin molecule during infections and in disease targeting signaling pathways. Here we report the purification and physicochemical characterization of high molecular weight biomacromolecular complex containing bovine lactoferrin (≥250 kDa, from bovine colostrum, a naturally enriched source of lactoferrin. It showed structural similarities to native monomeric iron free (Apo lactoferrin (∼78-80 kDa, retained anti-bovine lactoferrin antibody specific binding and displayed potential receptor binding properties when tested for cellular internalization. It further displayed higher thermal stability and better resistance to gut enzyme digestion than native bLf monomer. High molecular weight bovine lactoferrin was functionally bioactive and inhibited significantly the cell proliferation (p<0.01 of human breast and colon carcinoma derived cells. It induced significantly higher cancer cell death (apoptosis and cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in cancer cells than the normal intestinal cells. Upon cellular internalization, it led to the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression and degradation of actin. In order to identify the cutting edge future potential of this bio-macromolecule in medicine over the monomer, its in-depth structural and functional properties need to be investigated further.

  13. XRD and FTIR study of the effect of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as binder on kaolin geopolymer ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, K.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) as binder on Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics was study using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. UHMWPE is added to the optimum kaolin geopolymer ceramics that obtained by mechanical performance, phase and microstructure analysis with the concentration of NaOH, solid/liquid and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 12 M, 1.0 and 0.24 respectively. Kaolin geopolymer powders with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) were pressed into pellets followed by sintering at 1200 °C. At this temperature, the amorphous phase of geopolymer were fully crystallized. The results obtained by the XRD testing confirm that amorphous geopolymer transform to crystalline nepheline ceramics upon heating. The phase analysis for Kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE are similar to the kaolin geopolymer ceramics without UHMWPE indicates that the incorporation of a little amount of UHMWPE does not affect the structure feature of geopolymer. The increasing in intensity of nepheline peak contribute to high strength. The FTIR spectra showed the disappearance of water band after sinter at high temperature.

  14. Development of solvent-free offset ink using vegetable oil esters and high molecular-weight resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Young Han; Kim, Sung Bin

    2013-01-01

    In the development of solvent-free offset ink, the roles of resin molecular weight and used solvent on the ink performance were evaluated by examining the relationship between the various properties of resin and solvent and print quality. To find the best performing resin, the soy-oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was applied to the five modified-phenolic resins having different molecular weights. It is found from the experimental results that the ink made of higher molecular weight and better solubility resin gives better printability and print quality. It is because larger molecular weight resin with better solubility gives higher rate of ink transfer. From the ink application of different esters to high molecular weight resin, the best printing performance was yielded from the soy-oil fatty acid butyl ester (FABE). It is due to its high kinematic viscosity resulting in the smallest change of ink transfer weight upon multiple number of printing, which improves the stability of ink quality.

  15. Serum ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels before and after weight loss: comparison of three methods of treatment--a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotidis, Efstathios V; Koliakos, George G; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios G; Ioannidis, Konstantinos N; Yovos, John G; Papavramidis, Spiros T

    2006-11-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with orexigenic properties, primarily produced by the stomach. Leptin and adiponectin are the two adiposity products that participate in body weight control. Leptin always decreases and adiponectin increases after weight loss. Different changes in fasting ghrelin levels have been reported following bariatric surgery. In this study, we compare the changes in fasting ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin levels in 3 groups of patients who achieved weight loss by either diet, MacLean vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS). Serum fasting ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin concentration was measured in 40 obese patients who achieved weight loss by either diet (n=14), VBG (n=13) or BPD-DS (n=13), before and after weight loss. The follow-up period was 18 months for BPD-DS and VBG and 6 months for diet. Serum ghrelin level was measured by ELISA. BMI was significantly decreased in all 3 groups: 9.2+/-2.4% (Pghrelin level increased after diet (110.45+/-117.84%, P=0.002) and VBG (65.48+/-92.93%, P=0.001),but decreased after BPD-DS (-21.63+/-28.63%, P=0.019). Leptin concentration decreased and adiponectin increased in all groups. Unlike after diet or gastric restrictive surgery, BPD-DS is associated with markedly suppressed ghrelin levels, possibly contributing to the weight-reducing effect of this operation. Sleeve gastrectomy seems to be the main cause of this reduction.

  16. High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Growth Hormone In Cells of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of research exists to support the idea that cells of the immune system produce growth hormone (GH). However, the structure and mechanism of action of lymphocyte-derived GH continues to remain largely unknown. Here we present the results of Western analysis of whole cell extracts showing that different molecular weight isoforms of GH of approximately 100 kDa, 65 kDa, and 48 kDa can be detected in primary mouse cells of the immune system and in the mouse EL4 cell line. The identity of the 65 kDa and 48 kDa isoforms of GH were confirmed by mass spectrometry. The various isoforms were detected in both enriched T and B spleen cell populations. The large molecular weight isoform appears to reside primarily in the cytoplasm whereas the lower molecular weight 65 kDa and 48 kDa isoforms were detected primarily in the nucleus. These results also suggest that GH isoforms are induced by oxidative stress. In EL4 cells overexpressing GH, the expression of luciferase controlled by a promoter containing the antioxidant response element is increased almost three-fold above control. The data suggest that the induction of isoforms of the GH molecule in cells of the immune system may be an important mechanism of adaptation and/or protection of lymphoid cells under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:21741628

  17. Influence of androgens on circulating adiponectin in male and female rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua F Yarrow

    Full Text Available Several endocrine factors, including sex-steroid hormones are known to influence adiponectin secretion. Our purpose was to evaluate the influence of testosterone and of the synthetic non-aromatizable/non-5α reducible androgen 17β-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone on circulating adiponectin and adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat. Young male and female F344 rats underwent sham surgery (SHAM, gonadectomy (GX, or GX plus supraphysiologic testosterone-enanthate (TE administration. Total circulating adiponectin was 39% higher in intact SHAM females than SHAM males (p<0.05. GX increased total adiponectin by 29-34% in both sexes (p<0.05, while TE reduced adiponectin to concentrations that were 46-53% below respective SHAMs (p≤0.001 and ablated the difference in adiponectin between sexes. No differences in high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were observed between sexes or treatments. Adiponectin concentrations were highly and negatively associated with serum testosterone (males: r = -0.746 and females: r = -0.742, p≤0.001; however, no association was present between adiponectin and estradiol. In separate experiments, trenbolone-enanthate (TREN prevented the GX-induced increase in serum adiponectin (p≤0.001 in young animals, with Low-dose TREN restoring adiponectin to the level of SHAMs and higher doses of TREN reducing adiponectin to below SHAM concentrations (p≤0.001. Similarly, TREN reduced adiponectin protein expression within visceral fat (p<0.05. In adult GX males, Low-dose TREN also reduced total adiponectin and visceral fat mass to a similar magnitude as TE, while increasing serum HMW adiponectin above SHAM and GX animals (p<0.05. Serum adiponectin was positively associated with visceral fat mass in young (r = 0.596, p≤0.001 and adult animals (r = 0.657, p≤0.001. Our results indicate that androgens reduce circulating total adiponectin concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, while maintaining HMW

  18. High Performance Shape Memory Polyurethane Synthesized with High Molecular Weight Polyol as the Soft Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs are typically synthesized using polyols of low molecular weight (MW~2,000 g/mol as it is believed that the high density of cross-links in these low molecular weight polyols are essential for high mechanical strength and good shape memory effect. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 with MW ~6000 g/mol as the soft segment and diisocyanate as the hard segment were used to synthesize SMPUs, and the results were compared with the SMPUs with polycaprolactone PCL-2000. The study revealed that although the PEG-6000-based SMPUs have lower maximum elongations at break (425% and recovery stresses than those of PCL-based SMPUs, they have much better recovery ratios (up to 98% and shape fixity (up to 95%, hence better shape memory effect. Furthermore, PEG-based SMPUs showed a much shorter actuation time of < 10 s for up to 90% shape recovery compared to typical actuation times of tens of seconds to a few minutes for common SMPUs, demonstrated their great potential for applications in microsystems and other engineering components.

  19. Protective Effect of High Molecular Weight Protein Sub-fraction of Calotropis procera Latex in Monoarthritic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Ramos, Marcio V; Vasconcelos, Mirele da Silveira; Kumar, Vijay L

    2016-05-01

    Proteins present in the latex of Calotropis procera have been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effect and to afford protection in various disease models. To determine the efficacy of high molecular weight protein sub-fraction (LPPI) of latex of C. procera in ameliorating joint inflammation and hyperalgesia in a preclinical model of arthritis. Monoarthritis was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and the effect of two doses of LPPI (5 and 25 mg/kg) and diclofenac (5 mg/kg) was evaluated on joint swelling, stair climbing ability, motility, and dorsal flexion pain on day 3. The rats were sacrificed on day 3 to measure tissue levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Evaluation of joint histology was also made. Intra-articular injection of FCA produced joint swelling and difficulty in stair climbing ability, motility, and pain on flexion of the joint as revealed by scores obtained for these functional parameters. LPPI produced a dose-dependent decrease in joint swelling and improved joint functions. Arthritic rats also revealed altered oxidative homeostasis where joint tissue GSH levels were decreased and TBARS levels were increased as compared to normal rats. The levels of these oxidative stress markers were near normal in arthritic rats treated with LPPI. Moreover, treatment with LPPI also maintained the structural integrity of the joint. The protective effect of LPPI was comparable to the standard anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac. The findings of the present study show that LPPI fraction comprising high molecular weight proteins could be used for the alleviation of arthritic symptoms. High molecular weight protein sub-fraction of latex of Calotropis procera (LPPI) reduced joint swelling and hyperalgesia in arthritic ratsLPPI produced a significant improvement in stair climbing ability and motility in arthritic ratsLPPI normalized the levels of oxidative stress markers in

  20. Statistical studies on high molecular weight pullulan production in solid state fermentation using jack fruit seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Sindhu, R V; Sukanya, S; Aiswarya, N; Ponnusami, V

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the work was to optimize the medium variables for maximizing pullulan production using jack fruit seed as a low cost substrate by Aureobasidium pullulans in solid state fermentation. Effects of K2HPO4, KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, MgSO4·7H2O, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4·5H2O, yeast extract, moisture content (%, w/w) in the production medium on pullulan production were studied using Plackett-Burman design. Production of pullulan was significantly affected by the medium variables namely KH2PO4, ZnSO4·5H2O, NaCl and moisture content (%, w/w). Then screened variables were optimized by Box Behnken experiment design. The pullulan obtained was characterized and confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan was found to be 1.733×10(6) g/mol by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Tribological Assessment of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Types GUR 1020 and GUR 1050 for Orthopedic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Hunt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear properties of biomaterials have been demonstrated to have a high importance within orthopedic bearing surfaces. This study performed a comparison of the wear between the two main grades of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene types GUR 1020 and GUR 1050 articulating against Cobalt Chromium. Such a high capacity wear comparison has not been reported elsewhere in the scientific literature. Under an identical testing protocol it was found that GUR 1020 had a wear factor of 3.92 ± 0.55 × 10 − 6 ( mm 3 / Nm and GUR 1050 had a wear factor of 3.64 ± 0.39 × 10 − 6 ( mm 3 / Nm , with a non-statistical significant difference of p = 0.052. These wear factors correlate closely with those observed from other screening wear studies and explant analysis.

  2. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Jondiko, Tom O; Tilley, Michael; Awika, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Steamed bread is a popular staple food in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties and Chinese steamed bread quality using 16 wheat lines grown in Texas. Although similar in protein content (134-140 mg g⁻¹), gluten composition and dough properties differed widely among the lines. Compared with non-deletion lines, deletion lines had lower (P bread quality (score, 60.8-65.0) with good elasticity and crumb structure. Deletion at Glu-B1y and/or Glu-D1y loci in high-strength hard wheat produced good dough properties for steamed bread. This suggests that wheat functionality for steamed bread can be improved by manipulating HMW-GS composition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Inhibitory effects and mechanisms of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii on ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuxi; Wang, Changyun; Li, Jing; Guo, Qi; Qi, Hongtao

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of high molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii (STP) on ADP-induced platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in New Zealand white rabbits and Wistar rats. The inhibition of STP on platelet aggregation was investigated using a turbidimetric method, and the levels of the terminal products of AA metabolism were measured using the corresponding kits for maleic dialdehyde (MDA), thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) by colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, as appropriate. We found that STP could inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and the inhibitory ratio was 91.50% at the STP concentration of 4.0 mg/mL. Furthermore, STP markedly affected AA metabolism by decreasing the synthesis of MDA ( Pplatelets were activated ( Pmetabolism and these findings partly revealed the molecular mechanism by which STP inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation.

  4. Convenient preparation of high molecular weight poly(dimethylsiloxane using thermally latent NHC-catalysis: a structure-activity correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Naumann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4 is investigated using several five-, six- and seven-membered N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs. The catalysts are delivered in situ from thermally susceptible CO2 adducts. It is demonstrated that the polymerization can be triggered from a latent state by mild heating, using the highly nucleophilic 1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene as organocatalyst. This way, high molecular weight PDMS is prepared (up to >400 000 g/mol, 1.6 ÐM 95%, using low catalyst loadings (0.2–0.1 mol %. Furthermore, the results suggest that a nucleophilic, zwitterionic mechanism is in operation, in preference to purely anionic polymerization.

  5. Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Influence of the Chemical, Physical and Mechanical Properties on the Wear Behavior. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangiola Bracco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE is the most common bearing material in total joint arthroplasty due to its unique combination of superior mechanical properties and wear resistance over other polymers. A great deal of research in recent decades has focused on further improving its performances, in order to provide durable implants in young and active patients. From “historical”, gamma-air sterilized polyethylenes, to the so-called first and second generation of highly crosslinked materials, a variety of different formulations have progressively appeared in the market. This paper reviews the structure–properties relationship of these materials, with a particular emphasis on the in vitro and in vivo wear performances, through an analysis of the existing literature.

  6. Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles for Brain Delivery of High Molecular Weight Molecules in Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Salvalaio

    Full Text Available Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSDs are a group of metabolic syndromes, each one due to the deficit of one lysosomal enzyme. Many LSDs affect most of the organ systems and overall about 75% of the patients present neurological impairment. Enzyme Replacement Therapy, although determining some systemic clinical improvements, is ineffective on the CNS disease, due to enzymes' inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB. With the aim to deliver the therapeutic enzymes across the BBB, we here assayed biodegradable and biocompatible PLGA-nanoparticles (NPs in two murine models for LSDs, Mucopolysaccharidosis type I and II (MPS I and MPS II. PLGA-NPs were modified with a 7-aminoacid glycopeptide (g7, yet demonstrated to be able to deliver low molecular weight (MW molecules across the BBB in rodents. We specifically investigated, for the first time, the g7-NPs ability to transfer a model drug (FITC-albumin with a high MW, comparable to the enzymes to be delivered for LSDs brain therapy. In vivo experiments, conducted on wild-type mice and knockout mouse models for MPS I and II, also included a whole series of control injections to obtain a broad preliminary view of the procedure efficiency. Results clearly showed efficient BBB crossing of albumin in all injected mice, underlying the ability of NPs to deliver high MW molecules to the brain. These results encourage successful experiments with enzyme-loaded g7-NPs to deliver sufficient amounts of the drug to the brain district on LSDs, where exerting a corrective effect on the pathological phenotype.

  7. Ratiometric measurements of adiponectin by mass spectrometry in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus with iron overload reveal an association with insulin resistance and glucagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Neely

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight (HMW adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload have higher levels of 2 h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n=4 and without (n=5 iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2 h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean ± S.D. at 763 ± 298 and 727 ± 291 pmol/ml, respectively (p = 0.91; however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared controls (30.0 ± 6.3 versus 17.0 ± 6.6%, respectively; p = 0.016. Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r = 0.999, p < 0.001, but not in cases, which is possibly a reflection of insulin resistance. Although total adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to HMW adiponectin reported for humans with

  8. Modeling the Inhibition of Vibrio cholerae Non-01 in Trypticase Soy Broth by Chitosan of Low and High Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Cruz Paredes-Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has proved to have antimicrobial properties, which can be used to protect seafood from contamination and growth of pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae. The aim of this study was to model the inhibition of Vibrio cholerae Non-01 by low and high molecular weight chitosan. Chitosan of low (LMWC and high (HMWC molecular weight (150 and 320 KDa respectively was used at final concentrations of 600 and 1,000 mg/L and antimicrobial assays were carried out at temperatures of 5 and 35°C. Data were fitted to the Weibull distribution and b and n values were used to plot resistance frequency curves. Inhibition curves showed that the four treatments were effective at 5°C, with 5.5 log reduction after 312 h with the highest chitosan concentration tested, while the effect of the 600 mg/L chitosan concentration was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal (3.5 log reduction at 388 h. The 1,000 mg/L chitosan concentration was bactericidal at 35°C (6 log reduction at a shorter time (12 h. No differences were observed by the different molecular weight of the chitosan used. Weibull model fit adequately (R2 > 0.8908 with experimental data, the highest cellular damage occurs significantly (p < 0.05 with high chitosan concentrations regardless of molecular weight and treatment temperature. Resistance frequency plots showed a greater resistance of LMWC, with the maximum values of V. cholerae Non-01 resistance presented in the first minutes of the treatments regardless of the temperature.

  9. Biodegradation of low and high molecular weight hydrocarbons in petroleum refinery wastewater by a thermophilic bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan; Abbad Wazin, Hadeel; Qari, Huda; Basahi, Jalal Mohammad Al-Badry; Godon, Jean Jacques; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar

    2017-10-01

    Clean-up of contaminated wastewater remains to be a major challenge in petroleum refinery. Here, we describe the capacity of a bacterial consortium enriched from crude oil drilling site in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as sole carbon source at 60°C. The consortium reduced low molecular weight (LMW; naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene) and high molecular weight (HMW; pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) PAH loads of up to 1.5 g/L with removal efficiencies of 90% and 80% within 10 days. PAH biodegradation was verified by the presence of PAH metabolites and evolution of carbon dioxide (90 ± 3%). Biodegradation led to a reduction of the surface tension to 34 ± 1 mN/m thus suggesting biosurfactant production by the consortium. Phylogenetic analysis of the consortium revealed the presence of the thermophilic PAH degrader Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CEES1 (KU664514) and Bacillus thermosaudia (KU664515) strain CEES2. The consortium was further found to treat petroleum wastewater in continuous stirred tank reactor with 96 ± 2% chemical oxygen demand removal and complete PAH degradation in 24 days.

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation and shelf aging in air on the oxidation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ma' adeed, M.A. [Physics Department, College of Science, University of Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Al-Qaradawi, I.Y. [Physics Department, College of Science, University of Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Madi, N. [Physics Department, College of Science, University of Qatar, Doha (Qatar)]. E-mail: nmadik2@hotmail.com; Al-Thani, N.J. [Scientific and Applied Research Center (SARC), University of Qatar, Doha (Qatar)

    2006-02-28

    This study has investigated the effect of shelf aging, for up to one year in air, on the properties of gamma-irradiated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). A variety of techniques were used to characterize the properties of treated samples. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) was used to characterize the morphology. The extent of cross-linking in a polymer network was detected by swelling measurements. The durometer hardness test was used to measure the relative hardness of this material, and changes in density were also measured. Results from all these measurements were combined to explain the changes in the microstructure of the aged, irradiated UHMWPE. This study shows that crystallinity is increased with radiation dose and with aging due to chain scission, which leads to a reduction in the molecular weight of the material. This allows the chains to rearrange to form crystalline regions. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy confirms these conclusions. Fractional free volumes have been deduced from lifetime parameters, which correlate with the data obtained by the other techniques.

  11. Effect of molecular weight, calcium stearate, and sterilization methods on the wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups in a hip joint simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H A; Shen, F W; Campbell, P; Ota, T

    1999-05-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons must currently choose from several types of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups that differ in their material properties and in the methods used for their sterilization. Information on the wear resistance of these different cups may help in the selection process. This study included two separate tests for wear run on a hip simulator to investigate the effect of molecular weight, calcium stearate, and sterilization methods on the wear resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups. Test 1 revealed nearly identical wear rates for acetabular cups with molecular weights in two distinct ranges, as well as for cups with molecular weights in the same range but with or without calcium stearate added. In Test 2, cups that were sterilized in air with gamma irradiation exhibited lower rates of wear than those sterilized with ethylene oxide, presumably due to the crosslinking induced by the irradiation. In addition, cups that were irradiated while packed in a partial vacuum to minimize oxygen absorbed in the surface layer initially showed lower rates of wear than those irradiated in air, with the wear rates becoming similar as wear penetrated the more oxidized surface layer and the more crosslinked subsurface region. Because these tests were run a few months after the irradiation, the potential effects of long-term oxidation of any residual free radicals in the irradiated materials could not be taken into account. After artificial aging to accelerate oxidative degradation of the materials, the wear rates could be markedly different. Analyses performed after wear indicated that the irradiated (i.e., crosslinked) cups exhibited a smaller proportion of, as well as shorter, fibrils in the wear debris and an increased crystallinity and melting temperature and that gamma irradiation in the low-oxygen environment reduced the level of oxidation and increased the level of crosslinking in the surface region of the cups.

  12. Oral zinc supplementation restore high molecular weight seminal zinc binding protein to normal value in Iraqi infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadwan Mahmoud

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc in human seminal plasma is divided into three types of ligands which are high (HMW, intermediate (IMW, and low molecular weight ligands (LMW. The present study was aimed to study the effect of Zn supplementation on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen along with Zinc Binding Protein levels in the seminal plasma in asthenozoospermic patients. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 37 fertile and 37 asthenozoospermic infertile men with matched age. The subfertile group was treated with zinc sulfate, every participant took two capsules per day for three months (each one 220mg. Semen samples were obtained (before and after zinc sulfate supplementation. After liquefaction seminal fluid at room temperature, routine semen analyses were performed. For determination of the amount of zinc binding proteins, the gel filtration of seminal plasma on Sephadex G-75 was performed. All the fractions were investigated for protein and for zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Evaluation of chromatograms was made directly from the zinc concentration in each fraction. Results A significant high molecular weight zinc binding ligands percentage (HMW-Zn % was observed in seminal plasma of fertile males compared with subfertile males. However, seminal low molecular weight ligands (LMW-Zn have opposite behavior. The mean value of semen volume, progressive sperm motility percentage and total normal sperm count were increased after zinc sulfate supplementation. Conclusions Zinc supplementation restores HMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to normal value. Zinc supplementation elevates LMW-Zn% in seminal plasma of asthenozoospermic subjects to more than normal value. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01612403

  13. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI.

  14. Validation of a small punch testing technique to characterize the mechanical behaviour of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Foulds, J R; Jewett, C W; Srivastav, S; Edidin, A A

    1997-12-01

    The small punch or miniaturized disc bend test has been used successfully to characterize the ductility and fracture resistance of metals and ceramics with specimens measuring 0.5 mm in thickness. This study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of performing small punch tests on implant grade ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Large-deformation finite element simulations were developed and validated to explore the hypothesis that the macroscopic constitutive behaviour of UHMWPE may be inferred from a miniature specimen testing technique which can be used to characterize the ductility and work to failure for UHMWPE. The load-displacement curve was insensitive to cyclic preconditioning of the test specimen and only mildly sensitive to the loading rate. Furthermore, the initial slope of the small punch load-displacement curve was used to determine the elastic modulus of the UHMWPE with the help of the inverse finite element method. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop the capability to perform local measurements of material tensile and static fracture properties in as-manufactured, as-sterilized and as-retrieved UHMWPE components.

  15. Relationship between Oversulfation and Conformation of Low and High Molecular Weight Fucoidans and Evaluation of Their in Vitro Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Lae Cho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Low and high molecular weight fucoidans (F5-30K and F>30K were chemically modified through the addition of sulfate groups, and the effect of oversulfation on the in vitro anticancer activity was investigated. After the addition of sulfate groups, a considerable increase of 35.5 to 56.8% was observed in the sulfate content of the F5-30K fraction, while the sulfate content of the F>30K fraction increased to a lesser extent (from 31.7 to 41.2%. Significant differences in anticancer activity were observed between the oversulfated F5–30K and F>30K fractions, with activities of 37.3–68.0% and 20.6–35.8%, respectively. This variation in the anticancer activity of oversulfated fucoidan derivatives was likely due to differences in their sulfate content. The results suggest that the molecular conformation of these molecules is closely related to the extent of sulfation in the fucan backbones and that the sulfates are preferably substituted when the fucoidan polymers are in a loose molecular conformation.

  16. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuki; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Takemasa, Tohru; Numata, Osamu

    2017-03-29

    Mitochondria activation factor (MAF) is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample "E80" from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  17. Distinct high molecular weight organic compound (HMW-OC) types in aerosol particles collected at a coastal urban site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Healy, R. M.; Wenger, J. C.; O'Dowd, C.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Harrison, Roy M.; Beddows, D. C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Organic oligomers were discovered in laboratory-generated atmospheric aerosol over a decade ago. However, evidence for the presence of oligomers in ambient aerosols is scarce and mechanisms for their formation have yet to be fully elucidated. In this work, three unique aerosol particle types internally mixed with High molecular weight organic compounds (HMW-OC) species - likely oligomers - were detected in ambient air using single particle Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS) in Cork (Ireland) during winter 2009. These particle types can be described as follows: (1) HMW-OCs rich in organic nitrogen - possibly containing nitrocatechols and nitroguaiacols - originating from primary emissions of biomass burning particles during evening times; (2) HMW-OCs internally mixed with nitric acid, occurring in stagnant conditions during night time; and (3) HMW-OCs internally mixed with sea salt, likely formed via photochemical reactions during day time. The study exemplifies the power of methodologies capable of monitoring the simultaneous formation of organic and inorganic particle-phase reaction products. Primary emissions and atmospheric aging of different types of HMW-OC contributes to aerosol with a range of acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties, which can have different impacts on climate and health.

  18. A new technique to improve the mechanical and biological performance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene using a nylon coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, Dariush; Youssef, Aya; Amer, Momen; Srouji, Rami; Amleh, Asma; Foucher, Daniel A; Bougherara, Habiba

    2014-04-01

    A new patent pending technique is proposed in this study to improve the mechanical and biological performance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), i.e., to uniformly coat nylon onto the UHMWPE fiber (Firouzi et al., 2012). Mechanical tests were performed on neat and new nylon coated UHMWPE fibers to examine the tensile strength and creep resistance of the samples at different temperatures. Cytotoxicity and osteolysis induced by wear debris of the materials were investigated using (MTT) assay, and RT-PCR for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) osteolysis markers. Mechanical test results showed substantial improvement in maximum creep time, maximum breaking force, and toughness values of Nylon 6,6 and Nylon 6,12 coated UHMWPE fibers between average 15% and 60% at 25, 50, and 70°C. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies have demonstrated significant improvement in cell viability using the nylon coated UHMWPE over the neat one (72.4% vs 54.8%) for 48h and (80.7 vs 5%) for 72h (PNylon 6,6 coated UHMWPE (2.5 fold increase for TNFα at 48h, and three fold increase for IL-6 at 72h (Pnylon could be used as a novel material in clinical applications with lower cytotoxicity, less wear debris-induced osteolysis, and superior mechanical properties compared to neat UHMWPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Highly hydrophilic ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder and film prepared by radiation grafting of acrylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Honglong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Lu; Li, Rong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Pang, Lijuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Mouhua [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu, Guozhong, E-mail: wuguozhong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Hydrophilic UHMWPE powder and film were obtained by γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting of AA. • A low concentration of AA solution was used for surface modification of UHMWPE. • A small grafting yield of AA sufficiently improved hydrophilicity of UHMWPE powder and film. - Abstract: The surface properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are very important for its use in engineering or composites. In this work, hydrophilic UHMWPE powder and film were prepared by γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and further neutralization with sodium hydroxide solution. Variations in the chemical structure, grafting yield and hydrophilicity were investigated and compared. FT-IR and XPS analysis results showed that AA was successfully grafted onto UHMWPE powder and film; the powder was more suitable for the grafting reaction in 1 wt% AA solution than the film. Given a dose of 300 kGy, the grafting yield of AA was ∼5.7% for the powder but ∼0.8% for the film under identical conditions. Radiation grafting of a small amount of AA significantly improved the hydrophilicity of UHMWPE. The water contact angle of the UHMWPE-g-PAA powder with a grafting yield of AA at ∼5.7% decreased from 110.2° to 68.2°. Moreover, the grafting powder (UHMWPE-g-PAA) exhibited good dispersion ability in water.

  20. Black Tea High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenol-Rich Fraction Promotes Hypertrophy during Functional Overload in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Aoki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria activation factor (MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol extracted from black tea that stimulates training-induced 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK activation and improves endurance capacity. Originally, MAF was purified from black tea using butanol and acetone, making it unsuitable for food preparation. Hence, we extracted a MAF-rich sample “E80” from black tea, using ethanol and water only. Here, we examined the effects of E80 on resistance training. Eight-week old C57BL/6 mice were fed with a normal diet or a diet containing 0.5% E80 for 4, 7 and 14 days under conditions of functional overload. It was found that E80 administration promoted overload-induced hypertrophy and induced phosphorylation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway proteins, such as Akt, P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, and S6 in the plantaris muscle. Therefore, functional overload and E80 administration accelerated mTOR signaling and increased protein synthesis in the muscle, thereby inducing hypertrophy.

  1. Using microwave heating to improve the desorption efficiency of high molecular weight VOC from beaded activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Shariaty, Pooya; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2015-04-07

    Incomplete regeneration of activated carbon loaded with organic compounds results in heel build-up that reduces the useful life of the adsorbent. In this study, microwave heating was tested as a regeneration method for beaded activated carbon (BAC) loaded with n-dodecane, a high molecular weight volatile organic compound. Energy consumption and desorption efficiency for microwave-heating regeneration were compared with conductive-heating regeneration. The minimum energy needed to completely regenerate the adsorbent (100% desorption efficiency) using microwave regeneration was 6% of that needed with conductive heating regeneration, owing to more rapid heating rates and lower heat loss. Analyses of adsorbent pore size distribution and surface chemistry confirmed that neither heating method altered the physical/chemical properties of the BAC. Additionally, gas chromatography (with flame ionization detector) confirmed that neither regeneration method detectably altered the adsorbate composition during desorption. By demonstrating improvements in energy consumption and desorption efficiency and showing stable adsorbate and adsorbent properties, this paper suggests that microwave heating is an attractive method for activated carbon regeneration particularly when high-affinity VOC adsorbates are present.

  2. Genetic characteristic of high molecular weight glutenin subunits in somatic hybrid wheat lines -- potential application to wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Liu; Lei, Shi; Junsheng, Zhao; Guangmin, Xia

    2006-07-12

    Analysis of 17 derivatives from a somatic fusion between common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheat grass (Thinopyrum ponticum) showed a diversity of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) compositions. On the basis of the inheritance of HMW-GS patterns, the derivatives were either (i) bred true over four successive generations, (ii) generated a few novel HMW-GS combinations at each generation, or (iii) showed highly unstable HMW-GS compositions. HMW-GS analysis of F(5) seed and each single seed-generated F(6) progenies further revealed that most of the HMW-GS had genetic stability. The variations of HMW-GS were inferred to occur in early generations and were maintained thereafter. Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) in hybrid lines with high or low bread-making quality, classified into the first pattern, were compared. The result showed that hybrid lines with the uniform HMW-GS patterns also have identical LMW-GS patterns. The Glu-1 quality score was inferred to be relatively significant to the sodium dodecyl dulfate sedimentation value, as well as to correlate with the gluten exponent and contents of dry gluten and proteins. Sexual hybridization between high-quality somatic hybrid progeny II-12 and Chinese Spring (CS) showed that these high-quality HMW-GS genes could entail progenies. There was not subunit variation in the progenies of II-12 x CS. Therefore, sexual hybridization between somatic hybrid line and cultivars can transfer novel high-quality HMW-GS of somatic hybrids and benefit wheat breeding.

  3. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; Pwomen. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  4. The effect of chromic acid treatment on the mechanical and tribological properties of aramid fibre reinforced ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofste, JM; Pennings, AJ; Schut, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Surface oxidation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder has an influence on the mixing procedure of chopped fibres and UHMWPE powder. Due to this oxidation hydrogen bonds can be formed between the fibres and powder particles, leading to a more homogeneous fibre-powder mixture.

  5. Soluble I/sup 131/ fibrin form high molecular weight complexes in prothrombin-depleted, recalcified plasma at +37degC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosstad, F. (Research Institute for Internal Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway); Kierulf, P. (Haematological Research Laboratory and Central Laboratory, Ullevaal University Hospital, Norway)

    1983-01-01

    Gel filtation of plasma samples containing I/sup 125/fibrinogen and either I/sup 131/des-AA soluble fibrin or I/sup 131/des-AABB soluble fibrin, were performed on Sepharose 6B C1 columns at +37degC, equilibrated and developed with prothrombin-depleted plasma, either recalcified or containing EDTA. With EDTA, des-AA fibrin eluted in a homogenous, monometric form, while des-AABB fibrin had an elution profile indicating high molecular weight derivatives. In the presence of calcium ions, both des-AA and des-AABB soluble fibrin eluted mainly as high molecular weight derivatives. It could not, however, be decided whether the high molecular weight derivatives consisted of fibrin molecules alone, or of co-polymers of fibrin-fibrinogen. It is concluded that soluble des-AA fibrin and soluble des-AABB fibrin in plasma at +37degC and in the presence of calcium ions, participate in the formation of high molecular weight derivatives of fibrin.

  6. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbner, Morten; Walsted, Anette; Larsen, Rune

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus...

  7. Separation of mouse testis cells on a Celsep (TM) apparatus and their usefulness as a source of high molecular weight DNA or RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.; Gizang-Ginsberg, E.; Engelmyer, E.; Gavin, B. J.; Ponzetto, C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of a self-contained unit-gravity cell separation apparatus for separation of populations of mouse testicular cells is described. The apparatus, a Celsep (TM), maximizes the unit area over which sedimentation occurs, reduces the amount of separation medium employed, and is quite reproducible. Cells thus isolated have been good sources for isolation of DNA, and notably, high molecular weight RNA.

  8. Resilient Amorphous Networks Prepared by Photo-Crosslinking High-Molecular-Weight D,L-Lactide and Trimethylene Carbonate Macromers : Mechanical Properties and Shape-Memory Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Tough networks are prepared by photo-crosslinking high-molecular-weight DLLA and TMC macromers. These amorphous networks exhibit tunable thermal and mechanical properties and have excellent shape-memory features. Variation of the monomer ratio allows adjustment of Tg between approximately -13 and

  9. Resilient Amorphous Networks Prepared by Photo-Crosslinking High-Molecular-Weight D,L-Lactide and Trimethylene Carbonate Macromers: Mechanical Properties and Shape-Memory Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2012-01-01

    Tough networks are prepared by photo-crosslinking high-molecular-weight DLLA and TMC macromers. These amorphous networks exhibit tunable thermal and mechanical properties and have excellent shape-memory features. Variation of the monomer ratio allows adjustment of Tg between approximately −13 and

  10. Evaluation of a bisphosphonate enriched ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for enhanced total joint replacement bearing surface functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Walker, Cassandra Jane

    Each year in the United States there is an increasing trend of patients receiving total joint replacement (TJR) procedures. Approximately a half million total knee replacements (TKRs) are performed annually in the United States with increasing prevalence attributed to baby-boomers, obesity, older, and younger patients. This trend is also seen for total hip replacements (THRs) as well. The use of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts in TJRs results in wear particle-induced osteolysis, which is the predominant cause for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Sub-micron size particle generation is inevitable despite the numerous efforts in improving this bearing material. Work by others has shown that the use of oral and intravenous systemic bisphosphonates (BP) can significantly minimize periprosthetic osteolysis. However, the systemic delivery and the high solubility of BPs results in a predominant portion of the drug being excreted via the kidney without reaching its target, bone. This doctoral research project is focused on the development and evaluation of a novel method to administer BPs locally using the inherent wear of UHMWPE for possible use as an anti-osteolysis treatment. For new materials to be considered, they must be mechanically and tribologically comparable to the current gold standard, UHMWPE. In order to evaluate this material, mechanical, drug elution and tribological experiments were performed to allow assessment of material properties. Tensile tests showed comparable yield stress and pin-on-disk testing showed comparable wear to standard virgin UHMWPE. Further, drug elution tests have shown that BP was released from the enriched material both in static and dynamic conditions. Additionally, an aggressive 2 million cycle total knee simulator experiment has shown statistically similar wear results for the two materials. Overall, this research has provided the groundwork for further characterization and development of a new

  11. Bench-scale optimization of bioaugmentation strategies for treatment of soils contaminated with high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straube, W.l.; Jones-Meehan, J.; Pritchard, P.H.; Jones, W.R. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States). Center of Marine Biotechnology

    1999-07-01

    The chemical composition of crude oil, creosote, and refined petroleum includes hundreds of different alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons, among which are the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some compounds in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils are rapidly removed by the activities of autochthonous bacterial populations while other PAHs, especially those with four or more fused aromatic rings, are refractory to biodegradation. The persistence of high molecular weight of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (hPAHs) in soils implies either that their low solubility renders them poorly available to bacteria, or that autochthonous bacteria do not contain the metabolic or co-metabolic pathways required for their degradation or both. The rate and extent of PAH degradation in contaminated soil is not always predictable for standard biological treatment strategies. This study examines a matrix of treatments suitable for land farming in order to identify those that maximize the removal of hPAHs. The treatments include those intended to increase the bioavailability of hPAH, such as additions of biosurfactant-producing bacteria (i.e. Pseudomonas aeruginosa No. 64) and addition of light oils, as well as treatments intended to increase the metabolic potential of the bacterial community. The latter includes the addition of inorganic nutrients and bacterial strains capable of degrading hPAHs co-metabolically (i.e. Sphingomonas paucimobilis EPA 505). The efficacy of immobilizing PAH-degrading bacteria on vermiculite is also considered, as will be the monitoring of leachate for biodegradation of PAHs in a simulated land farming operation. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Identification of polar transformation products and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil following bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwe, Leah; Davie-Martin, Cleo L; Aitken, Michael D; Hoh, Eunha; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2017-12-01

    Bioremediation is a technique commonly used to reduce the toxicity associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soils. However, the efficacy of bioremedial applications is evaluated based on the removal of a subset of parent (or unsubstituted) PAHs and does not incorporate toxic polar transformation products or the more mutagenic high molecular weight PAHs (MW≥302amu or MW302-PAHs). Previously, an effects-directed analysis approach was used to assess the effect of bioremediation on the toxicity of a coal tar-contaminated soil. Increased genotoxicity and developmental toxicity was measured postbioremedation in the more polar soil extract fractions, as compared to the less polar fractions where the targeted PAHs eluted, and could not be attributed to the 88 target PAHs analyzed for (including selected oxygen-containing PAHs). In this study, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize transformation products in the soil extract fractions identified as toxic, previously. Additionally, the degradation of 12MW302-PAHs, picene (MW=278) and coronene (MW=300) were evaluated following bioremediation. Non-targeted analysis resulted in the tentative identification of 10 peaks with increased intensity postbioremediation (based on mass spectral library matching and fragmentation patterns from >5000 candidate peaks in the soil extracts). Several of these compounds contained oxygen, suggesting they would be relatively polar. MW302-PAHs were not significantly degraded during bioremediation, suggesting that the carcinogenic potential associated with these PAHs might remain unchanged. The results of this study suggest that polar transformation products, and MW302-PAHs, should be considered for realistic risk assessment of bioremediated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of specific IgE antibodies measurements in occupational airway allergy to high molecular weight agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Zgorzelska-Kowalik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance of specific inhalation challenge test (SICT – reference method in diagnostics of occupational allergy – has some limitations due to health status of a particular patient. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify usefulness of other tests, and the evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of commercially available serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE kits to the most common high molecular weight agents has been launched. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 141 subjects – 110 bakers and 31 farmers – with suspicion of occupational airway allergy. All patients underwent evaluation of serum sIgE to occupational allergens with the use of Phadia and Allergopharma kits: in bakers to flour mix and α-amylase, in farmers to epithelium of cow, pig and feathers. Specific inhalation challenge test with workplace allergens performed in all subjects was a reference method for further analysis. Results: Serum specific IgE to flour mix had the highest sensitivity (Phadia – 95.6%, Allergopharma – 88.3%, while its specificity was relatively low (Phadia – 47.8%, Allergopharma – 25%. There were numerous discrepancies between the results of sIgE estimation for particular single allergens (k87, e4, e83, as well as for their mixtures (fx901, fx20, ex71, performed with the kits of both companies (Phadia vs. Allergopharma. Conclusions: Evaluation of serum specific IgE is characterized by inadequate sensitivity, specificity and predictive value to take the place of specific inhalation challenge test in diagnostics of occupational respiratory allergy. Med Pr 2017;68(1:31–43

  14. On the nature of static and cyclic fracture resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes used in total joint replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Ravikumar

    In 2005, about 629,000 total joint replacement (TJR) surgeries were performed in the United States alone and the number is expected to increase by 343% by 2030. In addition, the average age of the patient receiving TJR is decreasing. Therefore, there is an immediate need to enhance the material properties of the implants. Fracture of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) components used in total joint replacements is a clinical concern. In this work, static and cyclic fracture resistance of conventional and highly crosslinked and post-processed UHMWPE materials were evaluated in ambient air and physiologically relevant environmental conditions. Applicability of a compliance based automated system for crack length measurement during fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests was demonstrated for UHMWPE materials. The Standard compliance calibration coefficients were found to accurately predict the fatigue crack growth only in the low da/dN regime (da/dN test specimens exhibited crack retardation while others exhibited crack acceleration on application of a single overload. On application of multiple overloads crack arrest was observed. To evaluate the static fracture resistance of UHMWPE materials, J-R curves were obtained in ambient air and 37°C PBS environments using a single specimen normalization method. The single specimen method based on power law based deformation function was demonstrated to predict J-R curves accurately for UHMWPE materials. Significantly lower J-R fracture resistance was observed in the 37°C PBS environment as compared to that in an ambient air environment. A novel experimental method based on CTOD was developed to evaluate fracture initiation in UHMWPE materials. This method predicted conservative and more reliable J-initiation fracture toughness estimates as compared to the traditional blunting line approach.

  15. Flexible mechanoprosthesis made from woven ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene fibres: proof of concept in a chronic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, Amir; Grobben, Remco B; Cramer, Maarten Jan; van Herwaarden, Joost A; Vink, Aryan; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Kluin, Jolanda; Gründeman, Paul F

    2017-07-26

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres are flexible, have high tensile strength, and platelet and bacterial adhesion is low. Therefore, UHMWPE may overcome limitations of current mechanical valves and bioprostheses. In this study, the biocompatibility and functionality of prototype handmade stented valves from woven UHMWPE (U-valve) was assessed in a chronic sheep model with acetylsalicylic acid monotherapy. Native pulmonary valves of 23 sheep were replaced by U-valves ( n  = 18) or Perimount bovine bioprostheses (reference group, n  = 5). Sheep received 80 mg of acetylsalicylic acid daily. Follow-up was conducted at 1 week ( n  = 4), 1 month ( n  = 5), 3 months ( n  = 5) and 6 months ( n  = 4) in the U-valve group and at 3 months ( n  = 2) and 6 months ( n  = 3) in the reference group. Epicardial echocardiography and histology were used to assess valve function and tissue deposition, respectively. Seventeen U-valve sheep (94%) and 3 reference sheep (60%) survived the perioperative period. One reference valve sheep was sacrificed after 4 months because of congestive heart failure. At explantation, all U-valves were intact without leaflet tearing. Up to 3 months, U-valves were flexible and free of stenosis. Regurgitation was mostly mild though gradually increasing; histology showed minimal connective tissue near the leaflet base and sparse calcification. At 6 months, connective tissue was diffusely observed on the leaflets with retraction and consecutive regurgitation and leaflet thickening. Valves made from UHMWPE fibres demonstrated early feasibility in the pulmonary valve position with reasonably good haemodynamics and intact valve materials up to 6 months. Gradual leaflet thickening and retraction were observed after 3 months due to connective tissue overgrowth.

  16. Analysis of Bacterial and Archaeal Communities along a High-Molecular-Weight Polyacrylamide Transportation Pipeline System in an Oil Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Yun Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  17. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal communities along a high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide transportation pipeline system in an oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Yun; Li, Jing-Yan; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-04-02

    Viscosity loss of high-molecular-weight partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) solution was observed in a water injection pipeline before being injected into subterranean oil wells. In order to investigate the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss, both bacterial and archaeal community compositions of four samples collected from different points of the transportation pipeline were analyzed using PCR-amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and clone library construction method together with the analysis of physicochemical properties of HPAM solution and environmental factors. Further, the relationship between environmental factors and HPAM properties with microorganisms were delineated by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Diverse bacterial and archaeal groups were detected in the four samples. The microbial community of initial solution S1 gathered from the make-up tank is similar to solution S2 gathered from the first filter, and that of solution S3 obtained between the first and the second filter is similar to that of solution S4 obtained between the second filter and the injection well. Members of the genus Acinetobacter sp. were detected with high abundance in S3 and S4 in which HPAM viscosity was considerably reduced, suggesting that they likely played a considerable role in HPAM viscosity loss. This study presents information on microbial community diversity in the HPAM transportation pipeline and the possible involvement of microorganisms in HPAM viscosity loss and biodegradation. The results will help to understand the microbial community contribution made to viscosity change and are beneficial for providing information for microbial control in oil fields.

  18. Cord blood and child plasma adiponectin levels in relation to childhood obesity risk and fat distribution up to 5 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dorothy M; Brei, Christina; Stecher, Lynne; Much, Daniela; Brunner, Stefanie; Hauner, Hans

    2017-05-01

    Few human studies have explored the role of adiponectin in early life on growth and adipose tissue development. High molecular weight (HMW) and total adiponectin levels from 141 cord blood samples and plasma blood samples from 40 3-y-old children were analyzed. Associations between adiponectin levels in cord blood and child plasma, and infant/child growth and fat mass measurements up to the age of 5 y were assessed using linear regression models. HMW cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with weight, BMI percentiles, and lean body mass at birth only. At 3 and 4 y, positive associations were found with cord blood adiponectin and sum of four skinfold thickness measures and percentage of body fat following adjustment for maternal and child covariates, but did not persist at 5 y. There was no significant evidence of an association between child plasma HMW adiponectin and growth or body composition characteristics at 3-5 y. Our results do not support the hypothesis that HMW cord blood adiponectin is a useful biomarker for the prediction of adiposity at the age of 5 y. Additionally, there is no evidence that plasma HMW adiponectin levels predict body fat distribution between 3-5 y.

  19. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml

  20. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18 - 25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight ( BMI >= 27 kg/m(2)) men consumed

  1. Effect of ZnO morphology on affecting bactericidal property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajeev Kumar [Biomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur -208016 (India); Agarwal, Meenakshi [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh - 201303 (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Biomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur -208016 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infection of implants can be controlled by selective trapping of bacteria, followed with consequent killing by targeted antibacterial agents. Herein, the role of various ZnO morphologies, viz. micro-rods (R), nanoparticles (NP), and micro-disks (D) on antibacterial efficacy of ZnO via release of Zn{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is assessed, both as isolated powders and via incorporating them in cytocompatible ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Though ZnO is antibacterial, interestingly, all ZnO morphologies elicited a supportive growth of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) in culture medium (until 28–35 μg/ml). But, all ZnO morphologies did elicit bactericidal effect on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis) both in culture medium (for 0–2.5 μg/ml) or when incorporated (5–20 wt.%) into UHMWPE. The bactericidal mechanisms were quantified for various ZnO morphologies via: (i) H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, (ii) Zn{sup 2+} release, and (iii) the presence of surface oxygen vacancies. On one hand, where only ZnO(NP) elicited release of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the absence of light, maximum Zn{sup 2+} release was elicited by ZnO(D). Interestingly, when ZnO is incorporated as reinforcement (5–20 wt.%), its antibacterial action against E. coli was vividly observed due to selective proliferation of bacteria only on friendly UHMWPE matrix. Hence, luring bacteria on affable UHMWPE surface can be complemented with their targeted killing by ZnO present in composite. - Highlights: • The role of ZnO morphology in affecting bactericidal mechanisms • Quantification of Zn{sup 2+} release, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and surface oxygen vacancy defects • Inherent resistance by gram negative bacteria at lower ZnO concentrations • Containment of bacteria on polymeric surface and consequent targeted killing by ZnO.

  2. Association of vitamin K status with adiponectin and body composition in healthy subjects: uncarboxylated osteocalcin is not associated with fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Marjo H J; Schurgers, Leon J; Shearer, Martin J; Newman, Paul; Theuwissen, Elke; Vermeer, Cees

    2012-09-28

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent protein found in bone and in circulation. High serum γ-carboxylated OC reflects a high, and high uncarboxylated OC (ucOC) reflects a low vitamin K status. A revolutionary hypothesis is that ucOC acts as a hormone improving glucose handling and reducing fat mass. The objective was to test the logical extrapolation of the ucOC hormone hypothesis to humans that elevated ucOC is associated with higher body weight, BMI and fat mass. In a cross-sectional analysis, the associations of vitamin K status with circulating adiponectin and body composition were investigated in 244 postmenopausal women (study I). The effects of vitamin K treatment on adiponectin, body weight and BMI were investigated in archived samples from forty-two young men and women who received varying doses of menaquinone-7 during 12 weeks (study II) and from a cohort of 164 postmenopausal women who participated in a 3-year placebo-controlled trial on 45 mg menaquinone-4 (MK-4) (study III). No association was found between vitamin K status and circulating adiponectin before or after vitamin K supplementation. A higher carboxylation of OC was significantly correlated with lower body weight, BMI and fat mass of the trunk. Women taking MK-4 maintained their baseline body weight and BMI, whereas women taking placebo showed significant increases in both indices. These findings demonstrate that a high vitamin K status of bone has no effect on circulating adiponectin in healthy people and long-term vitamin K supplementation does not increase weight in healthy postmenopausal women.

  3. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L. Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P.; Kriska, Andrea P.; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI PMID:22956782

  4. The Influence of Sintering Method on Kaolin-Based Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene as Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romisuhani, A.; AlBakri, M. M.; Kamarudin, H.; Andrei, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of sintering method on kaolin-based geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene as binder were studied. Geopolymer were formed at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. 12 M of sodium hydroxide solution were mixed with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24 to form alkaline activator. Powder metallurgy technique were used in order to produce kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. The samples were heated at temperature of 1200 °C with two different sintering method which are conventional method and two-step sintering method. The strength and density were tested.

  5. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Walsted, Anette; Larsen, Rune

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus......beta, and IL-6 responses, indicating that it acts by inducing a pro-inflammatory state. Taken together, the data suggest that Immulina causes an age-dependent, temporary enhancement of adaptive immune responses....

  6. Interrelations among the adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress and aseptic inflammation markers in pre- and early-pubertal normal-weight and obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltoglou, George; Schoina, Maria; Valsamakis, George; Salakos, Nicolaos; Avloniti, Alexandra; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Margeli, Alexandra; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Papagianni, Maria; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Mastorakos, George

    2017-03-01

    Presumed interrelationships among deleterious aspects of adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation, and cellular oxidative stress could be influenced by pubertal hormonal changes. They were investigated in pre- and early pubertal normal-weight and obese boys before and after an exercise bout employed as an energy demanding stimulator. Cross-sectional study. Seventy-six healthy pre- (mean ± SD, 10.6 ± 0.2 years old, 28 normal-weight, and 11 obese) and early-(11.4 ± 0.2 years old, 25 normal-weight, and 12 obese) pubertal boys, were blood-sampled before and after a bout of exercise at 70% VO2 max. Leptin, adiponectin, markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high sensitivity IL-6), pro- (thiobarbitouric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls) and anti- (glutathione, oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity) oxidation were measured. Baseline and post-exercise adiponectin was greater and leptin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were lower in normal-weight than in obese pre- and early pubertal boys, while high sensitivity IL-6 was greater in obese than in normal-weight pre-pubertal boys. In pre-pubertal obese boys: at baseline, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated negatively with catalase; high sensitivity IL-6 correlated positively with protein carbonyls; Δ (difference during exercise) adiponectin correlated positively with Δcatalase. In all boys: at baseline, high sensitivity IL-6 correlated positively with leptin and was the best negative and the second best positive predictor for post-exercise glutathione/oxidized glutathione and protein carbonyls, respectively; leptin was the best negative predictor for post-exercise glutathione; waist to height ratio was the best positive predictor for post-exercise thiobarbitouric acid reactive substances; body mass index z-score and adiponectin were, respectively, the best positive predictor for post-exercise protein carbonyls

  7. Adiponectin gene expression in human primary adipocyte culture treated with uremic serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Alouffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available End-stage renal disease (ESRD is accompanied by an increased rate of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although renal replacement therapy is required at this stage, it is associated with additional complications such as inflammation and dyslipidemia. It has been suggested that adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. We studied the potential role of uremic mileu on the adiponectin expression in human primary adipocyte culture. A cohort of 18 patients with ESRD (hemo-and peritoneal dialysis and nine healthy controls were analyzed in a prospective cross-sectional study. Single blood samples were taken pre-and post-hemodialysis and in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum concentrations of total adiponectin (7.95 ± 1.44 μg/mL; 6.73 ± 1.2 μg/mL; 13.7 ± 3.04 μg/mL, respectively and high molecular weight adiponectin (3.03 ± 1.95 μg/mL; 3.57 ± 2.44 14 μg/mL; 8.02 ± 5 μg/mL respectively were measured. Other biochemical parameters (cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in all groups of patients. Adiponectin gene expression was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and was found to be lower in ESRD patients compared with healthy controls with low dose but not with high-dose treatments. Serum concentrations of total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin were significantly higher in the ESRD versus control group. These results provide an initial insight into understanding the putative role of adipose tissue in contributing to the association of CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  8. Lifestyle-induced decrease in fat mass improves adiponectin secretion in obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Solomon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    with either a low-glycemic index diet (∼40 U) plus exercise (LoGIX) or a high-glycemic index diet (∼80 U) diet plus exercise (HiGIX) on plasma leptin and adiponectin (total and high molecular weight [HMW]) in 27 older obese adults (age = 65 ± 0.5 yr, body mass index = 34.5 ± 0.7 kg·m). METHODS: Insulin......PURPOSE: Several studies have identified relationships between weight loss and adipokine levels; however, none have looked at the combined effect of aerobic exercise training with the consumption of a low- or a high-glycemic diet. We examined the effects of 12 wk of aerobic exercise combined......, favorably alters HMW adiponectin and leptin secretion and that a reduction in visceral fat mass is a key factor regulating HMW adiponectin in older obese persons....

  9. Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Supplementation on Leptin and Adiponectin Levels and Body Weight of Hemodialysis Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Sedigheh; Dehghan Banadaki, Shima; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Carnitine supplementation may improve the general health and quality of life of hemodialysis patients by improving adipokines levels. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on leptin levels, adiponectin levels, and body weight of hemodialysis patients. Fifty hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into the carnitine group, who received oral L-carnitine, 1 g/L for 3 months, and the control group. Anthropometric measurements and serum levels of adipokines were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Forty-two participants completed the study. Serum leptin concentrations decreased after 12 weeks of the intervention in both groups, but these changes were not significant. The mean change of leptin concentration were, -1.7 ± 19.0 µg/mL and -7.1 ± 20.0 µg/mL in the carnitine group and the control group, respectively (P = .39). The mean adiponectin levels at baseline and after the intervention were 8.6 ± 11.19 µg/mL and 9.8 ± 4.1 µg/mL in the carnitine group (P = .67) and 5.0 ± 2.5 µg/mL and 11.2 ± 5.4 µg/mL in the control group, respectively (P  L-carnitine for 12 weeks did not affect leptin and adiponectin levels or the body weight or body mass index of hemodialysis patients.

  10. Adiponectin and the metabolic syndrome: mechanisms mediating risk for metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Fu, Yuchang; Chung, B Hong; Garvey, W Timothy

    2007-06-01

    Adiponectin is secreted exclusively by adipocytes, aggregates in multimeric forms, and circulates at high concentrations in blood. This review summarizes recent studies highlighting cellular effects of adiponectin and its role in human lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is an important autocrine/paracrine factor in adipose tissue that modulates differentiation of preadipocytes and favors formation of mature adipocytes. It also functions as an endocrine factor, influencing whole-body metabolism via effects on target organs. Adiponectin multimers exert differential biologic effects, with the high-molecular-weight multimer associated with favorable metabolic effects (i.e. greater insulin sensitivity, reduced visceral adipose mass, reduced plasma triglycerides, and increased HDL-cholesterol). Adiponectin influences plasma lipoprotein levels by altering the levels and activity of key enzymes (lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase) responsible for the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL. It thus influences atherosclerosis by affecting the balance of atherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins in plasma, and by modulating cellular processes involved in foam cell formation. Recent studies emphasize the role played by adiponectin in the homeostasis of adipose tissue and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. These pleiotropic effects make it an attractive therapeutic target for obesity-related conditions.

  11. Modified Mostardi approach with ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tape for total hip arthroplasty provides a good rate of union of osteotomized fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yutaka; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Nankaku, Manabu; So, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-07-01

    A lateral approach is common in total hip arthroplasty because of the good exposure it provides and its low complication rates. However, a drawback of the procedure is that the abductor mechanism is damaged when the tendinous insertion of the abductor muscle is split. Here, we describe a wafer technique using ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tape for promising reattachment of the abductor mechanism. We retrospectively evaluated 120 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties performed using a modified Mostardi approach, which involved reattaching the trochanter using either a braided polyester suture (polyester suture group, n = 60) or ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tape (UHMWPE tape group, n = 60). The osteotomized fragment was reattached by inducing bone-to-bone contact using 3-mm-wide tapes that were precisely tied with a double-loop sliding knot in conjunction with a cable gun tensioner. The abductor strength and radiographic union rate were postoperatively assessed at 4 weeks and 6 months, respectively. A statistically significant lower incidence of nonunion and cutout was observed in the UHMWPE group (0 and 5.0 %, respectively) compared to the polyester suture group (8.3 and 15 %, respectively). No differences in abductor strength either preoperatively or at 4 weeks postoperatively were observed between the groups. In radiographically healed patients, abductor strength at 4 weeks post-surgery exceeded preoperative strength. The recovery rate of hip abductor strength was 109.9 ± 34.3 % in union patients and 92.9 ± 23.3 % in nonunion patients, which was statistically significant. The mean Japanese Orthopedic Association hip scores improved from 48.6 to 86.8 in union patients and from 50.3 to 85.9 in nonunion patients at 1 year postoperatively; however, this difference was not significant. The modified Mostardi approach using ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene tape can promote successful union of the osteotomized fragment.

  12. Synthesis of poly (methyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene with high molecular weight by DPE seeded emulsion polymerization and its application in proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Hepeng; Geng, Wangchang; Gu, Junwei; Zhou, Yanyang; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we present poly (methyl methacrylate)-b-polystyrene (PMMA-b-PS) with different block ratios and high molecular weight, which was synthesized by environmentally friendly seeded emulsion polymerization with 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) as a chain transfer agent. Polymerization kinetics in the first and second stage was investigated. Stable latex and homogeneous latex particles were obtained with the characterization of laser light scattering (LLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEC and (1)H NMR revealed the successful preparation of block copolymers with high molecular weight and two different block ratios. The morphology of microphase separation of block copolymer thin films was investigated by AFM, and long-range order lamellar morphology was observed after vapor-annealing. The block copolymer with block ratio of almost 1:1 and higher molecular weight than that of previous PMMA-b-PS was sulfonated with acetyl sulfate, and the sulfonation was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR, and TGA. Then, the sulfonated PMMA-b-PS was casted as membranes. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy displayed that membranes possessed favorable proton conductivity and fine dimensional stability, and they could be candidates as proton exchange membranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of ultra-high molecular weight poly-γ-glutamic acid with Bacillus licheniformis P-104 and characterization of its flocculation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caifeng; Zhang, Yewei; Wei, Xuetuan; Hu, Zhongbo; Zhu, Feiyan; Xu, Lin; Luo, Mingfang; Liu, Huizhou

    2013-06-01

    A novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis P-104 was isolated from Chinese soybean paste to produce a bioflocculant. The bioflocculant was confirmed as ultra-high molecular weight poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) using Fourier transform infrared spectrum, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gel permeation chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering. The production technology and flocculation properties of γ-PGA were investigated. By fed-batch fermentation in a 7-L bioreactor, the maximum γ-PGA yield reached 41.6 g L(-1) with a productivity rate of 1.07 g L(-1) h(-1). The flocculating activity of γ-PGA for kaolin suspension was 33.5±1.6 1/OD under the optimized flocculation conditions (6 mM Ca(2+), 1.5 mg L(-1) γ-PGA, and pH 6.0). The optimized dosage of γ-PGA for flocculation was just about 30 % of that of reported γ-PGA produced by other strains. Moreover, the flocculation activity of γ-PGA produced by strain P-104 was much higher than commercial γ-PGA with the molecular weight ranging 200-500 kDa and 1,500-2,500 kDa. This study provided a promising strain and an efficient method for production of ultra-high molecular weight γ-PGA which could be used as a potential green bioflocculant.

  14. Glyoxal administration induces formation of high molecular weight aggregates of hemoglobin exhibiting amyloidal nature in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-12-01

    Glyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In the present study, we have investigated the effect of glyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Gel electrophoretic profile of hemolysate collected from glyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kg body wt. dose) after one week exhibited the presence of some high molecular weight protein bands that were found to be absent for control, untreated rats. Mass spectrometric and absorption studies indicated that the bands represented hemoglobin. Further studies revealed that the fraction exhibited the presence of intermolecular cross β-sheet structure. Thus glyoxal administration induces formation of high molecular weight aggregates of hemoglobin with amyloid characteristics in rats. Aggregated hemoglobin fraction was found to exhibit higher stability compared to glyoxal-untreated hemoglobin. As evident from mass spectrometric studies, glyoxal was found to modify Arg-30β and Arg-31α of rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to induce amyloid-like aggregation of hemoglobin in rats. Considering the increased level of glyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, the above findings may be physiologically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication, Physicochemical Characterization, and Performance Evaluation of Biodegradable Polymeric Microneedle Patch System for Enhanced Transcutaneous Flux of High Molecular Weight Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral; Choudhury, Bijaya Krushna

    2017-11-01

    A revolutionary paradigm shift is being observed currently, towards the use of therapeutic biologics for disease management. The present research was focused on designing an efficient dosage form for transdermal delivery of α-choriogonadotropin (high molecular weight biologic), through biodegradable polymeric microneedles. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-based biodegradable microneedle arrays loaded with high molecular weight polypeptide, α-choriogonadotropin, were fabricated for its systemic delivery via transdermal route. Varied process and formulation parameters were optimized for fabricating microneedle array, which in turn was expected to temporally rupture the stratum corneum layer of the skin, acting as a major barrier to drug delivery through transdermal route. The developed polymeric microneedles were optimized on the basis of quality attributes like mechanical strength, axial strength, insertion ratio, and insertion force analysis. The optimized polymeric microneedle arrays were characterized for in vitro drug release studies, ex vivo drug permeation studies, skin resealing studies, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies. Results depicted that fabricated polymeric microneedle arrays with mechanical strength of above 5 N and good insertion ratio exhibited similar systemic bioavailability of α-choriogonadotropin in comparison to marketed subcutaneous injection formulation of α-choriogonadotropin. Thus, it was ultimately concluded that the designed drug delivery system can serve as an efficient tool for systemic delivery of therapeutic biologics, with an added benefit of overcoming the limitations of parenteral delivery, achieving better patient acceptability and compliance.

  16. High molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons as pure model substances and in motor oil samples can be ionized without fragmentation by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourani, Nadim; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-10-15

    High molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons are still difficult to detect by mass spectrometry. Although several studies have targeted this problem, lack of good self-ionization has limited the ability of mass spectrometry to examine these hydrocarbons. Failure to control ion generation in the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source hampers the detection of intact stable gas-phase ions of non-polar hydrocarbon in mass spectrometry. Seventeen non-volatile non-polar hydrocarbons, reported to be difficult to ionize, were examined by an optimized APCI methodology using nitrogen as the reagent gas. All these analytes were successfully ionized as abundant and intact stable [M-H](+) ions without the use of any derivatization or adduct chemistry and without significant fragmentation. Application of the method to real-life hydrocarbon mixtures like light shredder waste and car motor oil was demonstrated. Despite numerous reports to the contrary, it is possible to ionize high molecular weight non-polar hydrocarbons by APCI, omitting the use of additives. This finding represents a significant step towards extending the applicability of mass spectrometry to non-polar hydrocarbon analyses in crude oil, petrochemical products, waste or food. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Cross-linked ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene liner and ceramic femoral head in total hip arthroplasty: a prospective study at 5 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orradre Burusco, Iñigo; Romero, Raquel; Brun, Miriam; López Blasco, Jose Javier

    2011-12-01

    Recent data indicate that enhanced wear resistance can be obtained with new cross-linked ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (CL-UHMWPE) liners, in comparison with previous-generation liners. The current prospective, cohort study was undertaken to analyse whether the use of a new CL-UHMWPE (Rexpol) results in a lower wear rate than ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in a group of similar patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study provides the first clinical data with this particular CL-UHMWPE. Between January 2001 and December 2001, patients underwent THA with biconical threaded cups and ceramic femoral heads using either a CL-UHMWPE liner (n = 50) or a regular UHMWPE liner (n = 57). At the time of the final 5-year evaluation, there were 48 patients available in the CL-UHMWPE and 54 patients available in the UHMWPE group. After a mean 5.6 years follow-up, there were no significant differences between the groups in Harris Hip Score outcomes. However, there was a 69.1% decrease in wear at 5 years for the CL-UHMWPE group in comparison with the UHMWPE group (p biconical threaded cups and ceramic femoral heads. Further follow-up is needed to determine how this will influence long-term outcomes.

  18. Efficiency of high molecular weight backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 conjugate in promotion of bone formation in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-09-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by postpolymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficiency of High Molecular Weight Backbone Degradable HPMA Copolymer – Prostaglandin E1 Conjugate in Promotion of Bone Formation in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Miller, Scott C.; Kopečková, Pavla; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Multiblock, high molecular weight, linear, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) conjugate has been synthesized by RAFT polymerization mediated by a new bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA), which contains an enzymatically degradable oligopeptide sequence flanked by two dithiobenzoate groups, followed by post-polymerization aminolysis and thiol-ene chain extension. The multiblock conjugate contains Asp8 as the bone-targeting moiety and enzymatically degradable bonds in the polymer backbone; in vivo degradation produces cleavage products that are below the renal threshold. Using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, the accumulation in bone and efficacy to promote bone formation was evaluated; low molecular weight conjugates served as control. The results indicated a higher accumulation in bone, greater enhancement of bone density, and higher plasma osteocalcin levels for the backbone degradable conjugate. PMID:23731780

  20. Radiation inactivation (target size analysis) of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor: evidence for a high molecular weight complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, P.M.; Venter, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    In the present study we used radiation inactivation (target size analysis) to measure the functional mol wt of the GnRH receptor while it is still a component of the plasma membrane. This technique is based on the observation that an inverse relationship exists between the dose-dependent inactivation of a macromolecule by ionizing radiation and the size of that macromolecule. This method demonstrates a mol wt of 136,346 +/- 8120 for the GnRH receptor. This estimate is approximately twice that obtained (60,000) by photoaffinity labeling with a radioactive GnRH analog followed by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions and, accordingly, presents the possibility that the functional receptor consists of a high mol wt complex in its native state. The present studies indicate that the GnRH receptor is either a single weight class of protein or several closely related weight classes, such as might occur due to protein glycosylation.

  1. Ratiometric Measurements of Adiponectin by Mass Spectrometry in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with Iron Overload Reveal an Association with Insulin Resistance and Glucagon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Benjamin A.; Carlin, Kevin P.; Arthur, John M.; McFee, Wayne E.; Janech, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin levels are reduced in humans with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Similar to humans with insulin resistance, managed bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) diagnosed with hemochromatosis (iron overload) have higher levels of 2 h post-prandial plasma insulin than healthy controls. A parallel reaction monitoring assay for dolphin serum adiponectin was developed based on tryptic peptides identified by mass spectrometry. Using identified post-translational modifications, a differential measurement was constructed. Total and unmodified adiponectin levels were measured in sera from dolphins with (n = 4) and without (n = 5) iron overload. This measurement yielded total adiponectin levels as well as site specific percent unmodified adiponectin that may inversely correlate with HMW adiponectin. Differences in insulin levels between iron overload cases and controls were observed 2 h post-prandial, but not during the fasting state. Thus, post-prandial as well as fasting serum adiponectin levels were measured to determine whether adiponectin and insulin would follow similar patterns. There was no difference in total adiponectin or percent unmodified adiponectin from case or control fasting animals. There was no difference in post-prandial total adiponectin levels between case and control dolphins (mean ± SD) at 763 ± 298 and 727 ± 291 pmol/ml, respectively (p = 0.91); however, percent unmodified adiponectin was significantly higher in post-prandial cases compared to controls (30.0 ± 6.3 versus 17.0 ± 6.6%, respectively; p = 0.016). Interestingly, both total and percent unmodified adiponectin were correlated with glucagon levels in controls (r = 0.999, p  < 0.001), but not in cases, which is possibly a reflection of insulin resistance. Although total adiponectin levels were not significantly different, the elevated percent unmodified adiponectin follows a trend similar to

  2. Low pressure shock response and dynamic failure of high density- and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Dattelbaum, Dana; Schilling, Benjamin; Welch, Cynthia; Stull, Jamie

    2017-06-01

    Polyethylene exhibits mechanical responses tailorable to a given application based on its network and chain structures (crystallinity) and molecular weight. Earlier reports have provided Hugoniot data for polyethylene over a broad range of conditions to very high shock stresses, while others focused on the discontinuous low pressure Hugoniot of crystalline forms of polyethylene. Surprisingly little is known about the influence of crystalline structure, and associated crystalline phase transitions including melt, on its dynamic compression response. Two different materials - high density polyethylene and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene - were chosen for investigation of the influence of a high percentage of crystallinity (>40%) on the shock response and dynamic tensile failure (spall). We have applied in-situ electromagnetic gauges to measure the evolution of particle velocity wave profiles with propagation distance to elucidate the nature of the discontinuous Hugoniot at low pressures. The first evidence of a three-wave structure in highly crystalline polyethylene was measured above a shock stress of 0.5 GPa. Above this region of discontinuity in the principal Hugoniot, the transition is overdriven, and a single shock wave is observed to stresses exceeding 10 GPa. Details about the nature of the transition, including wave velocities and changes in density, will be presented. Further, a series of dynamic tensile (spall) experiments were performed on polyethylene and will be discussed.

  3. High molecular weight FGF2 isoforms demonstrate canonical receptor-mediated activity and support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kole

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2 is a highly pleiotropic member of a large family of growth factors with a broad range of activities, including mitogenesis and angiogenesis (Ornitz et al., 1996; Zhang et al., 2006, and it is known to be essential for maintenance of balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal in human pluripotent stem cells (Eiselleova et al., 2009; Zoumaro-Djayoon et al., 2011. A single FGF2 transcript can be translated into five FGF2 protein isoforms, an 18 kDa low molecular weight (LMW isoform and four larger high molecular weight (HMW isoforms (Arese et al., 1999; Arnaud et al., 1999. As they are not generally secreted, high molecular weight (HMW FGF2 isoforms have predominantly been investigated intracellularly; only a very limited number of studies have investigated their activity as extracellular factors. Here we report over-expression, isolation, and biological activity of all recombinant human FGF2 isoforms. We show that HMW FGF2 isoforms can support self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs in vitro. Exogenous supplementation with HMW FGF2 isoforms also activates the canonical FGFR/MAPK pathway and induces mitogenic activity in a manner similar to that of the 18 kDa FGF2 isoform. Though all HMW isoforms, when supplemented exogenously, are able to recapitulate LMW FGF2 activity to some degree, it appears that certain isoforms tend to do so more poorly, demonstrating a lesser functional response by several measures. A better understanding of isoform-specific FGF2 effects will lead to a better understanding of developmental and pathological FGF2 signaling.

  4. Surfactant-Free RAFT Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene Using Thermoresponsive macroRAFT Agents: Towards Smart Well-Defined Block Copolymers with High Molecular Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Eggers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT and emulsion polymerization has recently attracted much attention as a synthetic tool for high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their micellar nano-objects. Up to recently, though, the use of thermoresponsive polymers as both macroRAFT agents and latex stabilizers was impossible in aqueous media due to their hydrophobicity at the usually high polymerization temperatures. In this work, we present a straightforward surfactant-free RAFT emulsion polymerization to obtain thermoresponsive styrenic block copolymers with molecular weights of around 100 kDa and their well-defined latexes. The stability of the aqueous latexes is achieved by adding 20 vol % of the cosolvent 1,4-dioxane (DOX, increasing the phase transition temperature (PTT of the used thermoresponsive poly(N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PAPy macroRAFT agents above the polymerization temperature. Furthermore, this cosolvent approach is combined with the use of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-block-poly(N-acryloylpiperidine-co-N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PDMA-b-P(APi-co-APy as the macroRAFT agent owning a short stabilizing PDMA end block and a widely adjustable PTT of the P(APi-co-APy block in between 4 and 47 °C. The temperature-induced collapse of the latter under emulsion polymerization conditions leads to the formation of RAFT nanoreactors, which allows for a very fast chain growth of the polystyrene (PS block. In dynamic light scattering (DLS, as well as cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM, moreover, all created latexes indeed reveal a high (temperature stability and a reversible collapse of the thermoresponsive coronal block upon heating. Hence, this paper pioneers a versatile way towards amphiphilic thermoresponsive high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their nano-objects with tailored corona switchability.

  5. Comparative measurement of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, EGF and IGF-1 in breast milk of mothers with overweight/obese and normal-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Rooki, H; Vakili, R; Hashemy, S-I; Mirhafez, S R; Shakeri, M-T; Kashanifar, R; Pourbafarani, R; Mirzaei, H; Dahri, M; Mazidi, M; Ferns, G; Safarian, M

    2015-05-01

    Obese infants are more susceptible to develop adulthood obesity and its related comorbidities. Previous studies have shown the presence of hormones and growth factors in maternal breast milk that may influence infant adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in concentrations of three hormones and two growth factors in the breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants. In this cross-sectional study, 40 mothers with overweight or obese infants (weight for length percentile >97) and 40 age-matched mothers with normal-weight infant (-10 milk concentrations of ghrelin and adiponectin, leptin, epithelial growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The mean breast milk concentration of ghrelin was higher in mothers with normal-weight infants, 137.50 pg/ml, than in mothers with obese infants, 132.00 pg/ml (P=0.001). This was also true regarding the concentration of EGF in mothers with (0/04 ng/ml) and without (0/038 ng/ml) normal-weight infants (P=0.01). No significant differences were observed in concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 between two groups (P > 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between EGF and ghrelin in both groups. This study revealed that there was a correlation between ghrelin and EGF level in breast milk of mothers with obese and non-obese infants, suggesting a possible regulatory effect of these two hormones on weight in infants.

  6. Characterization of Aloeride, a new high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, N; Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A; Pasco, D S

    2001-02-01

    We have characterized a new immunostimulatory polysaccharide called Aloeride from commercial aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) juice. Aloeride is between 4 and 7 million Da, and its glycosyl components include glucose (37.2%), galactose (23.9%), mannose (19.5%), and arabinose (10.3%). At 0.5 microg/mL Aloeride increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/mL) of LPS. Aloeride induced the expression of the mRNAs encoding IL-1beta and TNF-alpha to levels equal to those observed in cells maximally activated by LPS. Acemannan, the major carbohydrate component from aloe, used at 200 microg/mL in the macrophage assay resulted in negligible NF-kappa B activation. Analysis of acemannan and Aloeride using size-exclusion chromatography suggests that the low activity of acemannan is due to trace amounts of Aloeride. Although Aloeride comprises only 0.015% of the aloe juice dry weight, its potency for macrophage activation accounts fully for the activity of the crude juice.

  7. The role of hydroperoxides as a precursor in the radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Ichiro, E-mail: enomoto.ichiro@iri-tokyo.j [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, KFC bldg., 12F, 1-6-1, Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015 (Japan); School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Katsumura, Yosuke [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kudo, Hisaaki [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Masayuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, KFC bldg., 12F, 1-6-1, Yokoami, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 130-0015 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    A graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation in air at room temperature has been carried out. The grafting yields were measured as a function of the storage time (elapsed time from the end of irradiation to the start of grafting), and it was found that the yields reach at the maximum values at around several days since the end of irradiation. In order to clarify the precursor of the graft polymerization, changes of the radical yields and the carbonyl groups were measured as a function of storage time with ESR and microscopic FT-IR, respectively. From the similarities between the depth profiles of the hydroperoxide formation and the grafting products, it was concluded that the hydroperoxides can be main precursors of the grafting of the radiation-induced polymerization of MMA to UHMWPE under the given conditions.

  8. Thermal Characteristic Of Waste-Derived Hydroxyapatite (HA) Reinforced Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Composites For Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohamad Helmi Bin Md; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin

    2017-01-01

    The present study provides a hydrothermal synthesis to obtain Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder from waste eggshells. This waste-derived HA has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Waste-derived HA will be reinforced the Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) to develop a material composite for biomedical applications because of impressive mechanical properties owned by UHMWPE. Main challenger is UHMWPE has an ultra-high viscosity that renders continuous melt- state processes including one of the additive manufacturing processes which is Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). To develop this material as feedstock in FDM process, it has been overcome by blending UHMWPE with waste-derived HA as filler. It exhibit the inclusion of 50wt% HA has reduced the degradation temperature in TGA and DSC thus enhances the processability in FDM process.

  9. On the Development of a Very Rapid Gas Chromatographic Method for the Analysis of High Molecular Weight Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman III WM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A very rapid, flash-gas chromatographic (GC, quantitative method for the analysis of high molecular weight saturated hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke has been developed. The method was fast, accurate and precise. Sample turn around times were approximately six minutes, with an accompanying average percent relative standard deviation (%RSD of less than 10%. Four linear saturated hydrocarbons with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms were quantitated in an array of reference cigarettes ranging in “tar” deliveries from approximately 2 to approximately 20 mg. By use of a cyclohexane extraction of cigarette smoke captured on Cambridge filter pads, the extraction efficiency was determined to be greater than 95% for each hydrocarbon. The approach represents a significant advance over current analytical procedures that require, on average, greater than 30-min sample turn around times.

  10. Effect of shading from jointing to maturity on high molecular weight glutenin subunit accumulation and glutenin macropolymer concentration in grain of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Li, H.

    2012-01-01

    the accumulation and concentration of HMW-GS in the grains. Consequently, S1 reduced falling number and SDS-sedimentation volume, while shortened dough development time (DDT) and dough stability time (DST). In contrast, S2 and S3 increased falling number, wet-gluten concentration and SDS-sedimentation volume......Accumulations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and glutenin macropolymer (GMP) in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality. Two wheat cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading intolerant) which contains the same subunit pairs of 7 + 8 and 2...... + 12, were used to evaluate the impacts of shading on HMW-GS accumulation and GMP concentration in the grain. Three shading levels were implemented from jointing to maturity, i.e. S1, S2 and S3, in which the plants received 8 %, 15 % and 23 % less radiation of the control (S0), respectively...

  11. Morphology, directed self-assembly and pattern transfer from a high molecular weight polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block copolymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Chen; Bai, Wubin; Fernandez Martin, Eduardo; Tu, Kun-Hua; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Liontos, George; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Ross, C. A.

    2017-04-01

    The self-assembly of block copolymers with large feature sizes is inherently challenging as the large kinetic barrier arising from chain entanglement of high molecular weight (MW) polymers limits the extent over which long-range ordered microdomains can be achieved. Here, we illustrate the evolution of thin film morphology from a diblock copolymer of polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) exhibiting total number average MW of 123 kg mol-1, and demonstrate the formation of layers of well-ordered cylindrical microdomains under appropriate conditions of binary solvent mix ratio, commensurate film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time. Directed self-assembly of the block copolymer within lithographically patterned trenches occurs with alignment of cylinders parallel to the sidewalls. Fabrication of ordered cobalt nanowire arrays by pattern transfer was also implemented, and their magnetic properties and domain wall behavior were characterized.

  12. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Eguchi

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  13. Pilot scale production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers with high molecular weight and elastomeric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Kai-Hee; Azuraini, Mat Junoh; Aziz, Nursolehah Abdul; Amirul, Al-Ashraf Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components. This is evidenced by a drastic increase of PHA content from 28 wt% to 63 wt% and PHA concentration from 3.1 g/L to 6.5 g/L but accompanied by the reduction of residual biomass from 8.0 g/L to 3.8 g/L. Besides, fermentations at lower agitation and aeration have resulted in reduced molecular weight and mechanical strength of the copolymer, suggesting the role of sufficient oxygen supply efficiency in improving the properties of the resulting copolymers. The KLa-based scale-up fermentation was performed successfully in maintaining the yield and the quality of the copolymers produced without a drastic fluctuation. This suggests that the scale-up based on the KLa values supported the fermentation system of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer production in single-stage using mixed-substrate cultivation strategy. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of High Purity, High Molecular-Weight Chitin from Ionic Liquids for Use as an Adsorbate for the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Robin [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Ensuring a domestic supply of uranium is a key issue facing the wider implementation of nuclear power. Uranium is mostly mined in Kazakhstan, Australia, and Canada, and there are few high-grade uranium reserves left worldwide. Therefore, one of the most appealing potential sources of uranium is the vast quantity dissolved in the oceans (estimated to be 4.4 billion tons worldwide). There have been research efforts centered on finding a means to extract uranium from seawater for decades, but so far none have resulted in an economically viable product, due in part to the fact that the materials that have been successfully demonstrated to date are too costly (in terms of money and energy) to produce on the necessary scale. Ionic Liquids (salts which melt below 100{degrees}C) can completely dissolve raw crustacean shells, leading to recovery of a high purity, high molecular weight chitin powder and to fibers and films which can be spun directly from the extract solution suggesting that continuous processing might be feasible. The work proposed here will utilize the unprecedented control this makes possible over the chitin fiber a) to prepare electrospun nanofibers of very high surface area and in specific architectures, b) to modify the fiber surfaces chemically with selective extractant capacity, and c) to demonstrate their utility in the direct extraction and recovery of uranium from seawater. This approach will 1) provide direct extraction of chitin from shellfish waste thus saving energy over the current industrial process for obtaining chitin; 2) allow continuous processing of nanofibers for very high surface area fibers in an economical operation; 3) provide a unique high molecular weight chitin not available from the current industrial process, leading to stronger, more durable fibers; and 4) allow easy chemical modification of the large surface areas of the fibers for appending uranyl selective functionality providing selectivity and ease of stripping. The

  15. Accurate calibration of a molecular beam time-of-flight mass spectrometer for on-line analysis of high molecular weight species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, B; Wang, X; Passaro, M; Ciajolo, A; Russo, C

    2016-10-15

    Time-of-Flight (TOF) Mass Spectrometry is a powerful analytical technique, provided that an accurate calibration by standard molecules in the same m/z range of the analytes is performed. Calibration in a very large m/z range is a difficult task, particularly in studies focusing on the detection of high molecular weight clusters of different molecules or high molecular weight species. External calibration is the most common procedure used for TOF mass spectrometric analysis in the gas phase and, generally, the only available standards are made up of mixtures of noble gases, covering a small mass range for calibration, up to m/z 136 (higher mass isotope of xenon). In this work, an accurate calibration of a Molecular Beam Time-of Flight Mass Spectrometer (MB-TOFMS) is presented, based on the use of water clusters up to m/z 3000. The advantages of calibrating a MB-TOFMS with water clusters for the detection of analytes with masses above those of the traditional calibrants such as noble gases were quantitatively shown by statistical calculations. A comparison of the water cluster and noble gases calibration procedures in attributing the masses to a test mixture extending up to m/z 800 is also reported. In the case of the analysis of combustion products, another important feature of water cluster calibration was shown, that is the possibility of using them as "internal standard" directly formed from the combustion water, under suitable experimental conditions. The water clusters calibration of a MB-TOFMS gives rise to a ten-fold reduction in error compared to the traditional calibration with noble gases. The consequent improvement in mass accuracy in the calibration of a MB-TOFMS has important implications in various fields where detection of high molecular mass species is required. In combustion products analysis, it is also possible to obtain a new calibration spectrum before the acquisition of each spectrum, only modifying some operative conditions. Copyright © 2016

  16. High Molecular Weight Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 in the Human Heart Is a Potential Target for Prevention of Cardiac Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jon-Jon; McNaughton, Leslie J.; Koleini, Navid; Ma, Xin; Bestvater, Brian; Nickel, Barbara E.; Fandrich, Robert R.; Wigle, Jeffrey T.; Freed, Darren H.; Arora, Rakesh C.; Kardami, Elissavet

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial) Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD) and 68% (±25 SD) of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs) expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2) reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial) tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes deleterious

  17. High molecular weight SOA formation during limonene ozonolysis: insights from ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The detailed molecular composition of laboratory generated limonene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol (SOA was studied using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Approximately 1200 molecular formulas were identified in the SOA over the mass range of 140 to 850 Da. Four characteristic groups of high relative abundance species were observed; they indicate an array of accretion products that retain a large fraction of the limonene skeleton. The identified molecular formulas of each of the groups are related to one another by CH2, O and CH2O homologous series. The CH2 and O homologous series of the low molecular weight (MW SOA (m/z < 300 are explained with a combination of functionalization and fragmentation of radical intermediates and reactive uptake of gas-phase carbonyls. They include isomerization and elimination reactions of Criegee radicals, reactions between alkyl peroxy radicals, and scission of alkoxy radicals resulting from the Criegee radicals. The presence of compounds with 10–15 carbon atoms in the first group (e.g. C11H18O6 provides evidence for SOA formation by the reactive uptake of gas-phase carbonyls during limonene ozonolysis. The high MW compounds (m/z > 300 were found to constitute a significant number fraction of the identified SOA components. The formation of high MW compounds was evaluated by molecular formula trends, fragmentation analysis of select high MW compounds and a comprehensive reaction matrix including the identified low MW SOA, hydroperoxides and Criegee radicals as building blocks. Although the formation of high MW SOA may occur via a variety of radical and non-radical reaction channels, the combined approach indicates a greater importance of the non-condensation reactions over aldol and ester condensation reaction channels. Among these hemi-acetal reactions appear to be most

  18. High molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 in the human heart is a potential target for prevention of cardiac remodeling.

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    Jon-Jon Santiago

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2 is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi- and low (Lo- molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD and 68% (±25 SD of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2 reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes

  19. Mechanochemical Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide: Liquid-Assisted Grinding for the Green Synthesis of Poly(lactic acid) with High Molecular Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Nuri; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Sung Sik; Kim, Jeung Gon

    2017-09-22

    Mechanochemical polymerization of lactide is carried out by using ball milling. Mechanical energy from collisions between the balls and the vessel efficiently promotes an organic-base-mediated metal- and solvent-free solid-state polymerization. Investigation of the parameters of the ball-milling synthesis revealed that the degree of lactide ring-opening polymerization could be modulated by the ball-milling time, vibration frequency, mass of the ball media, and liquid-assisted grinding. Liquid-assisted grinding was found to be an especially important factor for achieving a high degree of mechanochemical polymerization. Although polymer-chain scission from the strong collision energy prevented mechanical-force-driven high-molecular-weight polymer synthesis, the addition of only a small amount of liquid enabled sufficient energy dissipation and poly(lactic acid) was thereby obtained with a molecular weight of over 1×105  g mol-1 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Optimization of medium components for high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus sp. ID9102 via a statistical approach.

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    Im, Jong-Hyuk; Song, Jung-Min; Kang, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Dae-Jung

    2009-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), linear high-molecular-weight glycosaminoglycan produced from Streptococcus sp., has raised interest in the medical and cosmetics industries because of the various biological functions of HA. In this paper, we report on the optimization of medium components for HA production in Streptococcus sp. ID9102 (KCTC 11935BP) by two-step optimization (one-factor-at-a-time and taguchi orthogonal array design). In the first step, medium components, such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, and mineral sources, were selected for HA production in Streptococcus sp. ID9102 (KCTC 11935BP) using the one-factor-at-a-time method. In the second step, the concentration of the selected medium components was optimized using taguchi orthogonal array design. The design for medium optimization was developed and analyzed using MINITAB 14 software. In addition, the effect of amino acid and organic acid, such as glutamine, glutamate, and oxalic acid, was studied for HA production in Streptococcus sp. ID9102 (KCTC 11935BP). Through these processes, the optimum medium comprising 4% glucose, 0.75% yeast extract, 1.0% casein peptone, 0.25% K(2)HPO(4), 0.05% MgCl(2), 0.5% NaCl, 0.04% glutamine, 0.06% glutamate, and 0.02% oxalic acid was determined. We were able to produce HA with a molecular weight of 5.9 x 10(6) at a productivity of 6.94 g/l on pilot scale fermentation.

  1. Polylactosaminoglycan Glycomics: Enhancing the Detection of High-molecular-weight N-glycans in Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-flight Profiles by Matched Filtering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Marshall; Brito, Alejandro E.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Rekhi, Angad; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, protocols based on the mass spectrometry (MS) of permethylated derivatives, complemented by enzymatic degradations, have underpinned glycomic experiments aimed at defining the structures of individual glycans present in the complex mixtures that are characteristic of biological samples. Both MS instrumentation and sample handling have improved markedly in recent years, enabling greater sensitivity and better signal-to-noise ratios, thereby facilitating the detection of glycans at much higher masses than could be achieved in the past. The latter is especially important for the characterization of the biologically important class of N-glycans that carry polylactosaminoglycan chains. Such advances in data acquisition heighten the need for informatics tools to assist in glycan structure assignment. Here, utilizing mouse lung tissue as a model system, we present evidence of polylactosaminoglycan-containing N-glycans with permethylated molecular weights exceeding 13 kDa. We show that antennae branching patterns and lengths can be successfully determined at these high masses via MS/MS experiments, even when MS ion counts are very low. We also describe the development and application of a matched filtering algorithm for assisting high-molecular-weight glycan detection and structure assignment. PMID:23325768

  2. The biofilm property and its correlationship with high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide degradation in a water injection pipeline of Daqing oilfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-03-05

    Biofilms increase dragging force for liquid transportation, cause power consumption, and result in equipment corrosion in polymer-flooding oilfields. To reveal the responsible microorganisms for biofilm formation and stability of high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide (PAM), a biofilm, developed on the sieve of a piston plunger pump in a water transport and injection pipeline with partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in Daqing Oilfield, was collected and analyzed by molecular microbiology, chemical and physical methods. Diverse bacterial groups (11 families) were detected in the biofilm, including Pseudomonadaceae, Rhodocyclaceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Bacteriovoracaceae, Campylobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIII and Moraxellaceae. Three archaeal orders of methanogens including Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales and Thermoplasmatales were also detected separately. HPAM was degraded into lower molecular weight polymers and organic fragments with its amide groups hydrolyzed into carboxylic groups by the microorganisms. The microenvironment of the biofilm contained diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, correlating with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and HPAM biodegradation. The results are helpful to provide information for biofilm control in oil fields. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Fetuin-A Induces Cytokine Expression and Suppresses Adiponectin Production

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    Wicke, Corinna; Machicao, Fausto; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Background The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG) is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. Methodology and Principal Findings Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05). Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively). These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both). Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02) and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01), and negatively with total- (r = −0.28, p = 0.02) and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = −0.36, p = 0.01). Conclusions and Significance We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin

  4. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

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    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  5. Leptin, adiponectin and pulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Assad, Nour; Sood, Akshay

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue produces leptin and adiponectin - energy-regulating adipokines that may also play a role in inflammatory pulmonary conditions, as suggested by some murine studies. Leptin and adiponectin and their respective receptors are expressed in the human lung. The association between systemic or airway leptin and asthma in humans is currently controversial, particularly among adults. The majority of the evidence among children however suggests that systemic leptin may be associated with greater asthma prevalence and severity, particularly among prepubertal boys and peripubertal/postpubertal girls. Systemic and airway leptin concentrations may also be disproportionately higher in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, particularly among women, and reflect greater airway inflammation and disease severity. Quite like leptin, the association between systemic and airway adiponectin and asthma in humans is also controversial. Some but not all studies, demonstrate that serum adiponectin concentrations are protective against asthma among premenopausal women and peripubertal girls. On the other hand, serum adiponectin concentrations are inversely associated with asthma severity among boys but positively associated among men. Further, systemic and airway adiponectin concentrations are higher in COPD patients than controls, as demonstrated by case-control studies of men. Systemic adiponectin is also positively associated with lung function in healthy adults but inversely associated with lung function in subjects with COPD. It is therefore possible that pro-inflammatory effects of adiponectin dominate under certain physiologic conditions and anti-inflammatory effects under others. The adipokine-lung disease literature has critical gaps that include a lack of adequately powered longitudinal or weight-intervention studies; inadequate adjustment for confounding effect of obesity; and unclear understanding of potential sex interactions. It is also uncertain

  6. Heart-bound adiponectin, not serum adiponectin, inversely correlates with cardiac hypertrophy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Takemori, Kumiko; Mizuguchi, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Masatomo; Chikugo, Takaaki; Hagiyama, Man; Yoneshige, Azusa; Mori, Tatsufumi; Maenishi, Osamu; Kometani, Takashi; Itoh, Tatsuki; Satou, Takao; Ito, Akihiko

    2017-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? An inverse correlation between circulating adiponectin and many diseases has been reported, but some studies have found no correlation. To evaluate this controversy, we investigated the relationship between heart-bound adiponectin and hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy, compared with serum adiponectin. What is the main finding and its importance? Using hypertensive and normotensive rats, we found that heart-bound adiponectin was inversely correlated with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that heart-bound adiponectin has a more important function in preventing cardiac hypertrophy than circulating adiponectin. Our study provides new insights regarding the role of adiponectin in diseases. The inverse correlation between circulating adiponectin concentration and hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy is still controversial. In addition to circulating adiponectin, adiponectin is also bound to tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated the relationship of serum adiponectin and heart-bound adiponectin with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Four types of hypertensive rats presenting different blood pressure levels were used at different ages, as follows: normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs); two sub-strains (strains C and B2, having low and high blood pressure, respectively) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs); and stroke-prone SHRs (SHRSPs). Blood pressure, heart-to-body weight ratio, serum adiponectin and heart-bound adiponectin were determined. Histopathological analysis of the heart was carried out to evaluate the relationship with heart-bound adiponectin. Serum adiponectin concentration was not inversely correlated with blood pressure or heart-to-body weight ratio. In contrast, heart-bound adiponectin levels were significantly lower in SHRSPs than in other strains at respective ages. This resulted from a decrease in T-cadherin expression, which induced adiponectin binding to tissues

  7. Association of plasma adiponectin levels with cellular hydration state measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis in patients with COPD

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    Yoshikawa T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Yoshikawa,1 Hiroshi Kanazawa21Department of Sports Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, JapanBackground: It is widely recognized that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD includes a variety of extra pulmonary complications and comorbidities. Recently, adiponectin was shown to regulate cellular metabolism in humans. Cellular hydration state is affected by a variety of hormonal factors and regulates cellular metabolic state. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether adiponectin is a possible factor involved in cellular hydration state in COPD.Methods: Thirty patients with COPD and 41 age-matched controls participated in the study. Plasma levels of total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured and anthropometry and pulmonary function tests were conducted. Intracellular water (ICW, extracellular water (ECW, and ECW/ICW ratio, which are parameters of cellular hydration state, were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis.Results: Higher levels of total and HMW adiponectin in plasma were found in patients with COPD compared with levels in controls. A significant inverse correlation was observed between body mass index and plasma levels of total and HMW adiponectin in the control group. However, this significant correlation was not observed in patients with COPD. The plasma levels of total and HMW adiponectin were also not significantly correlated with any pulmonary function parameters in patients with COPD. Regarding the state of cellular hydration, the plasma levels of total adiponectin were inversely correlated with the ECW/ICW ratio and positively with ICW values in patients with COPD. Moreover, closer correlations were found between these parameters and plasma HMW adiponectin levels.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest a novel association of the plasma

  8. A Comparative Study on the Expression, Purification and Functional Characterization of Human Adiponectin in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli

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    Hussin A. Rothan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is one of the most bioactive substances secreted by adipose tissue and is involved in the protection against metabolic syndrome, artherosclerosis and type II diabetes. Research into the use of adiponectin as a promising drug for metabolic syndromes requires production of this hormone in high quantities considering its molecular isoforms. The objective of this study is to produce recombinant human adiponectin by Pichia pastoris (P-ADP as a cheap and convenient eukaryotic expression system for potential application in pharmaceutical therapy. For comparison, adiponectin was also expressed using the Escherichia coli (E-ADP expression system. Adiponectin was constructed by overlap-extension PCR, and cloned in standard cloning vector and hosts. Recombinant expression vectors were cloned in the P. pastoris and E. coli host strains, respectively. SDS-PAGE and western blotting were used to detect and analyse expressed recombinant protein in both systems. Adiponectin was purified by affinity chromatography and quantified using the Bradford Assay. The results of this study indicated that P-ADP quantity (0.111 mg/mL was higher than that of E-ADP (0.04 mg/mL and both were produced in soluble form. However, P-ADP was able to form high molecular weights of adiponectin molecules, whilst E-ADP was not able to form isoforms higher than trimer. In addition, P-ADP was more active in lowering blood glucose compared with E-ADP. The two types of proteins were equally efficient and significantly decreased blood triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein. We conclude that P. pastoris is able to produce high quantity of bioactive adiponectin for potential use in treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  9. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunit-deficient mutants induced by ion beam and the effects of Glu-1 loci deletion on wheat quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lujun; Chen, Qiufang; Su, Mingjie; Yan, Biao; Zhang, Xiangqi; Jiao, Zhen

    2016-03-15

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) play a critical role in determining the viscoelastic properties of wheat. Mutations induced by ion beam radiation have been applied to improve the yield and quality of crop. In this study, HMW-GS-deficient mutant lines were selected and the effects of Glu-1 loci deletion on wheat quality properties were illustrated according to the analysis of dry seeds of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Xiaoyan 81 treated with a nitrogen ion beam. Three HMW-GS-deficient mutant lines were obtained and then detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Large-chromosome-fragment deletion resulted in specific deficiencies, and the deleted region sizes were determined using molecular markers. Agronomic characters, quantity and proportion of glutenins and dough microstructure of the deletion lines all proved to be quite different from those of wild-type Xiaoyan 81. Analysis of quality properties suggested that GluA1(-) had superior property parameters, while GluB1(-) and GluD1(-) both showed a significant decrease in quality properties compared with Xiaoyan 81. The effects of the three Glu-1 loci on flour and dough quality-related parameters should be Glu-D1 > Glu-B1 > Glu-A1. Ion beam radiation can be used as a mutagen to create new crop mutants. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. High molecular weight components containing N-linked oligosaccharides of Ascaris suum extract inhibit the dendritic cells activation through DC-SIGN and MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Casabuono, Adriana A C; Portes-Junior, José A; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Couto, Alicia S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2017-07-01

    Helminths, as well as their secretory/excretory products, induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment. High molecular weight components (PI) from Ascaris suum extract down-modulate the immune response against ovalbumin (OVA). The PI exerts direct effect on dendritic cells (DCs) independent of TLR 2, 4 and MyD88 molecule and, thus, decreases the T lymphocytes response. Here, we studied the glycoconjugates in PI and the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), DC-SIGN and MR, in the modulation of DCs activity. Our data showed the presence of glycoconjugates with high mannose- and complex-type N-linked oligosaccharide chains and phosphorylcholine residues on PI. In addition, these N-linked glycoconjugates inhibited the DCs maturation induced by LPS. The binding and internalization of PI-Alexa were decreased on DCs previously incubated with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies. In agreement with this, the incubation of DCs with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies abolished the down-modulatory effect of PI on these cells. It was also observed that the blockage of CLRs, DC-SIGN and MR on DCs reverted the inhibitory effect of PI in in vitro T cells proliferation. Therefore, our data show the involvement of DC-SIGN and MR in the recognition and consequent modulatory effect of N-glycosylated components of PI on DCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard A.; Robeson, Michael S.; Shakya, Migun; Moberly, James G.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Gu, Baohua; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.22±2.33 µg DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46±0.25 µg DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio). Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1–V3 region) pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ∼80% and ∼400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU) recovered. PMID:25033199

  12. {sup 13}CHD{sub 2}–CEST NMR spectroscopy provides an avenue for studies of conformational exchange in high molecular weight proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennella, Enrico; Huang, Rui; Velyvis, Algirdas; Kay, Lewis E., E-mail: kay@pound.med.utoronto.ca [The University of Toronto, Departments of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Chemistry (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    An NMR experiment for quantifying slow (millisecond) time-scale exchange processes involving the interconversion between visible ground state and invisible, conformationally excited state conformers is presented. The approach exploits chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and makes use of {sup 13}CHD{sub 2} methyl group probes that can be readily incorporated into otherwise highly deuterated proteins. The methodology is validated with an application to a G48A Fyn SH3 domain that exchanges between a folded conformation and a sparsely populated and transiently formed unfolded ensemble. Experiments on a number of different protein systems, including a 360 kDa half-proteasome, establish that the sensitivity of this {sup 13}CHD{sub 2}{sup 13}C–CEST technique can be upwards of a factor of 5 times higher than for a previously published {sup 13}CH{sub 3}{sup 13}C–CEST approach (Bouvignies and Kay in J Biomol NMR 53:303–310, 2012), suggesting that the methodology will be powerful for studies of conformational exchange in high molecular weight proteins.

  13. A new method of determining the J-integral fracture toughness of very tough polymers: application to ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G; Nyman, J S

    1999-01-01

    The thrust of the present work was the development of a new modification to the ASTM E813-89 method for determining the J-integral fracture toughness, JIc, of ductile polymers. The advantages and limitations of the modification, vis a vis the ASTM E813-89 and the hysteresis methods, are presented. The modification was then applied to investigate the effect of sterilization method on the JIc of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) specimens that were subsequently aged (heated, in a cylindrical pressure vessel, in oxygen gas at 507 kPa and 70 degrees C for 14 d). Relative to the unsterilized material, it was found that gamma-irradiating the polymer leads to a significant drop in its JIc, while sterilization using either ethylene oxide or gas plasma produced no effect on its JIc. The clinical implications of the present results for the in vivo performance of UHMWPE counterfaces, and, hence, hip and knee arthroplasties, are fully discussed.

  14. Ferritin blocks inhibitory effects of two-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HKa on adhesion and survival signaling in endothelial cells.

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    Lia Tesfay

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is tightly regulated through complex crosstalk between pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. High molecular weight kininogen (HK is an endogenous protein that is proteolytically cleaved in plasma and on endothelial cell surfaces to HKa, an anti-angiogenic protein. Ferritin binds to HKa and blocks its anti-angiogenic activity. Here, we explore mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effect of ferritin in endothelial cells exposed to HKa. We observe that ferritin promotes adhesion and survival of HKa-treated cells and restores key survival and adhesion signaling pathways mediated by Erk, Akt, FAK and paxillin. We further elucidate structural motifs of both HKa and ferritin that are required for effects on endothelial cells. We identify an histidine-glycine-lysine (HGK -rich antiproliferative region within domain 5 of HK as the target of ferritin, and demonstrate that both ferritin subunits of the H and L type regulate HKa activity. We further demonstrate that ferritin reduces binding of HKa to endothelial cells and restores the association of uPAR with α5β1 integrin. We propose that ferritin blocks the anti-angiogenic activity of HKa by reducing binding of HKa to UPAR and interfering with anti-adhesive and anti-proliferative signaling of HKa.

  15. Stearic acid and high molecular weight PEO as matrix for the highly water soluble metoprolol tartrate in continuous twin-screw melt granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Tinne; Adriaensens, Peter; Brouckaert, Davinia; Remon, Jean-Paul; Vervaet, Chris; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    Granules with release-sustaining properties were developed by twin screw hot melt granulation (HMG) using a combination of stearic acid (SA) and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide (PEO) as matrix for a highly water soluble model drug, metoprolol tartrate (MPT). Earlier studies demonstrated that mixing molten SA and PEO resulted in hydrogen bond formation between hydroxyl groups of fatty acid molecules and ether groups in PEO chains. These molecular interactions might be beneficial in order to elevate the sustained release effect of drugs from a SA/PEO matrix. This study aims to investigate the continuous twin screw melt granulation technique to study the impact of a SA/PEO matrix on the dissolution rate of a highly water soluble drug (MPT). Decreasing the SA/PEO ratio improved the release-sustaining properties of the matrix. The solid state of the granules was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) in order to understand the dissolution behavior. The results revealed a preferential interaction of the MPT molecules with stearic acid impeding the PEO to form hydrogen bonds with the stearic acid chains. However, this allowed the PEO chains to recrystallize inside the stearic acid matrix after granulation, hence, elevating the release-sustaining characteristics of the formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Irradiation and Accelerated Aging on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Graphene Oxide/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposites

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    Guodong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (GO/UHMWPE nanocomposite is a potential and promising candidate for artificial joint applications. However, after irradiation and accelerated aging, the mechanical and tribological behaviors of the nanocomposites are still unclear and require further investigation. GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using ultrasonication dispersion, ball-milling, and hot-pressing process. Then, the nanocomposites were irradiated by gamma ray at doses of 100 kGy. Finally, GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites underwent accelerated aging at 80°C for 21 days in air. The mechanical and tribological properties of GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites have been evaluated after irradiation and accelerated aging. The results indicated that the incorporation of GO could enhance the mechanical, wear, and antiscratch properties of UHMWPE. After irradiation, these properties could be further enhanced, compared to unirradiated ones. After accelerated aging, however, these properties have been significantly reduced when compared to unirradiated ones. Moreover, GO and irradiation can synergistically enhance these properties.

  17. Quantifying protein-ligand interactions by direct electrospray ionization-MS analysis: evidence of nonuniform response factors induced by high molecular weight molecules and complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Kitova, Elena N; Klassen, John S

    2013-10-01

    The deleterious effects of high molecular weight (MW) solute (polymers and noncovalent assemblies) on protein-ligand (PL) affinity measurements carried out using the direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) assay are described. The presence of high MW solute, that do not interact with the protein (P) or ligand (L) of interest, is shown to result in a decrease in the abundance (Ab) ratio (R) of ligand-bound to free protein ions (i.e., Ab(PL)/Ab(P)) measured for protein-carbohydrate complexes. This effect, which can reduce the apparent association constant by more than 60%, is found to be more pronounced as the differences in the surface properties of P and PL become more significant. It is proposed that the decrease in R reflects a reduction in the number of available surface sites in the ESI droplets upon introduction of large solute and increased competition between P and the more hydrophilic PL for these sites. That a similar decrease in R is observed upon introduction of surfactants to solution provides qualitative support for this hypothesis.

  18. Ferritin blocks inhibitory effects of two-chain high molecular weight kininogen (HKa) on adhesion and survival signaling in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfay, Lia; Huhn, Annissa J; Hatcher, Heather; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly regulated through complex crosstalk between pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. High molecular weight kininogen (HK) is an endogenous protein that is proteolytically cleaved in plasma and on endothelial cell surfaces to HKa, an anti-angiogenic protein. Ferritin binds to HKa and blocks its anti-angiogenic activity. Here, we explore mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effect of ferritin in endothelial cells exposed to HKa. We observe that ferritin promotes adhesion and survival of HKa-treated cells and restores key survival and adhesion signaling pathways mediated by Erk, Akt, FAK and paxillin. We further elucidate structural motifs of both HKa and ferritin that are required for effects on endothelial cells. We identify an histidine-glycine-lysine (HGK) -rich antiproliferative region within domain 5 of HK as the target of ferritin, and demonstrate that both ferritin subunits of the H and L type regulate HKa activity. We further demonstrate that ferritin reduces binding of HKa to endothelial cells and restores the association of uPAR with α5β1 integrin. We propose that ferritin blocks the anti-angiogenic activity of HKa by reducing binding of HKa to UPAR and interfering with anti-adhesive and anti-proliferative signaling of HKa.

  19. Free-radical degradation of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan induced by ascorbate plus cupric ions. Testing of bucillamine and its SA981-metabolite as antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachová, Katarína; Hrabárová, Eva; Priesolová, Elena; Nagy, Milan; Baňasová, Mária; Juránek, Ivo; Soltés, Ladislav

    2011-11-01

    High-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA) samples were exposed to free-radical chain-degradation reactions induced by ascorbate in the presence of Cu(II) ions - the so-called Weissberger's oxidative system. The concentrations of both reactants [ascorbate, Cu(II)] were comparable to those that may occur during an early stage of the acute phase of joint inflammation. The time-dependent changes of the viscosity of the HA solution in the absence of the substance tested were monitored by rotational viscometry. However, when the anti- or pro-oxidative effects of the antioxidants/drugs were investigated, their dose-dependency was also examined. Additionally, the anti-oxidative activities of these substances were screened by the well-established ABTS and DPPH decolorization assays. The actions of the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, namely bucillamine and D-penicillamine, were compared to those of L-cysteine and of SA981, the oxidized metabolite of bucillamine. The results indicated that bucillamine was the most efficient scavenger of hydroxyl- and/or peroxyl-type radicals, even at the lowest drug concentration. In contrast, SA981 demonstrated no scavenging activity against the aforementioned free radicals. D-Penicillamine and L-cysteine showed a dual effect, i.e. a pronounced anti-oxidative effect was, after a given time period, followed by a significant pro-oxidative effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Malaria Parasite CLAG3, a Protein Linked to Nutrient Channels, Participates in High Molecular Weight Membrane-Associated Complexes in the Infected Erythrocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayvan Zainabadi

    Full Text Available Malaria infected erythrocytes show increased permeability to a number of solutes important for parasite growth as mediated by the Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel (PSAC. The P. falciparum clag3 genes have recently been identified as key determinants of PSAC, though exactly how they contribute to channel function and whether additional host/parasite proteins are required remain unknown. To begin to answer these questions, I have taken a biochemical approach. Here I have used an epitope-tagged CLAG3 parasite to perform co-immunoprecipitation experiments using membrane fractions of infected erythrocytes. Native PAGE and mass spectrometry studies reveal that CLAG3 participate in at least three different high molecular weight complexes: a ~720kDa complex consisting of CLAG3, RHOPH2 and RHOPH3; a ~620kDa complex consisting of CLAG3 and RHOPH2; and a ~480kDa complex composed solely of CLAG3. Importantly, these complexes can be found throughout the parasite lifecycle but are absent in untransfected controls. Extracellular biotin labeling and protease susceptibility studies localize the 480kDa complex to the erythrocyte membrane. This complex, likely composed of a homo-oligomer of 160kDa CLAG3, may represent a functional subunit, possibly the pore, of PSAC.

  1. Improved yield of high molecular weight DNA coincides with increased microbial diversity access from iron oxide cemented sub-surface clay environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Hurt

    Full Text Available Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.22±2.33 µg DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46±0.25 µg DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio. Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1-V3 region pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ∼80% and ∼400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU recovered.

  2. Cu(II) complexation of high molecular weight (HMW) fluorescent substances in root exudates from a wetland halophyte (Salicornia europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiangliang; Yang, Jianying; Zhang, Daoyong; Chen, Xi; Mu, Shuyong

    2011-02-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) fractions are important components in root exudates. However, there is little available information concerning complexation of Cu(II) to the HMW fractions in root exudates. In the present study, complexation of root exudates from Salicornia europaea L. with Cu(II) was investigated using excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Two protein-like fluorescence peaks were identified in the EEM spectra of root exudates. Fluorescence of both peaks was clearly quenched by Cu(II). The increase of conditional stability constant with increasing temperature indicates that the fluorescence quenching of the protein-like fluorescence by Cu(II) may be controlled by a dynamic process. The values of conditional stability constants (logK(a)) were in the range of 4.32-4.69, which were close to those of complexation of fulvic acid with Cu(II). This shows that the HMW fluorescent substances in root exudates from S. europaea L. were strong organic ligands for Cu(II). Our study suggests that the HMW fluorescent substances may affect chemical forms, mobility, and thus the fate of copper in wetland. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-particle characterization of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA: evidence for non-uniform mixing of high molecular weight organics and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Y. Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA can be emitted from natural forest fires and human activities such as agricultural burning and domestic energy generation. BBOA is strongly associated with atmospheric brown carbon (BrC that absorbs near-ultraviolet and visible light, resulting in significant impacts on regional visibility degradation and radiative forcing. The mixing state of BBOA can play a critical role in the prediction of aerosol optical properties. In this work, single-particle measurements from a Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-SP-AMS were performed to examine the mixing state of BBOA, refractory black carbon (rBC, and potassium (K, a tracer for biomass burning aerosol in an air mass influenced by wildfire emissions transported from northern Québec to Toronto, representing aged biomass burning plumes. Cluster analysis of single-particle measurements identified five BBOA-related particle types. rBC accounted for 3–14 wt % of these particle types on average. Only one particle type exhibited a strong ion signal for K+, with mass spectra characterized by low molecular weight organic species. The remaining four particle types were classified based on the apparent molecular weight of the BBOA constituents. Two particle types were associated with low potassium content and significant amounts of high molecular weight (HMW organic compounds. Our observations indicate non-uniform mixing of particles within a biomass burning plume in terms of molecular weight and illustrate that HMW BBOA can be a key contributor to low-volatility BrC observed in BBOA particles. The average mass absorption efficiency of low-volatility BBOA is about 0.8–1.1 m2 g−1 based on a theoretical closure calculation. Our estimates indicate that low-volatility BBOA contributes ∼ 33–44 % of thermo-processed particle absorption at 405 nm; and almost all of the BBOA absorption was associated with low

  4. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  5. High Molecular Weight Glucan of the Culinary Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an α-Glucan that Forms Complexes with Low Molecular Weight Galactan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Wichers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An a-glucan was isolated from the culinary medicinal mushroom A. bisporus by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The resulting material showed a single HMW peak excluded from a Sephadex G50 column that could completely be degraded by α-amylase treatment. After heating in 1% SDS a small additional peak of low MW eluted from the G50 column. The monosaccharide composition of the main peak was evaluated by HPLC, and was found to consist of a majority of glucose (97.6%, and a minor proportion of galactose (2.4%. Methylation analysis and degradation by a-amylase indicated the presence of an a-glucan with a main chain consisting of (1®4-linked units, substituted at O-6 by α-D-glucopyranose single-units in the relation 1:8. Mono- (13C-, 1H-NMR and bidimensional [1H (obs.,13C-HSQC] spectroscopy analysis confirmed the a-configuration of the Glcp residues by low frequency resonances of C-1 at d 100.6, 100.2, and 98.8 ppm and H-1 high field ones at d 5.06, 5.11, and 4.74 ppm. The DEPT-13C-NMR allowed assigning the non-substituted and O-substituted –CH2 signals at d 60.3/60.8 and 66.2 ppm, respectively. Other assignments were attributed to C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5 and C-6 of the non-reducing ends at d 71.8; 72.8; 70.0; 71.3 and 60.3/60.8 ppm, respectively. The minor proportion of galactose that was demonstrated was probably derived from a complex between the a-glucan and a low molecular weight galactan.

  6. High molecular weight glucan of the culinary medicinal mushroom Agaricus bisporus is an alpha-glucan that forms complexes with low molecular weight galactan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; van Arkel, Jeroen; Iacomini, Marcello; Wichers, Harry J; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-08-25

    An alpha-glucan was isolated from the culinary medicinal mushroom A. bisporus by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The resulting material showed a single HMW peak excluded from a Sephadex G50 column that could completely be degraded by alpha-amylase treatment. After heating in 1% SDS a small additional peak of low MW eluted from the G50 column. The monosaccharide composition of the main peak was evaluated by HPLC, and was found to consist of a majority of glucose (97.6%), and a minor proportion of galactose (2.4%). Methylation analysis and degradation by alpha-amylase indicated the presence of an alpha-glucan with a main chain consisting of (1(R)4)-linked units, substituted at O-6 by alpha-D-glucopyranose single-units in the relation 1:8. Mono- (13C-, 1H-NMR) and bidimensional [1H (obs.),13C-HSQC] spectroscopy analysis confirmed the alpha-configuration of the Glcp residues by low frequency resonances of C-1 at delta 100.6, 100.2, and 98.8 ppm and H-1 high field ones at delta 5.06, 5.11, and 4.74 ppm. The DEPT-13C-NMR allowed assigning the non-substituted and O-substituted -CH(2) signals at delta 60.3/60.8 and 66.2 ppm, respectively. Other assignments were attributed to C-2, C-3, C-4, C-5 and C-6 of the non-reducing ends at delta 71.8; 72.8; 70.0; 71.3 and 60.3/60.8 ppm, respectively. The minor proportion of galactose that was demonstrated was probably derived from a complex between the alpha-glucan and a low molecular weight galactan.

  7. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  8. Submicron sized ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particle analysis from revised SB Charité III total disc replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ilona; Baxter, Ryan; van Ooij, André; Willems, Paul; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Kurtz, Steven; Steinbeck, Marla

    2011-09-01

    Submicron sized particles are frequently observed in retrieved total hip and knee periprosthetic tissues and appear to be critical in the activation of the phagocytic inflammatory response. In this paper the concentration, size and shape of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles between 0.05 and 2.00μm were determined after isolation from periprosthetic tissues from retrieved lumbar SB Charité III total disc replacements (TDR) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For comparison, UHMWPE wear particles were isolated from γ-radiation-air sterilized total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision tissues. The mean concentration of UHMWPE particles in TDR tissues was 1.6×10(9)g(-1)tissue (range 1.3-2.0), which was significantly lower than the concentration of 2.3×10(9)g(-1) THA revision tissue (range 1.8-3.2) (P=0.03). The mean particle size (equivalent circular diameter: TDR, 0.46μm; THA 0.53μm, P=0.60) and mean shape were comparable between TDR and THA (aspect ratio: TDR, 1.89; THA, 1.99, P=0.35; roundness: TDR, 0.58; THA, 0.56, P=0.35). However, the TDR particles tended to be smaller and more round. Although no correlations were found between visible damage to the UHMWPE core and the concentration or shape of the UHMWPE particles, a positive correlation was found between increasing particle size and increasing rim penetration of the TDR core (P=0.04). The presence of UHMWPE particles of similar size and shape in TDR tissue, albeit lower in concentration, might explain why, unlike THA, pain rather than osteolysis is the major reason for revision surgery. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transplantation of fetal ventral mesencephalic progenitor cells overexpressing high molecular weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoforms in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, R; Hohmann, M; Klein, A; Wesemann, M; Baumgärtner, W; Ratzka, A; Grothe, C

    2015-02-12

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent neurotrophic factor promoting survival of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. FGF-2 is expressed in different isoforms representing distinct translation products from a single mRNA. For this study, we focused on the high molecular weight (HMW) isoform, which, after non-viral plasmid-based overexpression in embryonic day 12 (E12) rat ventral mesencephalon (VM)-derived cells, revealed increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH(+)) cells in a 'colayer' cell culture model. To determine the therapeutic potential of VM cells producing FGF-2-HMW as their 'own' neurotrophic factor, we transplanted cell suspensions obtained from such in vitro modified and differentiated cell cultures into the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemiparkinsonian rat model. Animals, having received either non-transfected cells, empty-control transfected, or FGF-2-HMW-plasmid transfected cells, were analyzed in two different transplantation paradigms each using 172,000 or 520,000 cells, respectively. The behavioral performances in the amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotational test as well as in the cylinder test were evaluated for up to thirteen weeks post transplantation (postTX). Finally, the integration of the grafted cells into the host striatum was analyzed by immunohistochemical measurements. Those analyses revealed improvements of behavioral deficits in all five groups receiving DA neuron grafts, except for amphetamine-induced rotation of the FGF-2-HMW small graft group. Altogether, genetic modification with the FGF-2-HMW-plasmid did not further improve functional recovery compared to the control groups and had no influence on either the number of surviving DA neurons or on the density of outgrowing TH(+) fibers. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Broad Coverage Identification of Multiple Proteolytic Cleavage Site Sequences in Complex High Molecular Weight Proteins Using Quantitative Proteomics as a Complement to Edman Sequencing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Proteolytic processing modifies the pleiotropic functions of many large, complex, and modular proteins and can generate cleavage products with new biological activity. The identification of exact proteolytic cleavage sites in the extracellular matrix laminins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins is not only important for understanding protein turnover but is needed for the identification of new bioactive cleavage products. Several such products have recently been recognized that are suggested to play important cellular regulatory roles in processes, including angiogenesis. However, identifying multiple cleavage sites in extracellular matrix proteins and other large proteins is challenging as N-terminal Edman sequencing of multiple and often closely spaced cleavage fragments on SDS-PAGE gels is difficult, thus limiting throughput and coverage. We developed a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach we call amino-terminal oriented mass spectrometry of substrates (ATOMS) for the N-terminal identification of protein cleavage fragments in solution. ATOMS utilizes efficient and low cost dimethylation isotopic labeling of original N-terminal and proteolytically generated N termini of protein cleavage fragments followed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Being a peptide-centric approach, ATOMS is not dependent on the SDS-PAGE resolution limits for protein fragments of similar mass. We demonstrate that ATOMS reliably identifies multiple proteolytic sites per reaction in complex proteins. Fifty-five neutrophil elastase cleavage sites were identified in laminin-1 and fibronectin-1 with 34 more identified by matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Hence, our degradomics approach offers a complimentary alternative to Edman sequencing with broad applicability in identifying N termini such as cleavage sites in complex high molecular weight extracellular matrix proteins after in vitro cleavage assays. ATOMS can therefore be useful in

  11. Site-specific PEGylated Exendin-4 modified with a high molecular weight trimeric PEG reduces steric hindrance and increases type 2 antidiabetic therapeutic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Jiang, Hai Hua; Lim, Sung Mook; Youn, Yu Seok; Choi, Ki Young; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Byun, Youngro; Lee, Kang Choon

    2012-11-21

    The purpose of this study was to optimize an Exendin-4 (Ex4-Cys) site-specific PEGylation method with a high-molecular-weight trimeric PEG. Here, we describe the preparation of C-terminal specific PEGylated Ex4-Cys (C40-tPEG-Ex4-Cys), which was performed using cysteine and amine residue specific coupling reactions between Ex4-Cys and activated trimeric PEG. The C40-PEG-Ex4-Cys was obtained at high yields (~83%) and characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The receptor binding affinity of C40-PEG(5K)-Ex4-Cys was 3.5-fold higher than that of N-terminal PEGylated Ex4-Cys (N(ter)-PEG(5K)-Ex4-Cys), and receptor binding by the trimeric PEG (tPEG; 23, 50 kDa) adduct was much higher than that of branched PEG (20 kDa). Furthermore, C40-tPEG(50K)-Ex4-Cys was found to have greater blood circulating t(1/2) and AUC(inf) values than native Ex4-Cys by 7.53- and 45.61-fold, respectively. Accordingly, its hypoglycemic duration was much greater at 59.2 h than that of native Ex4-Cys at 7.3 h, with a dose of 25 nM/kg. The results of this study show that C-terminal specific PEGylation using trimeric PEG is effective when applied to Ex4-Cys and suggest that C40-tPEG(50K)-Ex4-Cys has considerable potential as a type 2 antidiabetic agent.

  12. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Gaelle; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1-5 min), discharge power (5.7-24.0 W), monomer concentration (1-2 g/h) and pressure (10-100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH2]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH2]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and pressure ≤50 kPa. One can therefore control the deposition rate as well as the properties, aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coating by carefully choosing the plasma parameters.

  13. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  14. The novel high molecular weight Dermatophagoides farinae protein Zen-1 is a major allergen in North American and European mite allergic dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Dunston, Stanley M; Favrot, Claude; Prélaud, Pascal; Tsukui, Toshiroh

    2017-04-01

    Atopic dogs with hypersensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) have IgE recognizing high molecular weight (MW) allergens more often than the low MW Der f 1 and 2. A new high MW Df allergen, Zen-1, has been identified recently. To determine the IgE reactivity of American and European Df-hypersensitive dogs to Zen-1, Der f 1 and Der f 2. We tested sera from 33 Df-reactive dogs from the USA, 29 from Europe and 15 experimentally sensitized to Df, by ELISA against crude Df, Der f 1, Der f 2 and Zen-1. ELISA inhibition was performed with sera reactive to Zen-1. Intradermal testing (IDT) was also done with the same allergens in 25 other American atopic dogs. Altogether, IgE seropositivity to Zen-1 was more prevalent (86%) than that to Der f 1 (17%) or Der f 2 (19%). The IgE reactivity to Zen-1 was correlated to that against crude Df; this allergen alone inhibited a high percentage (median: 50%; range: 22-84%) of the binding to the crude mite extract. The seropositivity to low MW allergens was highest in experimentally sensitized dogs. Serum IgE recognition of Der f 1 was low in dogs with AD; that to Der f 2 was significantly lower in American dogs (6%) than in European ones (28%). A high prevalence of positive immediate IDT reactions to Zen-1 confirmed the likely relevance of serological results. This study establishes Zen-1 as a major allergen in atopic dogs sensitized to Df. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Radiation and chemical crosslinking promote strain hardening behavior and molecular alignment in ultra high molecular weight polyethylene during multi-axial loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, S M; Pruitt, L A; Jewett, C W; Foulds, J R; Edidin, A A

    1999-08-01

    The mechanical behavior and evolution of crystalline morphology during large deformation of eight types of virgin and crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were studied using the small punch test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We investigated the hypothesis that both radiation and chemical crosslinking hinder molecular mobility at large deformations, and hence promote strain hardening and molecular alignment during the multiaxial loading of the small punch test. Chemical crosslinking of UHMWPE was performed using 0.25% dicumyl peroxide (GHR 8110, GUR 1020 and 1050), and radiation crosslinking was performed using 150 kGy of electron beam radiation (GUR 1150). Crosslinking increased the ultimate load at failure and decreased the ultimate displacement of the polyethylenes during the small punch test. Crosslinking also increased the near-ultimate hardening behavior of the polyethylenes. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the crystalline morphology of the bulk material, undeformed regions of the small punch test specimens, and deformed regions of the specimens oriented perpendicular and parallel to the punch direction. In contrast with the virgin polyethylenes, which showed only subtle evidence of lamellar alignment, the crosslinked polyethylenes exhibited enhanced crystalline lamellae orientation after the small punch test, predominantly in the direction parallel to the punch direction or deformation axis. Thus, the results of this study support the hypothesis that crosslinking promotes strain hardening during multiaxial loading because of increased resistance to molecular mobility at large deformations effected by molecular alignment. The data also illustrate the sensitivity of large deformation mechanical behavior and crystalline morphology to the method of crosslinking and resin of polyethylene.

  16. The relative importance of competing pathways for the formation of high-molecular-weight peroxides in the ozonolysis of organic aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mochida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High-molecular-weight (HMW organic compounds are an important component of atmospheric particles, although their origins, possibly including in situ formation pathways, remain incompletely understood. This study investigates the formation of HMW organic peroxides through reactions involving stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI's. The model system is methyl oleate (MO mixed with dioctyl adipate (DOA and myristic acid (MA in submicron aerosol particles, and Criegee intermediates are formed by the ozonolysis of the double bond in methyl oleate. An aerosol flow tube coupled to a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS is employed to determine the relative importance of different HMW organic peroxides following the ozonolysis of different mixing mole fractions of MO in DOA and MA. Possible peroxide products include secondary ozonides (SOZ's, α-acyloxyalkyl hydroperoxides and α-acyloxyalkyl alkyl peroxides (αAAHP-type compounds, diperoxides, and monoperoxide oligomers. Of these, the AMS data identify two SOZ's as major HMW products in the ozonolysis of pure methyl oleate as well as in an inert matrix of DOA to as low as 0.04 mole fraction MO. In comparison, in mixed particles of MO and MA, αAAHP-type compounds form in high yields for MO mole fractions of 0.5 or less, suggesting that SCI's efficiently attack the carboxylic acid group of myristic acid. The reactions of SCI's with carboxylic acid groups to form αAAHP-type compounds therefore compete with those of SCI's with aldehydes to form SOZ's, provided that both types of functionalities are present at significant concentrations. The results therefore suggest that SCI's in atmospheric particles contribute to the transformation of carboxylic acids and other protic groups into HMW organic peroxides.

  17. Serum ghrelin and adiponectin levels are increased but serum leptin level is unchanged in low weight Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Aydin, Munevver Mertsoylu; Tutuncu, Yildiz; Omer, Beyhan; Kiyan, Esen; Alagol, Faruk

    2014-04-01

    Weight loss and muscle wasting are common features reported in COPD patients and they are all related with systemic inflammation. In this study, the relationship between pulmonary functions and inflammatory and metabolic parameters in low weight COPD patients were investigated. Fifty male COPD patients were grouped according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Group 1: Mild-moderate COPD patients (n=18; with a mean age of 66.4 ± 9.2 yrs; body mass index (BMI):19.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)), group 2: Severe-very severe COPD patients (n=32; with a mean age of 65.9 ± 10.0 yrs; BMI:19.3 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), group 3: Control group composed of healthy nonsmoking males (n=17; with a mean age of 50.2 ± 8.4 yrs; BMI:21.85 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric parameters, serum levels of adiponectin (ApN), ghrelin, leptin, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and pulmonary functions were compared. Adiponectin concentration was higher in group 1 (43.3 ± 28.6 ng/mL; pCOPD groups (1281.0 ± 1173.7 and 1840.0 ± 403.6 pg/mL; pleptin, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-8. Interleukin-6 and hsCRP levels were higher in group 1 than in the control group. ApN was negatively correlated with BMI and FEV1. In all groups, FEV1 showed positive correlation with BMI, skinfold thicknesses, insulin and triglyceride; negative correlation with age, pack/years, HDL-Chol and ApN. Increased SHBG with decreased insulin level and HOMA-IR may indicate increased insulin sensitivity in COPD groups. The anti-inflammatory effect of ApN and ghrelin is more evident in severe-very severe COPD patients. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between circulating levels of adiponectin and indices of bone mass and bone metabolism in middle-aged post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenta, R; Kontogianni, M D; Yiannakouris, N

    2012-03-01

    Adiponectin, a fat derived cytokine, is a potential independent contributor to bone mineral density (BMD); however, its action on bone metabolism in humans is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of adiponectin with bone mass indices and bone metabolic markers in middle-aged post-menopausal women without diabetes. A random sample consisted of 81 post-menopausal women (age range 45-61 yr, osteopenic/osteoporotic no.=43) was studied. Lumbar-spine BMD (BMD(L2-L4)) and total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC) were measured with dual X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma levels of total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) and IGF-I were determined. No association was observed between total or HMW adiponectin and BMD(L2-L4) or TBBMC. On the contrary, adiponectin levels were positively associated with OPG levels (partial r=0.276, p=0.015) and negatively with IGF-I (partial r=-0.438, pbone mass in women during the postmenopausal period, we showed significant associations with OPG and IGF-I levels, suggesting an anabolic role of adiponectin, which may contribute in the understanding of the interplay between adipose tissue-derived hormones and bone metabolism. © 2012, Editrice Kurtis.

  19. The Activity of Adiponectin in Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naot, Dorit; Musson, David S; Cornish, Jillian

    2017-05-01

    The adipokine adiponectin affects multiple target tissues and plays important roles in glucose metabolism and whole-body energy homeostasis. Circulating adiponectin levels in obese people are lower than in non-obese, and increased serum adiponectin is associated with weight loss. Numerous clinical studies have established that fat mass is positively related to bone mass, a relationship that is maintained by communication between the two tissues through hormones and cytokines. Since adiponectin levels inversely correspond to fat mass, its bone effects and its potential contribution to the relationship between fat and bone have been investigated. In clinical observational studies, adiponectin was found to be negatively associated with bone mineral density, suggesting it might be a negative regulator of bone metabolism. In order to identify the mechanisms that underlie the activity of adiponectin in bone, a large number of laboratory studies in vitro and in animal models of mice over-expressing or deficient of adiponectin have been carried out. Results of these studies are not entirely congruent, partly due to variation among experimental systems and partly due to the complex nature of adiponectin signaling, which involves a combination of multiple direct and indirect mechanisms.

  20. Long term efficacy and safety of a combined low and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Petrella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective was to determine the efficacy of intraarticular combined hyaluronic acid versus placebo in patients with grade 1-3 medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee as evaluated through the self-paced 40 m walking pain visual analog scale (VAS at week 16, 52 and 104. Secondary objectives included pain at rest: a 10 cm VAS, patient global satisfaction using a 5-point numerical scale, consumption of concomitant medications, patients with <45 mm pain at followup 52 and 104 weeks. Safety was determined through the number of recorded adverse events. The study was designed as a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled and comparative study. 200 patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one of four treatment groups, to receive 3 weekly intra-articular injections of either: DMW (combined HA of different molecular weight and concentrations; HMW (high molecular weight HA; LMW (low molecular weight HA; PL (placebo, saline. Patients were assessed baseline and at week 16, 52, 104. Analyses were conducted using sigma stat (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois and Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, Washington. Significance was established at P<0.05. Analysis of variance with repeated measures and c2 tests were used to test for differences from baseline characteristics of the group among the primary and secondary outcomes at each injection series interval. At 16, 52 and 104 weeks respectively, walking VAS pain was significantly improved in all treatment groups vs. Placebo: DMW (89.3%, P<0.001; 87.4%, P<0.001; 88.1%, P<0.001; LMW (81.3%, P<0.001; 78.2%, P<0.001; 77.0%, P<0.001 and HMW (79.1%, P<0.001; 81.1%, P<0.001; 79.4%, P<0.001. At 52 weeks, 8 patients in DMW group had resting VAS <45 mm. DMW had lower (62 mm, P <0.001 compared to LMW (76 mm and HMW (88 mm VAS at rest. Similar differences were observed for walking VAS 39, 41 and 43 (DMW, LMW, HMW received repeat injections. At 104 weeks, these differences were similar. DMW

  1. Starch characteristics of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) overexpressing the Dx5 high molecular weight glutenin subunit are substantially equivalent to those in nonmodified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckles, Diane M; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    The effects of engineering higher levels of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Dx5 subunit on starch characteristics in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain were evaluated. This is important because of the interrelationship between starch and protein accumulation in grain, the strong biotechnological interest in modulating Dx5 levels and the increasing likelihood that transgenic wheat will be commercialized in the U.S. Unintended effects of Dx5 overexpression on starch could affect wheat marketability and therefore should be examined. Two controls with native levels of Dx5 were used: (i) the nontransformed Bobwhite cultivar, and (ii) a transgenic line (Bar-D) expressing a herbicide resistant (bar) gene, and they were compared with 2 transgenic lines (Dx5G and Dx5J) containing bar and additional copies of Dx5. There were few changes between Bar-D and Dx5G compared to Bobwhite. However, Dx5J, the line with the highest Dx5 protein (×3.5) accumulated 140% more hexose, 25% less starch and the starch had a higher frequency of longer amylopectin chains. These differences were not of sufficient magnitude to influence starch functionality, because granule morphology, crystallinity, amylose-to-amylopectin ratio, and the enthalpy of starch gelatinization and the amylose-lipid complex melting were similar to the control (P > 0.05). This overall similarity was borne out by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Function Analysis, which could not distinguish among genotypes. Collectively our data imply that higher Dx5 can affect starch accumulation and some aspects of starch molecular structure but that the starches of the Dx5 transgenic wheat lines are substantially equivalent to the controls. Transgenic manipulation of biochemical pathways is an effective way to enhance food sensory quality, but it can also lead to unintended effects. These spurious changes are a concern to Government Regulatory Agencies and to those Industries that market the product. In this study we

  2. Mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism for novel changes in high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in wheat-rye hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Wide hybrids can have novel traits or changed expression of a quantitative trait that their parents do not have. These phenomena have long been noticed, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS are seed storage proteins encoded by Glu-1 genes that only express in endosperm in wheat and its related species. Novel HMW-GS compositions have been observed in their hybrids. This research elucidated the molecular mechanisms by investigating the causative factors of novel HMW-GS changes in wheat-rye hybrids. HMW-GS compositions in the endosperm and their coding sequences in the leaves of F(1 and F(2 hybrids between wheat landrace Shinchunaga and rye landrace Qinling were investigated. Missing and/or additional novel HMW-GSs were observed in the endosperm of 0.5% of the 2078 F(1 and 22% of 36 F(2 hybrid seeds. The wildtype Glu-1Ax null allele was found to have 42 types of short repeat sequences of 3-60 bp long that appeared 2 to 100 times. It also has an in-frame stop codon in the central repetitive region. Analyzing cloned allele sequences of HMW-GS coding gene Glu-1 revealed that deletions involving the in-frame stop codon had happened, resulting in novel ∼1.8-kb Glu-1Ax alleles in some F(1 and F(2 plants. The cloned mutant Glu-1Ax alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the HMW-GSs produced matched the novel HMW-GSs found in the hybrids. The differential changes between the endosperm and the plant of the same hybrids and the data of E. coli expression of the cloned deletion alleles both suggested that mitotic illegitimate recombination between two copies of a short repeat sequence had resulted in the deletions and thus the changed HMW-GS compositions. Our experiments have provided the first direct evidence to show that mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism that produces novel phenotypes in wide hybrids.

  3. Crystallins in water soluble-high molecular weight protein fractions and water insoluble protein fractions in aging and cataractous human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Veronica; McCall, Shantis; Huynh, Sy; Srivastava, Kiran; Srivastava, Om P

    2004-07-19

    The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze crystallin fragments in the water soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) and in the water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of human cataractous (with nuclear opacity) and age matched normal lenses to determine the identity of crystallin species that show cataract specific changes such as truncation and post-translational modifications. Because these changes were cataract specific and not aging specific, the results were expected to provide information regarding potential mechanisms of age related cataract development. The WS-alpha-crystallin, WS-HMW protein, and WI protein fractions were isolated from normal lenses of different ages and from cataractous lenses. The three fractions were subjected to two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (IEF in the first dimension and SDS-PAGE in the second dimension). Individual spots from 2D gels were trypsin digested and the tryptic fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The 2D protein profiles of WS-alpha-crystallin fractions of normal human lenses showed an age related increase in the number of crystallin fragments. In young normal lenses, the WS-alpha-crystallin fragments were mostly C-terminally truncated, but in older lenses these were both N- and C-terminally truncated. The WS-HMW protein fraction from normal lenses contained mainly fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, whereas additional fragments of betaB1- and betaA3-crystallin were present in this fraction from cataractous lenses. Similarly, the WI proteins in normal lenses contained fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, but cataractous lenses contained additional fragments of betaA3- and betaB1-crystallin. The modifications identified in the WS-HMW and WI crystallin species of cataractous lenses were truncation, oxidation of Trp residues, and deamidation of Asn to Asp residues. The results show that the components of WS-HMW and

  4. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Gaelle, E-mail: gaelle.aziz@ugent.be; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Medium to atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit amino rich films. • Process parameters affect the films’ surface chemical and physical properties. • High deposition rates can be reached by varying the power and/or monomer flow rate. • High amino selectivity (NH{sub 2}/N in %) is obtained at low powers and high monomer concentration. • Aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coatings can be controlled by carefully choosing the plasma parameters. - Abstract: In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1–5 min), discharge power (5.7–24.0 W), monomer concentration (1–2 g/h) and pressure (10–100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH{sub 2}]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH{sub 2}]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and

  5. Identification of intact high molecular weight glutenin subunits from the wheat proteome using combined liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Lagrain

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a method for the identification of intact high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, the quality determining proteins from the wheat storage proteome. The method includes isolation of HMW-GS from wheat flour, further separation of HMW-GS by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC, and their subsequent molecular identification with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass analyzer. For HMW-GS isolation, wheat proteins were reduced and extracted from flour with 50% 1-propanol containing 1% dithiothreitol. HMW-GS were then selectively precipitated from the protein mixture by adjusting the 1-propanol concentration to 60%. The composition of the precipitated proteins was first evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Coomassie staining and RP-HPLC with ultraviolet detection. Besides HMW-GS (≥65%, the isolated proteins mainly contained ω5-gliadins. Secondly, the isolated protein fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Optimal chromatographic separation of HMW-GS from the other proteins in the isolated fraction was obtained when the mobile phase contained 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing agent. Individual HMW-GS were then identified by determining their molecular masses from the high-resolution mass spectra and comparing these with theoretical masses calculated from amino acid sequences. Using formic acid instead of trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase increased protein peak intensities in the base peak mass chromatogram. This allowed the detection of even traces of other wheat proteins than HMW-GS in the isolated fraction, but the chromatographic separation was inferior with a major overlap between the elution ranges of HMW-GS and ω-gliadins. Overall, the described method allows a rapid assessment of wheat quality through the direct determination of the HMW-GS composition and

  6. Studi Eksperimental Stick-Slip Friction Akibat Multi-Directional Contact Friction dengan Material Uji Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE Terhadap Stainless Steel (AISI 304

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Yamsi Kurnia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apabila dua buah atau lebih benda yang mengalami kontak dan bergerak relatif satu sama lain maka akan menimbulkan gaya gesek yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinya   keausan. Pada kecepatan tertentu, sering terjadi suatu fenomena dimana keausan yang terjadi lebih besar dibandingkan yang lain. Fenomena tersebut disebabkan oleh adanya Stick-Slip Friction. Namun, masih sedikit penelitian mengenai gesekan tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menganalisa kinematika gerakan spesimen untuk menentukan pada rasio kecepatan berapakah stick-slip terjadi. Kemudian, hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan pengambilan data volume keausan menggunakan tribometer tipe Pin-on-disk dengan material Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE sebagai pin uji dan Stainless steel sebagai disk, dimana masing-masing pin dan disk akan bergerak secara rotasi. Masing-masing pengujian divariasikan berdasarkan rasio kecepatan antara pin dengan disk, yaitu rasio kecepatan antara 4,2; 5; 6,5; 10; dan 20 rpm/rpm. Pengujian dilakukan dengan pin digesekkan sepanjang 2000 meter dan diberikan pembebanan 4kg serta diberikan variasi dari radius pin. Selanjutnya spesimen diamati struktur permukaannya menggunakan mikroskop optis dengan perbesaran 5x dan 10x sehingga diketahui mekanisme keausannya, sedangkan data hasil pengujian selanjutnya diolah untuk diketahui laju keausan (wear coefficient dari spesimen uji. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah Pada saat rasio kecepatan 4,2 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 9 mm dari pusat pin, ketika rasio kecepatan 5 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 8 mm dari pusat pin, saat rasio kecepatan 6,5 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 6 mm dari pusat pin, kemudian saat rasio kecepatan 10 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 4 mm dari pusat pin, dan saat rasio kecepatan 20 daerah yang mengalami stick-slip terjadi pada radius 2 mm dari pusat pin. Laju keausan benda yang mengalami stick

  7. Multi-crystallin complexes exist in the water-soluble high molecular weight protein fractions of aging normal and cataractous human lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, K; Chaves, J M; Srivastava, O P; Kirk, M

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify non-covalently held complexes that exist in the water-soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) protein fractions of normal human lenses of 20-year-old and 60- to 70-year-old, and in the age-matched 60- to 70-year-old cataractous lenses. The WS protein fractions were prepared from five pooled normal lenses of 20-year-old donors or five pooled lenses of 60- to 70-year-old donors or four pooled cataractous lenses (with nuclear opacity) of 60- to 70-year-old donors. Each WS protein fraction was subjected to size-exclusion chromatography using an Agarose A 5m column to recover the void volume WS-HMW protein fraction. A method known as blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE), which allows the isolation of large multi-protein complexes (MPCs) in their native state for further characterization, was used to separate such complexes from individual WS-HMW protein fractions. The protein species that existed as a complex were excised from a gel and trypsin-digested, and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic fragments analyzed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS/MS). After the second-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE during BN-PAGE, protein complexes containing a total of 16, 12, and 24 species with M(r) between 10 and 90 kDa were identified in the HMW protein fractions of normal lenses of 20-year-old, 60- to 70-year-old and cataractous lenses of 60- to 70-year-old donors, respectively. Based on the amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of individual protein species in the complexes by the ES-MS/MS method, the presence of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallin species along with beaded filament proteins (filensin and phakinin) was observed in the 20-year-old normal lenses. The 60- to 70-year-old normal lenses contained filensin and aldehyde dehydrogenase in addition to the above crystallins. Similarly, the age-matched cataractous lenses also contained the above crystallins and aldehyde dehydrogenase but

  8. Effects of Quercetin on Adiponectin-Mediated Insulin Sensitivity in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvan, N; Moini, A; Janani, L; Mohammad, K; Saedisomeolia, A; Nourbakhsh, M; Gorgani-Firuzjaee, S; Mazaherioun, M; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, M J

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, multi-causal, and genetically complex disorder, which is related to the failure in endocrine glands. Adiponectin has been reported to be low in PCOS, even in the absence of adiposity. Quercetin reduces serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels and increases the expression and secretion of adiponectin. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on the adiponectin-mediated insulin sensitivity in PCOS patients. Eighty-four women with PCOS were selected and randomly assigned to 2 groups of treatment and control. The treatment group received 1 g quercetin (two 500 mg capsules) daily for 12 weeks, and the control group received placebo. In addition to anthropometric assessments, fasting serum levels of total adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, glucose, insulin, testosterone, LH, and SHBG were also measured at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Quercetin could slightly increase the level of adiponectin by 5.56% as compared to placebo (adjusted p-value=0.001) and HMW adiponectin by 3.9% as compared to placebo (adjusted p-value=0.017), while it reduced the level of testosterone (0.71 ng/dl in quercetin vs. 0.77 ng/dl in placebo; pplacebo; p=0.009). HOMA-IR levels were also significantly (pplacebo group (2.21). Oral quercetin supplementation was effective in improving the adiponectin-mediated insulin resistance and hormonal profile of women with PCOS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Chemical modification of high molecular weight polyethylene through gamma radiation for biomaterials applications; Modificacao quimica de polietileno de alto peso molecular atraves de radiacao gama para aplicacao em biomateriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Matheus P.; Rocha, Marisa C.G., E-mail: matheusmerlim@hotmail.com [Universidade Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico

    2015-07-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene has been used in the medical field due to its high mechanical properties compared to the other polymers. Its main application is in the development of orthopedic implants, which requires high resistance to abrasion. One of the most used methods is the introduction of crosslinks in the polymer through gamma irradiation. In order to prevent oxidation reactions, studies have been developed using tacoferol (vitamin E) as an antioxidant for the material. The ascorbic acid (vitamin C), however, has been appointed as a viable alternative for vitamin E. In this work, a high molecular weight polyethylene grade (HMWPE) and polyethylene samples formulated with vitamin C were submitted to gamma radiation. Thermodynamic-mechanical methods and gel content determinations were used to characterize the samples obtained. The sample containing 1% of vitamin C and irradiated with 50 KGy of gamma radiation presented the highest content of crosslinks. (author)

  10. Evaluation of environmental degradation effects in morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers; Avaliacao dos efeitos da degradacao ambiental na morfologia das fibras de polietileno de ultra-alto peso molecular (PEUAPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivas, Viviane; Zylberberg, Marcel P.; Cardoso, Andre Luis V.; Pereira, Iaci M., E-mail: iacipere@gmail.com [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), RJ (Brazil); Weber, Ricardo P.; Suarez, Joao C. Miguez [Instituto Militar der Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate changes in the morphology of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fiber (UHMWPE), before and after exposure to environmental agents. Fibers produced by two different manufacturers were analyzed. To characterize the morphology, we used the technique of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The results demonstrate that the original morphology of the fibers was UHMWPE affected by the defects caused by exposure to environmental agents. (author)

  11. Variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and macropolymers in wheat grains of a recombinant inbred lines population and in two contrasting eco-sites in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits andmacropolymers in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality, which are genetically determined and affected by environmental factors. The 6 VS·6AL translocation chromosome segment is reported to own high powdery m...... wheat cultivars for high resistence to powdery mildew and yellow rust with less risk of undesirable effects on grain quality. c 2012 Society of Chemical Industry Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.......BACKGROUND: Concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits andmacropolymers in wheat grains are important indicators of grain quality, which are genetically determined and affected by environmental factors. The 6 VS·6AL translocation chromosome segment is reported to own high powdery...... mildew and yellow rust resistance genes of Pm21 and Yr26. This study investigated the variation in concentrations of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and gluteninmacropolymer (GMP) in response to the 6 VS·6AL translocation segment and the two contrasting sites. RESULTS: Large variations...

  12. Maternal intake of grape seed procyanidins during lactation induces insulin resistance and an adiponectin resistance-like phenotype in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimari, Antoni; Mariné-Casadó, Roger; Boqué, Noemí; Crescenti, Anna; Arola, Lluís; Del Bas, Josep Maria

    2017-10-03

    Previously, we demonstrated that a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation in pregnant and lactating rats exerted both healthy and deleterious programming effects on their offspring. Here, we evaluated whether the administration of GSPE during lactation (100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) in rats elicited beneficial effects in their normoweight (STD-GSPE group) and cafeteria-fed obese (CAF-GSPE group) adult male offspring. STD-GSPE and CAF-GSPE offspring showed increased energy expenditure and circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. However, these rats showed hyperinsulinemia, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased insulin resistance, down-regulated mRNA levels of adiponectin receptors in inguinal white adipose tissue (Adipor1 and Adipor2) and soleus muscle (Adipor2), and decreased levels of phosphorylated AMPK, the downstream post-receptor target of adiponectin, in the soleus muscle. These deleterious effects could be related to an increased lipid transfer to the pups through the milk, since GSPE-supplemented dams displayed decreased fat content and increased expression of lipogenic genes in their mammary glands, in addition to increased circulating total adiponectin and non-esterified free fatty acids. In conclusion, maternal intake of GSPE during lactation induced insulin resistance and an adiponectin resistance-like phenotype in their normoweight and obese offspring. These findings raise concerns about the possibility of using GSPE as a nutraceutical supplement during this period.

  13. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. METHODS: In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  14. Adiponectin and Leptin Metabolic Biomarkers in Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Mi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate leptin and adiponectin as biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MS risk factors even in nonobese children/adolescents. Methods. Serum leptin, adiponectin, leptin:adiponectin ratio, lipids, glucose, and insulin concentrations as well as body size parameters and pubertal development were evaluated in a large population of Chinese children/adolescents (n=3505, 6–18 years, 1722 girls and 1783 boys. Results. Leptin concentration increased while adiponectin decreased with obesity, both were influenced by pubertal development. Central obesity had an additive effect on leptin levels (above obesity alone. Leptin/adiponectin increased 8.4-fold and 3.2-fold in overweight/obesity, and 15.8- and 4.5-fold with obesity plus MS, in early and late puberty, respectively. Even in normal weight children/adolescents, higher leptin and lower adiponectin concentrations associated with increased risk profile. Conversely, overweight/obese with lower leptin or higher adiponectin concentrations had a less compromised metabolic profile. Conclusion. Leptin, adiponectin, and leptin:adiponectin ratio are informative biomarkers for obesity, central obesity, MS, and abnormal metabolic profile even in normal weight children/adolescents.

  15. Specific dietary patterns and concentrations of adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the adipokines mostly secreted from adipose tissue is adiponectin. Adiponectin is well known as the anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and cardio-protective factor. Present study focused on the review the previous studies about relationship between adherence to healthy dietary pattern, independent of one or two special dietary components, and concentration of adiponectin. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed search engine from 2003 to July 2014 using the following key words: Healthy dietary pattern, mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary pattern, diet intervention and adiponectin and adipokines. Then, we recruited 10 articles to review in the present study. Results: Cohort studies that are examined this relationship among women showed the strong positive association in this regard. According to cross-sectional studies adherence to healthy dietary pattern like Mediterranian intervention with moderate weight loss had a positive association with concentration of adiponectin. Conclusion: It seems that adherents to the healthy dietary patterns have great levels of circulating adiponectin. However, it is not clear that whether the separate components of healthy dietary patterns like good sources of fats or protein or fibers mostly have important roles in these beneficial effects of such dietary patterns or not.

  16. A water-soluble high molecular weight substance isolated from Hyuganatsu orange (Citrus tamurana, suspected to be a polysaccharide, inhibits rat osteoclast cell formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is detrimental to aged women’s health care. We previously reported that Hyuganatsu orange (Citrus Tamurana contains active substances that inhibit osteoclast activities. Prior to conducting a human study, we sought to identify the biological active substance in the Hyuganatsu orange which suppresses osteoclast formation. Methods: We isolated five fractions from a Hyuganatsu orange extract according to molecular weight. Each fraction was tested to determine its suppressive effect on the formation of osteoclasts in rats. We also used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, infra-red (IR, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to evaluate its chemical structure. Data was recorded as mean ± standard error of the mean. The Mann-Whitney test was used, and a p-value of <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The highest and lowest molecular weight fractions showed significant suppression activity on rat osteoclast formation (p < .05. The lowest molecular weight fraction was identified as hesperidin using thin layer chromatography. Additionally, IR absorption revealed that the highest molecular weight fraction was not a flavonoid. With regard to chemical structure, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy suggested that the highest molecular weight fraction had signals compatible with a polysaccharide such as galacturonic acid. Conclusions: Hyuganatsu orange contains a biological active substance other than hesperidin that may be a polysaccharide and may suppress osteoclast formation.

  17. Adiponectin and plant-derived mammalian adiponectin homolog exert a protective effect in murine colitis

    KAUST Repository

    Arsenescu, Violeta

    2011-04-11

    Background: Hypoadiponectinemia has been associated with states of chronic inflammation in humans. Mesenteric fat hypertrophy and low adiponectin have been described in patients with Crohn\\'s disease. We investigated whether adiponectin and the plant-derived homolog, osmotin, are beneficial in a murine model of colitis. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were injected (i.v.) with an adenoviral construct encoding the full-length murine adiponectin gene (AN+DSS) or a reporter-LacZ (Ctr and V+DSS groups) prior to DSS colitis protocol. In another experiment, mice with DSS colitis received either osmotin (Osm+DSS) or saline (DSS) via osmotic pumps. Disease progression and severity were evaluated using body weight, stool consistency, rectal bleeding, colon lengths, and histology. In vitro experiments were carried out in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Results: Mice overexpressing adiponectin had lower expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β), adipokines (angiotensin, osteopontin), and cellular stress and apoptosis markers. These mice had higher levels of IL-10, alternative macrophage marker, arginase 1, and leukoprotease inhibitor. The plant adiponectin homolog osmotin similarly improved colitis outcome and induced robust IL-10 secretion. LPS induced a state of adiponectin resistance in dendritic cells that was reversed by treatment with PPARγ agonist and retinoic acid. Conclusion: Adiponectin exerted protective effects during murine DSS colitis. It had a broad activity that encompassed cytokines, chemotactic factors as well as processes that assure cell viability during stressful conditions. Reducing adiponectin resistance or using plant-derived adiponectin homologs may become therapeutic options in inflammatory bowel disease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Postoperative Adiponectin Levels in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thaler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes cytokines, including adiponectin, levels of which are negatively correlated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Aim. To assess the time course of adiponectin levels following open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and its correlation with early postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 24 children undergoing cardiac surgery and analyzed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory markers. Results. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with patients’ preoperative weight and age. Postoperative adiponectin levels decreased compared to baseline ( and correlated negatively with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (, , length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (, , and the inotropic score (, . Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with sVCAM 1 levels; however, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and sP selectin, tPA, MCP1, and sCD40. Conclusions. The inflammatory response after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in adiponectin levels. Prolonged or more complicated surgery induced a more substantial inflammatory process characterized by a significant reduction in adiponectin levels over time and a delayed return to baseline levels.

  19. Peptide derived from HIV-1 TAT protein destabilizes a monolayer of endothelial cells in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier and allows permeation of high molecular weight proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Itzik; Sasson, Keren; Teichberg, Vivian I; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram

    2012-12-28

    Most chemotherapeutic agents are blood-brain barrier (BBB) impermeants. HIV-1-derived TAT protein variants contain a transmembrane domain, which may enable them to cross the BBB and reach the brain. Here we synthesized CAYGRKKRRQRRR, a peptide containing a cysteine moiety attached to the N terminus of the transmembrane domain (C-TAT peptide), and studied its effects in an in vitro BBB model, which we found to reflect penetration by a receptor-independent pathway. Incubation of the brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer with 0.3-0.6 μmol/ml of this C-TAT peptide, for a period of 1-2 h, destabilizes brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer and introduces the ability of impermeant therapeutic agents including high molecular weight proteins to penetrate it substantially. The cysteinyl moiety at position 1 of the C-TAT peptide contributes largely to the destabilizing potency and the penetration efficacy of impermeant substances. The destabilizing effect was reversed using heparin. In summary, experimental conditions allowing a significant increase in entry of impermeant low and high molecular weight substances from the luminal (blood) to the abluminal side (brain) were found in an in vitro BBB model reflecting in vivo protein penetrability by a receptor-independent pathway.

  20. A Ballistic Material Model for Cross-Plied Unidirectional Ultra-High Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Fiber-Reinforced Armor-Grade Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    strength polymeric fibers such as aramid (e.g. Kevlar®, Twaron®, etc.) or oriented polyethy- lene fibers (e.g. Spectra®, Dyneema ®, etc.) with an...are: (a) poly-aramids (e.g. Kevlar®, Twaron®, Technora®); (b) highly oriented ultra-highmolecular-weight polyethylene, UHMWPE (e.g. Spectra®, Dyneema ...physically based computationally efficient material model for UHMWPE filament (e.g. Spectra®, Dyneema ®, etc.)-based armor-grade composites is developed

  1. Effects of body weight reduction on plasma leptin and adiponectin/leptin ratio in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, F; Blaha, V; Ticha, A; Hyspler, R; Haluzik, M; Lesna, J; Smahelova, A; Sobotka, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the changes in the adipokines leptin and adiponectin in obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who underwent seven days of fasting and 21 days of low-calorie diet (LCD). The plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured in 14 obese patients with T1DM at baseline, immediately after 7 days of fasting, and after 21 days of LCD. 13 non-obese patients with T1DM were studied only after an overnight fasting. Bioimpedance technique was used for determination of body composition. Obese T1DM patients lost 6.0 kg (6.0; 6.8) (median, 25 %; 75 %) and decreased their fat tissue after fasting and LCD. Plasma leptin in obese T1DM was significantly higher than in non-obese T1DM patients: 9.10 (5.06; 25.89) vs. 1.71 (1.12; 7.08) microg . l(-1) and transiently decreased immediately after fasting: 3.45 microg . l(-1) (1.47; 7.00), (P<0.05). Adiponectin/leptin ratio in obese T1DM was significantly lower than in non-obese T1DM patients: 0.67 (0.57; 1.49) vs. 3.50 (2.46; 6.30) . 10(3) and transiently increased immediately after fasting: 2.22 (1.26; 3.24) . 10(3), (P<0.05). We conclude that obese patients with T1DM are characterized by hyperleptinemia that is reduced by prolonged fasting, but only slightly affected by low calorie diet.

  2. Short-term overfeeding increases circulating adiponectin independent of obesity status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Cahill

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipose tissue derived hormone which strengthens insulin sensitivity. However, there is little data available regarding the influence of a positive energy challenge (PEC on circulating adiponectin and the role of obesity status on this response.The purpose of this study was to investigate how circulating adiponectin will respond to a short-term PEC and whether or not this response will differ among normal-weight(NW, overweight(OW and obese(OB.We examined adiponectin among 64 young men (19-29 yr before and after a 7-day overfeeding (70% above normal energy requirements. The relationship between adiponectin and obesity related phenotypes including; weight, percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and β-cell function (HOMA-β were analyzed before and after overfeeding.Analysis of variance (ANOVA and partial correlations were used to compute the effect of overfeeding on adiponectin and its association with adiposity measurements, respectively. Circulating Adiponectin levels significantly increased after the 7-day overfeeding in all three adiposity groups. Moreover, adiponectin at baseline was not significantly different among NW, OW and OB subjects defined by either %BF or BMI. Baseline adiponectin was negatively correlated with weight and BMI for the entire cohort and %TF, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR in OB. However, after controlling for insulin resistance the correlation of adiponectin with weight, BMI and %TF were nullified.Our study provides evidence that the protective response of adiponectin is preserved during a PEC regardless of adiposity. Baseline adiponectin level is not directly associated with obesity status and weight gain in response to short-term overfeeding. However, the significant increase of adiponectin in response to overfeeding indicates the

  3. Plasma levels of leptin, omentin, collagenous repeat-containing sequence of 26-kDa protein (CORS-26 and adiponectin before and after oral glucose uptake in slim adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäffler Andreas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue secreted proteins are collectively named adipocytokines and include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, collagenous repeat-containing sequence of 26-kDa protein (CORS-26 and omentin. Several of these adipocytokines influence insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism and therefore systemic levels may be affected by oral glucose uptake. Whereas contradictory results have been published for leptin and adiponectin, resistin has not been extensively investigated and no reports on omentin and CORS-26 do exist. Methods Therefore the plasma levels of these proteins before and 120 min after an oral glucose load were analyzed in 20 highly-insulin sensitive, young adults by ELISA or immunoblot. Results Circulating leptin was reduced 2 h after glucose uptake whereas adiponectin and resistin levels are not changed. Distribution of adiponectin and CORS-26 isoforms were similar before and after glucose ingestion. Omentin is highly abundant in plasma and immunoblot analysis revealed no alterations when plasma levels before and 2 h after glucose intake were compared. Conclusion Taken together our data indicate that only leptin is reduced by glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive probands whereas adiponectin and resistin are not altered. CORS-26 was demonstrated for the first time to circulate as high molecular weight form in plasma and like omentin was not influenced by oral glucose load. Omentin was shown to enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake but systemic levels are not correlated to postprandial blood glucose.

  4. Interplay between surface properties of standard, vitamin E blended and oxidised ultra high molecular weight polyethylene used in total joint replacement and adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banche, G; Allizond, V; Bracco, P; Bistolfi, A; Boffano, M; Cimino, A; Brach del Prever, E M; Cuffini, A M

    2014-04-01

    We have assessed the different adhesive properties of some of the most common bacteria associated with periprosthetic joint infection on various types of ultra high molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE). Quantitative in vitro analysis of the adhesion of biofilm producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to physically and chemically characterised standard UHMWPE (PE), vitamin E blended UHMWPE (VE-PE) and oxidised UHMWPE (OX-PE) was performed using a sonication protocol. A significant decreased bacterial adhesion was registered for both strains on VE-PE, in comparison with that observed on PE, within 48 hours of observation (S. aureus p = 0.024 and E. coli p = 0.008). Since Vitamin E reduces bacterial adhesive ability, VE-stabilised UHMWPE could be valuable in joint replacement by presenting excellent mechanical properties, while reducing bacterial adhesiveness.

  5. Biophysical Properties and Oxygenation Potential of High-Molecular-Weight Glutaraldehyde-Polymerized Human Hemoglobins Maintained in the Tense and Relaxed Quaternary States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Jia, Yiping; Chen, Guo; Cabrales, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical evaluation of commercial glutaraldehyde-polymerized hemoglobins (PolyHbs) as transfusion solutions has demonstrated several adverse side effects. Chief among these is the hypertensive effect. Fortunately, previous studies have shown that the hypertensive effect can be attenuated by removing free hemoglobin (Hb) and low-molecular-weight (low-MW) PolyHbs from the PolyHb mixture. In this work, polymerized human Hb (PolyhHb) solutions were synthesized in two distinct quaternary states with high MW and subjected to extensive diafiltration to remove free Hb and low-MW PolyhHb components (high MW, distinct quaternary state, distinct reactivities with O2 and CO, similar NO deoxygenating rate constants, distinct autoxidation rate constants, high viscosity, and low colloid osmotic pressure. To preliminarily assess the ability of PolyhHb solutions to oxygenate surrounding tissues fed by a blood vessel, we evaluated the ability of PolyhHbs to transport O2 to cultured hepatocytes in a mathematical model of a hollow fiber bioreactor. The structure of individual hollow fibers in the bioreactor is similar to that of a blood vessel and provides an easy way to assess the oxygenation potential of PolyhHbs without the need for expensive and time-consuming animal studies. It was observed that PolyhHbs with low O2 affinities were more effective in oxygenating cultured hepatocytes inside the bioreactor than high O2 affinity PolyhHbs. Taken together, our results show that it is possible to synthesize high-MW PolyhHbs with no free Hb and low-MW PolyhHb components that are capable of transporting O2 to cultured cells/tissues. PMID:20979534

  6. Oral intake of a liquid high-molecular-weight hyaluronan associated with relief of chronic pain and reduced use of pain medication: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gitte S; Attridge, Victoria L; Lenninger, Miki R; Benson, Kathleen F

    2015-01-01

    The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of daily oral intake of a consumable liquid fermentate containing high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, as well as to perform a basic evaluation of safety and tolerability. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study design was used to examine the effects of oral intake of hyaluronan on chronic pain conditions. Safety assessment included a complete blood count with differential, blood chemistry and electrocardiogram. The study duration was 4 weeks, where three tablespoons (45 mL) product or placebo was ingested during the first 2 weeks, and two tablespoons (30 mL) was consumed during the last 2 weeks. Seventy-eight people between the age of 19 and 71 years enrolled, and 72 people completed the study. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed independent t-test for between-group significance and using the paired t-test for within-group significance. A reduction in pain scores was seen after 2 weeks of consumption of both placebo (Ppain scores was seen after 2 weeks of consumption of three tablespoons of active product (Ppain scores was seen in the placebo group. During the reduced intake for the last 2 weeks of study participation, pain scores showed a slight increase. During the last 2 weeks, a significant increase in the quality of sleep (Ppain reduction during the initial 2 weeks was associated with significant reduction in the use of pain medication (Poral liquid formula containing high-molecular-weight hyaluronan was associated with relief of chronic pain.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy as a Valuable Tool to Investigate the Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Wear Mechanisms and Debris in Hip Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappo, Henrique; Gindri, Izabelle M; Cubillos, Patrícia O; Maru, Marcia M; Salmoria, Gean V; Roesler, Carlos R M

    2018-01-01

    The use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) was investigated to understand the wear mechanisms from a metal-on-polyethylene bearing couple. Morphological features of femoral head acetabular liner, and isolated particles resulting from hip wear testing were evaluated. EDS was proposed to investigate the polymeric nature of the particles isolated from the wear testing. In this work, 28-mm conventional ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene acetabular liners paired with metallic heads were tested in a hip wear simulator over 2 million cycles. SEM-EDS was employed to investigate wear mechanisms on hip implant components and associated wear debris. SEM showed worn surfaces for both hip components, and a significant volume of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles resulting from hip wear testing. Particles were classified into 3 groups, which were then correlated to wear mechanisms. Group I had particles with smooth surfaces, group II consisted of particles with rough surfaces, and group III comprised aggregate-like particles. Group I EDS revealed that particles from groups I and II had a high C/O ratio raising a concern about the particle source. On the other hand, particles from group III had a low C/O ratio, supporting the hypothesis that they resulted from the wear of acetabular liner. Most of particles identified in group III were in the biologically active size range (0.3 to 20 μm). The use of optical and electron microscopy enabled the morphological characterization of worn surfaces and wear debris, while EDS was essential to elucidate the chemical composition of isolated debris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reshaped fecal gut microbiota composition by the intake of high molecular weight persimmon tannin in normal and high-cholesterol diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Lin, Kuan; Li, Kaikai; Deng, Xiangyi; Li, Chunmei

    2018-01-24

    It has been proposed that the gut microbiome may be related to obesity, and diet-induced obesity may induce changes in the gut microbiota composition. Our previous studies suggested that persimmon tannin (PT), which is highly polymerized and non-absorbable in the intestine, showed anti-hyperlipidemic and cholesterol-lowering effects in animal models. Considering that the possible composition modification effects of PT on intestinal bacteria might contribute to its anti-hyperlipidemic and cholesterol-lowering effects in vivo, in this study, we determined whether the PT administration could modify the gut microbiota in both normal diet-fed and high-cholesterol (HC) diet-fed rats, and how PT altered the bacterial composition in both normal and HC fed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups, and fed with either a normal or an HC diet supplemented with or without a low/medium/high dose of PT (50 (LPT), 100 (MPT), 200 (HPT) mg per kg body weight (BW) per day, respectively) for 4 weeks. On days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28, feces were collected and prepared for the microbiota and physicochemical analysis. The results showed that LPT and MPT supplementation significantly altered the gut microbiota composition by increasing the Bacteroidetes/Proteobacteria ratio in both normal diet-fed and HC diet-fed rats. LPT also decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in normal diet-fed rats and MPT decreased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in HC diet-fed rats. Both LPT and MPT supplementation induced a significant alteration in specific bacterial species after 14 days of treatment. The relative abundance of Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus sp. was increased by both LPT and MPT treatment, and that of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus was reduced. Our data also indicate that there is a correlation between the changes in bacterial composition and the changes in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism. However, HPT supplementation altered the gut microbiota

  9. Inflammatory Adipokines Decrease Expression of Two High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Tropomyosin Similar to the Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Savill

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and cancer are increased in Type 2 diabetes. TPM1 and TPM4 genes encode proteins associated with cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. High (HMW and low (LMW molecular weight isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 are altered in several cancer cells and the 3'UTR of TPM1 mRNA is tumour suppressive. Leukocytes influence cardiovascular and neoplastic disease by immunosurveillance for cancer and by chronic inflammation in Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim was to determine changes in expression of isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 genes in leukocytes from Type 2 diabetic patients and to use the leukocyte cell line THP1 to identify possible mediators of changes in the patients. Gene expression was determined by RT-qPCR. In diabetes, expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 were markedly decreased (0.55 v 1.00; p = 0.019 but HMW isoforms from TPM4 were not significantly different (0.76 v 1.00; p = 0.205. Within individual variance in expression of HMW isoforms was very high. The change in expression in HMW isoforms from TPM1 and TPM4 was replicated in THP1 cells treated with 1 ng/ml TNFα (0.10 and 0.12 v 1.00 respectively or 10 ng/ml IL-1α (0.17 and 0.14 v 1.00 respectively. Increased insulin or glucose concentrations had no substantial effects on TPM1 or TPM4 expression. Decreased TPM1 mRNA resulted in decreases in HMW protein levels. Expression of HMW isoforms from TPM1 is decreased in Type 2 diabetes. This is probably due to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1α in Type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of TPM1 mRNA reduce tumour suppression and could contribute to increased cancer risk in Type 2 diabetes. Decreased HMW tropomyosin isoforms are associated with cancer. Decreased HMW isoforms give rise to cells that are more plastic, motile, invasive and prone to dedifferentiation resulting in leukocytes that are more invasive but less functionally effective.

  10. Sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ing into consideration these various physical processes. In addition to these process parameters, the other factor that affects the performance of the products is powder charac- teristics. Powder characteristics are described in terms of size, size distribution, surface of the particles and shape of the particles as well as powder ...

  11. Detection of Soluble Amyloid-β Oligomers and Insoluble High-Molecular-Weight Particles in CSF: Development of Methods with Potential for Diagnosis and Therapy Monitoring of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Aileen Funke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD can be established premortem based on clinical criteria like neuropsychological tests. Post mortem, specific neuropathological changes like amyloid plaques define AD. However, the standard criteria based on medical history and mental status examinations do not take into account the long preclinical features of the disease, and a biomarker for improved diagnosis of AD is urgently needed. In a large number of studies, amyloid-β (Aβ monomer concentrations in CSF of AD patients are consistently and significantly reduced when compared to healthy controls. Therefore, monomeric Aβ in CSF was suggested to be a helpful biomarker for the diagnosis of preclinical AD. However, not the monomeric form, but Aβ oligomers have been shown to be the toxic species in AD pathology, and their quantification and characterization could facilitate AD diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Here, we review the current status of assay development to reliably and routinely detect Aβ oligomers and high-molecular-weight particles in CSF.

  12. Influence of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit composition at Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci on secondary and micro structures of gluten in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejun; Liu, Tianhong; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Heng; Li, Liqun; Gao, Xin

    2016-12-15

    As one of critical gluten proteins, high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) mainly affect the rheological behaviour of wheat dough. The influence of HMW-GS variations at the Glu-A1 and Glu-D1 loci on both secondary and micro structures of gluten and rheological properties of wheat dough was investigated in this study. Results showed that the Amide I bands of the three near-isogenic lines (NILs) shifted slightly, but the secondary structures differed significantly. The micro structure of gluten in NIL 4 (Ax null) showed bigger apertures and less connection, compared to that in Xinong 1330 (Ax1). The micro structure of gluten in NIL 5 (Dx5+Dy10) showed more compact than that in Xinong 1330 (Dx2+Dy12). Correlation analysis demonstrated that the content of β-sheets and disulfide bonds in gluten has a significant relationship with dough properties. The secondary structures of native gluten are suggested to be used as predictors of wheat quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Brittany M; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W; Drury, Bertram E; Nagel, Susan C; Welshons, Wade V; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S; Taylor, Julia A

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0-24h), we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose-response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Description of Immundisolibacter cernigliae gen. nov., sp. nov., a high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium within the class Gammaproteobacteria, and proposal of Immundisolibacterales ord. nov. and Immundisolibacteraceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corteselli, Elizabeth M; Aitken, Michael D; Singleton, David R

    2017-04-01

    The bacterial strain TR3.2T was isolated from aerobic bioreactor-treated soil from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated site in Salisbury, NC, USA. Strain TR3.2T was identified as a member of 'Pyrene Group 2' or 'PG2', a previously uncultivated cluster of organisms associated with the degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs by stable-isotope probing. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was classified as a member of the class Gammaproteobacteria but possessed only 90.5 % gene identity to its closest described relative, Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath. Strain TR3.2T grew on the PAHs pyrene, phenanthrene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene and fluorene, as well as the azaarene carbazole, and could additionally metabolize a limited number of organic acids. Optimal growth occurred aerobically under mesophilic temperature, neutral pH and low salinity conditions. Strain TR3.2T was catalase and oxidase positive. Predominant fatty acids were C17 : 0 cyclo and C16 : 0. Genomic G+C content of the single chromosome was 67.79 mol% as determined by complete genome sequencing. Due to the high sequence divergence from any cultivated species and its unique physiological properties compared to its closest relatives, strain TR3.2T is proposed as a representative of a novel order, family, genus and species within the class Gammaproteobacteria, for which the name Immundisolibacter cernigliae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The associated order and family are therefore proposed as Immundisolibacteralesord. nov. and Immundisolibacteraceaefam. nov. The type strain of the species is TR3.2T (=ATCC TSD-58T=DSM 103040T).

  15. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D

    2016-02-01

    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy and safety of single injection of cross-linked sodium hyaluronate vs. three injections of high molecular weight sodium hyaluronate for osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Choi, Chong-Hyuk; Kyung, Hee-Soo; Lee, Ju-Hong; Yoo, Jae Doo; Yoo, Ju-Hyung; Choi, Choong-Hyeok; Kim, Chang-Wan; Kim, Hee-Chun; Oh, Kwang-Jun; Bin, Seong-Il; Lee, Myung Chul

    2017-05-26

    This randomized, double-blind, multi-center, non-inferiority trial was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a cross-linked hyaluronate (XLHA, single injection form) compared with a linear high molecular hyaluronate (HMWHA, thrice injection form) in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Two hundred eighty seven patients with osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grade I to III) were randomized to each group. Three weekly injections were given in both groups but two times of saline injections preceded XLHA injection to maintain double-blindness. Primary endpoint was the change of weight-bearing pain (WBP) at 12 weeks after the last injection. Secondary endpoints included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index; patient's and investigator's global assessment; pain at rest, at night, or in motion; OMERACT-OARSI responder rate; proportion of patients achieving at least 20 mm or 40% decrease in WBP; and rate of rescue medicine use and its total consumption. Mean changes of WBP at 12 weeks after the last injection were -33.3 mm with XLHA and -29.2 mm with HMWHA, proving non-inferiority of XLHA to HMWHA as the lower bound of 95% CI (-1.9 mm, 10.1 mm) was well above the predefined margin (-10 mm). There were no significant between-group differences in all secondary endpoints. Injection site pain was the most common adverse event and no remarkable safety issue was identified. This study demonstrated that a single injection of XLHA was non-inferior to three weekly injections of HMWHA in terms of WBP reduction, and supports XLHA as an effective and safe treatment for knee osteoarthritis. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01510535 ). This trial was registered on January 6, 2012.

  17. High-Molecular-Weight Paired Helical Filaments from Alzheimer Brain Induces Seeding of Wild-Type Mouse Tau into an Argyrophilic 4R Tau Pathology in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audouard, Emilie; Houben, Sarah; Masaracchia, Caterina; Yilmaz, Zehra; Suain, Valérie; Authelet, Michèle; De Decker, Robert; Buée, Luc; Boom, Alain; Leroy, Karelle; Ando, Kunie; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    In Alzheimer disease, the development of tau pathology follows neuroanatomically connected pathways, suggesting that abnormal tau species might recruit normal tau by passage from cell to cell. Herein, we analyzed the effect of stereotaxic brain injection of human Alzheimer high-molecular-weight paired helical filaments (PHFs) in the dentate gyrus of wild-type and mutant tau THY-Tau22 mice. After 3 months of incubation, wild-type and THY-Tau22 mice developed an atrophy of the dentate gyrus and a tau pathology characterized by Gallyas and tau-positive grain-like inclusions into granule cells that extended in the hippocampal hilus and eventually away into the alveus, and the fimbria. Gallyas-positive neuropil threads and oligodendroglial coiled bodies were also observed. These tau inclusions were composed only of mouse tau, and were immunoreactive with antibodies to 4R tau, phosphotau, misfolded tau, ubiquitin, and p62. Although local hyperphosphorylation of tau was increased in the dentate gyrus in THY-Tau22 mice, the development of neurofibrillary tangles made of mutant human tau was not accelerated in the hippocampus, indicating that wild-type human PHFs were inefficient in seeding tau aggregates made of G272V/P301S mutant human tau. Our results indicate thus that injection of human wild-type Alzheimer PHF seeded aggregation of wild-type murine tau into an argyrophilic 4R tau pathology, and constitutes an interesting model independent of expression of a mutant tau protein. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular determinants of the interaction between human high molecular weight kininogen and Candida albicans cell wall: Identification of kininogen-binding proteins on fungal cell wall and mapping the cell wall-binding regions on kininogen molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Kamysz, Wojciech; Bielinska, Sylwia; Karafova, Anna; Kozik, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    An excessive production of vasoactive and proinflammatory bradykinin-related peptides, the kinins, is often involved in the human host defense against microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that a major fungal pathogen to humans, Candida albicans, can bind the proteinaceous kinin precursor, the high molecular weight kininogen (HK) and trigger the kinin-forming cascade on the cell surface. In this work, we preliminarily characterized a molecular mechanism underlying the HK adhesion to the fungal surface by (i) identification of major kininogen-binding constituents on the candidial cell wall and (ii) mapping the cell wall-binding regions on HK molecule. A major fraction of total fungal kininogen-binding capacity was assigned to β-1,3-glucanase-extractable cell wall proteins (CWP). By adsorption of CWP on HK-coupled agarose gel and mass spectrometric analysis of the eluted material, major putative HK receptors were identified, including Als3 adhesin and three glycolytic enzymes, i.e., enolase 1, phosphoglycerate mutase 1 and triosephosphate isomerase 1. Using monoclonal antibodies directed against selected parts of HK molecule and synthetic peptides with sequences matching selected HK fragments, we assigned the major fungal cell wall-binding ability to a short stretch of amino acids in the C-terminal part of domain 3 and a large continuous region involving the C-terminal part of domain 5 and N-terminal part of domain 6 (residues 479-564). The latter characteristics of HK binding to C. albicans surface differ from those reported for bacteria and host cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain relief and improved physical function in knee osteoarthritis patients receiving ongoing hylan G-F 20, a high-molecular-weight hyaluronan, versus other treatment options: data from a large real-world longitudinal cohort in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrella RJ

    2015-10-01

    .Keywords: osteoarthritis, high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid, intra-articular, 6-minute walk test, repeat treatment, pain relief

  20. Prokaryotic degradation of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in the deep-sea waters of NW Mediterranean Sea under in situ temperature and pressure conditions during contrasted hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, C.; Boutrif, M.; Garel, M.; Sempéré, R.; Repeta, D.; Charriere, B.; Nerini, D.; Panagiotopoulos, C.

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of the semi-labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the global prokaryotic production has been assessed in very few previous studies. Some experiments show rapid utilization of semi-reactive DOC by prokaryotes, while other experiments show almost no utilization at all. However, all these studies did not take into account the role of hydrostatic pressure for the degradation of organic matter. In this study, we investigate (1) the degradation of "natural" high molecular weight DOM HMW-DOM (obtained after ultrafiltration) and (2) the uptake of labeled extracellular polymeric substances (3H-EPS) incubated with deep-sea water samples (2000 m-depth, NW Mediterranean Sea) under in situ pressure conditions (HP) and under atmospheric compression after decompression of the deep samples (ATM) during stratified and mixed water conditions (deep sea convection). Our results indicated that during HP incubations DOC exhibited the highest degradation rates (kHP DOC = 0.82 d-1) compared to the ATM conditions were no or few degradation was observed (kATM DOC= 0.007 d-1). An opposite trend was observed for the HP incubations from mixed deep water masses. HP incubation measurements displayed the lowest DOC degradation (kHP DOC=0.031 d-1) compared to the ATM conditions (kATM DOC=0.62 d-1). These results imply the presence of allochthonous prokaryotic cells in deep-sea samples after a winter water mass convection. Same trends were found using 3H-EPS uptake rates which were higher at HP than at ATM conditions during stratified period conditions whereas the opposite patterns were observed during deep-sea convection event. Moreover, we found than Euryarchaea were the main contributors to 3H-EPS assimilation at 2000m-depth, representing 58% of the total cells actively assimilating 3H-EPS. This study demonstrates that remineralization rates of semi-labile DOC in deep NW Med. Sea are controlled by the prokaryotic communities, which are influenced by the hydrological

  1. Gender differences of oligomers and total adiponectin during puberty: a cross-sectional study of 859 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian Kjaer; Frystyk, Jan; Wolthers, Ole D

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pubertal stages have been shown to influence total adiponectin (ADPN) levels. Furthermore, testosterone has been shown to alter the isomer distribution of ADPN. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate whether pubertal stages and testosterone levels influenced total serum ADPN...... in the ratio of high-molecular-weight (HMW) isomers to total ADPN (HMW ratio) when comparing prepubertal and postpubertal males. Also, postpubertal males had lower HMW ratios than corresponding females (P = 0.038). Finally, a negative correlation was seen between HMW ratio and testosterone (r = -0.430, P = 0.......007). CONCLUSION: Serum total ADPN levels decrease through puberty in males. Also, a reduced HMW ratio is seen in males at the onset of puberty. We speculate that the suppression of HMW ADPN may be caused by testosterone. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  2. Role of adiponectin in delayed embryonic development of the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of adiponectin in the delayed embryonic development of Cynopterus sphinx. Adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR1) abundance was first observed to be lower during the delayed versus non-delayed periods of utero-embryonic unit development. The effects of adiponectin treatment on embryonic development were then evaluated during the period of delayed development. Exogenous treatment increased the in vivo rate of embryonic development, as indicated by an increase in weight, ADIPOR1 levels in the utero-embryonic unit, and histological changes in embryonic development. Treatment with adiponectin during embryonic diapause showed a significant increase in circulating progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and in production of their receptors in the utero-embryonic unit. The adiponectin-induced increase in estradiol synthesis was correlated with increased cell survival (BCL2 protein levels) and cell proliferation (PCNA protein levels) in the utero-embryonic unit, suggesting an indirect effect of adiponectin via estradiol synthesis by the ovary. An in vitro study further confirmed the in vivo findings that adiponectin treatment increases PCNA levels together with increased uptake of glucose by increasing the abundance of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the utero-embryonic unit. The in vitro study also revealed that adiponectin, together with estradiol but not alone, significantly increased ADIPOR1 protein levels. Thus, adiponectin works in concert with estradiol to increase glucose transport to the utero-embryonic unit and promote cell proliferation, which together accelerate embryonic development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of physiological determinants and cardiac disease on plasma adiponectin concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, C; Merveille, A-C; Krafft, E; Da Costa, A M; Gomart, S; Jespers, P; Michaux, C; Clercx, C; Verhoeven, C; Mc Entee, K

    2014-01-01

    In humans, a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile whereas, in patients with heart failure (HF), a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a less favorable prognosis. To evaluate the physiological determinants of plasma adiponectin concentration in dogs and the influence of heart disease, myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). One hundred and fourteen client-owned dogs and 9 Beagles from the research colony of the Clinical Veterinary Unit of the University of Liège. We prospectively measured circulating adiponectin concentration in healthy control dogs (n = 77), dogs with MMVD (n = 22) and dogs with DCM (n = 15) of various degrees of severity. Diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Plasma adiponectin concentration was measured by a canine-specific sandwich ELISA kit. An analysis of covariance showed an association between adiponectin concentration and age, neuter status, and heart disease. No association between adiponectin concentration and class of HF, sex, body condition score, body weight, circadian rhythm, or feeding was found. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with age (P = .001). Adiponectin was lower in neutered (P = .008) compared to intact dogs. Circulating adiponectin concentration was increased in dogs with DCM compared to healthy dogs (P = .018) and to dogs with MMVD (P = .014). Age and neutering negatively influence circulating adiponectin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentration increased in dogs with DCM. Additional research is required to investigate if this hormone is implicated in the pathophysiology of DCM and associated with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Adiponectin, Leptin, and Yoga Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.; Christian, Lisa M.; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B.; Belury, Martha A.; Emery, Charles F.; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga’s potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36%...

  5. Adiponectin could be a comprehensive marker of metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in obese children, than in the normal-weight controls (7.35 ± 3.1 μg/dl vs. 10.64 ± 3.04 μg/dl). Obese children with MS have a significantly lower serum adiponectin level compared to obese children without MS (5.92 ± 1.9μg/dl vs. 8.57 ± 2.1 μg/dl). There was a ...

  6. Adiponectin, leptin, and yoga practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K; Christian, Lisa M; Andridge, Rebecca; Hwang, Beom Seuk; Malarkey, William B; Belury, Martha A; Emery, Charles F; Glaser, Ronald

    2012-12-05

    To address the mechanisms underlying hatha yoga's potential stress-reduction benefits, we compared adiponectin and leptin data from well-matched novice and expert yoga practitioners. These adipocytokines have counter-regulatory functions in inflammation; leptin plays a proinflammatory role, while adiponectin has anti-inflammatory properties. Fifty healthy women (mean age=41.32, range=30-65), 25 novices and 25 experts, provided fasting blood samples during three separate visits. Leptin was 36% higher among novices compared to experts, P=.008. Analysis of adiponectin revealed a borderline effect of yoga expertise, P=.08; experts' average adiponectin levels were 28% higher than novices across the three visits. In contrast, experts' average adiponectin to leptin ratio was nearly twice that of novices, P=.009. Frequency of self-reported yoga practice showed significant negative relationships with leptin; more weeks of yoga practice over the last year, more lifetime yoga sessions, and more years of yoga practice were all significantly associated with lower leptin, with similar findings for the adiponectin to leptin ratio. Novices and experts did not show even marginal differences on behavioral and physiological dimensions that might represent potential confounds, including BMI, central adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet. Prospective studies addressing increased risk for type II diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease have highlighted the importance of these adipocytokines in modulating inflammation. Although these health risks are clearly related to more extreme values then we found in our healthy sample, our data raise the possibility that longer-term and/or more intensive yoga practice could have beneficial health consequences by altering leptin and adiponectin production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The association between adiponectin and ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms with obesity among young Jordanian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alomari Mahmoud A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk for multiple diseases and an independent cause of morbidity and mortality with staggering global rates. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived peptide associated with reduced obesity. In this study, the effect of ADIPOQ gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on obesity and adiponectin relationship was examined. The study was conducted on 389 adult females. Obesity was measured using body weight, BMI, percent body fat, and waist and hip ratio. ADIPOQ G276T and I164T SNPs were genotyped using RFLP procedure. Adiponectin plasma levels were quantified using ELISA technique. Adiponectin correlated with all obesity measures (p0.05 with GG and TT of the G276T SNP. With respect to` I164T SNP, the correlations between adiponectin and obesity measures remained in all genotypes except with W/H ratio and %Bf remained in the participants with CC genotype and with W/H ratio in CT/TT genotypes. Further analyses reveled that adiponectin was lower (p<0.05 in the participants with GT versus the GG and TT genotypes of G276T SNP. The data confirms the effect of adiponectin for obesity. It also shows the importance of ADIPOQ SNPs in the relationship between adiponectin and obesity in young adult females.

  8. Cord plasma concentrations of visfatin, adiponectin and insulin in healthy term neonates: positive correlation with birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekmez, Ferhat; Pirgon, Ozgur; Tanju, Asya; Ipcioglu, Osman Metin

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the relationships between adiponectin, insulin, visfatin and weight at birth in healthy term infants. Anthropometric parameters including weight, length were measured and plasma lipid profiles, insulin, visfatin and adiponectin concentrations in cord blood samples from 50 LGA and 50 AGA singleton infants born at term after uncomplicated pregnancies were assayed. Mean visfatin and adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the LGA group than AGA group (11.8 ± 8 vs. 6.3 ± 5.5 ng/ml, pCord plasma adiponectin, visfatin and insulin levels correlated significantly and positively with birthweight (p=0.01, pCord plasma adiponectin concentration correlated positively with visfatin level (p=0.005), but not with insulin level (p=0.8), and cord plasma visfatin concentration correlated positively with insulin level (pcord blood in LGA group. Cord plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels are positively correlated with birthweight. This suggests that adiponectin and visfatin may be involved in regulating fetal growth.

  9. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares

    2013-01-01

    Background The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. Objectives To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. Methods We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). Results There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP. PMID:24029961

  10. Serum Adiponectin and Cardiometabolic Risk in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gustavo Bernardes de Figueiredo, E-mail: goliveira@cardiol.br; França, João Ítalo Dias; Piegas, Leopoldo Soares [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The adipose tissue is considered not only a storable energy source, but mainly an endocrine organ that secretes several cytokines. Adiponectin, a novel protein similar to collagen, has been found to be an adipocyte-specific cytokine and a promising cardiovascular risk marker. To evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), as well as the correlations between adiponectin and metabolic, inflammatory, and myocardial biomarkers. We recruited 114 patients with ACS and a mean 1.13-year follow-up to measure clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics and biomarkers were compared according to adiponectin quartiles. Cox proportional hazard regression models with Firth's penalization were applied to assess the independent association between adiponectin and the subsequent risk for both primary (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI)/non-fatal stroke) and co-primary outcomes (composite of cardiovascular death/non-fatal AMI/non-fatal stroke/ rehospitalization requiring revascularization). There were significant direct correlations between adiponectin and age, HDL-cholesterol, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and significant inverse correlations between adiponectin and waist circumference, body weight, body mass index, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index, triglycerides, and insulin. Adiponectin was associated with higher risk for primary and co-primary outcomes (adjusted HR 1.08 and 1.07/increment of 1000; p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). In ACS patients, serum adiponectin was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In addition to the anthropometric and metabolic correlations, there was a significant direct correlation between adiponectin and BNP.

  11. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  12. Aerobic training increases the expression of adiponectin receptor genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of exercise training on the expression of adiponectin receptor genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of aerobic training on the expression of AdipoR1 and AidpoR2 mRNAs in PBMCs, whole body insulin sensitivity, and circulating adiponectins in men. Thirty young men were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15 or an exercise (n=15 group. Subjects assigned to the exercise group underwent a 12-week jogging and/or running programme on a motor-driven treadmill at an intensity of 60%-75% of the age-based maximum heart rate with duration of 40 minutes per session and a frequency of 5 days per week. Two-way mixed ANOVA with repeated measures was used to test any significant time-by-group interaction effects for the measured variables at p=0.05. We found significant time-by-group interaction effects for waist circumference (p=0.001, VO2 max (p<0.001, fasting insulin (p=0.016, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p=0.010, area under the curve (AUC for insulin response during the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (p=0.002, high-molecular weight (HMW adiponectin (p=0.016, and the PBMC mRNA levels of AdipoR1 (p<0.001 and AdipoR2 (p=0.001. The exercise group had significantly increased mRNA levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in PBMCs, along with increased whole body insulin sensitivity and HMW adiponectin, decreased waist circumference, and increased VO2 max compared with the control group. In summary, the current findings suggest that exercise training modulates the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNAs in PBMCs, implying that manipulation of the expression of these genes could be a potential surrogate for lifestyle intervention-mediated improvements of whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis.

  13. Enhancement of human adaptive immune responses by administration of a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensisTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobner, M.; Walsted, A.; Larsen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of consumption of Immulina, a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide extract from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on adaptive immune responses was investigated by evaluation of changes in leukocyte responsiveness to two foreign recall antigens, Candida albicans (CA) and tetanus...... toxoid (TT), in vitro. Consumption of Immulina by 11 healthy male volunteers caused an immediate, but temporary, increase of CA-induced CD4+ T-helper (Th) cell proliferation (P ...) and fell below baseline levels after 14 days (P effects on IL-10 responses were observed. Upon addition to normal mononuclear cells in vitro, Immulina elicited strong TNF...

  14. Succination of thiol groups in adipose tissue proteins in diabetes: succination inhibits polymerization and secretion of adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, Norma; Rajesh, Mathur; Jepson, Matthew J; Nagai, Ryoji; Carson, James A; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2009-09-18

    S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is formed by reaction of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate with cysteine residues in protein, a process termed succination of protein. Both fumarate and succination of proteins are increased in adipocytes cultured in high glucose medium (Nagai, R., Brock, J. W., Blatnik, M., Baatz, J. E., Bethard, J., Walla, M. D., Thorpe, S. R., Baynes, J. W., and Frizzell, N. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 34219-34228). We show here that succination of protein is also increased in epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of diabetic (db/db) mice and that adiponectin is a major target for succination in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. Cys-39, which is involved in cross-linking of adiponectin monomers to form trimers, was identified as a key site of succination of adiponectin in adipocytes. 2SC was detected on two of seven monomeric forms of adiponectin immunoprecipitated from adipocytes and epididymal adipose tissue. Based on densitometry, 2SC-adiponectin accounted for approximately 7 and 8% of total intracellular adiponectin in cells and tissue, respectively. 2SC was found only in the intracellular, monomeric forms of adiponectin and was not detectable in polymeric forms of adiponectin in cell culture medium or plasma. We conclude that succination of adiponectin blocks its incorporation into trimeric and higher molecular weight, secreted forms of adiponectin. We propose that succination of proteins is a biomarker of mitochondrial stress and accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates in adipose tissue in diabetes and that succination of adiponectin may contribute to the decrease in plasma adiponectin in diabetes.

  15. Oligomeric adiponectin forms and their complexes in the blood of healthy donors and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Alexander E; Filatov, Vladimir L; Kolosova, Olga V; Katrukha, Ivan A; Mironova, Ekaterina V; Zhuravleva, Natalya S; Nagibin, Oleg A; Kara, Andrei N; Bereznikova, Anastasiya V; Katrukha, Alexey G

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (Adn) is a protein that circulates in the blood in several oligomeric forms, namely low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight forms. Adn may serve as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aims of this work were (1) to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to different Adn oligomeric forms, (2) to design immunoassays suitable for measuring the Adn forms present in human blood, and (3) to investigate the changes in Adn forms that occur in patients with T2DM. Gel filtration, fluoroimmunoassays, and Western blotting were utilized as major techniques in this study. MAbs recognizing various oligomeric forms of Adn were obtained. Complexes between Adn and complement component C1q and between the low molecular weight form of Adn and albumin were described in human blood. A decrease in the total Adn and Adn-albumin complex levels in the blood of patients with T2DM and no difference in the levels of the Adn-C1q complex in comparison with healthy volunteers were demonstrated. An Adn94-Adn63 fluoroimmunoassay was selected as the technique that most accurately measured the mass ratio of Adn oligomers in blood samples, and an Adn214-Adn27 assay that measured the low-molecular-weight form of Adn only.

  16. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    participants experienced a CV event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or CV death). RESULTS: Participants with increasing adiponectin had reduced risk of developing T2DM (p risk factors (including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol......) for each doubling of adiponectin 0.55 (95% CI 0.41-0.74; p risk of a CV event more than doubled. Increasing adiponectin (adjusted for the confounding risk factors mentioned) was associated with reduced risk of CV events: HR 0.34 (95% CI 0.16-0.72; p = 0...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...

  17. [Adiponectin, insulin and glucose concentrations in overweight and obese subjects after a complex carbohydrates (fiber) diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rodríguez, Dora Cristina; Solano R, Liseti; González Martínez, Julio César

    2009-09-01

    Adiponectin one of the cytokines secreted by the adipose tissue that regulates the energetic metabolism through glucose and insulin interactions, stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids, reduces the plasmatic triglycerides and improves glucose metabolism by increasing insulin sensibility. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin and glucose were assessed in order to establish association to weight loss after a dietary regime based on consumption of complex carbohydrates (fiber) during six weeks. Overweight and obese subjects (n=56) were studied by anthropometry. Adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA and glucose by Colorimetry. Data was analyzed by non parametric tests to compare independent or related samples. 12 men and 44 women, aged 20 to 55 years, 17 overweight and 39 obese were assessed. Adiponectin concentration was significantly low at basal determination in all the subjects (4,47 +/- 1,64); being higher in women (4,62 +/- 1,57 vs 3,93 +/- 1,86 microU/mL in men), while glucose and insulin values were at normal range (82,46 +/-26,51 mg/dL and 14,12 +/- 10,15 microU/mL) respectively with no significant differences for sex. Overweight subjects had significantly higher adiponectin concentrations than obese participants, at all measurements. Dietary regime promoted significant increase in adiponectin concentration at second and sixth week, with a negative correlation to body mass index and gender as they lost body weight.

  18. Brown Fat Expresses Adiponectin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Iacobellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT in humans is unclear. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO are rare tumors of neuroectodermal origin which occur in 0.1-0.2% of patients with hypertension. We sought to evaluate the presence and activity of BAT surrounding adrenal PHEO in a well-studied sample of 11 patients who were diagnosed with PHEO and then underwent adrenalectomy. Areas of white fat (WAT and BAT surrounding PHEO were obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection for analysis of uncoupling protein (UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA expression. Adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BAT than in WAT (0.62 versus 0.15 and 362.4 versus 22.1, resp., for both. Adiponectin mRNA levels significantly correlated with urinary metanephrines (, , vanilly mandelic acid (VMA (, , and serum adiponectin levels (, . Serum adiponectin levels significantly decreased ( μg/mL versus  μg/mL, after adrenalectomy in PHEO subjects. This study provides the following findings: (1 BAT surrounding PHEO expresses adiponectin and UCP-1 mRNA, (2 expression of adiponectin mRNA is significantly higher in BAT than in WAT surrounding PHEO, and (3 catecholamines and serum adiponectin levels significantly correlate with BAT UCP-1 and adiponectin mRNA.

  19. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P sleep deprivation.

  20. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Cynthia Ciwei; Teo, Boon Wee; Tai, E Shyong; Lim, Su Chi; Chan, Choong Meng; Sethi, Sunil; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-01-01

    .... However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio...

  1. Ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography in fractionation of a high-molecular weight variation of acyl-oligosaccharide linked betacyanins from purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybraniec, Sławomir; Jerz, Gerold; Gebers, Nadine; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-02-15

    The natural pigment composition of purple bracts of Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae) consists of a highly complex mixture of betacyanins solely differing by the substitution with a variety of acyl-oligoglycoside units. This study was focused on a two-dimensional chromatography approach, a combination of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) and analytical C18-HPLC with ESI-DAD-MS/MS detection which finally enabled a more detailed view into the pigment profile and elucidated the existence of an overwhelming amount of varying betacyanin structures occurring in Bougainvillea bracts. The detected molecular weights of the pigments reached so far unknown high values and ranged up to maximum values of 1653 and 1683 Da for the largest molecules due to oligosaccharide linkage and multiple acyl substitutions. The preparative IP-HSCCC separation yielded 15 complex fractions containing betacyanins of enhanced polarity as well as structures with highly increased lipophilicity. Betacyanin structures extended by large oligosaccharide chains with bigger number of glycoside units and also carrying a reduced number of hydroxycinnamic acid substitutions were characteristic for polar pigments occurring mainly in the early eluting CCC fractions. IP-HSCCC was proven to be extremely effective for fractionating this complex crude betalain pigment extract into more defined 'polarity-windows'. Structural analysis by analytical LC-ESI-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode detected a total sum of 146 different betacyanin pigments in the CCC fractions of reduced complexity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of water-dispersible and highly conductive PSS-doped PANI/graphene nanocomposites using a high-molecular weight PSS dopant and their application in H2S detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Jun Seop; Jun, Jaemoon; Kim, Sung Gun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-11-01

    This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was used as both a doping agent and a binding agent for the polymerization of aniline monomers in a biphasic system (water-chloroform) at -50 °C. The high Mw of PSS resulted in relatively large particle sizes and smooth surfaces of the PSS-doped PANI. These physical characteristics, in turn, resulted in low interparticle resistance and high conductivity. In addition, the PSS allowed homogeneous dispersion of reduced graphene sheets through electrostatic repulsion. The prepared PSS-doped PANI/graphene solutions showed good compatibility with flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates, making them suitable for flexible sensor electrodes. Changes in the charge-transport properties, such as protonation level, conjugation length, crystalline structure, and charge-transfer resistance, of the electrode materials were the main factors influencing the electrical and sensor performance of the PSS-doped PANI-based electrodes. PSS-doped PANI/graphene composites containing 30 wt% graphene showed the highest conductivity (168.4 S cm-1) and the lowest minimum detection level (MDL) for H2S gas (1 ppm). This result is consistent with the observed improvements in charge transport in the electrode materials via strong π-π stacking interactions between the PANI and the graphene sheets.This work describes the fabrication of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PSS-doped PANI/graphene) nanocomposites and their use as sensing elements for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) detection. PSS with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.96 × 106 was synthesized using low-temperature free-radical polymerization. The PSS was

  3. The Relationship between Maternal Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin Concentrations and Newborn Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália P; Euclydes, Verônica V; Simões, Fernanda A; Vaz-de-Lima, Lourdes R A; De Brito, Cyro A; Luzia, Liania A; Devakumar, Delan; Rondó, Patrícia H C

    2017-02-23

    Increased maternal blood concentrations of leptin and decreased adiponectin levels, which are common disturbances in obesity, may be involved in offspring adiposity by programming fetal adipose tissue development. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity. This was a cross-sectional study involving 210 healthy mother-newborn pairs from a public maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Maternal blood samples were collected after delivery and leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Newborn body composition was estimated by air displacement plethysmography. The association between maternal leptin and adiponectin concentrations and newborn adiposity (fat mass percentage, FM%) was evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for maternal age, socioeconomic status, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, gestational age, and newborn age at the time of measurement. No relationship was found between maternal leptin and FM% of male or female newborn infants. Maternal adiponectin (p = 0.001) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001; adj. R² = 0.19) were positively associated with FM% of newborn males, indicating that maternal adiponectin is involved in fetal fat deposition in a sex-specific manner. Large-scale epidemiological, longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm our results.

  4. Adiponectin regulates expression of hepatic genes critical for glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Yuan, Bingbing; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Patterson, Heide Christine; Sun, Yutong; Lodish, Harvey F

    2012-09-04

    The effects of adiponectin on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at transcriptional level are largely unknown. We profiled hepatic gene expression in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice by RNA sequencing. Compared with WT mice, adiponectin KO mice fed a chow diet exhibited decreased mRNA expression of rate-limiting enzymes in several important glucose and lipid metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty-acid activation and synthesis, triglyceride synthesis, and cholesterol synthesis. In addition, binding of the transcription factor Hnf4a to DNAs encoding several key metabolic enzymes was reduced in KO mice, suggesting that adiponectin might regulate hepatic gene expression via Hnf4a. Phenotypically, adiponectin KO mice possessed smaller epididymal fat pads and showed reduced body weight compared with WT mice. When fed a high-fat diet, adiponectin KO mice showed significantly reduced lipid accumulation in the liver. These lipogenic defects are consistent with the down-regulation of lipogenic genes in the KO mice.

  5. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  6. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  7. Relationship between adiponectin, obesity and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ardenghi Balsan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the conditions of obesity and overweight pose a major risk for a number of comorbidities, including clinical syndromes resulting from atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies strongly indicate that adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes bioactive factors such as adipokines. Adiponectin appears to have a regulatory role in the mechanism of insulin resistance and in the development of atherosclerosis. This systematic review aims to evaluate the anti-atherogenic effects of adiponectin and its properties to improve and mimic metabolic and vascular actions of insulin and its influence on endothelial function. Methods: a qualitative, exploratory and literature review was performed in the PubMed, Portal Capes and Scielo databases using as key-words "adiponectin", "obesity", "insulin resistance", "anti-inflammatory", "therapeutic strategies" and "future prospects". Results: evidence suggests that adiponectin has anti-atherogenic properties with anti-inflammatory effects on the vascular wall. Moreover, it modifies the vascular intracellular signaling and has indirect antioxidant effects on the human myocardium. On the other hand, there are studies suggesting that increased levels of adiponectin are paradoxically associated with a worse prognosis in heart failure syndrome, although the mechanisms are not clear. Conclusion: it is not clear whether adiponectin levels have any clinical significance for risk stratification in cardiovascular disease or if they simply reflect the activation of complex underlying mechanisms. Changes in lifestyle and some drug treatments for hypertension and coronary heart disease have shown significant effect to increase adiponectin levels, and simultaneously decrease in insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Negative Skeletal Effects of Locally Produced Adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia J Abbott

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg. MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15% in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3-4% in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg mice had increased numbers of adipocytes in close proximity to trabecular bone in the tibia, associated with increased adiponectin levels in tibial marrow. Treatment of BMSCs with adiponectin after initiation of osteoblastic differentiation resulted in reduced mineralized colony formation and reduced expression of mRNA of osteoblastic genes, osterix (70%, Runx2 (52%, alkaline phosphatase (72%, Col1 (74%, and osteocalcin (81%. Adiponectin treatment of differentiating osteoblasts increased expression of the osteoblast genes PPARγ (32% and C/ebpα (55% and increased adipocyte colony formation. These data suggest a model in which locally produced adiponectin plays a negative role in regulating skeletal homeostasis through inhibition of bone formation and by promoting an adipogenic phenotype.

  9. Modulatory effect of high molecular weight polyethylene glycols on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work aim at investigating the channeling or modulatory effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (MW 4000 and 6000) on drug release from ibuprofen sustained release formulation. Different batches of ibuprofen matrix granules and tablet were prepared by melt granulation using different concentrations of carnauba wax and ...

  10. Marker-assisted selection of high molecular weight glutenin alleles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... So far, the structural characteristics of more than 10. HMW-GS alleles have been revealed by DNA sequencing ... Materials and methods. Storage proteins were extracted from single seeds and ... the Glu-1 loci in wheat enable construction of specific DNA markers. PCR reactions were performed using the ...

  11. A new high molecular weight agglutinin from garlic (Allium sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Sandhu, R S

    1997-01-01

    Erythrocyte agglutination by lectins from Allium sativum was inhibited only by mannose of the sugars tested. However, asialofetuin was more effective inhibitor of agglutination as compared to mannose. This led to the use of an asialofetuin-silica affinity column to isolate agglutinins of 110 and 25 kDa (ASA110 and ASA25). While ASA25 is a dimeric protein comprising of subunits of 12.5 and 13.0 kDa, ASA110 is a glycoprotein of two identical subunits of 47 kDa. ASA110 revealed to have a high content of aspartic acid, glycine, leucine and serine but low content of cysteine and methionine. It contains 14 residues of neutral sugars in addition to 43 residues of hexosamines per mole of lectin and requires metal ions for its functional conformation. Serological cross-reactions with other species showed some common epitopes of ASA110 and ASA25 present in A. porrum, A. ascalonicum, Narcissus alba, PHA and Con A but not in A. cepa. ASA110 with CHO cells indicated it to be weakly cytotoxic with LD50 of 160 microg/ml.

  12. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  13. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Multifunctional Glycerol Polyhydroxyurethanes PHUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Nohra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol carbonate acrylate is a 5-membered cyclic carbonate synthesized from glycerol that is used as a chemical coupling agent and has proven highly suitable for use in the synthesis of multifunctional polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs. The multifunctionality of the structure of PHUs is determined by the density of the carbon-amine groups generated by the Aza-Michael reaction and that of the urethane groups and adjacent primary and secondary hydroxyl groups generated by aminolysis. Glycerol carbonate acrylate is polymerized with polyfunctional mono-, di-, tri, and tetra-amines, by type-AB polyaddition, either in bulk or in solution, through stepwise or one-pot reaction strategies in the absence of added catalysts. These approaches result in the generation of linear, interchain, and crosslinked structures, through the polyaddition of linear and branched amines to the ethylene and cyclic carbonate sites of glycerol carbonate acrylate. The resulting collection of organic molecules gives rise to polyethylene amino ester PHUs with a high molar mass, exceeding 20,000 g·mol−1, with uniform dispersity.

  14. Endurance of high molecular weight carboxymethyl cellulose in corrosive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murodov, M. M.; Rahmanberdiev, G. R.; Khalikov, M. M.; Egamberdiev, E. A.; Negmatova, K. C.; Saidov, M. M.; Mahmudova, N.

    2012-07-01

    Lignin obtained from the waste cooking liquor, formed after soda pulping process, is used as an inhibitor of NaCMC thermo oxidative degradation in presence of in extreme conditions during drilling oil wells. In this paper the schematic process of obtaining NaCMC by the principle of "monoapparat" on the basis of cellulose produced by non-wood cellulose materials is presented.

  15. Rapid isolation of high molecular weight DNA from single dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANAND

    For studying genetic diversity in populations of predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Mulsant (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera), our attempts to isolate high quality DNA from individual adult beetle using several previously reported protocols and even modifications were quite unsuccessful as the insect size was small ...

  16. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Fluoroalkylarylene-siloxanylene (FASIL) Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    diol as demonstrated by the following procedure: The pot residue of an aborted distillation of the diol, weighing 80.9 g (0.207 mole based on the diolý...4. -4 (ci LOlIWN~ 21q CC 𔃺~_ 0 zc:-4 00 -4 0 UCl 00 -u 0 4-42 C)) + C) 0 i0 Co10 q C - t%) DNVLUIWSNVZI1 22 COc oI IC IC _l i H "l11 i~ il f~l1 1

  17. Research Article Allelic Variation of High Molecular Weight Glutenin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sky123.Org

    *For correspondence. E-mail: zhenxiangao@163.com. ... In total, 151 winter wheat varieties (table 1 in electronic supplementary material) suitable for sowing in the south of Hebei Province ..... Payne P. I., Nightingale M. A., Krattiger A. F. and Holt L. M. 1987 The relationship between HMW glutenin subunit composition and ...

  18. Modulatory effect of high molecular weight polyethylene glycols on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    matrix granules and tablet were prepared by melt granulation using different concentrations of carnauba wax and PEG at different ratios. ... PEG combination of equal amounts produced the highest release of 91 % in the formulation prepared with 12.20 %w/w of carnauba ..... properties of aspirin tablets produced by melt.

  19. Leptin to adiponectin ratio in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess leptin/adiponectin ratio in preeclamptic patients compared with normal pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was designed. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total leptin and adiponectin were assessed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The one-way ANOVA and Student's t tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical calculations. Levels of leptin and adiponectin were also adjusted for BMI. A p-value preeclamsia and imbalance between the adipocytokines could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  20. Effect of Extended-Release Niacin/Laropiprant Combination on Plasma Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Patients with Dyslipidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examined whether the increase of adiponectin associated with extended-release (ER niacin/laropiprant combination attenuates the adverse effect of niacin on glucose and insulin resistance in Hong Kong Chinese patients with dyslipidaemia. Methods. Patients (N=121 were treated with ER niacin/laropiprant 1 g/20 mg for 4 weeks and then the dose was doubled for an additional 8 weeks. Measurements of fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were performed at baseline and during the study. Results. There were significant (P<0.001 increases in glucose (9.4 ± 13.1%, insulin (70.2 ± 91.0%, HOMA-IR (87.8 ± 103.9%, and adiponectin (169.3 ± 111.6%. The increase in adiponectin was significantly associated with increase in glucose (r=0.221, P<0.05, insulin (r=0.184, P<0.05, and HOMA-IR (r=0.237, P<0.01 and the association remained significant after adjustment for changes in body weight or body fat mass. Conclusion. Treatment with ER niacin/laropiprant led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels but worsening of glucose levels and insulin resistance, and the increase in adiponectin and insulin resistance were correlated suggesting the increase in adiponectin did not ameliorate the deterioration in insulin resistance. Clinical trial is registered with number on WHO-ICTRP: ChiCTR-ONC-10001038.

  1. The Effect of Vitamin D Treatment on Serum Adiponectin Levels in Children with Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döneray, Hakan; Keskin, Halil

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts and may have important functions in normal bone cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin D therapy on serum adiponectin levels in children with vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR). Methods: 21 patients with VDDR were included in the study. Patients were treated with 300,000 U D3 (IM) and calcium lactate (50mg/kg/ day, PO, for 10 days). Anthropometric parameters and serum biochemical markers including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), intact parathormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and adiponectin levels were measured before and after one month of therapy. Results: Weight and length, but not BMI, increased significantly after treatment. Serum 25(OH)D level increased significantly after treatment, while serum adiponectin level decreased (4.21±1.84 vs 52.73±17.63 ng/ml, p<0.000; 150.1±66.14 vs 84.29±9.06 mg/ml, p<0.000, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum adiponectin and 25(OH)D levels before and after treatment or between delta adiponectin concentrations and delta 25(OH)D levels. Conclusion: Serum adiponectin levels are increased in patients with VDDR, a finding which is probably related to increased osteoblastic activity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274306

  2. Adiponectin: a versatile player of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Meilian

    2016-04-01

    Adiponectin acts as a key regulator of the innate immune system and plays a major role in the progression of inflammation and metabolic disorders. Macrophages and monocytes are representative components of the innate immune system, and their proliferation, plasticity, and polarization are a key component of metabolic adaption. Innate-like lymphocytes such as group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), natural killer T (NKT) cells, and gamma delta T (γδ T) cells are also members of the innate immune system and play important roles in the development of obesity and its related diseases. Adiponectin senses metabolic stress and modulates metabolic adaption by targeting the innate immune system under physiological and pathological conditions. Defining the mechanisms underlying the role of adiponectin in regulating innate immunity is crucial to adiponectin-based therapeutic intervention. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary fish oil did not prevent sleep deprived rats from a reduction in adipose tissue adiponectin gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Monica

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sleep deprivation in humans has been related to weight gain and consequently, increased risk for insulin resistance. In contrast, there is a significant loss of weight in sleep deprived rats suggesting a state of insulin resistance without obesity interference. Thus, we aimed to assess the effects of a rich fish oil dietetic intervention on glucose tolerance, serum insulin and adiponectin, and adipose tissue gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α of paradoxically sleep deprived (PSD rats. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed with control diet (soybean oil as source of fat and rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. After 45 days of treatment, the animals were submitted to PSD or maintained as home cage control group for 96 h. Body weight and food intake were carefully monitored in all groups. At the end of PSD period, a glucose tolerance test was performed and the total blood and adipose tissues were collected. Serum insulin and adiponectin were analyzed. Adipose tissues were used for RT-PCR to estimate the gene expression of adiponectin and TNF-α. Results showed that although fish oil diet did not exert any effect upon these measurements, PSD induced a reduction in adiponectin gene expression of retroperitoneal adipose tissues, with no change in serum adiponectin concentration or in adiponectin and TNF-α gene expression of epididymal adipose tissue. Thus, the stress induced by sleep deprivation lead to a desbalance of adiponectin gene expression.

  4. The association of two polymorphisms in adiponectin-encoding gene with hypertension risk and the changes of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianmin; Xu, Guoyan; Cai, Wenqin; Huang, Yun; Xie, Ningyu; Shen, Yihua; Xie, Liangdi

    2017-02-28

    This meta-analysis was prepared to synthesize published data on the association of two polymorphisms (T45G and G276T) in adiponectin-encoding gene (ADIPOQ) with hypertension risk and the changes of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure. Methodology and Major Findings: Data were collected and corrected by two authors, and were managed with Stata software. In total, 12 articles were synthesized, including 12 studies (3358 cases and 5121 controls) for the association of two study polymorphisms with hypertension risk and 11 studies (3053 subjects) for the between-genotype changes of adiponectin and/or blood pressure. Based on all qualified studies, the risk prediction for hypertension was nonsignificant for both polymorphisms, with significant heterogeneity for G276T polymorphism (I2 = 53.8%). Overall changes in adiponectin and blood pressure were also nonsignificant for T45G, while contrastingly 276GT genotype was associated with significantly higher levels of adiponectin (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.72 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04 to 1.41, P = 0.038), systolic (WMD = 5.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.98 to 9.32, P = 0.016) and diastolic (WMD = 3.45 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.37 to 6.53, P = 0.028) blood pressure with evident heterogeneity (I2 = 72.0%, 78.3% and 80.0%, respectively), and these associations were more obvious in hypertensive patients. Publication bias was a low probability event for overall comparisons. Our findings suggested that in spite of the nonsignificant association between ADIPOQ T45G or G276T polymorphism and hypertension, the heterozygous mutation of G276T was observed to account for increased levels of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients.

  5. Circulating levels of adiponectin and extent of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Souza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin (APN, an adipose tissue-released adipokine with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, is encoded by a gene whose polymorphisms are associated with presence of coronary artery disease (CAD. Serum APN levels are inversely related with presence and complexity of CAD. Within this context, we sought to compare levels of total APN and its high molecular weight form (HMW APN according to clinical presentation and extent of CAD in patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. From March 2008 to June 2010, clinical data and blood samples for APN and HMW APN measurements were collected from 415 subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization at two tertiary centers. CAD extent was estimated by the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis (≥70% obstruction in a major coronary artery and by Duke Jeopardy Score (DJS. Serum APN levels were similar between groups with stable or unstable CAD (APN 9.20±5.88 vs 9.47±6.23 μg/mL, P=0.738, and HMW APN 5.31±3.72 vs 5.91±4.16 μg/mL, P=0.255, even after stratification by the number of arteries involved (single-vessel vs multivessel disease: APN 9.39±5.76 vs 9.26±6.27 μg/mL, P=0.871; HMW APN 5.29±3.79 vs 5.83±4.04 μg/mL, P=0.306 and DJS score (APN, P=0.718; HMW APN, P=0.276. We conclude that APN and HMW APN serum levels are similar across clinical presentations and different extents of CAD, despite being significantly lower in the presence of obstructive CAD.

  6. Association between Risk Factors for Vascular Dementia and Adiponectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia. PMID:24860814

  7. Effects of yoga exercise on serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-03-01

    Regular and continuous yoga exercise is one of the most important nonpharmacological methods of improving serum lipid concentrations, adipose tissue, and metabolic syndrome factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of yoga exercise on serum adiponectin and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Sixteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 54.50 ± 2.75 years with more than 36% body fat were randomly assigned to either a yoga exercise group (n = 8) or to a "no exercise" control group (n = 8). The variables of body composition, visceral fat, serum adiponectin, and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in all the participants before and after the 16-week study. Body weight, percentage of body fat, lean body mass, body mass index, waist circumference, and visceral fat area had significantly decreased. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin had significantly increased, but total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance had significantly decreased. Serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly correlated with waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance in the postyoga exercise group. Our findings indicate that yoga exercise improves adiponectin level, serum lipids, and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese postmenopausal women. Consequently, yoga exercise will be effective in preventing cardiovascular disease caused by obesity in obese postmenopausal Korean women.

  8. Adiponectin, leptin, and lipid profile in type 1 diabetic children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Awatif M; El Hefnawy, Mohammed H; Abdel-Ghaffar, Abdel-Rahman B; Eskander, Emad F; Ahmed, Hanaa H; Seoudi, Dina M; Yahya, Shaymaa M M; Kamal, Ibrahim H

    2009-08-01

    Adipose tissue is known to produce and secrete a variety of bioactive substances known as adipocytokines. Adiponectin and leptin are considered to be among the most important adipocytokines: We sought to explore the relationships between adipocytokines (adiponectin and leptin), plasma lipoprotein lipid, and diabetic control indices in type 1 diabetic subjects. In this study 63 clinically diagnosed type 1 diabetic subjects and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were analyzed. Age, sex, diabetic duration, family history of diabetes, daily insulin dose, weight, height, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin A(1c), total hemoglobin, plasma lipoprotein, lipid and plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were measured in type 1 diabetic subjects and control subjects. In this study a significant increase in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma of type 1 diabetics was found as compared with normal control subjects. In type 1diabetic subjects, plasma adiponectin was significantly elevated, whereas leptin showed a significant decrease as compared to a normal control group. Leptin concentrations showed a positive correlation with body mass index and systolic blood pressure but a negative correlation with both fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobinA(1c). The results of this study suggest that blood leptin but not adiponectin concentrations have a significant correlation with indices of glycemic control.

  9. Association between abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokines and metabolic alterations in obese low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, C; Klünder Klünder, M; Huang, F; Flores Armas, E M; Velázquez-López, L; Medina-Bravo, P

    2016-08-01

    In addition to obesity, low birth weight (LBW) has been proposed as another independent risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of birth weight on abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokine levels and associated metabolic alterations in obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 children. Children were divided into three groups according to their body mass index and birth weight. Glucose and insulin (0 and 120 min), lipid profile and adipocytokines were measured. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obese LBW children had higher fasting glucose (P = 0.054) and insulin (P Obesity and LBW were associated with lower concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (-2.38 [IC 95% -4.27; -0.42, P = 0.018]) and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (28.05 [IC 95% 0.40; 55.7, P = 0.047]) compared with NBW obese children, independent of age or sex. LBW in obese children is associated with lower HMW adiponectin, increased insulin resistance and greater SAT. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Adiponectin and its response to thiazolidinediones are associated with insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients and their first-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulstrøm, V; Højlund, K; Vinten, J

    2008-01-01

    -oxidative glucose disposal (NOGD), glucose storage and SI in both groups after adjustment for sex and body fat. The troglitazone-mediated upregulation of plasma adiponectin was associated with increased insulin-stimulated Rd, NOGD and glucose storage in both groups. No effect on endogenous glucose production...... was observed. In FDR, plasma adiponectin correlated with insulin-stimulated glycogen synthase activity and the troglitazone-induced increase in plasma adiponectin correlated with the improvement in insulin-stimulated Rd and SI after adjustment for sex and body fat. In conclusion, plasma adiponectin in weight......Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their first-degree relatives (FDRs) are characterized by hypoadiponectinaema and insulin resistance. In T2D patients, plasma adiponectin and insulin sensitivity (SI) increase in response to thiazolidinediones (TZDs). These findings suggest a role...

  11. Myocardial mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in mice lacking adiponectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Braun

    Full Text Available Adiponectin deficiency leads to increased myocardial infarct size following ischemia reperfusion and to exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy following pressure overload, entities that are causally linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. In skeletal muscle, lack of adiponectin results in impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, it was our objective to investigate whether adiponectin deficiency impairs mitochondrial energetics in the heart. At 8 weeks of age, heart weight-to-body weight ratios were not different between adiponectin knockout (ADQ-/- mice and wildtypes (WT. In isolated working hearts, cardiac output, aortic developed pressure and cardiac power were preserved in ADQ-/- mice. Rates of fatty acid oxidation, glucose oxidation and glycolysis were unchanged between groups. While myocardial oxygen consumption was slightly reduced (-24% in ADQ-/- mice in isolated working hearts, rates of maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in saponin-permeabilized cardiac fibers were preserved in ADQ-/- mice with glutamate, pyruvate or palmitoyl-carnitine as a substrate. In addition, enzymatic activity of respiratory complexes I and II was unchanged between groups. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 activity were not decreased, expression and acetylation of PGC-1α were unchanged, and mitochondrial content of OXPHOS subunits was not decreased in ADQ-/- mice. Finally, increasing energy demands due to prolonged subcutaneous infusion of isoproterenol did not differentially affect cardiac contractility or mitochondrial function in ADQ-/- mice compared to WT. Thus, mitochondrial and contractile function are preserved in hearts of mice lacking adiponectin, suggesting that adiponectin may be expendable in the regulation of mitochondrial energetics and contractile function in the heart under non-pathological conditions.

  12. A common variant in the CLDN7/ELP5 locus predicts adiponectin change with lifestyle intervention and improved fitness in obese individuals with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Papandonatos, George D; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Peter, Inga; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Erar, Bahar; Allred, Nicholette D; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bowden, Donald W; Brautbar, Ariel; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M; Huggins, Gordon S

    2015-06-01

    Overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes have low adiponectin levels, which may improve with lifestyle changes. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with adiponectin levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) would also be related with adiponectin changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), potentially through mechanisms altering the adipose microenvironment via weight loss and/or improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Look AHEAD was a randomized trial comparing the cardiovascular benefits of ILI-induced weight loss and physical activity compared with diabetes support and education among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. In a subsample of Look AHEAD with adiponectin data and genetic consent (n=1,351), we evaluated the effects of 24 genetic variants, demonstrated by GWAS to be cross-sectionally associated with adiponectin, on adiponectin change 1-yr postintervention. We explored via mediational analyses whether any differential effects by treatment arm were occurring through weight loss and/or improved fitness. A variant, rs222857, in the CLDN7 locus, potentially associated with epithelial barrier integrity and tight junction physiology, and a putative cis expression quantitative trail locus for elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 (ELP5), predicted adiponectin increases within ILI (log-adiponectin in overall sample per copy: β±SE=0.05±0.02, P=0.008; in non-Hispanic whites: 0.06±0.02, P=0.009). The favorable effects of rs222857 (minor allele frequency 45.5%) appeared to be mediated by mechanisms associated with improved fitness, and not weight loss. This is the first study to identify a genetic variant that modifies adiponectin response to lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Leptin and adiponectin levels in discordant dichorionic twins at 72 hours of age-associations with anthropometric parameters and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Svetlana J; Mirković, Ljiljana B; Jovandarić, Miljana Z; Milenković, Dušan M; Banković, Violeta V; Janković, Borisav Z

    2017-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) in adults has been associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Leptin and adiponectin correlations with anthropometric parameters and IR at 72 h in discordant twins were tested. We included 24 discordant (birth weight discordance ≥20% in relation to the heavier cotwin) and 30 concordant (birth weight discordance ≤10%) twins. A correlation between leptin (but not adiponectin) level and birth weight (BW), birth length and head circumference in IUGR twins was recorded (ptwins were similar to appropriate-for-gestational-age cotwins and unrelated to adipokines. In IUGR twins, adiponectin and insulin associated positively. In larger concordant twins' leptin level correlated with HOMA-IR and insulin. Leptin, but not adiponectin, levels correlate positively with anthropometric parameters in IUGR twins. IR in IUGR twins is unrelated to adipokines in the first few days of life.

  14. Adiponectin, biomarkers of inflammation and changes in cardiac autonomic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Stevns; Vistisen, Dorte; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of inflammation and adiponectin are associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data are scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and adiponectin with subsequent...

  15. Correlation between atherogenic risk and adiponectin in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a pregnancy complication which increases the risk for maternal and foetal complications during pregnancy, and also significantly increases the cardiovascular risk for women’s health in the postpartum. Current literature provides contradictory information on the role of adiponectin (AdipoQ in the course of GDM. The aim of the study was to measure AdipoQ concentration in blood of women with GDM and to find correlations between this adipokine and clinical and biochemical parameters of the atherogenic risk. Material and methods. The GDM group included 50 women diagnosed with GDM between 24 – 28 weeks of gestation who underwent routine prenatal tests for GDM in compliance with the guidelines of the Polish Diabetes Association. All patients underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation at GDM diagnosis. Laboratory tests included serum AdipoQ concentration, fasting glucose and insulin, OGTT, lipid parameters, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen in serum. Results. The GDM group showed significantly elevated fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR values, total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol and triglicerydes as compared with the control group (p<0.05. The atherogenic index, CRP, fibrinogen in women with GDM were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.05. AdipoQ concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups during gestation (p=0.7054. No correlations, except with the neonatal weight (r= – 0.29, p<0.05, were found between AdipoQ and the studied parameters. Conclusions. Based on the conducted studies, it may be conclude that women with early diagnosed and promptly treated GDM have a normal adiponectin level, although insulin resistant changes and increased cardiovascular risk in basic metabolic parameters are observed. Moreover, adiponectin does not reflect the atherogenic risk in pregnant women with GDM.

  16. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Adiponectin in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Li-Da Chen

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA has been suggested to be associated with low levels of adiponectin. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the gold standard treatment for OSA; however, previous studies assessing the effect of CPAP on adiponectin in patients with OSA yielded conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was performed to determine whether CPAP therapy could increase adiponectin levels.Two reviewers independently searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science before February 2015. Information on characteristics of subjects, study design and pre- and post-CPAP treatment of serum adiponectin was extracted for analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD was used to analyze the summary estimates for CPAP therapy.Eleven studies involving 240 patients were included in this meta-analysis, including ten observational studies and one randomized controlled study. The meta-analysis showed that there was no change of adiponectin levels before and after CPAP treatment in OSA patients (SMD = 0.059, 95% confidence interval (CI = -0.250 to 0.368, z = 0.37, p = 0.710. Subgroup analyses indicated that the results were not affected by age, baseline body mass index, severity of OSA, CPAP therapy duration, sample size and racial differences.This meta-analysis suggested that CPAP therapy has no impact on adiponectin in OSA patients, without significant changes in body weight. Further large-scale, well-designed long-term interventional investigations are needed to clarify this issue.

  17. Adiponectin and Leptin Synovial Fluid Concentration as a Marker for the Severity of Knee Osteoarthritis in Obese Patients

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    Eddy Mart Salim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic degenerative joint disorder of the synovial joint characterized by loss of articular cartilage, osteophyte formation, and alterations of subchondral bone. An increase of weight bearing affect on knee joint biomechanically and alter concentration of adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin. Herein we reported a correlation between adiponectin and leptin synovial fluid concentration with the severity of knee OA in obese patients. Material and Methods: Totally 45 patients were included in this research. ELISA was used to determine adiponectin and leptin concentrations of synovial fluid. The severity of knee OA was classified by Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS for windows. Results: Based on the leptin measurement, it was shown that leptin concentrations were correlated positively with the severity of knee OA. Vice versa, adiponectin concentrations were correlated negative. Conclusion: Our study was support the biomarker function of adiponectin and leptin concentration on synovial fluids, in which those concentrations were related with the severity of OA. Those results also suggested the function of leptin and adiponectin on OA. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 746-756

  18. Role of Serum Adiponectin and Vitamin D in Prediabetes and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Roy, Debashree; Poddar, Jit; Roy, Tapan Kumar Sinha; Karnam, Srikanth Arliganur

    2017-06-01

    The roles of deficient or deranged insulin, adiponectin and 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels regulating food intake, energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism and body weight have been reported in the pathogenesis of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, their congruity in the etiology of diabetes mellitus is unknown. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the roles of these parameters together and to establish their interrelationship in patients with prediabetes and diabetes. The preliminary cross-sectional study included 77 persons with type 2 diabetes who were matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI); 73 persons with prediabetes; and 52 healthy control subjects. Fasting serum levels of adiponectin, insulin and 25(OH)D were measured by commercially available immune assay kits, and routine biochemical parameters were analyzed in all study groups. The results show statistically significant lower levels of serum adiponectin and serum 25(OH)D and higher serum insulin levels in persons with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes with respect to controls. The changes in the serum adiponectin or serum 25(OH)D in persons with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes were found to be inversely correlated with the serum levels of insulin. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis, with 25(OH)D, insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as the variables, revealed that serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for the progression of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in subjects. The association of these hormones might act as a significant predictor of progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes. Decreased serum adiponectin levels might be an independent risk factor for progression to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, which may help in developing experimental models of the disease or in identifying biomarkers or disease-modifying drugs. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Obesity Paradox - The Controversial Role of Body Mass Index and Plasma Adiponectin in Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Feng; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2013-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is an anthropometric index used to evaluate a person's weight. In the general population, higher BMI is associated with more adverse outcomes as well as cardiovascular risk factors. The current clinical guidelines suggest weight control within desirable BMI as 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2). In the event of coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome, the impact of BMI on clinical outcomes still remains controversial. Some studies have demonstrated that overweight and obese patients had better prognosis than normal weight patients. Adiponectin, a secretory protein produced by adipocytes and inversely proportional to BMI, is a possible mediator for the so-called "obesity paradox", a term for the obese-protective phenomenon. Lower plasma adiponectin is associated with the progression of coronary artery disease. However, in the presence of acute coronary syndrome, patients with higher plasma adiponectin could be associated with adverse outcomes. Further studies including serial change of plasma adiponectin, or the use of other methods to discriminate lean and fat body mass are necessary to investigate this seemingly contradictory topic. Adiponectin; Body mass index; Obesity paradox.

  20. Adiponectin and leptin trajectories in Mexican-American children from birth to 9 years of age.

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    Vitaly Volberg

    Full Text Available To address molecular mechanisms underlying obesity development, we examined patterns of critical metabolism-related hormones, adiponectin and leptin (adipokines, over childhood.Plasma adiponectin and leptin were measured in 80 Mexican-American children at birth and again at 2, 5, and 9 years from the ongoing prospective cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS. We used a mixture modeling approach to identify patterns in adipokine trajectories from birth to 9 years.Leptin was positively related to child body size within all ages, however adiponectin had inverse and weaker associations with BMI at 2, 5, and 9 years. Correlations between adipokine levels over the 0-2, 2-5, and 5-9-year periods increased for both leptin (r = 0.06, 0.31 and 0.62 and adiponectin (r = 0.25, 0.41 and 0.46. Our mixture modeling approach identified three trajectory clusters for both leptin (1L [slowly-rising], 2L [rapidly-rising], and 3L [stable] and adiponectin (1A [steep-dropping and rebounding], 2A [moderately-dropping], and 3A [stable]. While leptin groups were most separated over the 2-9-year period, adiponectin trajectories displayed greatest heterogeneity from birth to 2 years. Children in the rapidly-rising 2L group had highest BMI and waist circumference at 9 years. Further, children with greater birth weight had increased odds of belonging to this high risk group (OR = 1.21 95% CI 1.03, 1.43, compared to stable group 3L. Children whose mothers consumed more sugar-sweetened beverages during pregnancy were at risk of being in the steep-dropping 1A group (OR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01, 1.17, compared to stable group 3A.Our results highlight developmental differences in leptin and adiponectin over the childhood period. Leptin closely reflects child body size however factors affecting adiponectin and long-term consequences of its changes over infancy need to be further explored.

  1. Evaluation of metabolic risk markers in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin and body composition in hirsute PCOS patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne; Hagen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients are abdominally obese and are at increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Low adiponectin and ghrelin levels in PCOS patients could be caused by insulin resistance as well as high testosterone levels. DESIGN: Adiponectin and ghrelin......: Obese hirsute PCOS patients demonstrated significantly lower adiponectin levels than weight-matched controls suggesting a very high risk for the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, ghrelin levels were decreased in hirsute PCOS patients and showed a significant, negative correlation with testosterone...... levels were evaluated in 51 hirsute PCOS patients referred to the outpatient clinic of an academic, tertiary care medical centre and in 63 weight-matched female controls. Relationships between adiponectin, ghrelin, leptin, body composition, testosterone and insulin were examined. METHODS: Measurements...

  2. Adiponectin: A Differential Marker Between Steatosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This new hormone differ from its predecssors in important feature, production and concentration acutully decrease in obesity, and all adipose-derived hormone are increased. It is possible that adiponectin expression is activated during adipogenesis, a feed back inhibition on its production may occur during the development ...

  3. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new...

  4. The Effects of Combined Adiponectin-Metformin on Glucose and Lipids Levels in Mice and Acute Toxicity and Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity of Adiponectin Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alshawsh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is a protein hormone secreted entirely by abdominal fat tissue. It exhibits various biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of metformin alone or in combination with adiponectin on blood glucose, TG (triglyceride, CHOL (Total cholesterol, LDL (Low density lipoprotein and HDL (High density lipoprotein levels in mice and also to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of adiponectin against ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Three groups of mice were gavaged with 1% volume/body weight high fat-sucrose. Metformin at a dosage of 250 mg/kg was added to the feed and a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg adiponectin was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. Blood glucose was measured at one hour intervals for five hours. Blood concentrations of TG, CHOL, LDL and HDL were also measured at the end of the fifth hour of the experiment. On the other hand, four groups of adult healthy rats were i.p. injected with distilled water, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg adiponectin one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour the rats were sacrificed and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls were determined. Furthermore, an acute toxicity study has indicated no mortality with 5 mg/kg dose of adiponectin injected i.p in rats and no major clinical signs of toxicity were observed. The results indicate that the effect of a combination of metformin and adiponectin on blood glucose and HDL is quite effective. Histology of the gastric wall of negative control rats revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either omeprazole or adiponectin extract where there was marked gastric protection along with reduction or inhibition of edema and leucocytes infiltration. The results suggest that combination of metfomin and adiponectin give a promising antidiabetic

  5. Adiponectin and leptin as first trimester markers for gestational diabetes mellitus: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Holm, Jens-Christian; Lange, Theis; Larsen, Torben; Christiansen, Michael

    2017-10-26

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing partly due to the obesity epidemic. Adipocytokines have thus been suggested as first trimester screening markers for GDM. In this study we explore the associations between body mass index (BMI) and serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and the adiponectin/leptin ratio. Furthermore, we investigate whether these markers can improve the ability to screen for GDM in the first trimester. A cohort study in which serum adiponectin and leptin were measured between gestational weeks 6+0 and 14+0 in 2590 pregnant women, categorized into normal weight, moderately obese, or severely obese. Lower concentrations of adiponectin were associated with GDM in all BMI groups; the association was more pronounced in BMILeptin was inversely associated with GDM in severely obese (p=0.033), but showed no association in women with BMIleptin ratio was associated with GDM in women with BMIleptin, and adiponcetin/leptin ratio had the strongest associations in women with BMILeptin had an inverse relationship with GDM in severely obese women and did not improve the ability to predict GDM.

  6. Adiponectin in eutrophic and obese children as a biomarker to predict metabolic syndrome and each of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klünder-Klünder, Miguel; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Cruz, Miguel

    2013-01-30

    Obesity is associated with the rise of noncommunicable diseases worldwide. The pathophysiology behind this disease involves the increase of adipose tissue, being inversely related to adiponectin, but directly related to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between adiponectin levels with each component of MetS in eutrophic and obese Mexican children. A cross sectional study was conducted in 190 school-age children classified as obese and 196 classified as eutrophic. Adiponectin, glucose, insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides were determined from a fasting blood sample. Height, weight, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) were measured; MetS was evaluated with the IDF definition. The study groups were divided according to tertiles of adiponectin, using the higher concentration as a reference. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between adiponectin and components of the MetS. Finally, stepwise forward multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, basal HOMA-IR values and BMI was performed to determine the odds ratio of developing MetS according to adiponectin tertiles. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were statistically different between eutrophic and obese children with and without MetS (P obese populations was 13%. Adiponectin concentrations were 15.5 ± 6.1, 12.0 ± 4.8, 12.4 ± 4.9 and 9.4 ± 2.8 μg/mL for eutrophic and obese subjects, obese without MetS, and obese with MetS, respectively (P Obese children with low values of adiponectin exhibited a higher frequency of MetS components: abdominal obesity, 49%; high systolic BP, 3%; high diastolic BP, 2%; impaired fasting glucose, 17%; hypertriglyceridemia, 31%; and low HDL-C values, 42%. Adjusted odds ratio of presenting MetS according to adiponectin categories was 10.9 (95% CI 2.05; 48.16) when the first tertile

  7. Response of human rheumatoid arthritis osteoblasts and osteoclasts to adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbholz, Grit; Junker, Susann; Meier, Florian M P; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Rehart, Stefan; Lange, Uwe; Frommer, Klaus W; Schett, Georg; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an effector molecule in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, e.g. by inducing cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes in synovial fibroblasts. There is growing evidence that adiponectin affects osteoblasts and osteoclasts although the contribution to the aberrant bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis is unclear. Therefore, the adiponectin effects on rheumatoid arthritis-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts were evaluated. Adiponectin and its receptors were examined in bone tissue. Primary human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were stimulated with adiponectin and analysed using realtime polymerase chain-reaction and immunoassays. Effects on matrix-production by osteoblasts and differentiation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts were examined. Immunohistochemistry of rheumatoid arthritis bone tissue showed adiponectin expression in key cells of bone remodelling. Adiponectin altered gene expression and cytokine release in osteoblasts and increased IL-8 secretion by osteoclasts. Adiponectin inhibited osterix and induced osteoprotegerin mRNA in osteoblasts. In osteoclasts, MMP-9 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase expression was increased. Accordingly, mineralisation capacity of osteoblasts decreased whereas resorptive activity of osteoclasts increased. The results confirm the proinflammatory potential of adiponectin and support the idea that adiponectin influences rheumatoid arthritis bone remodelling through alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast.

  8. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  9. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA is associated with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standl, M; Demmelmair, H; Koletzko, B; Heinrich, J

    2015-05-01

    An elevated ratio of n-6 to n-3 long-chain (LC-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be a potential risk factor for obesity development. N-3 LC-PUFA are thought to alter adiponectin concentrations, and thus may have a beneficial effect on weight development. We analysed the association between n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations in cord blood and adiponectin concentrations at 10 years. Fatty acid composition was measured in cord blood and at 10 years of age by gas chromatography, and adiponectin concentrations were measured only at 10 years of age in 237 children from the Munich LISAplus birth cohort study. Linear regression models assessed associations between n-3 LC-PUFA, n-6 LC-PUFA and the n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood with adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. LC-PUFA were presented as percentages and categorized into tertiles. Regression models were adjusted for LC-PUFA percentages at 10 years of age and other potential confounding factors. Cord blood n-3 LC-PUFA tertiles were significantly associated with adiponectin concentrations in an inverse J-shaped relationship [2nd tertile versus 1st tertile: Beta=1.84 (SE=0.65), and 3rd tertile versus 1st tertile: 1.02 (0.68), p-valueLC-PUFA tertiles were not associated with adiponectin concentrations. Our results suggest that a higher n-3 LC-PUFA concentrations and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio in cord blood are associated with higher adiponectin concentrations at 10 years of age. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of strength training on serum levels of adiponectin, testosterone, and cortisol in sedentary lean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatah Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Performing a period of strength training can improve body weight, body mass index, and cardio respiratory function of sedentary lean men, while it results in no significant change in body fat percent. Also, since testosterone has anti-diabetic role, strength training can be useful through increasing testosterone levels in sedentary lean men. It doesn’t appear that twelve weeks strength training has effect on circulating levels of adiponectin and cortisol in sedentary lean men.

  11. Longitudinal Associations of Leptin and Adiponectin with Heart Rate Variability in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Van De Wielle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For early prevention of cardiovascular disease, early detection and risk factor insights are necessary. The autonomic balance reflects cardiovascular risk and can be measured by heart rate variability (HRV. Therefore, our purpose is to examine associations between HRV and the energy-related biomarkers leptin and adiponectin in children. Participants of this study were Belgian children recruited for the longitudinal ChiBS study (year 2010–2012. HRV was measured and fasting blood samples were taken in 249 children at baseline (4.4–11.0 y and 223 children at follow-up (6.7–12.2 y. Cross-sectional and longitudinal linear regression analyses were separated by sex and adjusted for age, socio-economic status, body fat%, negative emotions, puberty, and mean heart rate. Leptin was a negative cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of parasympathetic activity in boys; while leptin in girls was cross-sectionally associated with higher LF and LF/HF suggesting sympathetic predominance. Adiponectin was a negative cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of parasympathetic activity in boys; but when adjusting for mean heart rate, this effect disappeared and adiponectin was a positive cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of parasympathetic activity in girls. These results stress the importance of considering sex differences and adjustment for heart rate in testing HRV predictors. Leptin seemed disadvantageous for the autonomic balance, while adiponectin seemed advantageous for the autonomic balance in girls only. More research is needed to see whether leptin and adiponectin are interesting in cardiovascular screening/prevention or in determining the cardiovascular gain during weight loss follow-up.

  12. Modulation of skeletal muscle performance and SERCA by exercise and adiponectin gene therapy in insulin-resistant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Yasmeen; Yassin, Nadia; Gamal El Din, Maha; Kassem, Lobna

    2013-07-01

    This study addresses the potential application of adiponectin gene therapy and exercise in protection against skeletal muscle dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) while focusing on the role of sarco and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(+2) ATPase (SERCA) and Glut4. 50 rats were divided into five groups: control, T2DM, T2DM treated with either adiponectin gene or exercise or a combination of both. Serum glucose, insulin, HOMA index, triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured. Weight gain%, muscle contractile parameters {(peak twitch tension (Pt), peak tetanic tension (PTT), half relaxation time (HRT)}, and gene expression of SERCA, Glut4, and adiponectin were assessed in gastrocnemius muscle. Diabetic rats treated with either adiponectin gene or exercise showed significant reduction in all serum parameters and wt gain%. There was significant elevation in Pt and PTT with shortening in HRT. Furthermore, a significant increase in SERCA, Glut4, and adiponectin gene expression was noticed in both groups. Combination therapy caused marked gene expression of SERCA, GLUT4, and greater improvement in muscle contractility than either of the monotherapies. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in T2DM is mediated via impaired SERCA and Glut 4. Combination therapy offered best protection against muscle dysfunction and provides a novel promising strategy for a complete cure of muscle dysfunction in T2DM.

  13. Chemerin and adiponectin contribute reciprocally to metabolic syndrome.

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    Sang Hui Chu

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are considered chronic inflammatory states. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, may play an important role in linking MetS and inflammation. We investigated the association of chemerin with inflammatory markers and with characteristics of MetS in apparently healthy overweight and obese adults. We studied 92 adults; 59 men and 33 women whose average body mass index (BMI was 28.15 ± 5.08 kg/m(2. Anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance indices, lipid profiles, and inflammatory markers including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, pentraxin 3 (PTX3, adiponectin, and chemerin were measured. Controlling for age, gender, and BMI, serum chemerin level was positively correlated with body fat and serum triglyceride, and negatively correlated with adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C, and was not correlated with altered hsCRP or PTX3 levels. Among the low, moderate and high chemerin groups, high chemerin individuals are more likely to have lower HDL-C. Conversely, individuals in the low adiponectin group are more likely to have lower HDL-C and show more MetS phenotypic traits than moderate and high adiponectin subjects. To determine the relationships of chemerin and adiponectin to MetS and its components, participants were stratified into four groups based on their chemerin and adiponectin levels (high chemerin/high adiponectin, high chemerin/low adiponectin, low chemerin/high adiponectin, or low chemerin/low adiponectin. Participants who were in the high chemerin/low adiponectin group more likely to have dyslipidemia and MetS (OR: 5.79, 95% CI:1.00-33.70 compared to the other three group. Our findings suggest that chemerin and adiponectin may reciprocally participate in the development of MetS.

  14. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani, Mehrangiz; Mohammadi, Somayeh; Arefhosseini, Seyed Rafie; Fallah, Parviz; Bazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of the receptor and post-receptor signaling events related to the protective effects of the adiponectin system on vascular compartments, and its potential use as a target for therapeutic intervention in vascular disease.

  15. Enhanced metabolic flexibility associated with elevated adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asterholm, Ingrid Wernstedt; Scherer, Philipp E

    2010-03-01

    Metabolically healthy individuals effectively adapt to changes in nutritional state. Here, we focus on the effects of the adipocyte-derived secretory molecule adiponectin on adipose tissue in mouse models with genetically altered adiponectin levels. We found that higher adiponectin levels increased sensitivity to the lipolytic effects of adrenergic receptor agonists. In parallel, adiponectin-overexpressing mice also display enhanced clearance of circulating fatty acids and increased expansion of subcutaneous adipose tissue with chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding. These adaptive changes to the HFD were associated with increased mitochondrial density in adipocytes, smaller adipocyte size, and a general transcriptional up-regulation of factors involved in lipid storage through efficient esterification of free fatty acids. The physiological response to adiponectin overexpression resembles in many ways the effects of chronic exposure to beta3-adrenergic agonist treatment, which also results in improvements in insulin sensitivity. In addition, using a novel computed tomography-based method for measurements of hepatic lipids, we resolved the temporal events taking place in the liver in response to acute HFD exposure in both wild-type and adiponectin-overexpressing mice. Increased levels of adiponectin potently protect against HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and preserve insulin sensitivity. Given these profound effects of adiponectin, we propose that adiponectin is a factor that increases the metabolic flexibility of adipose tissue, enhancing its ability to maintain proper function under metabolically challenging conditions.

  16. Serum Adiponectin and Leptin Concentrations in Relation to Body Fat Distribution, Hematological Indices and Lipid Profile in Humans

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    Anna Lubkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2. Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF, subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM, lean body mass (LBM, skeletal muscle mass (SMM. In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG. Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01, adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch. LEP negatively correlated with some percentage rates (%LBM, %SMM. Only in women, we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a valuable complementary diagnostic element in the prediction and prevention of cardiovascular diseases need to be continued.

  17. Effect of ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity on plasma adiponectin concentrations among malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Koo Hui; Sathyasurya, Daniel Robert; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B

    2013-01-01

    The Malaysian Health and morbidity Survey (2006) reported the highest prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among the Indian population compared to the Malay and Chinese populations. Many studies have supported the important role of adiponectin in insulin-sensitizing, which is associated with T2DM. These studies have raised a research question whether the variation in prevalence is related to the adiponectin concentrations or the lifestyle factors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the adiponectin concentrations differ between the Malay, Chinese and the Indian populations with T2DM. It is to investigate the association of adiponectin concentrations with ethnicity, dietary intake and physical activity too. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 210 T2DM patients with mean (SD) age of 56.73 (10.23) years were recruited from Penang, Malaysia. Data on demographic background, medical history, anthropometry (weight, height, visceral fat, percentage of body fat and waist circumference), dietary intake (3 days 24 hours diet recall) and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) were obtained accordingly. Plasma adiponectin and routine laboratory tests (fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride) were performed according to standard procedure. After adjustment for physical activity and dietary intakes, the Indian population had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations (P = 0.003) when compared with the Malay and the Chinese populations, The Indian population also had significantly higher value of HbA1c (P = 0.017) and significantly lower HDL (P = 0.013). Plasma adiponectin concentrations was significantly associated with ethnicity (P = 0.011), dietary carbohydrate (P = 0.003) and physical activity total MET score (P = 0.026), after medical history, age, sex, total cholesterol and visceral fat adjusted. However, dietary carbohydrate and physical activity did not show significantly

  18. Expression of adiponectin receptors in mouse adrenal glands and the adrenocortical Y-1 cell line: adiponectin regulates steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Sun, Fei; Cao, Huang-Ming; Ma, Qin-Yun; Pan, Chun-Ming; Ma, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Na; Jiang, He; Song, Huai-Dong; Chen, Ming-Dao

    2009-12-25

    Obesity is frequently associated with malfunctions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hyperaldosteronism, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Since the adrenal glands are embedded in adipose tissue, direct cross-talk between adipose tissue and the adrenal gland has been proposed. A previous study found that adiponectin receptor mRNA was expressed in human adrenal glands and aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). However, the expression of adiponectin receptors in adrenal glands has not been confirmed at the protein level or in other species. Furthermore, it is unclear whether adiponectin receptors expressed in adrenal cells are functional. We found, for the first time, that adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) mRNA and protein were expressed in mouse adrenal and adrenocortical Y-1 cells. However, adiponectin itself was not expressed in mouse adrenal or Y-1 cells. Furthermore, adiponectin acutely reduced basal levels of corticosterone and aldosterone secretion. ACTH-induced steroid secretion was also inhibited by adiponectin, and this was accompanied by a parallel change in the expression of the key genes involved in steroidogenesis. These findings indicate that adiponectin may take part in the modulation of steroidogenesis. Thus, adiponectin is likely to have physiological and/or pathophysiological significance as an endocrine regulator of adrenocortical function.

  19. Adiponectin Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (+276G/T) and Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the genotypes of the studied population. The lowest serum adiponectin value was observed in patients with CAD compared with control group. The T allele of SNP +276 G/T in the adiponectin gene was found ...

  20. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); K. Shafique (Kashif); A.R. Shaikh (Abdul Rauf); N.A. Khan (Naveed Ali); M. Anwar Qureshi (Masood)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However,

  1. Intracerebroventricular injection of adiponectin regulates locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Yumiko; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Ueta, Tomoyo; Taniguchi, Yasuko; Futami, Akari; Sato, Fukiko; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Tsutsumi, Rie; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Sakaue, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing exercise motivation is the best way to prevent obesity and diabetes. In this study, we examined whether adiponectin affects locomotion activity in Wister and Spontaneously-Running Tokushima-Shikoku (SPORTS) rats using two types of behavioral assays: home cage and wheel running activity. SPORTS rats were established from an original line from Wister strain that had shown high level of wheel running activity in our laboratory. Injection of adiponectin into the lateral ventricle of Wister rats and SPORTS rats decreased home cage activity, but no change was observed in the food intake and oxygen consumption. This result indicates the possibility that adiponectin can reduce non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and physical activity via the central nervous system. In contrast, injection of adiponectin did not change wheel running activity in SPORTS rats. We produced hypothalamus-destructed model rat using monosodium glutamate (MSG) to elucidate the regulation site of adiponectin. Injection of adiponectin into MSG-treated SPORTS rats did not change amount of home cage activity and food intake, suggesting that adiponectin action on home cage activity was in the hypothalamic area. These results suggest that adiponectin regulates locomotion activity through mediobasal hypothalamus.

  2. Serum Adiponectin and Ghrelin, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. Decreases in circulating adiponectin and ghrelin have been associated with MetS. Our primary aim was to evaluate the relationship of MetS with adiponectin and ghrelin for Cuban Americans with ...

  3. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  4. Clinical significance of adiponectin expression in colon cancer patients

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    Mustafa Canhoroz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Adiponectin, which is secreted by adipose tissue, may have a role in the development and progression of cancer via its pro-apoptotic and/or anti-proliferative effects. Adiponectin expression in tumor tissues is likely to have a negative effect on disease - free survival in patients with stage II/III colon cancer; however, no statistically significant effect was demonstrated.

  5. Quercetin enhances adiponectin secretion by a PPAR-gamma independent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wein, Silvia; Behm, Norma; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed

    2010-01-01

    To study possible insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the flavonol quercetin, rats were fed a high-fat diet (19%, w/w) with (HFQ) or without (HF) 0.03% quercetin or a flavonoid-poor low-fat (5%, w/w) maintenance diet (LF) over 4 weeks. Body weight was measured...... composition and plasma leptin levels were not affected. Neither quercetin nor its metabolites induced PPAR-gamma-mediated transactivation in vitro. Adiponectin stimulating effects of quercetin are PPAR-gamma-independent and prevent impairment of insulin sensitivity without affecting body weight...... and composition....

  6. Leptin, adiponectin, leptin to adiponectin ratio and insulin resistance in depressive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Miroslav; Jirak, Roman; Jachymova, Marie; Vecka, Marek; Tvrzicka, Eva; Zak, Ales

    2009-01-01

    Depressive disorder (DD) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It was suggested, that metabolic syndrome (MetS), cluster of metabolic and hormonal changes, such as insulin resistence (IR), abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and elevated fasting glycaemia, could stand behind the connection. Recent findings have shown, that adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin might play a role in both depression and MetS. The aim of this pilot study was to observe the plasma concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio and indices of IR in women with depressive disorder. The plasma leptin, adiponectin, parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis and indices of IR were investigated in a group of 38 women with DD. The results were compared with those of 38 healthy women of the control group, matched for age. Depressive women differed significantly from the controls in higher concentrations of plasma leptin (p insulin (p insulin sensitivity was lower (p <0.01). HAM-D score of DD cases correlated negatively with adiponectin (r = - 0.3505; p < 0.05), independently of HOMA-IR. We have not found in DD group any differences between the drug free patients and those treated either with escitaloprame alone or in the combination with mirtazapine. The results of the pilot study presented support the hypothesis that at least part of DD cases has increased leptin serum levels and certain features of MetS. It could be the factor connecting depression with an increased risk of either DM2 or CVD.

  7. The Effects of High-Fat Diet Exposure In Utero on the Obesogenic and Diabetogenic Traits Through Epigenetic Changes in Adiponectin and Leptin Gene Expression for Multiple Generations in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic changes under malnutrition in utero might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero may cause a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Because an association of obesity between mother and offspring endured in multiple generations, we examined whether HFD exposure in utero might affect the metabolic status of female offspring through multigenerational epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes and whether a normal diet in utero for multiple generations might abolish such epigenetic changes after exposure to a HFD in utero using ICR mice. We observed that the effect of maternal HFD on offspring over multiple generations in metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon such as weight and fat mass gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adiponectin and leptin levels, and hypertension, were accumulated with expression and epigenetic changes in Adiponectin and Leptin genes. A normal diet in utero in the subsequent generations after HFD exposure in utero diminished, and a normal diet in utero for 3 generations completely abolished, the effect of HFD in utero on weight and fat mass gain, insulin resistance, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and leptin levels, with epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Exposure to a HFD in utero might affect glucose and lipid metabolism of female offspring through epigenetic modifications to Adiponectin and Leptin genes for multiple generations. Obesogenic and diabetogenic traits were abolished after a maternal normal diet for 3 generations.

  8. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani,1 Somayeh Mohammadi,2 Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini,3 Parviz Fallah,4 Zahra Bazi5 1Nutrition Research Center, 2Department of Nutrition, 3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of

  9. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Cynthia Ciwei; Teo, Boon Wee; Tai, E Shyong; Lim, Su Chi; Chan, Choong Meng; Sethi, Sunil; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR) with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults. We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity) involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007-2011). CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate leptin levels were measured using commercially available ELISA. Odds ratio of CKD associated with elevated adiponectin and leptin levels were estimated using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol. CKD cases had higher levels of leptin (mean [SD] 9.7 [11.5] vs.16.9 [20.2] ng/mL, pleptin, adiponectin and LAR. Similar associations were also observed when adiponectin and leptin were analyzed as continuous variables. This positive association of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR with CKD was consistently present in subgroups of gender, ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension and overweight status (all P-interaction >0.1). Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population.

  10. Adiponectin levels and expression of adiponectin receptors in isolated monocytes from overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economopoulos Theofanis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherosclerotic effects, partly mediated through its action on monocytes. We aimed to determine adiponectin levels and expression of its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in peripheral monocytes from overweight and obese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods Fifty-five overweight/obese patients, suspected for CAD, underwent coronary angiography: 31 were classified as CAD patients (stenosis ≥ 50% in at least one main vessel and 24 as nonCAD. Quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry were used for determining mRNA and protein surface expression of adiponectin receptors in peripheral monocytes. A high sensitivity multiplex assay (xMAP technology was used for the determination of plasma adiponectin and interleukin-10 (IL-10 secreted levels. Results Plasma adiponectin levels were decreased in CAD compared to nonCAD patients (10.9 ± 3.1 vs. 13.8 ± 5.8 μg/ml respectively, p = 0.033. In multivariable analysis, Matsuda index was the sole independent determinant of adiponectin levels. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 protein levels were decreased in monocytes from CAD compared to nonCAD patients (59.5 ± 24.9 vs. 80 ± 46 and 70.7 ± 39 vs. 95.6 ± 47.8 Mean Fluorescence Intensity Arbitrary Units respectively, p Conclusions Overweight patients with CAD compared to those without CAD, had decreased plasma adiponectin levels, as well as decreased surface expression of adiponectin receptors in peripheral monocytes. This fact together with the reduced adiponectin-induced IL-10 secretion from CAD macrophages could explain to a certain extent, an impaired atheroprotective action of adiponectin.

  11. Urinary adiponectin excretion rises with increasing albuminuria in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Petersen, Emilie Hein; Tarnow, Lise

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Urinary adiponectin (u-adiponectin) excretion has been suggested to reflect early glomerular damage. Inspired by this, we studied the levels of u-adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). METHODS: U-adiponectin was analysed by ELISA in ...

  12. MCD-induced steatohepatitis is associated with hepatic adiponectin resistance and adipogenic transformation of hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Claire Z; Yeh, Matthew M; Williams, Jacqueline; Bell-Anderson, Kim S; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2008-09-01

    In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that increased lipid intake would exacerbate the severity of nutritional steatohepatitis. C57Bl/6J mice were fed methionine-and-choline deficient (MCD) diets containing 20% (high) or 5% (low) fat by weight for 3 weeks and compared to lipid-matched controls. MCD feeding increased serum ALT levels and induced hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, irrespective of dietary fat content. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation was similar between high and low-fat MCD-fed mice, but lipoperoxide levels were approximately 3-fold higher in the high-fat MCD-fed animals. Serum adiponectin levels increased in MCD-fed mice, although to a lesser extent in high-fat fed animals. AMPK phosphorylation was correspondingly increased in muscle of MCD-fed mice, but hepatic AMPK phosphorylation decreased, and there was little evidence of PPAR alpha activation, suggesting impaired adiponectin action in the livers of MCD-fed animals. Hepatocyte PPAR gamma mRNA levels increased in MCD-fed mice, and were associated with increased aP2 expression, indicating adipogenic transformation of hepatocytes. Increased dietary lipid intake did not alter steatohepatitis severity in MCD-fed mice despite increased lipoperoxide accumulation. Instead, steatohepatitis was associated with impaired hepatic adiponectin action, and adipogenic transformation of hepatocytes in both low and high-fat MCD-fed mice.

  13. Gender-specific associations between ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms and adiponectin levels and obesity in the Jackson Heart Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Pia; Gebreab, Samson Y; Xu, Ruihua; Khan, Rumana J; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Correa, Adolfo; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Davis, Sharon K

    2015-08-20

    was negatively and significantly associated with BMI only in participants with a normal weight. In this large African American cohort, ADIPOQ variants were associated with adiponectin levels in a gender-dependent manner and the relationship of some of these variants with obesity and BMI was modulated by the PEA and obesity status respectively. This suggests that the effects of these polymorphisms on adiponectin and obesity phenotypes are subject to a strong interaction with genetic and environmental factors in African American population.

  14. Similar to adiponectin, serum levels of osteoprotegerin are associated with obesity in healthy subjects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ashley, David T

    2011-07-01

    An increase in serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the severity of vascular calcification, and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relationship between OPG and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in body mass index (BMI) and insulin sensitivity influence circulating OPG in healthy subjects. A total of 100 subjects (36 lean, 41 overweight, and 23 obese) with normal glucose tolerance, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram stress test result volunteered for this study. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test with oral glucose insulin sensitivity analysis. Osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL),soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (sRANKL), and adiponectin were analyzed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Osteoprotegerin (P < .01) and adiponectin (P < .001) were significantly decreased in the obese compared with lean subjects. There was no significant difference between BMI categories for TRAIL or sRANKL. Controlling for age and sex, there was a significant correlation between OPG and adiponectin (r = 0.391, P < .001), BMI (r = -0.331, P < .001), waist circumference (r = -0.268, P < .01), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = -0.222, P < .05), and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (r = 0.221, P < .05). Both OPG and adiponectin were negatively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fasting plasma insulin while being positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (P < .05). Controlling for age, sex, and BMI, TRAIL was positively related to fat mass (r = 0.373, P < .001) and waist circumference (r = 0.257, P < .05). In contrast to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, circulating OPG is lower in obese, but otherwise healthy subjects and is positively correlated

  15. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, R B; Jones, M; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Bossios, A; Dahlen, S-E; Toskala, E M; Al-Kalemji, A; Kowalski, M L; Rymarczyk, B; Salagean, E M; van Drunen, C M; Bachert, C; Wehrend, T; Krämer, U; Mota-Pinto, A; Burney, P; Leynaert, B; Jarvis, D

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. We wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. The Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2) LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical survey, embedded in a larger multi-centre cross-sectional postal survey, involving, with a case/control design, enrichment of the sample with subjects with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We recorded serum leptin or adiponectin in 845 men and 1110 women in 15 centres and also anthropometric measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females, adjusting for confounders (area, age, smoking history, and number of elder siblings) and also mutually adjusting associations with adipokines and fatness measures. One thousand nine hundred and fifty-five subjects aged 16-77 years had information on leptin or adiponectin levels. Leptin and leptin/adiponectin ratio were positively associated with the level of asthma, especially in females (Somers' D of leptin by asthma score, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.30; P = 0.00079). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for confounders and became non-significant after additionally adjusting for fatness measures and multiple comparisons. Asthma levels are positively associated with serum leptin. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that this association is secondary to associations of both with fatness

  16. Impact of insulin resistance, insulin and adiponectin on kidney stones in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Sadao; Nagaya, Teruo; Yamada, Tamaki; Okada, Atsushi; Yasui, Takahiro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Tokudome, Shinkan; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2011-02-01

    It has been reported that kidney stones are linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is characterized by insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of insulin resistance, insulin and adiponectin with kidney stones in a Japanese population. From February 2007 to March 2008, 1036 (529 men and 507 women) apparently healthy Japanese subjects, aged 35-79 years, were analyzed. Weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured. Overnight fasting blood was collected to measure insulin and adiponectin levels. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated to assess insulin resistance. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for a self-reported history of kidney stones across tertiles of HOMA-IR, insulin and adiponectin. Of the participants, 84 men (15.6%) and 35 women (6.9%) had a history of kidney stones. Age, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HOMA-IR and insulin were significantly higher in women with than in women without kidney stones. There was no difference in adiponectin level between subjects with and without a history of kidney stones in either sex. Furthermore, a significant positive trend was observed in the age-adjusted OR for a history of kidney stones across insulin tertiles (P-value for trend = 0.04) in women. For Japanese women, HOMA-IR and insulin are associated with a history of kidney stones. The findings suggest that MetS components could increase the risk of kidney stones through subclinical hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. © 2010 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Association Between Adiponectin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Meiyappan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing worldwide. Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by insulin resistance, which increases the risk of kidney stone formation. Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory cytokine, which is known to improve glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in humans. The association of insulin and adiponectin with kidney stones is not clear. Hence, the present study aim to assess the serum levels of adiponectin and insulin resistance in DM patients with urolithiasis in comparison to those without. Methods: This study involved two groups, group A consisted of 30 patients with DM and urolithiasis, and group B consisted of 30 patients with DM but without urolithiasis (control group. Biochemical parameters studied were serum adiponectin, insulin, glucose, urea, creatinine, and 24 hours urinary calcium and phosphate. Results: The serum adiponectin level was significantly increased in the diabetic urolithiasis cases (group A compared to the control group (group B. The levels of 24 hours urine calcium and phosphorus were also significantly increased in group A. There was no significant difference in serum insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance between the two groups. A negative correlation was seen between serum adiponectin and insulin among the cases (r = -0.368 and p = 0.045. Conclusions: We found that serum adiponectin levels are increased in patients with DM and urolithiasis.

  18. Impact of Adiponectin Overexpression on Allergic Airways Responses in Mice

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    Norah G. Verbout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma. Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that transgenic overexpression of adiponectin would attenuate allergic airways inflammation and mucous hyperplasia in mice. To test this hypothesis, we used mice overexpressing adiponectin (Adipo Tg. Adipo Tg mice had marked increases in both serum adiponectin and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid adiponectin. Both acute and chronic ovalbumin (OVA sensitization and challenge protocols were used. In both protocols, OVA-induced increases in total BAL cells were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice. In the acute protocol, OVA-induced increases in several IL-13 dependent genes were attenuated in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, even though IL-13 per se was not affected. With chronic exposure, though OVA-induced increases in goblet cells numbers per millimeter of basement membrane were greater in Adipo Tg versus WT mice, mRNA abundance of mucous genes in lungs was not different. Also, adiponectin overexpression did not induce M2 polarization in alveolar macrophages. Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia.

  19. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi; Satou, Kunio

    2013-05-04

    Mice carrying the A(y) allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-A(y) littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-A(y) females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-A(y) males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Growth curves of DDD.Cg-A(y) mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-A(y) mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-A(y) males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-A(y)) F(1)-A(y) mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the A(y) allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC A(y) males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-A(y) males. The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-A(y) male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes. This QTL

  20. Genetic background (DDD/Sgn versus C57BL/6J) strongly influences postnatal growth of male mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus: identification of quantitative trait loci associated with diabetes and body weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mice carrying the Ay allele at the agouti locus become obese and are heavier than their non-Ay littermates. However, this does not hold true for the genetic background of the DDD mouse strain. At 22 weeks of age, DDD.Cg-Ay females are heavier than DDD females, whereas DDD.Cg-Ay males are lighter than DDD males. This study aimed to determine the possible cause and identify the genes responsible for the lower body weight of DDD.Cg-Ay males. Results Growth curves of DDD.Cg-Ay mice were analyzed and compared with those of B6.Cg-Ay mice from 5 to 25 weeks. In DDD.Cg-Ay males, body weight gain stopped between 16 and 17 weeks and the body weight gradually decreased; thus, the lower body weight was a consequence of body weight loss. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed in backcrossed (BC) males of DDD × (B6 × DDD.Cg-Ay) F1-Ay mice. For the body weight at 25 weeks, significant QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4. The DDD allele was associated with a lower body weight at both loci. In particular, the QTL on chromosome 4 interacted with the Ay allele. Furthermore, suggestive QTLs for plasma glucose and high molecular weight adiponectin levels were coincidentally mapped to chromosome 4. The DDD allele was associated with increased glucose and decreased adiponectin levels. When the body weight at 25 weeks and plasma glucose levels were considered as dependent and independent variables, respectively, BC Ay males were classified into two groups according to statistical analysis using the partition method. Mice of one group had significantly higher glucose and lower adiponectin levels than those of the other group and exhibited body weight loss as observed with DDD-Ay males. Conclusions The lower body weight of DDD.Cg-Ay male mice was a consequence of body weight loss. Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor causing body weight loss. The QTL on distal chromosome 4 contained the major responsible genes

  1. Adiponectin Effect on The Viability of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells and mRNA Expression of Adiponectin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bohlouli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is one of the most important adipokines secreted from fattytissue that has a direct inhibitory effect on the development of cancer cells. Adiponectinplays an important role in human reproduction system and fertility of women. Adiponectinconcentration decreases in women with endometriosis and endometrial cancer.The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of adiponectin on humanendometrial stromal cell (HESC viability as well as mRNA expression of Adipo R1and Adipo R2 receptors.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, eight endometrial biopsies weretaken and stromal cells were separated by enzymatic digestion and cell filtrations. Stromalcells of each biopsy were divided into four groups: control, 10, 100, and 200 ng/mladiponectin concentrations. The effect of adiponectin on viability of the normal HESCswas studied by trypan blue staining and the relative expression levels of Adipo R1 andR2 were analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and unpaired student’s t test andp<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Adiponectin decreased viability of normal human endometrial stromal cells ina dose and time dependent manner. Expression of Adipo R1 and Adipo R2 receptors didnot change in the presence of adiponectin.Conclusion: Adiponectin can directly influence the viability of HESCs and decreasetheir viability, but it didn’t change expression of adiponectin receptors.

  2. Effect of 8 weeks sprint interval training on serum levels of Adiponectin and insulin in overweight children

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    Abdolreza Kazemi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific studies demonstrated that decreased blood Adiponectin level is associated with insulin resistance in obesity. Also it is well documented that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on obesity but there is few study regarding beneficial effects of sprint Interval training (SIT on childhood obesity. This study was intended to investigate the effect of SIT on serum levels of Adiponectin and insulin in overweight children. Material and Methods: In this study thirty-two obese boy (BMI=27 were randomly assigned to sprint Interval Training (SIT (N=16 and control group(C (N=16. Training protocol consisted of 30s and 90s all-out running that performed 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were measured by ELISA analysis. Data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: 8 weeks SIT increase serum levels of Adiponectin (P=0.028 and decrease insulin level (P=0.00. This change was directly related to decrease in values of BMI (P=0.01, total cholesterol (P=0.00 and body weight (P=0.02, but significant change in serum levels of HDL (P=0.50, LDL (P=0.17 and TG (P=0.60 wasn’t observed. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SIT may ameliorate the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity in children probably through elevation of serum Adiponectin level.

  3. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...... analysis, whereas an ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed no predictive characteristic of ADPN for aggravation of the glucose tolerance after Tx. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is accompanied by a significant reduction in ADPN concentration. Several factors determine the ADPN concentration...

  4. Acute Vitamin D₃ Supplementation in Severe Obesity: Evaluation of Multimeric Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Stefania; Walker, Gillian E; Vietti, Roberta; Cattaldo, Stefania; Mele, Chiara; Priano, Lorenzo; Mauro, Alessandro; Bona, Gianni; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Scacchi, Massimo; Marzullo, Paolo

    2017-05-05

    Obesity predisposes to vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and glucose abnormalities. It is currently debated if vitamin D administration may improve glucose homeostasis by interacting with modulators of insulin sensitivity, such as adiponectin and its oligomers. In a 4-week inpatient study on a metabolic rehabilitation program, consisting of individualized caloric restriction and aerobic physical exercise in obese subjects with VDD, we assessed the acute effects of 600,000 IU cholecalciferol given per os VD group, 12 subjects; body mass index (BMI) 42.7 ± 1.3 kg/m²) or placebo per os (PL group, 12 subjects, BMI 39.8 ± 0.9 kg/m²) on high (HWM-A), medium (MMW-A), and low molecular weight adiponectin (LMW-A), as quantified by western immunoblot (WIB) and ELISA. During the 4-week study, dieting promoted a similar magnitude of weight loss in VD and PL groups. Compared to the PL group, cholecalciferol administration increased 25(OH)Vit D levels (p < 0.001) and promoted a significant increase of HMW-A expression analyzed by WIB (p = 0.02). In parallel, a significant decrease of leptin/HMW-A ratio (p < 0.05), a biomarker of metabolic homeostasis, was observed. During the study, changes of MMW-A and LMW-A occurred independently of cholecalciferol administration, and were likely explained by weight loss. At odds with these findings, the ELISA assessment of adiponectin oligomers showed no modifications in the VD group or PL group. Current findings suggest that acute cholecalciferol administration selectively modifies HMW-A and the leptin/HMW-A ratio.

  5. Adiponectin: an adipokine with protective features against metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esfahani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS as a collection of obesity-associated disorders is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, pro-thrombotic state, elevated risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is one of the most abundant peptide hormones derived from adipose tissue. This protein plays a major role in glucose and lipid metabolism and prevents development of vascular changes. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects are the other features of adiponectin. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with hypertension and pro-thrombotic state. In this review, we discuss the crucial role of adiponectin in prevention of metabolic syndrome considering its effects on the components of this syndrome. Pharmacological interventions and lifestyle modification may increase plasma adiponectin level or tissue sensitivity which seems to be a promising target for prevention and therapeutic approaches of MetS and related diseases.

  6. Regulation of adiponectin in adipocytes upon exposure to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose dysregulation, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance are hallmarks of HIV-related lipodystrophy. The precise mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. In HIV-infected patients, we previously demonstrated a strong relationship between lipodystrophy and levels of adiponectin, an adipose...

  7. Adiponectin Levels Are Reduced While Markers of Systemic Inflammation and Aortic Remodelling Are Increased in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Mother-Child Couple

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    Silvia Visentin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study. To investigate the relationships between the adipocytokine levels, markers of inflammation, and vascular remodelling in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective study. One hundred and forty pregnant patients were enrolled. Adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and C reactive protein (CRP were assessed in IUGR, small for gestational age (SGA, and appropriate for gestational age (AGA mother-child couples at delivery. IUGR and SGA fetuses were defined as fetuses whose estimated fetal weight (EFW was below 10th percentile for gestational age with and without umbilical artery (UA Doppler abnormalities, respectively. Fetal aorta intima media thickness (aIMT was evaluated by ultrasound in the same fetal groups. Data were analyzed by R (version 2.15.2. Results. There were 37 IUGR mother-child couples, 33 SGA, and 70 AGA. Leptin, TNFα, IL-6, and CRP serum levels were higher in IUGR pregnant patients (P<0.05. Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in IUGR fetuses compared to SGA and AGA, while leptin, TNFα, and IL-6 levels were higher in IUGR group (P≤0.05. Fetal aIMT was significantly higher in IUGR (P<0.05 and in this group there was a negative correlation between aIMT and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L ratio (P<0.05 and between adiponectin and IL-6 levels (P<0.05. Conclusions. In conclusion, compared to SGA and AGA, IUGR fetuses had reduced circulating levels of adiponectin and elevated measures of aIMT and several inflammatory markers. Moreover, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with aIMT in IUGR fetuses suggesting a possible causal link between reduced adiponectin and vessel remodelling.

  8. Adiponectin levels are reduced while markers of systemic inflammation and aortic remodelling are increased in intrauterine growth restricted mother-child couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentin, Silvia; Lapolla, Annunziata; Londero, Ambrogio Pietro; Cosma, Chiara; Dalfrà, Mariagrazia; Camerin, Martina; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario; Cosmi, Erich

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between the adipocytokine levels, markers of inflammation, and vascular remodelling in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This was a retrospective study. One hundred and forty pregnant patients were enrolled. Adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in IUGR, small for gestational age (SGA), and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) mother-child couples at delivery. IUGR and SGA fetuses were defined as fetuses whose estimated fetal weight (EFW) was below 10th percentile for gestational age with and without umbilical artery (UA) Doppler abnormalities, respectively. Fetal aorta intima media thickness (aIMT) was evaluated by ultrasound in the same fetal groups. Data were analyzed by R (version 2.15.2). There were 37 IUGR mother-child couples, 33 SGA, and 70 AGA. Leptin, TNFα, IL-6, and CRP serum levels were higher in IUGR pregnant patients (P < 0.05). Adiponectin levels were significantly reduced in IUGR fetuses compared to SGA and AGA, while leptin, TNFα, and IL-6 levels were higher in IUGR group (P ≤ 0.05). Fetal aIMT was significantly higher in IUGR (P < 0.05) and in this group there was a negative correlation between aIMT and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L ratio) (P < 0.05) and between adiponectin and IL-6 levels (P < 0.05). In conclusion, compared to SGA and AGA, IUGR fetuses had reduced circulating levels of adiponectin and elevated measures of aIMT and several inflammatory markers. Moreover, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with aIMT in IUGR fetuses suggesting a possible causal link between reduced adiponectin and vessel remodelling.

  9. Effect of Persea americana (avocado) fruit extract on the level of expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ in rats subjected to experimental hyperlipidemia and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Monika; Arumugam, Geetha

    2014-06-01

    Persea americana, commonly known as avocado, is traditionally consumed fruit which possesses body fat lowering capacity. Adiponectin plays an important role in regulating obesity. In this study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of P. americana (HAEPA) on the level of blood lipids, glutathione, lipid peroxidation products, adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ expressions was investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups: groups 1 and 2 were fed normal rat chow (5% fat) and groups 3 and 4 were fed HFD (23% fat) for a period of 14 weeks. In addition, groups 2 and 4 rats were administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of HAEPA from third week. After 14 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and serum/plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and adiponectin were determined. The mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were also evaluated. The body mass index (BMI), total fat pad mass and adiposity index were significantly decreased in HAEPA co-administered rats than in HFD-fed rats. The levels of LDL and lipid peroxides were significantly higher in HFD group than in HFD+HAEPA group. Levels of reduced glutathione, adiponectin, mRNA expression of adiponectin, PPAR-γ and protein expression of PPAR-γ were found to be increased in HFD+HAEPA group than in HFD group. The hypolipidemic effect of HAEPA is also evidenced by the histological observations in liver, heart and adipose tissue. The results indicate that HAEPA exhibits hypolipidemic activity probably by increasing the mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ, which reduce the risk of hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  10. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

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    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  11. Associations of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Adiponectin Gene with Adiponectin Levels and Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Cancer

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    Rasha Mazen Al Khaldi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to (1 study the influence of polymorphisms in adiponectin gene on adiponectin levels and potential associations with breast, prostate and colon cancer; (2 investigate the associations of adiponectin levels with other adipokines and breast, prostate and colon cancers.

  12. Low adiponectin levels at baseline and decreasing adiponectin levels over 10 years of follow-up predict risk of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S; Jensen, J S; Bjerre, Mette

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and may play a key role in the interplay between obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus, this large population-based cohort investigated whether adiponectin at baseline and/or a decrease in adiponectin during...

  13. In vitro and in vivo effects of adiponectin on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Garry A; Wang, Yu; Callon, Karen E; Watson, Maureen; Lin, Jian-ming; Lam, Janice B B; Costa, Jessica L; Orpe, Ajay; Broom, Neil; Naot, Dorit; Reid, Ian R; Cornish, Jillian

    2009-08-01

    Fat mass impacts on both bone turnover and bone density and is a critical risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. Adipocyte-derived hormones may contribute to this relationship, and adiponectin is a principal circulating adipokine. However, its effects on bone remain unclear. We have, therefore, investigated the direct effects of adiponectin on primary cultures of osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells in vitro and determined its integrated effects in vivo by characterizing the bone phenotype of adiponectin-deficient mice. Adiponectin was dose-dependently mitogenic to primary rat and human osteoblasts ( approximately 50% increase at 10 microg/ml) and markedly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at concentrations of 1 microg/ml or greater. It had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in RAW-264.7 cells or on bone resorption in isolated mature osteoclasts. In adiponectin knockout (AdKO) male C57BL/6J mice, trabecular bone volume and trabecular number (assessed by microcomputed tomography) were increased at 14 wk of age by 30% (P = 0.02) and 38% (P = 0.0009), respectively. Similar, nonsignificant trends were observed at 8 and 22 wk of age. Biomechanical testing showed lower bone fragility and reduced cortical hardness at 14 wk. We conclude that adiponectin stimulates osteoblast growth but inhibits osteoclastogenesis, probably via an effect on stromal cells. However, the AdKO mouse has increased bone mass, suggesting that adiponectin also has indirect effects on bone, possibly through modulating growth factor action or insulin sensitivity. Because adiponectin does influence bone mass in vivo, it is likely to be a contributor to the fat-bone relationship.

  14. Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lubkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial.

  15. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Ciwei Lim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin and leptin, two of the key cytokines secreted by adipocytes, have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the association of these adipocytokines with chronic kidney disease (CKD is not clear. We examined the association of serum adiponectin, leptin levels and leptin to adiponectin ratio (LAR with CKD in a population-based sample of Asian adults.We conducted a case-control study (450 CKD cases and 920 controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity involving Chinese and Indian adults aged 40-80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study (2007-2011. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate 0.1.Higher levels of serum adiponectin, leptin and LAR were positively associated with CKD independent of traditional risk factors in this Asian population.

  16. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus - Relation to body fat mass and disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Katarzyna Anna; Majewski, Dominik; Skowrońska, Bogda; Stankiewicz, Witold; Fichna, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are adipokines presenting a wide range of impacts, including glycemic balance regulations. Insulin is one of the main regulators of adipose tissue function. In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) endogenous insulin secretion is replaced by the exogenous supply, which is not regulated naturally. The aim of the study was to establish serum leptin and adiponectin levels, and their relations to body fat mass and disease course in children with T1DM. The study included 75 children with T1DM and the control group of 20 healthy coevals. All children had estimated serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations, lipid profile, and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Serum leptin concentrations in children with T1DM were not significantly different from the control group (p=0.067, mean values±SD: 3.11±2.98 vs. 5.29±5.06μg/l, respectively), and related positively to body fat mass in both groups. Adiponectin serum concentrations were significantly higher in children with T1DM than in the control group (pbody fat content in the study group. Both, leptin and adiponectin, showed no relation to any of the analyzed parameters of the disease course. Differences observed between children with T1DM and their healthy coevals, when similar in terms of age, body weight, and body fat mass, seem not to depend directly on the disease duration, its metabolic control or insulin supply. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of catechin-enriched green tea consumption on adiponectin and cardiovascular disease risk factors

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    Toshimasa Sone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous observational studies have indicated that green tea (GT consumption is associated with reduced mortality from cerebral infarction but not with mortality from cerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we hypothesized that GT exerts a direct antiatherosclerotic effect without any effect on hypertension. To investigate this hypothesis, we focused on adiponectin that seems to be among the several key players in atherosclerosis.The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to assess whether the consumption of catechin-enriched GT affects serum adiponectin levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among apparently healthy subjects.A total of 51 individuals participated in the study. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into GT consumption groups with either high catechin (400 mg/day or low catechin (100 mg/day. The study participants were asked to stop GT consumption for 2 weeks (washout period, following which they were to start drinking the provided GT beverages everyday for 9 weeks. The outcome measures were changes in the adiponectin levels and CVD risk factors (body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose, as well as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein.After intervention for 9 weeks, we found no significant difference between the high- and low catechin group with respect to changes in the serum adiponectin level: 0.35 µg/ml (95% confidence interval (CI: −1.03, 1.74. Also, no significant difference was observed between the high- and low catechin groups with respect to changes in any of the measured CVD risk factors.This RCT showed no significant difference between the high- and low catechin groups with respect to changes in the serum adiponectin level and any CVD risk

  18. Association of prenatal antibiotics with foetal size and cord blood leptin and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N T; Rifas-Shiman, S L; Blaser, M J; Gillman, M W; Hivert, M-F

    2017-04-01

    Early postnatal antibiotic use has been shown to promote excess weight gain, but it is unclear whether intrauterine exposure to antibiotics is associated with foetal growth and adiposity. The objective of this study was to examine associations of antibiotic prescription in each trimester of pregnancy with foetal size and adipokine levels at birth. In 2128 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, from electronic medical records, we estimated antibiotic prescribing by timing during pregnancy. Outcomes were sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational-age z-score (BW/GA-z) and levels of umbilical cord leptin and adiponectin. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, race/ethnicity, education, smoking during pregnancy, household income and child sex and additionally adjusted cord blood leptin and adiponectin models for gestation length. Of the 2128 women in our sample, 643 (30.2%) were prescribed with oral antibiotics during pregnancy. Mean (standard deviation) BW/GA-z was 0.17 (0.97), cord blood leptin was 9.0 ng mL(-1) (6.6) and cord blood adiponectin was 28.8 ng mL(-1) (6.8). Overall, antibiotic prescription in pregnancy was associated with lower BW/GA-z [multivariable adjusted β -0.11; 95% confidence interval {CI} -0.20, -0.01]. In trimester-specific analyses, only second trimester antibiotic prescription was associated with lower BW/GA-z (β -0.23; 95% CI -0.37, -0.08). Overall, antibiotic prescription in pregnancy was not associated with cord blood leptin or adiponectin levels. However, in trimester-specific analyses, third trimester antibiotic prescription was associated with higher cord blood leptin (β 2.28 ng mL(-1) ; 95% CI 0.38, 4.17). Antibiotics in mid-pregnancy were associated with lower birth weight for gestational age, whereas third trimester antibiotics were associated with higher cord blood leptin. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline

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    Nazir Ahmad Pala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL, the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3 μg/L and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Results: Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.001 as compared to age-, gender-, and BMI-matched healthy controls. Estradiol concentration of controls was higher than that of patients (P = 0.018. Patients with prolactinoma had higher levels of leptin (P = 0.027 as compared to healthy controls without a significant difference in adiponectin levels. There was a significant decrease of body weight at 3 months (P = 0.029, with a further decline at 6 months (P < 0.001 of cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P < 0.001, waist circumference (P = 0.003, waist-hip ratio (P = 0.03, total body fat (P = 0.003, plasma glucose (P < 0.001, leptin levels (P = 0.013, and an increase in estradiol concentration (P = 0.03 at 6 months of cabergoline treatment. Conclusion: Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities.

  20. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

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    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  1. Adiponectin: anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Molina, M T; Antuna-Puente, B

    2012-10-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that plays an essential role in regulating several metabolic functions through the secretion of biological mediators called "adipokines". Dysregulation of adipokines plays a crucial role in obesity-related diseases. Adiponectin (APN) is the most abundant adipokine accounting for the 0.01% of total serum protein, and is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes including energy metabolism, inflammation, and vascular physiology. APN plasma levels are reduced in individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, all traits with low-grade chronic inflammation. It is has been suggested that the absence of APN anti-inflammatory effects may be a contributing factor to this inflammation. APN inhibits the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial adhesion molecules, macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, tumor necrosis factor-α expression in macrophages and adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. It also has anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects, which play a role in its cardioprotective action. This review will focus on APN as an anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and cardioprotective plasma protein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between nutritional status, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and HOMA-AD in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Domingos, Ana Luiza; Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho, George; Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina; Luiz Pereira de Oliveira, Fernando; Santana Caldas, Ivo; Nascimento de Freitas, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    In children, the presence of obesity is a major risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases on the adulthood. To evaluate the association of anthropometry, body composition, clinical variables and biochemical profile with C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels, and insulin resistance in children in the municipality of Nova Era, Brazil. Nested case-control study following a crosssectional study. We evaluated 178 children, 57 of them classified as obese and 121 as normal-weight from a population of 1024 schoolchildren 6 to 10 years old: Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fast to obtain serum and plasma. We collected anthropometric and body composition measures, systolic and diastolic blood pressure data. Sexual maturation was assessed according to the stage of sexual development. We performed Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's test and multiple linear regression analysis. Independent variables with p body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R2 adjusted = 27.6%, p body fat percentage estimated by skinfold thickness (R2 adjusted = 75.5%, p body composition, anthropometry, clinical variables, biochemical profile and adiponectin and C-reactive protein levels and insulin resistance in obese and normal-weight children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in canine hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaki-Tovi, Michal; Abood, Sarah K; Kol, Amir; Farkas, Amnon; Schenck, Patricia A

    2015-02-01

    Serum concentrations of adiponectin were compared between sex-matched hypothyroid (n = 18) and euthyroid (n = 18) client-owned dogs with comparable ages and body condition scores (BCS). Concentrations of adiponectin (mean; 95% confidence interval) were significantly (P hypothyroid (17.2 µg/mL; 12.1-20.5 µg/mL) than healthy (8.0 µg/mL; 5.6-11.4 µg/mL) dogs following adjustment for potential confounders (BCS, age and sex). Serum concentrations of adiponectin were significantly negatively associated with concentrations of total thyroxine (P hypothyroid dogs. In conclusion, this study demonstrated increased serum concentrations of adiponectin in dogs with hypothyroidism. Suggestive of the presence of resistance to adiponectin that could have contributed to development of hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in these dogs or alternatively, could be a consequence of these metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polymorphism in exon 1 of adiponectin gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    . Up to now, the research about association of polymorphisms in duck adiponectin gene with production traits has not been reported. The objectives of the present study were to identify SNPs in the duck adiponectin gene exon ...

  5. Leptin and adiponectin levels in girls with central precocious puberty before and during GnRH agonist treatment

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    Jae Won Yoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa treatment on the energy metabolism in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP are controversial. We focused the changes and related factors of serum levels of leptin and adiponectin in girls with CPP before and during GnRHa treatment.MethodsThirty girls with idiopathic CPP were enrolled in the study. Their auxological data and fasting blood were collected at the baseline and after six months of GnRHa treatment.ResultsAfter treatment, height (P<0.001, weight (P<0.001, and serum leptin levels (P=0.033 were significantly increased, whereas body mass index (BMI, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, serum adiponectin levels, and adiponectin/leptin ratio exhibited no significant changes. A Pearson correlation analysis showed that height, weight, BMI, and their standard deviation scores (SDSs, but not basal LH, FSH, and estradiol, were significantly correlated with serum leptin levels before and after GnRHa treatment. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI was associated with serum leptin levels. Moreover, leptin SDSs adjusted for BMI were not significantly different before and after GnRHa. The Δ leptin levels (r2=0.207, P=0.012, but not with Δ leptin SDS (r2=0.019, P=0.556, during GnRHa treatment were positively correlated with Δ BMI.ConclusionThese results suggest that GnRHa treatment in girls with CPP does not affect serum levels of leptin and adiponectin and insulin resistance. Serum leptin levels were depend on the changes in BMI during GnRHa treatment.

  6. Metabolically protective cytokines adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 are increased by acute overfeeding in healthy humans.

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    Leonie K Heilbronn

    Full Text Available Circulating levels of metabolically protective and adverse cytokines are altered in obese humans and rodent models. However, it is not clear whether these cytokines are altered rapidly in response to over-nutrition, or as a later consequence of the obese state.Forty sedentary healthy individuals were examined prior to and at 3 and 28 days of high fat overfeeding (+1250 kCal/day, 45% fat. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, adiposity, serum levels of adiponectin and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21, fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4, lipocalin-2 and plasminogen activator factor-1 (PAI1 were assessed. Statistics were performed by repeated measures ANOVA.Overfeeding increased weight, body fat and liver fat, fasting glucose, insulin and reduced insulin sensitivity by clamp (all P <0.05. Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF21 were increased at day 3 of overfeeding (P ≤0.001 and adiponectin was also elevated at day 28 (P=0.001. FABP4, lipocalin-2 and PAI-1 were not changed by overfeeding at either time point.Metabolically protective cytokines, adiponectin and FGF-21, were increased by over nutrition and weight gain in healthy humans, despite increases in insulin resistance. We speculate that this was in attempt to maintain glucose homeostasis in a state of nutritional excess. PAI-I, FABP4 and lipocalin 2 were not altered by overfeeding suggesting that changes in these cytokines may be a later consequence of the obese state.www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00562393.

  7. Effects of adiponectin on acute lung injury in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Bao, Hong-Guang; Si, Yan-Na; Han, Liu; Zhang, Rui; Cai, Meng-Meng; Shen, Yan

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of adiponectin (APN) on acute lung injury in a rat model of sepsis. We subjected male Sprague-Dawley rats to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to establish sepsis models. We randomly animals divided into four groups: control (C), model (CLP), preemptive APN administration (APN plus CLP), and delayed APN administration (CLP plus APN). We killed the animals 24 h after CLP and collected blood samples to determine PaO2 and PaCO2. Lung samples were taken for histologic assessment and measurement of myeloperoxidase activity. We measured neutrophil and macrophage count and cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histology findings and lung injury score analysis revealed acute lung injury in rats in the CLP group, whereas those in the APN-treated group had mild lung injury. The effects of sepsis on the increasing cell number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as the wet/dry weight ratio, neutrophil infiltration, and myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue were significantly attenuated by APN administration. Adiponectin also significantly alleviated hypoxemia and hypercapnia resulting from the development of lung injury. In addition, in APN-treated rats, the levels of pulmonary inflammatory molecule (macrophage inflammatory protein-2) and cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α) were down-regulated compared with the CLP group. Adiponectin administration ameliorates acute lung injury in a rat model of sepsis induced by CLP, no matter whether it is administrated before or after the onset of sepsis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ethnic and Sex Differences in Adiponectin: From Childhood to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman-Hanson, Rebecca A; Cree-Green, Melanie; Kelsey, Megan M; Bessesen, Daniel H; Sharp, Teresa A; Pyle, Laura; Pereira, Rocio I; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2016-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are increasing, particularly in Hispanic (H) vs non-Hispanic White (NHW) populations. Adiponectin has a known role in IR, and therefore, understanding ethnic and sex-specific behavior of adiponectin across the lifespan is of clinical significance. To compare ethnic and sex differences in adiponectin, independent of body mass index, across the lifespan and relationship to IR. Cross-sectional. Primary care, referral center. A total of 187 NHW and 117 H participants (8-57 y) without diabetes. Life stage: pre-/early puberty (Tanner 1/2), midpubertal (Tanner 3/4), late pubertal (Tanner 5, cardiometabolic risk seen in H populations and in particular H females.

  9. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otvos, Laszlo; Knappe, Daniel; Hoffmann, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Olah, Julia; Hewitson, Tim; Stawikowska, Roma; Stawikowski, Maciej; Cudic, Predrag; Lin, Feng; Wade, John; Surmacz, Eva; Lovas, Sandor

    2014-10-01

    The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC). In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399). The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400) was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400) at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  10. Development of second generation peptides modulating cellular adiponectin receptor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo eOtvos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The adipose tissue participates in the regulation of energy homeostasis as an important endocrine organ that secretes a number of biologically active adipokines, including adiponectin. Recently we developed and characterized a first-in-class peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist by using in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and breast cancer (BC. In the current study, we further explored the effects of peptide ADP355 in additional cellular models and found that ADP355 inhibited chronic myeloid leukemia (CML cell proliferation and renal myofibroblast differentiation with mid-nanomolar IC50 values. According to molecular modeling calculations, ADP355 was remarkably flexible in the global minimum with a turn present in the middle of the peptide. Considering these structural features of ADP355 and the fact that adiponectin normally circulates as multimeric complexes, we developed and tested the activity of a linear branched dimer (ADP399. The dimer exhibited approximately 20-fold improved cellular activity inhibiting K562 CML and MCF-7 cell growth with high pM - low nM relative IC50 values. Biodistribution studies suggested superior tissue dissemination of both peptides after subcutaneous administration relative to intraperitoneal inoculation. After screening of a 397-member adiponectin active site library, a novel octapeptide (ADP400 was designed that counteracted 10-1000 nM ADP355- and ADP399-mediated effects on CML and BC cell growth at nanomolar concentrations. ADP400 induced mitogenic effects in MCF-7 BC cells perhaps due to antagonizing endogenous adiponectin actions or acting as an inverse agonist. While the linear dimer agonist ADP399 meets pharmacological criteria of a contemporary peptide drug lead, the peptide showing antagonist activity (ADP400 at similar concentrations will be an important target validation tool to study adiponectin functions.

  11. Adipokines (adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhhibitor-1 in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors is termed the metabolic syndrome (MS, which strongly predicts the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Adipokines may contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance and may be a causal link between MS, diabetes and CVD. Hence, we studied the adipokines - adiponectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 - in subjects with MS. Materials and Methods: We studied 50 subjects with MS diagnosed by International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria and 24 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Clinical evaluation included anthropometry, body fat analysis by bioimpedance, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, insulin, adiponectin, and PAI-1 measurement. Results: Subjects with MS had lower adiponectin (4.01 ± 2.24 vs. 8.7 ± 1.77 μg/ml; P < 0.0001 and higher PAI-1 (53.85 ± 16.45 vs. 17.35 ± 4.45 ng/ml; P < 0.0001 levels than controls. Both were related with the number of metabolic abnormalities. Adiponectin was negatively and PAI-1 was positively associated with body mass index, waist hip ratio (WHR, body fat mass, percent body fat, and all the parameters of MS, except HDL where the pattern reversed. WHR and triglycerides were independent predictors of adipokines in multiple regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that adiponectin (6.7 μg/ml and PAI-1 (25.0 ng/ml levels predicted the MS with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in Indian population. Conclusions: Subjects with MS have lower adiponectin and higher PAI-1 levels compared to healthy controls. Lifestyle measures have been shown to improve the various components of MS, and hence there is an urgent need for public health measures to prevent the ongoing epidemic of diabetes and CVD.

  12. Roles of adiposity, lifetime physical activity and serum adiponectin in occurrence of breast cancer among Malaysian women in Klang Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Salleh, Rabeta Mohd; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Koon, Poh Bee; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan

    2010-01-01

    Lack of physical activities throughout life is related to obesity and is a risk factor of breast cancer, however, the associations of these factors with adiponectin in the occurrence of breast cancer have not been well investigated. This study investigated the relationship between adiposity, lifetime physical activities and serum adiponectin as breast cancer risk factors among Malaysian women in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A case-control study was carried out among 70 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and 138 controls aged 29 to 65 years old in Klang Valley. The inclusion criteria for both groups were not having menstruation for premenopausal women, no evidence of pregnancy, not lactating and no chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes at the time of data collection. In addition, the cases must be pathologically newly diagnosed with breast cancer (stage I to III) and not on any therapy for cancer, with the exception of surgery. The controls were matched with cases for age +/- 5 years and menopausal status. Subjects were interviewed to obtain information on socio-demography, health and reproductive history using a pretested questionnaire. Subjects were also asked on their engagement of physical activity since secondary school. Anthropometric parameters included height, weight, waist and hips were also measured. A total of 6 ml of fasting venous blood was drawn for analysis of serum adiponectin in duplicate using Linko Adiponectin ELISA Kit. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and blood pressure were also measured. Mean body mass index (BMI) among cases and controls were not significantly different (p> 0.05) at 26.1 -/+ 4.8 kg/m2 and 25.3 -/+ 4.5 kg/m2, respectively. FBG among cases (6.3 -/+ 1.8 mmol/L) was higher than controls (5.6 -/+ 1.1 mmol/L) (p 0.85) increased risk of breast cancer by three folds [Adjusted OR 3.3 (95%CI 1.8-6.2)] (pincreasing level of serum adiponectin level according to percentiles (p 75th)( >or= 16.7 microg/ml) had 80% reduced risk of

  13. [Assay of adiponectin, leptin, true insulin and ghrelin levels in preterm human milk, and its relationship with infants growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Luyan; Li, Ming; Yu, Xinting; Sun, Xiujing; Wang, Danhua

    2014-07-01

    To understand adiponectin, leptin, insulin and ghrelin levels in preterm colostrum and mature milk and their influence on the growth and development of the premature infant. The study subjects were divided into two groups: preterm group and control group. Specimens of colostrum and mature milk on 42nd day after delivery were collected, the general situation of maternal and infants growth parameters at birth and at postnatal 42 days were recorded. Leptin, adiponectin, insulin and ghrelin levels in colustrum and mature milk were determined and compared. A total of 128 mother-infant pairs were involved. There were 128 specimens of colostrums (80 from preterm group, 48 from control group) and 94 specimens of mature milk(50 from premature group, 44 from control group). The levels of colostrum, mature milk adiponectin, leptin, and insulin were not significantly different between the 2 groups; ghrelin levels in colostrum and mature milk of premature group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.038), adiponectin and leptin levels in colostrum were higher than those of the mature milk (P milk (P 34 weeks group). True insulin level of mature milk in 34 weeks group was higher than that of > 34 weeks group (29.3 vs. 21.6 mU/L, P = 0.045); true insulin level in colostrums in ≤ 34 weeks group was lower than that in mature milk (21.7 vs. 29.3 mU/L, P = 0.000). Adiponectin levels in colostrum and 42 days weight gain were negatively correlated (r = -0.362, P = 0.025) . Insulin level in mature milk had a negative correlation with birth weight (r = -0.319, P = 0.029) . Ghrelin levels in colostrum and birth weight, length, head circumference, head circumference on 42(nd) day were positively correlated (r = 0.271,0.261,0.360, P hormones in milk might participate in the regulation of suitable growth after birth. Premature birth affects hormone levels in breast milk. Breast feeding is very important in preterm infants.

  14. Lycopene-rich tomato oleoresin modulates plasma adiponectin concentration and mRNA levels of adiponectin, SIRT1, and FoxO1 in adipose tissue of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizotto, R A M; Nascimento, A F; Miranda, N C M; Wang, X-D; Ferreira, A L A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether lycopene can modulate adiponectin levels and SIRT1 and FoxO1 gene expression in the adipose tissue of diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were first fed with hypercaloric diet (HD, n = 12) for 6 weeks, and afterward, these rats were randomly assigned to receive HD (n = 6) or HD with lycopene-rich tomato oleoresin (equivalent to lycopene 10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day, HD + L, n = 6) by gavage for additional 6 weeks. Plasma lycopene and adiponectin levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and immunoassay, respectively. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of adiponectin, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), Forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1), fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36), and PPARγ in adipose tissues were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lycopene was detected in the plasma of rats in HD + L group but not in the HD group. Although both BW and adiposity were not different between the two groups, there was a significant increase in both plasma concentration and mRNA expression of adiponectin in the adipose tissue of the HD + L group. In addition, the lycopene supplementation upregulated mRNA expressions of SIRT1, FoxO1, and FAT/CD36 but downregulated PPARγ in adipose tissue of obese rats. These data suggest that lycopene, in the concentration used, is not toxic and also its health benefits in adipose tissue may play a role against obesity-related complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Profile of leptin, adiponectin, and body fat in patients with hyperprolactinemia: Response to treatment with cabergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Nazir Ahmad; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Gojwari, Tariq A; Dar, Tariq A

    2016-01-01

    Though hypoadiponectinemia and leptin resistance have been proposed as potential factors for weight gain in patients with hyperprolactinemia (HPL), the effects of HPL and cabergoline on these adipocyte-derived hormones are not clear. Aims of this study were (i) to assess the alterations of body fat, leptin, and adiponectin in patients with HPL (ii) effect of cabergoline treatment on these parameters. Nineteen consecutive patients with prolactinoma (median prolactin [PRL] 118.6 (interquartile range: 105.3) μg/L) and 20 controls were studied in a nonrandomized matched prospective design. The controls were age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) matched. Anthropometric data, metabolic variables, leptin, and adiponectin were studied at baseline and 3 and 6 months after cabergoline treatment. Patients with prolactinoma had increased level of fasting plasma glucose (P cabergoline therapy. Furthermore, there was a significant decrement of BMI (P cabergoline treatment. Patients with prolactinoma have adverse metabolic profile compared to matched controls. Normalization of PRL with cabergoline corrects all the metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Avazpor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects: 1. HIIT (type 1 including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2 including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1 was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2 was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1 and (type 2 had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin among HIIT (type 1, HIIT (type 2 and control.

  17. The role of adiponectin in reproduction: from polycystic ovary syndrome to assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos G; Segars, James H

    2010-11-01

    To summarize the effects of the adipokine adiponectin on the reproductive endocrine system, from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to the gonads and target tissues of the reproductive system. A Medline computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Research institution. None. Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that acts to reduce insulin resistance and atherogenic damage, but it also exerts actions in other tissues. Adiponectin mediates its actions in the periphery mainly via two receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. Adiponectin receptors are present in many reproductive tissues, including the central nervous system, ovaries, oviduct, endometrium, and testes. Adiponectin influences gonadotropin release, normal pregnancy, and assisted reproduction outcomes. Adiponectin, a beneficial adipokine, represents a major link between obesity and reproduction. Higher levels of adiponectin are associated with improved menstrual function and better outcomes in assisted reproductive cycles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Antiproliferative effect of adiponectin on rat uterine leiomyoma ELT-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Atsuko; Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Sakata, Masahiro; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kimura, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    Although fibroids greatly affect reproductive health, the pathophysiology and epidemiology are not well known. Recently, we have reported the relationship between uterine leiomyoma and metabolic syndrome. Many studies have indicated that reductions in plasma adiponectin levels play major roles in the development of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the significant repressive effect of adiponectin on rat uterine leiomyoma ELT-3 cells proliferation. Expression of adiponectin receptor 1 and receptor 2 was evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTS assay and cell counting. Apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Adiponectin receptor 1 and receptor 2 were expressed in ELT-3 cells. Adiponectin repressed rat uterine leiomyoma ELT-3 cells cell proliferation without inducing apoptosis. The repression of adiponectin on leiomyoma cell proliferation in the rat may explain a crucial role of adiponectin in the association of metabolic syndrome with uterine leiomyoma.

  19. Augmented Plasma Adiponectin after Prolonged Fasting During Ramadan in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Feizollahzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intermittent fasting during Ramadan entails major changes in metabolism and energy expenditure. This study sought to determine effect of the Ramadan fasting on serum levels of adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as two inter-related peptides involved in cells sensitivity to insulin and glucose metabolism. Methods: Total of seventy healthy men, with age range equal or greater than 30, with at least three type2 diabetes mellitus (DM risk factors were selected. Serum lipid profile, anthropometric indices and plasma glucose levels were determined using conventional methods. Also, serum adiponectin and TNF- α concentrations were assessed using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Data were analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Ramadan fasting resulted in a significant increase of serum adiponectin (P< 0.000, fasting glucose (P< 0.000 and triglycride (P< 0.001. Body mass index was lowered during the fasting (P< 0.000. Finally, no remarkable decrease was found in serum TNF-α levels (P= 0.100. Conclusion: Ramadan fasting resulted in augmented adiponectin levels which may help in improving metabolic stress induced by insulin resistance in men with predisposing factors of type2 DM.

  20. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Ghantous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin’s generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system.

  1. Crosstalk between adiponectin and IGF-IR in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana eMauro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. It is characterized by an enlarged mass of adipose tissue caused by a combination of size increase of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy and de novo adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia. Obesity is related to many metabolic disorders like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and it is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in different tissues including breast. Adipose tissue is now regarded as not just a storage reservoir for excess energy, but rather as an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive molecules called adipokines. Among these, adiponectin represents the most abundant adipose tissue-excreted protein, which exhibits insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The serum concentrations of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body mass index. Recently, low levels of plasma adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk for obesity-related cancers and development of more aggressive phenotype, concomitantly with alterations in the bioavailability of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I and IGF-I Receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathways. In this review we discuss the cross-talk between adiponectin/AdipoR1 and IGF-I/IGF-IR in breast cancer.

  2. Adiponectin And Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin In Preeclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate the circulating levels of adiponectin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total and free testosterone in preeclamptic women in comparison with normotensive pregnant controls. The aim of this work was extended to study the correlations between these biochemical indices, ...

  3. Leptin, Adiponectin, and Obesity among Caucasian and Asian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Conroy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants (P≤.01 across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin (β=1.34 versus β=0.64 and with adiponectin (β=−0.95 versus β=−0.75 than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin.

  4. Differential Role of Leptin and Adiponectin in Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, C. M.; Azrak, Z.; Hanache, S.; Abou-Kheir, W.; Zeidan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin are differentially expressed adipokines in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are directly associated with adipose tissue mass, while adiponectin levels are downregulated in obesity. Although significantly produced by adipocytes, leptin is also produced by vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. Plasma leptin concentrations are elevated in cases of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. As for the event of left ventricular hypertrophy, researchers have been stirring controversy about the role of leptin in this form of cardiac remodeling. In this review, we discuss how leptin has been shown to play an antihypertrophic role in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy through in vitro experiments, population-based cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal cohort studies. Conversely, we also examine how leptin may actually promote left ventricular hypertrophy using in vitro analysis and human-based univariate and multiple linear stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, as opposed to leptin's generally detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, adiponectin is a cardioprotective hormone that reduces left ventricular and vascular hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and inflammation. In this review, we also highlight adiponectin signaling and its protective actions on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26064110

  5. Serum Adiponectin and Ghrelin, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Cross-sectional study of 367 adults, self identified as Cuban extraction and randomly recruited from a mailing list of Broward and Miami-Dade counties. Fasted whole blood for adiponectin (ADPN) was collected using K3EDTA tubes and measured by ELISA. Ghrelin was assayed with fasted blood plasma by ...

  6. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated Adiponectin Serum Levels in Women with Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

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    Éric Toussirot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue produces a wide range of proteins that may influence the immune system. In this study, we assessed the serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, in association with the measurements of body composition, in 15 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, mixed connective tissue disease, vasculitis, CREST syndrome, and polymyositis and in 15 healthy female controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls with regard to serum leptin, serum ghrelin, global fat mass, adiposity, and fat mass in the android or gynoid regions, whereas serum adiponectin levels were higher in patients than controls (16.3±1.6 μg/mL versus 9.7±0.6 μg/mL; =.01. As adiponectin is known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory properties, a high adiponectinemia in patients with systemic autoimmune disease may mitigate the inflammatory response. However, the precise consequences of these elevated serum adiponectin levels on the metabolic syndrome development and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in this patient population still needs to be determined.

  8. Plasma adiponectin and endogenous glucose production in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Stumvoll, Michael; Vozarova, Barbora

    2003-01-01

    High plasma adiponectin is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, probably a consequence of its insulin-sensitizing properties. In vivo data in rodents suggest that the insulin-sensitization responsible for improvement of glycemia occurs in muscle and liver. Whereas associations of plas...

  9. Aortic valve sclerosis is associated with lower serum adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Gizem; Guray, Umit; Kafes, Habibe; Guray, Yesim; Cabuk, Ali Kemal; Bayir, Pinar T; Asarcikli, Lale D

    2015-06-01

    The sclerotic lesions of the aortic valve share common features with atherosclerosis. An anti-inflammatory protein, adiponectin, seems to have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. The goal of our study is to determine adiponectin levels in patients with aortic sclerosis and to compare these values with the control group with similar age and cardiovascular risk profile. Sixty-eight patients with aortic sclerosis and 40 controls were included. Serum adiponectin levels were measured by solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were no significant differences regarding age, sex and other cardiovascular risk factors between groups. Also, mean body mass index values were similar. The rate of mitral annular calcification and left ventricular hypertrophy were significantly higher in patients with aortic sclerosis. Among laboratory variables, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were significantly higher in patients with aortic sclerosis than in those without (4.0 ± 2.9 vs. 2.9 ± 2.3 mg/dl, P = 0.04). Adiponectin levels were found to be significantly lower in aortic sclerosis group than in controls (9.7 ± 4.4 vs. 11.7 ± 4.9 μg/ml, P = 0.034). In the whole group, adiponectin levels were significantly correlated with BMI (r = -0.22, P = 0.02), white blood cell count (r = -0.2, P = 0.03), hsCRP (r = -0.25, P = 0.008), total cholesterol (r = -0.18, P = 0.05), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.31, P = 0.001) and triglyceride (r = -0.36, P sclerosis, serum adiponectin levels were significantly lower compared with those with normal aortic valves. Our findings suggested that adiponectin might play a role in the progression of degenerative aortic valve disease.

  10. Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations and Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Bronchial Asthma in the Chinese Li Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yipeng; Yang, Hua; He, Haiwu; Shi, Huifang; He, Ping; Yan, Shouchun; Jin, Tianbo

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of changes in the plasma adiponectin concentration in patients with bronchial asthma and to test the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2241766 and rs1501299 in the ADIPOQ gene and bronchial asthma in the Chinese Li population. We selected 120 cases and 120 controls, and plasma adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, we genotyped two tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) and evaluated their association with bronchial asthma using the χ2 test and genetic model analysis. Compared to controls, patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma showed significantly lower adiponectin and significantly higher IL-6 and TNF-α levels (pasthma exacerbation indicates that adiponectin may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Meanwhile, our findings suggest that ADIPOQ polymorphisms influence the risk of developing bronchial asthma in Chinese Li population.

  11. Correlation between adiponectin, leptin, insulin growth factor-1 and bone mineral density in pre and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcov, Corina; Vulpoi, Carmen; Brănişteanu, D

    2012-01-01

    Body weight positively correlates with bone mass, gravity being a stimulating bone stress. Adipose tissues could influence bone metabolism especially in postmenopause. Also, muscle mass positively correlates with bone mass and is dependent on physical activity, but also on some hormones with direct effect on bone, such as insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Our study investigated the relative influence on lumbar bone mass of pre and postmenopausal women of body weight, leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1. Cross-sectional study including six groups of 8 to 15 pre and postmenopausal healthy volunteers with different weight: body mass index (BMI): normal and underweight (BMI30 kg/m2). Lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition (BC) were evaluated by dual X ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic), while serum leptin, adiponectin and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA. Body weight, fat and lean mass positively correlated with BMD, irrespective of age (pweight prevents bone loss after menopause. Leptin and IGF-1 have adjacent positive roles in preserving bone mass during postmenopause.

  12. Differential metabolic effects of constant moderate versus high intensity interval training in high-fat fed mice: possible role of muscle adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; Maharjan, Babu Raja; Williams, Paul F; Tam, Charmaine S; Mclennan, Susan V; Twigg, Stephen M

    2018-02-01

    Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% FAT) or standard CHOW diet ab libitum and underwent one of three training regimes: (1) no exercise, (2) END, or (3) HIIT (8 bouts of 2.5 min with eight periods of rest of 2.5 min) for 10 weeks (3 × 40 min sessions/week). Chow-fed mice acted as controls. Compared with HFD alone, both training programs similarly protected against body weight gain (HFD = 45 ± 2; END = 37 ± 2; HIIT = 36 ± 2 g), preserved lean/fat tissue mass ratio (HFD = 0.64 ± 0.09; END = 0.34 ± 0.13; HIIT = 0.33 ± 0.13), and improved blood glucose excursion during an insulin tolerance test (HFD = 411 ± 54; END = 350 ± 57; HIIT = 320 ± 66 arbitrary units [AU]). Alterations in fasting glycemia, insulinemia, and AST/ALT ratios were prevented only by END. END, but not HIIT increased skeletal muscle adiponectin mRNA (14-fold; P HIIT induced a milder increase (2.4-fold). Compared with HFD, neither END nor HIIT altered circulating low (LMW) or high (HMW) molecular weight adiponectin forms. Furthermore, only END prevented the HFD downregulation of PGC1α (P < 0.05) mRNA levels downstream of muscle adiponectin. These data show that different training programs affect muscle adiponectin to differing degrees. Together these results suggest that END is a more effective regimen to prevent HFD

  13. Adiponectin, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and regional fat mass during 12-month randomized treatment with metformin and/or oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Richelsen, Bjørn; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard; Andersen, Marianne

    2014-08-01

    Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. To evaluate if improved body composition during treatment with metformin (M) vs. oral contraceptive pills (OCP) was associated with changes in circulating adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Ninety patients with PCOS were randomized to 12-month treatment with M (2 g/day), M + OCP (150 mg desogestrel + 30 microgram ethinylestradiol) or OCP. Adiponectin, IL-6, MCP-1, whole body DXA scans, and clinical evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period in the 65 study completers. Changes in inflammatory markers and changes in total and regional fat mass estimates. Adiponectin, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were unchanged during the three types of medical intervention. Treatment with M and M + OCP was superior to OCP regarding decreased regional fat mass. Baseline adiponectin and IL-6 were associated with BMI, waist, and trunk fat mass. Changes in trunk fat were significantly associated with changes in IL-6 and MCP-1 during M + OCP. Long-term treatment with M alone or in combination with OCP was associated with improved body composition compared to OCP, whereas inflammatory markers were unchanged. OCP was not associated with increased inflammatory markers despite a small but significant weight gain.

  14. Relation of Adiponectin to Glucose Tolerance Status, Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wolfson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adiponectin has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the influence of adiponectin on glucose tolerance status, adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. Design and Patients. Study consisted of 107 subjects: 55 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT and 52 with impaired glucose regulation (IGR who were divided into two groups: 24 subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG Group and 28 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM Group. In additional analysis, study participants were divided into two groups, according to CVRFs: low and high risk. Measurements: Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Measurements. Patients were evaluated for glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR and adiponectin. Results. Adiponectin was significantly higher in NGT group than in IFG (=0.003 and DM (=0.01 groups. Adiponectin was significantly, positively associated with HDL and inversely associated with glucose, HbA1c, ALT, AST, TG, HOMA-IR. Patients with higher CVRFs load have lesser adiponectin compared to patients with low cardiovascular risk <0.0001. Adiponectin was inversely associated with the number of risk factors (=−0.430, =0.0001. Conclusions. Circulating adiponectin was significantly lower in subjects with different degree of IGR compared to subjects with normal glucose homeostasis. Adiponectin was significantly lower in high risk group than low risk group and decreased concurrently with increased number of CVRFs.

  15. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases...... with serum adipokine levels and to find whether the associations with asthma were strong enough to rule out the possibility that they are secondary to the association of fatness measures with asthma. MethodsThe Global Asthma and Allergy Network of Excellence (GA(2)LEN) clinical follow-up survey is a clinical...... measures of fatness including body mass index and waist/hip ratio, current asthma, and specific skin prick and IgE sensitisation. We used inverse sampling-probability-weighted rank and regression statistics to measure population associations of disease outcomes with adipokines in males and females...

  16. Conventional kinesin KIF5B mediates adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Ju, E-mail: juzi.cui@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Pang, Jing; Lin, Ya-Jun; Jiang, Ping; Gong, Huan [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Wang, Zai [Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jian; Cai, Jian-Ping [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China); Huang, Jian-Dong, E-mail: jdhuang@hku.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences and Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam (Hong Kong); The Centre for Synthetic Biology Engineering Research, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Tie-Mei, E-mail: tmzhang126@126.com [The Key Laboratory of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital and Beijing Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing (China)

    2016-08-05

    Insulin stimulates adiponectin secretion and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in adipocyte to regulate metabolism homeostasis. Similar to GLUT4 translocation, intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin in adipocytes relies on the trans-Golgi network and endosomal system. Recent studies show that the heavy chain of conventional kinesin (KIF5B) mediates GLUT4 translocation in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, however, the motor machinery involved in mediating intracellular trafficking and release of adiponectin is unknown. Here, we examined the role of KIF5B in the regulation of adiponectin secretion. The KIF5B level was up-regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. This increase in cytosolic KIF5B was synchronized with the induction of adiponectin. Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colocalized at the peri-nuclear and cytosolic regions. In addition, adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. Knockdown of KIF5B resulted in a marked inhibition of adiponectin secretion and overexpression of KIF5B enhanced adiponectin release, whereas leptin secretion was not affected by changes in KIF5B expression. These data suggest that the secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B. - Highlights: • The KIF5B level was up regulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. • Endogenous KIF5B and adiponectin were partially colicalized. • Adiponectin-containing vesicles were co-immunoprecipitated with KIF5B. • The secretion of adiponectin, but not leptin, is dependent on functional KIF5B.

  17. Association between Leptin, Adiponectin, and Leptin/Adiponectin Ratio with Clustered Metabolic Risk Factors in Portuguese Adolescents: The LabMed Physical Activity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinis-Sobrinho, César A; Lacerda Mendes, Edmar; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Oliveira-Santos, José; Skurvydas, Albertas; Mota, Jorge; Santos, Rute

    2017-01-01

    Circulating leptin and adiponectin levels have been associated with impaired vascular function, insulin resistance, and acute cardiovascular evens. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of leptin, adiponectin, and the leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MRF) in adolescents aged 12-18 years. This is a cross-sectional analysis with 529 Portuguese adolescents aged 12-18 years. Blood samples were taken to analyze total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides glucose, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels. A continuous variable of clustered MRF score (sum of Z-scores of body fat percentage, systolic blood pressure, ratio TC/HDL, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness*[-1]) was computed. Regression analyses showed that adiponectin was a significant and negative predictor of MRF score (boys: β = -0.199; p pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and socioeconomic status. In addition, adiponectin, leptin, and L/A ratio were accurate to predict MRF among adolescents, but L/A ratio showed the highest area under receiver operating characteristic curve. Leptin, adiponectin, and L/A ratio are associated with the clustering of MRF in adolescents after adjustments for age, sex, pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and socioeconomic status. L/A ratio was more strongly associated with MRF score than adiponectin or leptin. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cadmium reduces adipocyte size and expression levels of adiponectin and Peg1/Mest in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Furuichi, Rie; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Setsu, Kojun; Suzuki, Shinya; Sato, Masao

    2010-01-12

    Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with diabetogenic effects. The effects of repeated Cd exposure on adipocytes remain largely unknown. We administered Cd at doses of 0, 5, 10, and 20 micromol/kgbw sc for 2 weeks (3.5 times/week) to mice and assessed the possible alteration of epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), including histological difference, adipocyte differentiation and functional capacity. Whereas hepatic weight did not differ between the control and Cd-exposed groups, WAT weight, as well as adipose cell mass, significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in Cd-treated mice. The Cd concentration in WAT significantly increased in Cd-treated groups after 2 weeks of exposure. Next, we examined the effects of Cd on adipocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Cd exposure significantly decreased the paternally expressed gene 1/Mesoderm-specific transcript mRNA expression levels. Both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha mRNA expression levels in WAT tended to decrease in the Cd-treated groups. Next, we determined the effects of Cd exposure on the mRNA expression levels of adipose-derived hormones, such as adiponectin and resistin. The adiponectin mRNA expression level in WAT decreased after both 6h and 2 weeks of exposure to a high dose of Cd, and the reduction in resistin mRNA expression levels was observed after 2 weeks of exposure. These results suggest that Cd exposure causes abnormal adipocyte differentiation, expansion, and function, which might lead to development of insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Predicting accurate fluorescent spectra for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Heider, Emily C.; Campiglia, Andres; Harper, James K.

    2016-10-01

    The ability of density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict accurate fluorescence spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is explored. Two methods, PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP, are evaluated both in the gas phase and in solution. Spectra for several of the most toxic PAHs are predicted and compared to experiment, including three isomers of C24H14 and a PAH containing heteroatoms. Unusually high-resolution experimental spectra are obtained for comparison by analyzing each PAH at 4.2 K in an n-alkane matrix. All theoretical spectra visually conform to the profiles of the experimental data but are systematically offset by a small amount. Specifically, when solvent is included the PBE0 functional overestimates peaks by 16.1 ± 6.6 nm while CAM-B3LYP underestimates the same transitions by 14.5 ± 7.6 nm. These calculated spectra can be empirically corrected to decrease the uncertainties to 6.5 ± 5.1 and 5.7 ± 5.1 nm for the PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP methods, respectively. A comparison of computed spectra in the gas phase indicates that the inclusion of n-octane shifts peaks by +11 nm on average and this change is roughly equivalent for PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP. An automated approach for comparing spectra is also described that minimizes residuals between a given theoretical spectrum and all available experimental spectra. This approach identifies the correct spectrum in all cases and excludes approximately 80% of the incorrect spectra, demonstrating that an automated search of theoretical libraries of spectra may eventually become feasible.

  20. Continuous Plasma Treatment of Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) Fibres for Adhesion Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodoru, Steluta; Kusano, Yukihiro; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2009-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge in Ar, He, He/O2, N2 or O2 at atmospheric pressure was used for the continuous plasma treatment of UHMWPE fibres. The influence of the input power of the discharge and the gas flow rate on surface modification is studied with the aim of adhesion improvement. Surface...

  1. Rheological and Mechanical Characterization of Renewable Resource Based High Molecular Weight PLA Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Jandas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses structural aspects of nanocomposites and the ability of layered nanosilicates to alter the flow behaviour of poly(lactic acid (PLA melts. In addition, dynamic and static mechanical properties of PLA nanocomposites prepared from melt mixing method have been also discussed. A comparative study of nanocomposite properties has been conducted using two different nanoclays, natural montmorillonite modified with alkyl ammonium surfactant (OMMT, and commercially available organosilicate, Cloisite 30B, as reinforcements within the PLA matrix. Since OMMT has undergone better intercalation within the matrix, the corresponding nanocomposite showed superior mechanical and rheological characteristics than its C30B counterpart.

  2. Rheology and bioactivity of high molecular weight dextrans synthesised by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarour, Kenza; Llamas, Mª Goretti; Prieto, Alicia; Rúas-Madiedo, Patricia; Dueñas, María Teresa; de Palencia, Pilar Fernández; Aznar, Rosa; Kihal, Mebrouk; López, Paloma

    2017-10-15

    Dextrans synthesised by three Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, isolated from mammalian milks, were studied and compared with dextrans produced by Lc. mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from meat products. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiang