WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-level waste disposal

  1. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  2. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  3. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  4. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  5. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  6. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-11-01

    Without reprocessing, spent LWR fuel itself is generally considered an acceptable waste form. With reprocessing, borosilicate glass canisters, have now gained general acceptance for waste immobilization. The current first choice for disposal is emplacement in an engineered structure in a mined cavern at a depth of 500-1000 meters. A variety of rock types are being investigated including basalt, clay, granite, salt, shale, and volcanic tuff. This paper gives specific coverage to the national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan and the United States. The French nuclear program assumes prompt reprocessing of its spent fuels, and France has already constructed the AVM. Two larger borosilicate glass plants are planned for a new French reprocessing plant at La Hague. France plans to hold the glass canisters in near-surface storage for a forty to sixty year cooling period and then to place them into a mined repository. The FRG and Japan also plan reprocessing for their LWR fuels. Both are currently having some fuel reprocessed by France, but both are also planning reprocessing plants which will include waste vitrification facilities. West Germany is now constructing the PAMELA Plant at Mol, Belgium to vitrify high level reprocessing wastes at the shutdown Eurochemic Plant. Japan is now operating a vitrification mockup test facility and plans a pilot plant facility at the Tokai reprocessing plant by 1990. Both countries have active geologic repository programs. The United State program assumes little LWR fuel reprocessing and is thus primarily aimed at direct disposal of spent fuel into mined repositories. However, the US have two borosilicate glass plants under construction to vitrify existing reprocessing wastes

  7. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  8. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  9. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, J M [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights

    1982-03-01

    The aims and options for the management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from the generation of nuclear power are outlined. The status of developments in reprocessing, waste solidification and geologic burial in major countries is reviewed. Some generic assessments of the potential radiological impacts from geologic repositories are discussed, and a perspective is suggested on risks from radiation.

  10. Criteria for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes is storage without the intention of retrieval. But in such storage, it may be useful and in some cases necessary to have the possibility of retrieval at least for a certain period of time. In order to propose some criteria for HLW disposal, one has to examine how this basic concept is to be applied. HLW is waste separated as a raffinate in the first cycle of solvent extraction in reprocessing. Such waste contains the bulk of fission products which have long half lives, therefore the safety of a disposal site, at least after a certain period of time, must be intrinsic, i.e. not based on human intervention. There is a consensus that such a disposal is feasible in a suitable geological formation in which the integrity of the container will be reinforced by several additional barriers. Criteria for disposal can be proposed for all aspects of the question. The author discusses the aims of the safety analysis, particularly the length of time for this analysis, and the acceptable dose commitments resulting from the release of radionuclides, the number and role of each barrier, and a holistic analysis of safety external factors. (Auth.)

  11. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  12. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  13. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  14. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  15. High-level nuclear waste disposal: Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Popular skepticism about, and moral objections to, recent legislation providing for the management and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have derived their credibility from two major sources: government procrastination in enacting waste disposal program, reinforcing public perceptions of their unprecedented danger and the inflated rhetoric and pretensions to professional omnicompetence of influential scientists with nuclear expertise. Ethical considerations not only can but must provide a mediating framework for the resolution of such a polarized political controversy. Implicit in moral objections to proposals for permanent nuclear waste disposal are concerns about three ethical principles: fairness to individuals, equitable protection among diverse social groups, and informed consent through due process and participation

  16. Safety of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsu, Tomohisa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Sumio

    1992-01-01

    This article introduces current concepts of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste and its safety. High level radioactive waste is physically stabilized by solidifying it in a glass form. Characteristics of deep geologic layer are presented from the viewpoint of geologic disposal. Reconstruction of multi-barrier system receives much attention to secure the safety of geologic disposal. It is important to research performance assessment of multi-barrier system for preventing dissolution or transfer of radionuclides into the ground water. Physical and chemical modeling for the performance assessment is outlined in the following terms: (1) chemical property of deep ground water, (2) geochemical modeling of artificial barrier spatial water, (3) hydrology of deep ground water, (4) hydrology of the inside of artificial barrier, and (5) modeling of radionuclide transfer from artificial barrier. (N.K.)

  17. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A E [Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences

    1980-10-01

    Current strategies in most countries favour the immobilisation of high-level radioactive wastes in borosilicate glasses, and their burial in large, centralised, mined repositories. Strong public opposition has been encountered because of concerns over safety and socio-political issues. The author develops a new disposal strategy, based on immobilisation of wastes in an extremely resistant ceramic, SYNROC, combined with burial in an array of widely dispersed, very deep drill holes. It is demonstrated that the difficulties encountered by conventional disposal strategies can be overcome by this new approach.

  18. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  19. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  20. Standards for high level waste disposal: A sustainability perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, W.W.; Powers, V.; Johnson, F.X.; Cornland, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spent reactor fuel from commercial power stations contains high levels of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and fission products, all of which pose serious challenges for permanent disposal because of the very long half-lives of some isotopes. The 'nuclear nations' have agreed on the use of permanent geologic repositories for the ultimate disposal of high-level nuclear waste. However, it is premature to claim that a geologic repository offers permanent isolation from the biosphere, given high levels of uncertainty, nascent risk assessment frameworks for the time periods considered, and serious intergenerational equity issues. Many have argued for a broader consideration of disposal options that include extended monitored retrievable storage and accelerator-driven transmutation of wastes. In this paper we discuss and compare these three options relative to standards that emerge from the application of sustainable development principles, namely long-lasting technical viability, intergenerational equity, rational resource allocation, and rights of future intervention. We conclude that in order to maximise the autonomy of future generations, it is imperative to leave future options more open than does permanent disposal

  1. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  2. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  3. On risk assessment of high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major concerns with the continued growth of the nuclear power industry is the production of the high level radioactive wastes. The risks associated with the disposal of these wastes derives from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. In the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected 35 year nuclear power program is determined. An index of relative nuclide hazard appropriate to problems involving the management of high level radioactive wastes is developed. As an illustration of the methodology, risk analyses are made for two proposed methods for waste management: extraterrestrial disposal and interim surface storage. The results of these analyses indicate that, within the assumptions used, the risks of these management schemes are small compared with natural background radiation doses. (Auth.)

  4. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  5. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Broshears, R.E.; Pasztor, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Beijer Institute received request from the Swedish Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Naemnden for Anvaent Kaernbraensle - NAK) to undertake an international review of the major programmes which were currently making arrangements for the future disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel. The request was accepted, a detailed proposal was worked out and agreed to by NAK, for a critical technical review which concentrated on the following three main tasks: 1. a 'state-of-the-art' review of selected ongoing disposal programmes, both national and international; 2. an assessment of the scientific and technical controversies involved, and 3. recommendations for further research in this field. This review work was to be built on a survey of the available technical literature which was to serve as a basis for a series of detailed interviews, consultations and discussions with scientific and technical experts in Japan, Canada, USA, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This first volume contains: disposal options; review of the state-of-the-art (international activities, national programs); analysis of waste disposal systems. (orig./HP)

  6. Options for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Laughton, A.S.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste within the fuel cycle, especially the high-level wastes from reprocessing of nuclear fuel, is currently a matter of particular concern. In the short term (meaning a timescale of tens of years) management by engineered storage is considered to provide a satisfactory solution. Beyond this, however, the two main alternative options which are considered in the paper are: (a) disposal by burial into geologic formations on land; and (b) disposal by emplacement into or onto the seabed. Status of our present knowledge on the land and seabed disposal options is reviewed together with an assessment of the extent to which their reliability and safety can be judged on presently available information. Further information is needed on the environmental behaviour of radioactivity in the form of solidified waste in both situations in order to provide a more complete, scientific assessment. Work done so far has clarified the areas where further research is most needed - for instance modelling of the environmental transfer processes associated with the seabed option. This is discussed together with an indication of the research programmes which are now being pursued

  7. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, Norberto R.

    2000-01-01

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  8. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  9. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  10. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hirosi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  11. Risk assessments for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    The risks associated with the disposal of high level wastes derive from the potential for release of radioactive materials into the environment. The assessment of these risks requires a methodology for risk analysis, an identification of the radioactive sources, and a method by which to express the relative hazard of the various radionuclides that comprise the high level waste. The development of a methodology for risk analysis is carried out after a review of previous work in the area of probabilistic risk assessment. The methodology suggested involves the probabilistic analysis of a general accident consequence distribution. In this analysis, the frequency aspect of the distribution is treated separately from the normalized probability function. At the final stage of the analysis, the frequency and probability characteristics of the distribution are recombined to provide an estimate of the risk. The characterization of the radioactive source term is accomplished using the ORIGEN computer code. Calculations are carried out for various reactor types and fuel cycles, and the overall waste hazard for a projected thirty-five year nuclear power program is determined

  12. Study on the development of safety regulations for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fangxin

    2012-01-01

    The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  13. High-level radioactive-waste-disposal investigations in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council (TENRAC) was designated in 1980 to coordinate the interaction between the State of Texas and the federal government relating to the high-level radioactive waste disposal issue. This report was prepared to summarize the many aspects of that issue with particular emphasis on the activities in Texas. The report is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction for individuals with little or no previous exposure to the issue and to provide a broader perspective for those individuals who have addressed specific aspects of the issue but have not had the opportunity to study it in a broader context. Following the introduction, contents of this report are as follows: (1) general status of major repository siting investigations in the US; (2) detailed review of Texas studies; (3) possible facilities to be sited in Texas; (4) current Texas policy; (5) federal regulations; and (6) federal legislation. 9 figures, 2 tables

  14. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  15. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept

  16. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, G.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R.; Leinen, M.

    1983-01-01

    There exist large areas of the deep seabed that warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive wastes because (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanoes; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the foreseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and have been remarkably insensitive to past oceanic and climatic changes; and (6) sedimentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine-grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clayey sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried radionuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political, and social issues raised by this new concept

  17. Safety of geological disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper represents an analysis of barrier performance of high-level waste disposal. Advantages of a multi-barrier system in repository are checked through experiments and simulations; thermal restriction, glass-leaching, and nuclide migration in both buffer materials and surrounding rock media. The temperature distribution in a repository is calculated with TRUMP code, then the pit interval is determined according to the temperature criteria of compacted bentonite. The simulation code for glass corrosion, STRAG, is developed on the basis of the experimental findings of the JSS project in which the actual radioactive glass fabricated CEA/Marcoule was used. STRAG is then verified through agreements of the simulated and measured values. Nuclide migration in compacted bentonite is calculated by SWIFT code, and the results show the bentonite capability for retention of nuclides released from waste glass. Migration of cesium isotope in rock is also examined with the small granite core samples, of which results suggest that bulk-granite except for fractures is expected as a porous media. (author)

  18. High-level radioactive waste disposal problem in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation on radioactive waste management in Russia discusses criteria for the selection of disposal sites, how the various types of waste should be contained and stored, and gives a list showing the liable owner, type, volume, activity and storage place of the present amount of radioactive waste. The bulk of this waste, in volume and radioactivity, is at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation

  19. High-level waste disposal, ethics and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael O.

    2008-06-01

    Moral philosophy applied to nuclear waste disposal can be linked to paradigmatic science. Simple thermodynamic principles tell us something about rightness or wrongness of our action. Ethical judgement can be orientated towards the chemical compatibility between waste container and geological repository. A container-repository system as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium is ethically acceptable. It aims at unlimited stability, similar to the stability of natural metal deposits within the Earth’s crust. The practicability of the guideline can be demonstrated.

  20. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxbugh, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    Hazardous waste is produced by the nuclear fuel cycle from mining and milling of uranium ore, refinement and enrichment, reactor use, and during reprocessing of spent fuel. Waste can be classified according to origin, physical state, and levels of radioactivity and radiotoxicity. The method of the long-term waste disposal is based on the degree of the hazard and the length of time (1000 years to millions of years) for the waste to become safe. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has classified radioactive waste into five categories (I-V) based on the amount of radioactivity and heat output of the waste. The text is concerned mainly with the two most hazardous categories (I and II). Disposal at various geological sites using proven mining, engineering, and deep drilling techniques has been proposed and studied. An ideal geological repository would have (1) minimum ground water movement, (2) geochemical and mineralogical properties to retard or immobilize the effects of the nuclear waste from reaching the biosphere, (3) thermochemical properties to allow for heat loading without damage, and (4) structural strength for the operational period. Types of geological environments (both undersea and on land) include evaporites, crystalline rocks, and argillaceous deposits. European and North American case histories are described, and there is a glossary and an extensive list of references in this concise review

  1. The disposal of high level nuclear waste in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, Gustavs

    1976-01-01

    A report is given on a meeting held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts to consider the feasibility of using the sea bed as a disposal site for highly radioactive nuclear waste. Some disadvantages are explained, the chief being that ocean water alone, regardless of depth, is a poor barrier. Some delegates discussed emplacement of vitrified waste on the ocean floor, and others its burial in rock or sediment below the floor. The most suitable sites are the mid-plate/mid-gyse localities of abyssal hills. Some engineering work on submarine burial has been done by Sandia Labs., in the U.S.A. Ocean disposal is particularly interesting to Britain and Japan. Data on biological transport rates are needed. (author)

  2. Status of the French nuclear high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1985-09-01

    French research on high level waste processing has led to the development of industrial vitrification facilities. Borosilicate glass is still being investigated for its long-term storage properties, since it is itself a component of the containment system. The other constituents of this system, the engineered barriers, are also being actively investigated. The geological barrier is now being assessed using a methodology applicable to various types of geological formations, and final site qualification should be possible before the end of 1992

  3. Some legal aspects on high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki

    1997-01-01

    In Japan, it is considered to be an urgent problem to prepare the system for the research and execution of high level radioactive waste disposal. Under what regulation scheme the disposal should be done has not been sufficiently examined. In this research, the examination was carried out on the legal aspects of high level radioactive waste disposal as follows. First, the current legislation on the disposal in Japan was analyzed, and it was made clear that high level radioactive waste disposal has not been stipulated clearly. Next, on the legal choices which are conceivable on the way the legislation for high level radioactive waste disposal should be, from the aspects of applying the law on regulating nuclear reactors and others, applying the law on nuclear power damage reparation, and industrialization by changing the government ordinances, those were arranged in six choices, and the examination was carried out for each choice from the viewpoints of the relation with the base stipulation for waste-burying business, the speciality of high level radioactive waste disposal as compared with other actions of nuclear power business, the coordination with existing nuclear power of nuclear power business, the coordination with existing nuclear power law system and the formation of national consensus. In this research, it was shown that the execution of high level radioactive waste disposal as the business based on the separate legislation is the realistic choice. (K.I.)

  4. The defense waste processing facility: the final processing step for defense high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.P.; Sprecher, W.M.; Walton, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Department of Energy is to pursue an aggressive and credible waste management program that advocates final disposal of government generated (defense) high-level nuclear wastes in a manner consistent with environmental, health, and safety responsibilities and requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is an essential component of the Department's program. It is the first project undertaken in the United States to immobilize government generated high-level nuclear wastes for geologic disposal. The DWPF will be built at the Department's Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. When construction is complete in 1989, the DWPF will begin processing the high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant into a borosilicate glass form, a highly insoluble and non-dispersable product, in easily handled canisters. The immobilized waste will be stored on site followed by transportation to and disposal in a Federal repository. The focus of this paper is on the DWPF. The paper discusses issues which justify the project, summarizes its technical attributes, analyzes relevant environmental and insitutional factors, describes the management approach followed in transforming technical and other concepts into concrete and steel, and concludes with observations about the future role of the facility

  5. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: Thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RANA Mukhtar Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes.

  6. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes. (authors)

  7. Risk comparison of different treatment and disposal strategies of high level liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Dong

    1997-01-01

    The risk of different treatment and disposal strategies of high level liquid radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing is estimated and compared. The conclusions obtained are that risk difference from these strategies is very small and high level liquid waste can be reduced to middle and low level waste, if the decontamination factor for 99 Tc is large enough, which is the largest risk contributor in the high level radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing. It is also shown that the risk of high level radioactive waste could be reduced by the technical strategy of combining partitioning and transmutation

  8. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  9. High-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A joint programme has begun between the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley to study the dispersion of radioactivity in the deep ocean arising from the possible dumping of high level waste on the sea bed in vitrified-glass form which would permit slow leakage over a long term scale. The programme consists firstly of the development of a simple diffusion/advection model for the dispersion of radioactivity in a closed and finite ocean, which overcomes many of the criticisms of the earlier model proposed by Webb and Morley. Preliminary results from this new model are comparable to those of the Webb-Morley model for radio isotopes with half-lives of 10-300 years but are considerably more restrictive outside this range, particularly for those which are much longer-lived. The second part of the programme, towards which the emphasis is directed, concerns the field programme planned to measure the advection and diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean to provide realistic input parameters to the model and increase our fundamental understanding of the environment in which the radioactive materials may be released. The first cruises of the programme will take place in late 1976 and involve deep current meter deployments and float dispersion experiments around the present NEA dump site with some sediment sampling, so that adsorption experiments can be started on typical deep sea sediments. The programme will expand the number of long-term deep moored stations over the next five years and include further float experiments, CTD profiling, and other physical oceanography. In the second half of the 5-year programme, attempts will be made to measure diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean using radioactive tracers

  10. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  11. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulesscu, G.; Tang, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M andO [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M andO 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M andQ 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M andO 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this

  12. Status of the high-level nuclear waste disposal program in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) initiated a high-level radioactive waste disposal program in 1976. Since then, the Advisory Committee on Radioactive Waste Management of JAEC has revised the program twice. The latest revision was issued in 1984. The committee recommended a four-phase program and the last phase calls for the beginning of emplacement of the high-level nuclear waste into a selected repository in the Year 2000. The first phase is already completed, and the second phase of this decade calls for the selection of a candidate disposal site and the conducting of the RandD of waste disposal in an underground research laboratory and in a hot test facility. This paper covers the current status of the high-level nuclear waste disposal program in Japan

  13. Analysis for the high-level waste disposal cost object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Lee, J. R.; Choi, J. W.; Han, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the ratio of cost object in terms of the disposal cost estimation. According to the result, the ratio of operating cost is the most significant object in total cost. There are a lot of differences between the disposal costs and product costs in view of their constituents. While the product costs may be classified by the direct materials cost, direct manufacturing labor cost, and factory overhead the disposal cost factors should be constituted by the technical factors and the non-technical factors

  14. Waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, S.J. Jr.; Carr, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the United States of America the selected method for disposal of radioactive waste is mined repositories located in suitable geohydrological settings. Currently four types of host rocks are under consideration: tuff, basalt, crystalline rock and salt. Development of waste package designs for incorporation in mined salt repositories is discussed. The three pertinent high-level waste forms are: spent fuel, as disassembled and close-packed fuel pins in a mild steel canister; commercial high-level waste (CHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters; defence high-level waste (DHLW), as borosilicate glass in stainless-steel canisters. The canisters are production and handling items only. They have no planned long-term isolation function. Each waste form requires a different approach in package design. However, the general geometry and the materials of the three designs are identical. The selected waste package design is an overpack of low carbon steel with a welded closure. This container surrounds the waste forms. Studies to better define brine quantity and composition, radiation effects on the salt and brines, long-term corrosion behaviour of the low carbon steel, and the leaching behaviour of the spent fuel and borosilicate glass waste forms are continuing. (author)

  15. Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Tanabe, Hiromi; Inagaki, Yusuke; Ishida, Hisahiro; Kato, Osamu; Kurata, Mitsuyuki; Yamachika, Hidehiko

    2002-01-01

    At a time point of 2002, there is no country actually disposing high level radioactive wastes into grounds, but in most of countries legislative preparation and practicing agents are carried out and site selection is promoted together with energetic advancement of its R and Ds. As disposal methods of the high level radioactive wastes, various methods such as space disposal, oceanic bottom disposal, ice bed disposal, ground disposal, and so on have been examined. And, a processing technology called partitioning and transmutation technology separating long-lived radionuclides from liquid high level radioactive waste and transmutation into short-lived or harmless radionuclides has also been studied. Here was introduced their wrestling conditions in Japan and main foreign countries, as a special issue of the Current status of high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan and foreign countries'. The high level radioactive wastes (glassification solids or spent nuclear fuels) are wastes always formed by nuclear power generation and establishment of technologies is an important subject for nuclear fuel cycle. (G.K.)

  16. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  17. Cost calculation and financial measures for high-level waste disposal business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Hiromasa.

    1987-01-01

    A study is made on the costs for disposal of high-level wastes, centering on financial problems involving cost calculation for disposal business and methods and systems for funding the business. The first half of the report is focused on calculation of costs for disposal business. Basic equations are shown to calculate the total costs required for a disposal plant and the costs for disposal of one unit of high-level wastes. A model is proposed to calculate the charges to be paid by electric power companies to the plant for disposal of their wastes. Another equation is derived to calculate the disposal charge per kWh of power generation in a power plant. The second half of the report is focused on financial measures concerning expenses for disposal. A financial basis should be established for the implementation of high-level waste disposal. It is insisted that a reasonable method for estimating the disposal costs should be set up and it should be decided who will pay the expenses. Discussions are made on some methods and systems for funding the disposal business. An additional charge should be included in the electricity bill to be paid by electric power users, or it should be included in tax. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Interfaces between transport and geological disposal systems for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. The geochemistry of high-level waste disposal in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Sargent, F.P.

    1984-01-01

    Under the auspices of the cooperative agreement between Euratom and Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd about radioactive waste management and disposal, a joint workshop was held on the topic of the geochemistry of high-level waste disposal in granitic rocks. The report covers (1) waste form leaching, (2) thermodynamics, (3) geochemical models, (4) the role of colloids, (5) sorption phenomena, (6) the linking of flow and geochemical models, (7) microbial activity

  20. Status of commercial nuclear high-level waste disposal. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dau, G.J.; Williams, R.F.

    1976-09-01

    The results of this review, presented in the form of a functional description of high level waste management system, shows that technology is available to dispose of nuclear waste safely by several different processes. The most attractive alternative in terms of available technology and shortness of time to demonstrate it at commercial scale is a system that converts the waste to a solid by immobilizing the radioactive elements in a glass matrix. Brief comments are also given on international efforts in high level waste management and advanced disposal concepts

  1. The State of the Art of the Borehole Disposal Concept for High Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative of the high-level radioactive waste disposal in the subsurface repository, a deep borehole disposal is reviewed by several nuclear advanced countries. In this study, the state of the art on the borehole disposal researches was reviewed, and the possibility of borehole disposal in Korean peninsula was discussed. In the deep borehole disposal concept radioactive waste is disposed at the section of 3 - 5 km depth in a deep borehole, and it has known that it has advantages in performance and cost due to the layered structure of deep groundwater and small surface disposal facility. The results show that it is necessary to acquisite data on deep geologic conditions of Korean peninsula, and to research the engineering barrier system, numerical modeling tools and disposal techniques for deep borehole disposal.

  2. Copper canisters for nuclear high level waste disposal. Corrosion aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.; Sellin, P.; Kjellbert, N.

    1992-10-01

    A corrosion analysis of a thick-walled copper canister for spent fuel disposal is discussed. The analysis has shown that there are no rapid mechanisms that may lead to canister failure, indicating an anticipated corrosion service life of several millions years. If further analysis of the copper canister is considered, it should be concentrated on identifying and evaluating processes other than corrosion, which may have a potential for leading to canister failure. (au)

  3. Suggestions on R and D work of high-level radioactive waste disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    The difference between repository and generic underground facilities is described. Some differences and similarities of site selection between the low and medium radioactive waste disposal, nuclear power station and high-level radioactive waste repository are also discussed here. We trend to extremely emphasize the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal because of high toxicity, long half-life and long safety disposal period of this kind of radioactive wastes; because radioactive waste in the repository is of high specific activities and buried in depth, it would be difficult to meddle with its safety. In case of repository system being destroyed, the author considers that in the stages of regional and area site selection, the first task is to investigate regional tectonic stability. Some problems about disposal options and others are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Broshears, R.E.; Pasztor, J.

    1984-01-01

    This second volume contains the topics: activities of ICRP, UNSCEAR, IAEA, CEC, and NEA; review of natural programs; alternative concepts; responses to technical questions. The persons interviewed were mainly professionals responsible for nuclear waste management and regulation, but wherever possible, the views of other interested parties were sought, e.g. environmental or ecological groups. (HP)

  5. Key scientific challenges in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2007-01-01

    The geological disposal of high radioactive waste is a challenging task facing the scientific and technical world. This paper introduces the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the latest progress of high level radioactive disposal programs in the world, and discusses the following key scientific challenges: (1) precise prediction of the evolution of a repository site; (2) characteristics of deep geological environment; (3) behaviour of deep rock mass, groundwater and engineering material under coupled con-ditions (intermediate to high temperature, geostress, hydraulic, chemical, biological and radiation process, etc); (4) geo-chemical behaviour of transuranic radionuclides with low concentration and its migration with groundwater; and (5) safety assessment of disposal system. Several large-scale research projects and several hot topics related with high-level waste disposal are also introduced. (authors)

  6. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. State of knowledge and development for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seichi; Muraoka, Susumu; Murano, Toru

    1995-01-01

    In Europe and USA, the formation disposal of high level radioactive waste entered the stage of doing the activities aiming at its execution. Also in Japan, the storage of high level waste began in the spring of 1995. Regarding the utilization of nuclear power, the establishment of the technology for disposing radioactive waste is the subject of fist priority, and the stage that requires its social recognition has set in. There are the features of formation disposal in that the disposal is in the state of confining extremely large amount of radioactivity, and that the assessment of long term safety exceeding tens of thousands years is demanded. The amount of occurrence and the main nuclides of high level radioactive waste, the disposal as seen in the Coady report and in the IAEA standard, the selection of dispersion or confinement and the selection of passive system or long term human participation, the reason why formation disposal is selected, the features of formation disposal and the way of advancing the research, the general techniques of safety assessment, artificial barriers and natural barriers for formation disposal, and the subjects of formation disposal are described. (K.I.) 57 refs

  7. Argentine project for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Ciallella, N.R.; Petraitis, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    From 1980 Argentina is carrying out a research program on the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The quantity of wastes produced will be significant in next century. However, it was decided to start with the studies well in advance in order to demonstrate that the high level wastes could be disposed in a safety way. The option of the direct disposal of irradiated fuel elements was discarded, not only by the energetic value of the plutonium, but also for ecological reasons. In fact, the presence of a total inventory of actinides in the non-processed fuel would imply a more important radiological impact than that caused if the plutonium is recycled to produce energy. The decision to solve the technological aspects connected with the elimination of high-level radioactive wastes well in advance, was made to avoid transfering the problem to future generations. This decision is based not only on technical evaluations but also on ethic premises. (Author)

  8. Mineralogic studies of tuff for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.; Bish, D.; Broxton, D.; Byers, F.; Carlos, B.; Levy, S.

    1986-01-01

    The volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, consist predominantly of tuff that originated 12 to 14 million years ago as flows and airfalls of hot volcanic particulates. On cooling these units formed two major rock types: crystallized zones formed mostly of feldspar and silica minerals, and zones of glass. Alteration of glass to zeolite minerals occurred largely during structural tilting of Yucca Mountain in the ∼1-3 million years following the major eruptions. The compositions of zeolites formed from glasses strongly indicate open-system chemical exchange. Superimposed on this general alteration of glasses are areas of local high-temperature alteration. High-temperature alteration ended by 11 million years ago. Zeolites such as clinoptilolite persisted during high-temperature alteration at temperatures up to 100 degree C, suggesting that clinoptilolite at Yucca Mountain close to the thermally disturbed zone around a repository may also survive heating to temperatures at least this high. The mineralogic data from tuff at Yucca Mountain will ultimately be used by the Department of Energy Nevada Nuclear Waste storage Investigations for (1) defining the mineralogic component in estimating waste element travel times away from the repository and (2) determining the past history of alteration and the anticipated stability of minerals near the repository

  9. Economic considerations/comparisons for the disposal of defense high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclaire, D.B.; Lazur, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, in a generic sense, of the economic considerations and comparisons of permanent isolation of defense high-level waste (DHLW) in a licensed geologic repository. Topics considered include underground disposal, economic analysis, comparative evaluations, national defense, radioactive waste facilities, and licensing

  10. Safety principles and technical criteria for the underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to set out an internationally agreed set of principles and criteria for the design of deep underground repositories for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This book is concerned with the post-closure period. Consideration of the operational requirements which must be met when wastes are being handled, stored and emplaced are not therefore included

  11. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW

  12. Nuclear waste. DOE's program to prepare high-level radioactive waste for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, Carl J.; Owens, Ronald M.; Dowd, Leonard L.; Herndobler, Christopher S.; Purvine, Nancy R.; Stenersen, Stanley G.

    1989-11-01

    In summary, as of December 1988, the four sites collectively stored about 95 million gallons of high-level waste in underground tanks and bins. Approximately 57 million gallons are stored at Hanford, 34 million gallons at Savannah River, 3 million gallons at INEL, and 6 million gallons at West Valley. The waste is in several forms, including liquid, sludge, and dry granular materials, that make it unsuitable for permanent storage in its current state at these locations. Leaks from the tanks, designed for temporary storage, can pose an environmental hazard to surrounding land and water for thousands of years. DOE expects that when its waste processes at Savannah River, West Valley, and Hanford become operational, the high-level radioactive waste stored at these sites will be blended with other materials to immobilize it by forming a glass-like substance. The glass form will minimize the risk of environmental damage and make the waste more acceptable for permanent disposal in a geologic repository. At INEL, DOE is still considering various other immobilization and permanent disposal approaches. In July 1989, DOE estimated that it would cost about $13 billion (in fiscal year 1988 dollars) to retrieve, process, immobilize, and store the high-level waste until it can be moved to a permanent disposal site: about $5.3 billion is expected to be spent at Savannah River, $0.9 billion at West Valley, $2.8 billion at Hanford, and $4.0 billion at INEL. DOE has started construction at Savannah River and West Valley for facilities that will be used to transform the waste into glass (a process known as vitrification). These sites have each encountered schedule delays, and one has encountered a significant cost increase over earlier estimates. More specifically, the Savannah River facility is scheduled to begin high-level waste vitrification in 1992; the West Valley project, based on a January 1989 estimate, is scheduled to begin high-level waste vitrification in 1996, about 8

  13. Uncertainties in the geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaodong; Wang Changxuan

    2008-01-01

    Geological disposal, referring to the disposal of high-level solid radioactive waste in a facility located underground in a stable geological formation, was considered the most favourable methods to provide long term isolation of the radionuclides in the waste from the biosphere, and was adopted by IAEA and the developed nations with nuclear facilities. Over 50 years studies have been proved the technical feasibility of geological disposal for radioactive waste. However, there are many subjective and objective uncertainties on development, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility. For providing flexibility in responding to new technical information, advances in waste management and materials technologies, and in enabling social, economic and political aspects to be addressed, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties for all the R and D steps of a geological disposal program. (authors)

  14. Mining techniques and some aspects of high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagels, J.A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The solutions to many problems of underground waste disposal involve mine engineering. This article attempts to highlight chosen issues and thereby create an overall impression, avoiding emphasis on single-aspect calculation. High level waste (H.L.W.) dominates current radioactive waste studies because of its specific characteristics and is therefore dealt with in this paper. However, depending on the method of disposal the other categories of radio active waste might become problems by themselves because of the relatively large quantities involved. (Auth.)

  15. Effects of waste content of glass waste forms on Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of the waste content of glass waste forms of Savannah River high-level waste disposal costs are evaluated by their impact on the number of waste canisters produced. Changes in waste content affect onsite Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) costs as well as offsite shipping and repository emplacement charges. A nominal 1% increase over the 28 wt % waste loading of DWPF glass would reduce disposal costs by about $50 million for Savannah River wastes generated to the year 2000. Waste form modifications under current study include adjustments of glass frit content to compensate for added salt decontamination residues and increased sludge loadings in the DWPF glass. Projected cost reductions demonstrate significant incentives for continued optimization of the glass waste loadings. 13 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Study on engineering economics of China high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jun; Guo Zongzhi; Yang Lirong; Hu Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the research and analysis about the repository construction cost of the European, US and Japan, together with the concept design pattern of China's high level radioactive waste repository, the preliminary economic analysis of China is presented. Meanwhile, combining with China's nuclear power development layout and picking-up policy of spent fuel fund, the preliminary measurement concerning the capital resource of high level radioactive waste disposal is implemented, which contribute to the conclusion initiatively that the spent fuel fund could meet the need of the financial demand of disposal cost. (authors)

  17. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    1998-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Gansu Province, northwest of China, as an example, the author introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, the author also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System

  18. Development of a geoscience database for preselecting China's high level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Fan Ai; Huang Shutao; Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    Taking the development of a geoscience database for China's high level waste disposal sites: Yumen Town, Guansu province, northwest of China, as an example, this paper introduces in detail the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) to high level waste disposal and analyses its application prospect in other fields. The development of GIS provides brand-new thinking for administrators and technicians at all levels. At the same time, this paper also introduces the administration of maps and materials by using Geographical Information System. (author)

  19. Methods of Disposing Of High-Level Radioactive Waste: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abumurade, K.

    2002-01-01

    High level nuclear waste from both commercial reactors and defense industry presents a difficult problem to the scientific community as well as the public. The solutions to this problem is still debatable both technically and ethically. There are few methods proposed for disposing of high level waste. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. However, the very deep underground geologic repository is the best choice for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. The cost benefit equation of nuclear power production and its waste is discussed. However, the public should be educated about this matter to minimize the gap between them and the nuclear power community including scientists industry, and governments. (Author) 15 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Effect of canister size on costs of disposal of SRP high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    The current plan for managing the high-level nuclear wastes at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) calls for processing them into solid forms contained in stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal in a federal geologic repository. A new SRP facility called the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is being designed for the onsite waste processing operations. Preliminary evaluations indicate that costs of the overall disposal operation will depend significantly on the size of the canisters, which determines the number of waste forms to be processed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of canister size on costs of DWPF process operations, including canister procurement, waste solidification, and interim storage, on offsite transport, and on repository costs of disposal, including provision of suitable waste packages

  1. Way of thinking and method of promotion of disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Masatoshi

    1993-01-01

    It is decided that the high level waste separated from spent fuel is solidified with glass, stored for 30-50 years to cool it down, and the final disposal is done under the responsibility of the government. As to the final disposal of high level waste, the method of enclosing glass-solidified waste in robust containers and burying them in deep stable strata to isolate from human environment is considered to be the safest. The significance of fuel reprocessing is the proper and safe separation and control of high level waste besides the reuse of unburned uranium and newly formed plutonium in spent fuel. The features of the high level waste solids are that their amount to be generated is little, the radioactivity attenuates with the lapse of time, the heat generation decreases with the lapse of time, and they are hard to elute and move. In order to prevent radioactive substances from appearing in human environment by being dissolved in groundwater, those are isolated with the combination of natural and artificial barriers. The requirements for the barriers are discussed. The research and development are in progress on the establishment of stratum disposal technology, the evaluation of suitability of geological environment and the selection of expected disposal grounds. (K.I.)

  2. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  3. The scope and nature of the problem of high level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    The disposal of high level nuclear waste poses a challenge to the Canadian technical and scientific communities, but a much greater challenge to government and industry leaders who must convince the public that the so-called 'problem' can be resolved by a pragmatic approach utilizing existing skills and knowledge. This paper outlines the objectives of radioactive waste management, the quantities of high level waste expected to be produced by the Canadian nuclear power program, the regulatory process which will apply and the government initiatives which have been and will be taken to ensure that the health, safety, security, and environmental interests of the public will be protected. (author)

  4. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; El Amin, Mohamed F.; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since

  5. Assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high level waste on the ocean floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1976-10-01

    This study is a preliminary assessment of the potential radiological consequences of disposal of solidified high-level radioactive waste on the floor of the deep ocean. As an input to the modelling used in the assessment, an arbitrary choice is made to consider the total high-level waste which would be generated by a postulated world nuclear power programme to the year 2000. It is assumed that all this waste, in solidified form, is disposed of on to the floor of the North Atlantic. The body of this report is the modelling of the subsequent release of activity into the water, its dispersion in the ocean and eventual uptake in marine organisms and sediments. The consequent radiation exposure of man is assessed in terms of both individual and collective doses. It is intended that only broad conclusions should be drawn from this study. The objective of the assessment is to highlight those subject areas where more study of information is required before a decision can be reached regarding this method of disposal. No overriding reason connected with the radiological protection considerations has been identified which would preclude the disposal of suitably conditioned high-level waste on the ocean floor. Further evaluation of this disposal option is therefore justified. (author)

  6. High level waste transport and disposal cost calculations for the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nattress, P.C.; Ward, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power has been generated in the United Kingdom since 1962, and throughout that time fuel has been reprocessed giving rise to high level waste. This has been managed by storing fission products and related wastes as highly active liquor, and more recently by a program of vitrification and storage of the glass blocks produced. Government policy is that vitrified high level waste should be stored for at least 50 years, which has the technical advantage of allowing the heat output rate of the waste to fall, making disposal easier and cheaper. Thus, there is no immediate requirement to develop a deep geological repository in the UK, but the nuclear companies do have a requirement to make financial provision out of current revenues for high level waste disposal at a future repository. In 1991 the interested organizations undertook a new calculation of costs for such provisions, which is described here. The preliminary work for the calculation included the assumption of host geology characteristics, a compatible repository concept including overpacking, and a range of possible nuclear programs. These have differing numbers of power plants, and differing mixes of high level waste from reprocessing and spent fuel for direct disposal. An algorithm was then developed so that the cost of high level waste disposal could be calculated for any required case within a stated envelope of parameters. An Example Case was then considered in detail leading to the conclusion that a repository to meet the needs of a constant UK nuclear economy up to the middle of the next century would have a cash cost of UK Pounds 1194M (US$2011M). By simple division the cost to a kWh of electricity is UK Pounds 0.00027 (0.45 US mil). (author)

  7. High-level-waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form

  8. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  9. Development of knowledge building program concerning about high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takase, Hiroyasu

    2005-01-01

    Acquirement of knowledge about the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal is one of the important factors for public to determine the social acceptance of HLW disposal. However in Japan, public do not have knowledge about HLW and its disposal sufficiently. In this work, we developed the knowledge building program concerning about HLW disposal based on Nonaka, and Takeuchi's SECI spiral model in knowledge management, and carried to the experiment on this program. In the results, we found that the participants' knowledge about the HLW disposal increased and changed from misunderstanding' or 'assuming' to 'facts' or 'consideration' through this experimental program. These results said that the experimental program leads participants to have higher quality of knowledge about the HLW disposal. In consequence, this knowledge building program may be effective in the acquirement of high quality knowledge. (author)

  10. Techno-economical Analysis of High Level Waste Storage and Disposal Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Trontl, K.; Vrankic, K.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming and instability of gas and oil prices are redefining the role of nuclear energy in electrical energy production. A production of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), during the nuclear power plant operation and a danger of high level waste mitigation to the environment are considered by the public as a main obstacle of accepting the nuclear option. As economical and technical aspects of the back end of fuel cycle will affect the nuclear energy acceptance the techno-economical analysis of different methods for high level waste storage and disposal has to be performed. The aim of this paper is to present technical and economical characteristics of different HLW storage and disposal technologies. The final choice of a particular HLW management method is closely connected to the selection of a fuel cycle type: open or closed. Wet and dry temporary storage has been analyzed including different types of spent fuel pool capacity increase methods, different pool location (at reactor site and away from reactor site) as well as casks and vault system of dry storage. Since deep geological deposition is the only disposal method with a realistic potential, we focused our attention on that disposal technology. Special attention has been given to the new idea of international and regional disposal location. The analysis showed that a coexistence of different storage methods and deep geological deposition is expected in the future, regardless of the fuel cycle type. (author)

  11. Cognition of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced by nuclear power generation is an urgent issue. Recently, some questionnaire surveys were conducted. Especially the surveys in the Tokyo metropolitan area which were conducted by AESJ include the fulfilling questions concerning HLW relatively. In this paper, the author shows the results of surveys by AESJ. These results show that the issue concerning HLW is not so much concern for the respondents by comparison with many kinds of issues in the society. They also show that female respondents have less understanding about HLW disposal and have more degree of anxiety against HLW and disposal than male respondents. (author)

  12. Technical development for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sugino, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Susumu; Yamanaka, Yumiko

    1997-01-01

    Technical developments for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes materials research and design technique for engineered barriers (overpack and buffer material) were studied to evaluate more reliable disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes. A lifetime prediction model for the maximum corrosion depth of carbon steel was developed. A preferable alloys evaluation method for crevice corrosion was established for titanium. Swelling pressure and water permeability of bentonite as a buffer material was measured, and coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical analysis code for bentonite was also studied. The CIP (cold isostatic pressing) method for monolithically formed buffer material was tested. A concept study on operation equipment for the disposal site was performed. Activities of microorganisms involved in underground performance were investigated. (author)

  13. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 2: Radiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Berhendt, V.; Ensminger, D.; Flebus, C.; Hutchinson, B.; Kane, P.; Karpf, A.; Klett, R.; Mobbs, S.; Poulin, M.; Stanner, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report presents the results of the radiological assessment which consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment which could result from the disposal of high level nuclear waste within seabed sediments in the deep oceans

  14. Disposal of high level and long lived radioactive waste in deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niezborala, J.M.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The status of ANDRA's research program on high level and long lived waste corresponds to the start of construction of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory in an argillite layer, as well as to the selection in 1999 of preliminary disposal concepts corresponding to this layer. The paper describes the preliminary concepts dealing with transuranic waste, high level vitrified waste and potentially disposed spent fuel. Provision is made for a high level of flexibility, in particular with regard to options of reversibility of the disposal process, and to potential evolutions of the waste inventory. These concepts were selected for research purpose to assess by the year 2006 the feasibility of a potential repository, with.respect in particular to safety rules. The paper mentions the research targets of the program aiming at answering major scientific and technological questions raised by the concepts. The program includes the fitting and validation of the modelling, on the basis in particular of the experimental work to be carried out in the Underground Research Laboratory, making it possible to dimension the disposal concepts and to assess their safety. (authors)

  15. Risk management and organizational systems for high-level radioactive waste disposal: Issues and priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, J.; Cook, B.; Kasperson, R.; Brown, H.; Guble, R.; Himmelberger, J.; Tuller, S.

    1988-09-01

    The discussion to follow explores the nature of the high-level radioactive waste disposal tasks and their implications for the design and organizational structure of effective risk management systems. We organize this discussion in a set of interrelated tasks that draw upon both relevant theory and accumulated experience. Specifically these tasks are to assess the management implications of the high levels of technical and social uncertainty that characterize the technology and mission; to identify the elements of organizational theory that bear upon risk management system design; to explore these theoretical issues in the context of two hypothetical risk scenarios associated with radioactive waste disposal; to consider the appropriate role of engineered and geological barriers; to examine briefly issues implicit in DOE's past waste management performance, with special attention to the Hanford facility; and to suggest findings and recommendations that require further attention. 74 refs

  16. CIGeO geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, Gerald; Bolia, Jelana

    2014-01-01

    Andra is the sole French organization responsible for the radioactive waste management in the country. Its work relies extensively on the legal basis provided by several major laws (Waste Act of 1991 and the Planning Act of 2006), which shaped the main principles of the waste management strategy and determined the corresponding implementation tools. Andra's industrial activities are essentially based around three of its national disposal facilities. Two of these operational facilities, by their design and comprehensive monitoring system, are considered worldwide as solid and proven reference solutions for the concerned types of radioactive waste. Andra is also charged with designing a future deep geological repository for intermediate-level long-lived and high-level waste and researching potential management and disposal solutions for the graphite and radium-bearing waste. The purpose of this article is to update the information to the readers about the Cigeo geological disposal project for high-level radioactive waste in France (authors)

  17. Silicon-Polymer Encapsulation of High-Level Calcine Waste for Transportation or Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Miller, C.M.; Giansiracusa, J.A.; Kimmel, R.; Prewett, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study investigating the potential uses for silicon-polymer encapsulation of High Level Calcine Waste currently stored within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The study investigated two different applications of silicon polymer encapsulation. One application uses silicon polymer to produce a waste form suitable for disposal at a High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility directly, and the other application encapsulates the calcine material for transportation to an offsite melter for further processing. A simulated waste material from INTEC, called pilot scale calcine, which contained hazardous materials but no radioactive isotopes was used for the study, which was performed at the University of Akron under special arrangement with Orbit Technologies, the originators of the silicon polymer process called Polymer Encapsulation Technology (PET). This document first discusses the PET process, followed by a presentation of past studies involving PET applications to waste problems. Next, the results of an experimental study are presented on encapsulation of the INTEC calcine waste as it applies to transportation or disposal of calcine waste. Results relating to long-term disposal include: (1) a characterization of the pilot calcine waste; (2) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing of an optimum mixture of pilot calcine, polysiloxane and special additives; and, (3) Material Characterization Center testing MCC-1P evaluation of the optimum waste form. Results relating to transportation of the calcine material for a mixture of maximum waste loading include: compressive strength testing, 10-m drop test, melt testing, and a Department of Transportation (DOT) oxidizer test

  18. Radiation effects in glass waste forms for high-level waste and plutonium disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    A key challenge in the permanent disposal of high-level waste (HLW), plutonium residues/scraps, and excess weapons plutonium in glass waste forms is the development of predictive models of long-term performance that are based on a sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Radiation effects from β-decay and α-decay can impact the performance of glasses for HLW and Pu disposition through the interactions of the α-particles, β-particles, recoil nuclei, and γ-rays with the atoms in the glass. Recently, a scientific panel convened under the auspices of the DOE Council on Materials Science to assess the current state of understanding, identify important scientific issues, and recommend directions for research in the area of radiation effects in glasses for HLW and Pu disposition. The overall finding of the panel was that there is a critical lack of systematic understanding on radiation effects in glasses at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels. The current state of understanding on radiation effects in glass waste forms and critical scientific issues are presented

  19. U.S. Programs in the development of spent fuel and high-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    U. S. Progess in the development of a national high-level radioactive waste disposal system is reported. The mutual benefits of international cooperation in developing the technology for radioactive management and disposal are also described. (Huang)

  20. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  1. Research and development plans for disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Platt, A.M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan recommends a 20-year, 206 million (1975 $'s) R and D program on geologic structures in the contiguous U.S. and on the midplate Pacific seabed with the objective of developing an acceptable method for disposal of commercial high-level and transuranic wastes by 1997. No differentiation between high-level and transuranic waste disposal is made in the first 5 years of the program. A unique application of probability theory to R and D planning establishes, at a 95% confidence level, that the program objective will be met if at least fifteen generic options and five specific disposal sites are explored in detail and at least two pilot plants are constructed and operated. A parallel effort on analysis and evaluation maximizes information available for decisions on the acceptability of the disposal techniques. Based on considerations of technical feasibility, timing and technical risk, the other disposal concepts, e.g., ice sheets, partitioning, transmutation and space disposal cited in BNWL-1900 are not recommended for near future R and D

  2. Systems costs for disposal of Savannah River high-level waste sludge and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.; Goodlett, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    A systems cost model has been developed to support disposal of defense high-level waste sludge and salt generated at the Savannah River Plant. Waste processing activities covered by the model include decontamination of the salt by a precipitation process in the waste storage tanks, incorporation of the sludge and radionuclides removed from the salt into glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and, after interim storage, final disposal of the DWPF glass waste canisters in a federal geologic repository. Total costs for processing of waste generated to the year 2000 are estimated to be about $2.9 billion (1984 dollars); incremental unit costs for DWPF and repository disposal activities range from $120,000 to $170,000 per canister depending on DWPF processing schedules. In a representative evaluation of process alternatives, the model is used to demonstrate cost effectiveness of adjustments in the frit content of the waste glass to reduce impacts of wastes generated by the salt decontamination operations. 13 references, 8 tables

  3. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  4. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  5. A perspective on demonstrating compliance with standards for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A perspective which the authors have developed on the problem of demonstrating that geologic repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes will comply with system performance standards is discussed. Their viewpoint arises from a concern that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed environmental standard for high-level waste disposal appears to require demonstrations of compliance which are incompatible with scientific knowledge; i.e., the standard does not take into account the likely importance of unquantifiable and unresolvable uncertainty in repository performance-assessment models. A general approach to demonstrations of compliance is proposed which is thought to be compatible with the kinds of technical information that will be available for judging long-term repository performance. The authors' approach emphasizes the importance of investigating alternative conceptual models and lines of reasoning in evaluating repository performance and the importance of subjective scientific judgment in the decision-making process. (Auth.)

  6. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 4: Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickerson, J.; Freeman, T.J.; Boisson, J.Y.; Murray, C.N.; Gera, F.; Nakamura, H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.D.; Schaller, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes work performed to develop and evaluate engineering methods of emplacing high level radioactive waste in stable, deep ocean sediments. It includes results of desktop studies, laboratory experiments and field tests conducted in deep water

  7. Performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallants, Dirk; Marivoet, Jan; Sillen, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Deep disposal is considered a safe solution to the management of high-level radioactive waste. The safety is usually demonstrated by means of a performance assessment. This paper discusses the methodological aspects and some of the results obtained for the performance assessment of the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in a clay layer in Belgium. The calculations consider radionuclide migration through the following multi-barrier components, all of which contribute to the overall safety: (1) engineered barriers and the host clay layer, (2) overlying aquifer, and (3) biosphere. The interfaces between aquifers and biosphere are limited to the well and river pathway. Results of the performance assessment calculations are given in terms of the time evolution of the dose rates of the most important fission and activation products and actinides. The role of the glass matrix in the overall performance of the repository is also discussed

  8. Current R and D Status on High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Selected Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Hwang, Yong Soo

    2008-11-15

    Current R and D status of such countries moving forward as the United States, Sweden, France, Japan and a few other countries for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological formation has been reviewed. Even though no HLW repositories have not practically constructed nor operated yet, lots of related R and D are being proceeded in many countries as well as in Korea. Through this brief review further progress is anticipated in this related R and D area in Korea.

  9. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E.; Weiss, H.

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  10. Necessary contents of public outreach for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Noriko; Okamoto, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is one of the solutions for global warming. However, the nuclear power generation technology can not be completed unless the disposal method of the radioactive waste is decided. Various actions are performed about the High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) disposal in particular in each country. However, planning of HLW disposal site was not successful, except Finland and Sweden. In Japan, geological disposal of HLW was selected. The operating body and the capital management body are also decided. Up to the present, no municipality apply the disposal site candidate. An important social element for HLW disposal is careful explanation and communication for municipality. For this purpose, a symposium to explain necessity of HLW is held in each district in Japan. The symposium is not successful, because of lack of carefulness to local situation considered. In this study, we evaluates the questionnaire by the symposium attendee to extract the idea and requests by the local people. With these questionnaire, the responsibility of the government should be more enhanced. Also, the detail answer to the people's questions are needed. Using these knowledge, the HLW disposal social acceptance has been discussed. (author)

  11. Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed

  12. Canada's high-level nuclear waste disposal concept and its evaluation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Grant; Shemilt, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of disposing high-level nuclear waste in granitic rocks in the Canadian Shield, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is anticipated to undergo a national public review within two years. The disposal concept, its documentation, and its process of evaluation, including the role of the public, government and the scientific/engineering community, are summarized. A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) has provided external peer review of the Program since 1979 and its findings are published in annual reports which are publicly available. (author)

  13. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  14. International safeguards relevant to geologic disposal of high-level wastes and spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles placed in underground repositories have the potential to become attractive targets for diversion and/or theft because of their valuable material content and decreasing radioactivity. The first geologic repository in the US, as currently designed, will contain approximately 500 Mt of plutonium, 60,000 Mt of uranium and a host of other fissile and strategically important elements. This paper identifies some of the international safeguards issues relevant to the various proposed scenarios for disposing of the spent fuel. In the context of the US program for geologic disposal of spent fuels, this paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries, the Department of Energy, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission before the geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality. Based on US spent fuel discharges, an example is presented to illustrate the enormity of the problem of verifying spent fuel inventories. The geologic disposal scenario for high-level wastes originating from defense facilities produced a ''practicably irrecoverable'' waste form. Therefore, safeguards issues for geologic disposal of high-level waste now in the US are less pressing. 56 refs. , 2 figs

  15. Geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China: progress during 1985-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Zheng Hualing; Fan Xianhua; Wang Chengzu; Fan Zhiwen

    2005-01-01

    Safe disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) is a challenging issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The studies for the disposal of HLW in China started in 1985, the proposed goal was to build China's high level waste repository by mid-21st Century, while the waste to be disposed of will be vitrified waste, transuranic waste and small amount of spent fuel. The proposed repository was a shaft-tunnel-silo model hosted by granite in saturated zone. In the period of 1985 to 2004, progress was made in China's HLW disposal program. It was decided that 'deep geological disposal' will be used to dispose of China's HLW, while the technical strategy for the development of repository will a 3-step strategy, that includes steps of site selection and site evaluation, construction of underground research laboratory, and construction of repository. Based on nation wide screening, the Beishan area, Gansu Province, northwestern China, located in Gobi desert area with few inhabitants, integral crust structure and favorable geological and hydrogeological conditions, was selected as the most potential area for China's repository. In early 1990's, site selection for underground research laboratory was conducted, 2 sites in the suburb of Beijing were preliminarily selected as the potential sites for a 'generic underground research laboratory'. It was determined to use bentonite as backfill material for the repository, while the bentonite from Gaomiaozi deposit in Inner Mongolia was selected as potential buffer and backfill material for China's repository. The studies on the mineralogical, geotechnical, physico-mechanical and thermal properties of the Gaomiaozi bentonite have been conducting. Some parameters such as sorption radio, diffusion coefficient and dispersion coefficient of radionuclides (Np, Pu and Tc) in Beishan granite and bentonite have been obtained. A low-oxygen glove box and a device simulating the temperature, pressure and redox potential of

  16. Health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning on high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1992-05-01

    The potential health and environmental risk-related impacts of actinide burning for high-level waste disposal were evaluated. Actinide burning, also called waste partitioning-transmutation, is an advanced method for radioactive waste management based on the idea of destroying the most toxic components in the waste. It consists of two steps: (1) selective removal of the most toxic radionuclides from high-level/spent fuel waste and (2) conversion of those radionuclides into less toxic radioactive materials and/or stable elements. Risk, as used in this report, is defined as the probability of a failure times its consequence. Actinide burning has two potential health and environmental impacts on waste management. Risks and the magnitude of high-consequence repository failure scenarios are decreased by inventory reduction of the long-term radioactivity in the repository. (What does not exist cannot create risk or uncertainty.) Risk may also be reduced by the changes in the waste characteristics, resulting from selection of waste forms after processing, that are superior to spent fuel and which lower the potential of transport of radionuclides from waste form to accessible environment. There are no negative health or environmental impacts to the repository from actinide burning; however, there may be such impacts elsewhere in the fuel cycle

  17. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  18. Underground disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste: a review of research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A review has been undertaken of the worldwide status of research and development related to the geological disposal of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The nature and quantities of vitrified high level waste that will arise from nuclear power generation in the UK have been estimated and considered. The safety case for establishing a geological repository would have to be based on predictive models, which could adequately represent the interactions and effects of a wide range of gradual processes and possible sudden events. No detailed repository design has yet been published, but the configuration currently favoured, in the UK and in most other countries, comprises a small number of vertical shafts, from which a network of horizontal tunnels would be excavated. Waste packages would be placed in holes drilled in the floors of the tunnels. The excavation of such a repository in hard crystalline rock, in a thick homogeneous formation of rock salt, or in the less plastic argillaceous formations, appears to be within the scope of present technology. Rock types available in the UK, which are likely to prove suitable for the accommodation of a repository, have been identified. The strategies and programmes for high level waste disposal in other countries have been reviewed. (U.K.)

  19. Problems related to final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, the radioactivity of the total amount of radioactive waste accumulated in Russia to date is 1.5*10 9 Ci and of spent fuel 4.5*10 9 Ci. A table is given that shows the source, type, volume activity and storage type under the responsibility of the different departments and enterprises. 99.9% of the wastes are accumulated at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation. Some companies inject their liquid wastes from ionisation sources and intermediate liquid waste from the nuclear power industry into deep-seated reliably isolated aquifers. The Mayak plant has released liquid low-level and intermediate wastes into artificial reservoirs and Lake Karachay. Liquid high-level wastes are always stored in special tanks at interim storage facilities. A large number of nuclear submarines are laid up in North-Western Russia and East Russia, with spent fuel still in place as the interim storages in these regions are filled up and there are no conditioning plants. Underground disposal is considered the best way of isolating radioactive waste for as long as it is hazardous to the environment. Two new technologies are discussed. One involves including long-lived isotopes in high-stable mineral matrices, the other uses selective separation from the bulk of wastes. The matrices should be disposed of deep in the Earth's crust, at least 2-3 km down. Liquid waste of caesium-strontium fraction must be transformed into glass-like form and stored underground at a depth of a few hundred metres. Short-lived low level and intermediate level wastes should be conditioned and then deposited in subsurface ferroconcrete repositories constructed in clays. Finally, the presentation discusses the selection of sites and conditions for radioactive waste disposal. Two sites are discussed, the Mayak plant and a possible site at Mining Chemical Combine in Krasnoyarsk-26

  20. Hydrodynamic analysis and design of high-level radioactive waste disposal model penetrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visintini, L.; Mazazzi, R.; Murray, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities is studying in the framework of the NEA/OECD Internationally Co-ordinational Seabed Programme the feasibility of using deep ocean sedimentary geological formations as a final disposal medium for vitrified high level waste and fuel elements. At present, two options are being considered for the embedment of such wastes in the sediment column, drilling and free fall penetrators. In the second case, the high level waste would be contained in specially designed drums which would be placed into torpedo-shaped projectiles. These penetrators would then be launched from a semi-submersible platform or ship and allowed to fall freely through the water column (≅ 5 km depth) and to bury themselves within the sediment column. The present article reports some work which has been carried out by the Joint Research Centre, Ispra Establishment on designing large model penetrators for tests at two sites in the North Atlantic

  1. High-level radioactive waste disposal: Key geochemical issues and information needs for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.J.; Bembia, P.J.; Bradbury, J.W.; Jackson, K.C.; Kelly, W.R.; Kovach, L.A.; Mo, T.; Tesoriero, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Geochemistry plays a key role in determining the potential of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site for long-term radionuclide containment and isolation. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a set of issues and information needs important for characterizing geochemistry at the potential sites being investigated by the Department of Energy Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations project, and Salt Repository Project. The NRC site issues and information needs consider (1) the geochemical environment of the repository, (2) changes to the initial geochemical environment caused by construction and waste emplacement, and (3) interactions that affect the transport of waste radionuclides to the accessible environment. The development of these issues and information needs supports the ongoing effort of the NRC to identify and address areas of geochemical data uncertainty during prelicensing interactions

  2. Hydrological evaluation of five sedimentary rocks for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Kanehiro, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing performance criteria that are based upon siting guidelines issued by DOE for postclosure as well as preclosure conditions, a preliminary hydrologic evaluation and ranking is being conducted to determine the suitability of five sedimentary rocks as potential host rocks for a high-level radioactive waste repository. Based upon both quantitative and qualitative considerations, the hydrological ranking of the rocks in order of their potential as a host rock for the disposal of radioactive wastes would be shale, anhydrock, sandstone, chalk, and carbonates, with the first three rocks being significantly better than the remaining two types

  3. Legal and judicial perspectives on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 creates a maze of legal requirements that are complex and subject to differing interpretations. The intervention of the courts should be anticipated as varying interests dispute the correct path through the maze to high-level waste disposal. A significant number of legal issues and unsettled questions exist that will need to be resolved. The challenge will be to minimize the delays that legal conflicts can produce. This can be helped by resolving uncertainties and conflicts early before they are on the critical path or negotiating resolutions, normally a difficult and costly endeavor

  4. Development of geological disposal system for spent fuels and high-level radioactive wastes in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Jong Won

    2013-01-01

    Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel) for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF GEOLOGICAL DISPOSAL SYSTEMS FOR SPENT FUELS AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEUI-JOO CHOI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two different kinds of nuclear power plants produce a substantial amount of spent fuel annually in Korea. According to the current projection, it is expected that around 60,000 MtU of spent fuel will be produced from 36 PWR and APR reactors and 4 CANDU reactors by the end of 2089. In 2006, KAERI proposed a conceptual design of a geological disposal system (called KRS, Korean Reference disposal System for spent fuel for PWR and CANDU spent fuel, as a product of a 4-year research project from 2003 to 2006. The major result of the research was that it was feasible to construct a direct disposal system for 20,000 MtU of PWR spent fuels and 16,000 MtU of CANDU spent fuel in the Korean peninsula. Recently, KAERI and MEST launched a project to develop an advanced fuel cycle based on the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel to reduce the amount of HLW and reuse the valuable fissile material in PWR spent fuel. Thus, KAERI has developed a geological disposal system for high-level waste from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuel since 2007. However, since no decision was made for the CANDU spent fuel, KAERI improved the disposal density of KRS by introducing several improved concepts for the disposal canister. In this paper, the geological disposal systems developed so far are briefly outlined. The amount and characteristics of spent fuel and HLW, 4 kinds of disposal canisters, the characteristics of a buffer with domestic Ca-bentonite, and the results of a thermal design of deposition holes and disposal tunnels are described. The different disposal systems are compared in terms of their disposal density.

  6. Disposal of high level radioactive waste consideration of some basic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The series of Nordic documents on radiation protection principles present the joint views of the Nordic authorities on radiation protection issues. These views are to be regarded as recommendations to the same Nordic authorities to be considered in their work on national regulations and applications. This document deals with the principles of disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuels, and is therefore intended for authorities in nuclear safety as well as radiation protection. The emphasis is on radiation protection criteria, and the document is primarily directed to the authorities but can also be of interest to the nuclear power industry in its planning of disposal facilities. It can also be used as a source of information on the problems associated with high level waste and on the principles by which these problems would be solved. The main emphasis has been placed on the long-term aspects. The recommendations given by ICRP and the ideas and discussions presented by NEA and IAEA in various publications were the main documents taken into account. The discussions concentrate on the deep geological repository which is the main disposal concept currently being considered in the Nordic countries. The plans in Finland and Sweden include the selection of a disposal site around the year 2000 and a construction period in the early part of the next century. 32 refs, 3 figs

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Effect of coupling behavior on groundwater flow for geological disposal of radioactive high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    In order to estimate the effects of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical phenomena in near-field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste on a vast groundwater flow system, a far-field analysis was simulated based on the results of the simulation of coupled phenomena in near-field using averaged tensor and heat flux. From the results of the coupled analyses of near-field and far-field it was clarified that groundwater flow system was influenced by coupled phenomena in near-field. Moreover, it can be said that groundwater flux into a disposal tunnel is regarded as a complement to safety assessment of a disposal because it strongly correlates with traveling time of groundwater. (author)

  9. Status of the United States' high-level nuclear waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a remarkable piece of legislation in that there is general agreement on its key provisions. Nevertheless, this is a program intended to span more than a century, with some choices by Congress, states, Indian tribes and the nuclear power industry yet to be made. The crafters of the Act clearly recognized this. And further, the crafters recognized ''. . .that. . .state, Indian tribe and public participation in the planning and development of repositories is essential in order to promote public confidence in the safety of disposal of such waste and spent fuel . . . High-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel have become major subjects of public concern, and appropriate precautions must be taken to ensure that such waste and spent fuel do not adversely affect the public health and safety and the environment for this or future generations

  10. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials [CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)], which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Robotics and remote handling concepts for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAffee, Douglas; Raczka, Norman; Schwartztrauber, Keith

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary remote handling and robotic concepts being developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project. The DOE is currently evaluating the Yucca Mountain Nevada site for suitability as a possible underground geologic repository for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The current advanced conceptual design calls for the disposal of more than 12,000 high level nuclear waste packages within a 225 km underground network of tunnels and emplacement drifts. Many of the waste packages may weigh as much as 66 tonnes and measure 1.8 m in diameter and 5.6 m long. The waste packages will emit significant levels of radiation and heat. Therefore, remote handling is a cornerstone of the repository design and operating concepts. This paper discusses potential applications areas for robotics and remote handling technologies within the subsurface repository. It also summarizes the findings of a preliminary technology survey which reviewed available robotic and remote handling technologies developed within the nuclear, mining, rail and industrial robotics and automation industries, and at national laboratories, universities, and related research institutions and government agencies

  13. Perspective on demonstrations of compliance for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; O'Kelly, G.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses a perspective which we have developed on the problem of demonstrating compliance of high-level waste repositories with system performance standards. Our viewpoint arises from two primary concerns - first, that the US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed environmental standard for high-level waste disposal appears to require demonstrations of compliance which are incompatible with scientific knowledge, and, second, that the federal agencies involved in the licensing process may not appreciate fully the extent of unquantifiable and uresolvable uncertainty in repository performance-assessment models. We propose a general approach to demonstrations of compliance which we feel is compatible with the kinds of technical information that will be available for judging repository performance. Our approach emphasizes the importance of investigation alternative conceptual models and lines of reasoning in evaluating repository performance and the importance of subjective scientific judgment in the desision-making process. 24 references, 1 figure

  14. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Historical perspective and contemporary issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary concept on the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, the position of Japan in the world stream of geological disposal, and the ideal aspect of the Japanese geological disposal after the Fukushima accident are described. (M.H.)

  15. Method for the conditioning of high level radioactive wastes for their safe storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geel, J. van; Eschrich, H.; Detilleux, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of solidified high level radioactive wastes to enable them to be safely stored or disposed of in an approved manner. The solidified waste is embedded in a matrix of pure metals or metal alloys. The metals may be Pb, Pb/Sb alloys, Pb/Sn alloys, Pb/Bi alloys, Pb/Zn alloys, or mixtures of these, or Al, Al/Si alloys, Al/Mg alloys, Al/Cu alloys, or mixtures. The matrix is clad with non-corrosive material, selected from stainless steel, Ti, Pb, Pb alloys, Al, Al alloys, or mixtures of same. A non-corrosive container is filled with the solidified waste and is heated to above the melting temperature of the metallic matrix material used to embed the waste. The matrix material is then added and the container is cooled. The container may then be degassed. The solidified waste feed may be in the form of a vitreous material containing the high level waste; this vitreous material may consist of a lead borosilicate or a mixture of non-lead borosilicates and phosphate glasses, and the method of preparing it is described. (U.K.)

  16. Conceptual design of the Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The Virtual Engineering System for the High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VE) adopts such computer science technologies as advanced numerical simulation technology with special emphasis upon computer graphics, massive parallel computing, high speed networking, knowledge engineering, database technology to virtually construct the natural and the part of social environment of disposal site in syberspace to realize the disposal OS as its final target. The principle of tile VE is to provide for a firm business standpoint after The 2000 Report by JNC and supply decision support system which promotes various evaluations needed to be done from the year of 2000 to the licensing application for disposal to the government. The VE conceptual design was performed in the year of 1998. The functions of the VE are derived from the analysis of work scope of implementing organization in each step of geological waste disposal: the VE functions need the safety performance assessment, individual process analysis, facility designing, cost evaluation, site surveillance, research and development, public acceptance. Then the above functions are materialized by integrating such individual system as geology database, groundwater database, safety performance assessment system, coupled phenomena analysis system, decision support system, cost evaluation system, and public acceptance system. The integration method of the systems was studied. The concept of the integration of simulators has also been studied from the view point of CAPASA program. Parallel computing, networking, and computer graphic for high speed massive scientific calculation were studied in detail as the element technology to achieve the VE. Based on studies stated above, the concept of the waste disposal project and subjects that arise from 1999 to licensing application are decided. (author)

  17. Studies on site characterization methodologies for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Guo Yonghai; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the final achievement of the project 'Studies of Site-specific Geological Environment for High Level Waste Disposal and Performance Assessment Methodology, Part Ⅰ: Studies on Site Characterization Methodologies for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal', which is a 'Key Scientific and Technological Pre-Research Project for National Defense' during 2001-2005. The study area is Beishan area, Gansu Province, NW China--the most potential site for China's underground research laboratory and high level radioactive waste repository. The boreholes BS01, BS2, BS03 and BS04 drilled in fractured granite media in Beishan are used to conduct comprehensive studies on site characterization methodologies, including: bore hole drilling method, in situ measurement methods of hydrogeological parameters, underground water sampling technology, hydrogeochemical logging method, geo-stress measurement method, acoustic borehole televiewer measurement method, borehole radar measurement method, fault stability evaluation methods and rock joint evaluation method. The execution of the project has resulted in the establishment of an 'Integrated Methodological System for Site Characterization in Granite Site for High Level Radioactive Waste Repository' and the 8 key methodologies for site characterization: bore hole drilling method with minimum disturbance to rock mass, measurement method for hydrogeological parameters of fracture granite mass, in situ groundwater sampling methods from bore holes in fractured granite mass, fracture measurement methods by borehole televiewer and bore radar system, hydrogeochemical logging, low permeability measurement methods, geophysical methods for rock mass evaluation, modeling methods for rock joints. Those methods are comprehensive, advanced, innovative, practical, reliable and of high accuracy. The comprehensive utilization of those methods in granite mass will help to obtain systematic parameters of

  18. Storage and disposal of high-level radioactive waste from advanced FBR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Waste management of fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycle with and without partitioning and transmutation (P and T) technology was investigated by focusing on thermal constraints due to heat deposition from waste in storage and disposal facilities including economics aspects of those facilities. Partitioning of minor actinides (MAs) and heat-generating fission products in high-level waste can enlarge the containment ratio of waste elements in the glass waste forms and shorten predisposal storage period. Though MAs can be transmuted in FBRs or dedicated transmuters, heat-generating fission products are difficult to be transmuted; they are partitioned and stored for a long time before disposal. The disposal concepts for heat-generating fission products and remainders such as rare-earth elements depend on storage period that ranges from several years to several hundreds of years. Short-term storage results in small size of storage facilities and large size of repositories, and vice versa for long-term storage. This trade-off relation was analyzed by estimating repository size as a function of storage period. The result shows that transmutation of MAs is essentially effective to reduce repository size regardless to storage period, and a combination of P and T can provide a smaller repository than the conventional one by two orders of magnitude. The cost analysis for waste management was also made based on rough assumptions on storage, transportation and repository excluding cost for introducing P and T that are still under evaluation. Cost of waste management for FBR without P and T is 0.25 Yen/kWh that is slightly smaller than that for LWR without P and T, 0.30 Yen/kWh. The introduction of MA transmutation to the FBR results in cost of 0.20 Yen/kWh, and full introduction of P and T provides the smallest cost of 0.08 Yen/kWh. (author)

  19. Granite disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Lee, Joon H.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Francis D.; Price, Ronald H.; Lord, Anna Snider

    2011-08-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of disposing U.S. high-level radioactive waste in granite several hundred meters below the surface of the earth. The U.S. has many granite formations with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar crystalline formations have been extensively studied by international programs, two of which, in Sweden and Finland, are the host rocks of submitted or imminent repository license applications. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in granite media. In this report we develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes (FEPs) identified by international investigators, to support generic conclusions regarding post-closure safety. Unlike the safety analyses for disposal in salt, shale/clay, or deep boreholes, the safety analysis for a mined granite repository depends largely on waste package preservation. In crystalline rock, waste packages are preserved by the high mechanical stability of the excavations, the diffusive barrier of the buffer, and favorable chemical conditions. The buffer is preserved by low groundwater fluxes, favorable chemical conditions, backfill, and the rigid confines of the host rock. An added advantage of a mined granite repository is that waste packages would be fairly easy to retrieve, should retrievability be an important objective. The results of the safety analyses performed in this study are consistent with the results of comprehensive safety assessments performed for sites in Sweden, Finland, and Canada. They indicate that a granite repository would satisfy established safety criteria and suggest that a small number of FEPs would largely control the release and transport of radionuclides. In the event the U.S. decides to pursue a potential repository in granite, a detailed evaluation of these FEPs would be needed to inform site

  20. Present situation and perspective of China's geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    2005-01-01

    The theme of the conference, 'Political and Technical Progress of Geologic Repositories', has drawn world-wide attention and remains a challenging topic facing the nuclear industry. I am delighted to attend this important conference and have the opportunity to state our views. And I would like to express my gratitude to our host Sweden and IAEA. The development of nuclear science and technology and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy is one of the greatest achievements of the mankind in the 20. century. The development and progress of nuclear technology, from application of fission energy to the exploration of fusion energy, embodies the mankind's expectation to the future. It will be the major energy of final settlement of the issue of global sustainable development. The safe and effective treatment and disposal of nuclear waste are of vital importance to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and technology. The most dangerous and long-lived waste has to be contained and isolated from the human living environment. Construction of geologic repository in appropriate geological formation for radioactive waste disposal is being accepted as a suitable solution and being studied widely. In the International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver, U.S.A., in November 1999, senior governmental representatives from more than 20 countries stated related policies and decisions of their respective countries, which caught world-wide attention. I am convinced that this conference, an event about geologic repository following the Denver conference, will produce positive results for the safe and effective disposal of nuclear waste. Now I would like to take this opportunity to brief you on China's current situation and perspectives of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  3. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  4. Regional hydrogeological conceptual model of candidate Beishan area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hailong; Guo Yonghai

    2014-01-01

    The numerical modeling of groundwater flow is an important aspect of hydrogeological assessment in siting of a high level radioactive waste disposal repository. Hydrogeological conceptual model is the basic and premise of numerical modeling of groundwater flow. Based on the hydrogeological analysis of candidate Beishan area, surface water system was created by using DEM data and the modeling area is determined. Three-dimensional hydrogeological structure model was created through GMS software. On the basis of analysis and description of boundary condition, flow field, groundwater budget and hydrogeological parameters, hydrogeological conceptual model was set up for the Beishan area. (authors)

  5. Validation of the Performance of High-level Waste Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Park, J. H.; Lee, J. O. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The experimental researches to validate the integrity and safety of high-level waste disposal system were carried out. The studies on the construction of KURT, and the site rock characteristics were conducted. Thermal-hydro-mechanical behavior of engineered barrier system was investigated using the engineering-scale test facility. The migration and retardation of radionuclide through the rock fracture under anaerobic and reducing condition were studied. The distribution coefficients of radionuclides onto granite, the rock matrix diffusion coefficients, and the gap and grain boundary inventories of spent fuel were measured.

  6. Progress and future direction for the interim safe storage and disposal of Hanford high level waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the progress made at the largest environmental cleanup program in the United States. Substantial advances in methods to start interim safe storage of Hanford Site high-level wastes, waste characterization to support both safety- and disposal-related information needs, and proceeding with cost-effective disposal by the US DOE and its Hanford Site contractors, have been realized. Challenges facing the Tank Waste Remediation System Program, which is charged with the dual and parallel missions of interim safe storage and disposal of the high-level tank waste stored at the Hanford Site, are described

  7. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy

  8. Comparison of SRP high-level waste disposal costs for borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonell, W.R.

    1982-04-01

    An evaluation of costs for the immobilization and repository disposal of SRP high-level wastes indicates that the borosilicate glass waste form is less costly than the crystalline ceramic waste form. The wastes were assumed immobilized as glass with 28% waste loading in 10,300 reference 24-in.-diameter canisters or as crystalline ceramic with 65% waste loading in either 3400 24-in.-diameter canisters or 5900 18-in.-diameter canisters. After an interim period of onsite storage, the canisters would be transported to the federal repository for burial. Total costs in undiscounted 1981 dollars of the waste disposal operations, excluding salt processing for which costs are not yet well defined, were about $2500 million for the borosilicate glass form in reference 24-in.-diameter canisters, compared to about $2900 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 24-in.-diameter canisters and about $3100 million for the crystalline ceramic form in 18-in.-diameter canisters. No large differences in salt processing costs for the borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic forms are expected. Discounting to present values, because of a projected 2-year delay in startup of the DWPF for the crystalline ceramic form, preserved the overall cost advantage of the borosilicate glass form. The waste immobilization operations for the glass form were much less costly than for the crystalline ceramic form. The waste disposal operations, in contrast, were less costly for the crystalline ceramic form, due to fewer canisters requiring disposal; however, this advantage was not sufficient to offset the higher development and processing costs of the crystalline ceramic form. Changes in proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations to permit lower cost repository packages for defense high-level wastes would decrease the waste disposal costs of the more numerous borosilicate glass forms relative to the crystalline ceramic forms

  9. An underground research tunnel for the validation of high-level radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Park, S. I.; Park, J. H.; Cho, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this study, minimum requirements and the conceptual design for an efficient construction of a small scale URL, which is named URT, were derived based on a literature review. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design for construction at KAERI, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, electronic resistivity survey, borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests were carried out. Based on the results, it was possible to design URT effectively with a consideration of the site characterization. The construction of URT was started in May 2005 and the first stage of the construction of the access tunnel could be successfully completed in Aug. 2005

  10. Risk communication by utilizing environmental ethics as meta-cognition for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    Though the high level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan has been clearly stated, this issue is still unfamiliar with the general public, who tend to make a social decision based on heuristics. Therefore, much effort such as developing risk communication system is required to restrain the general public from making a negative decision which may bring social dilemma. However, societal consensus on acceptable disposal practice will be very difficult to attain in a short period of time. The purpose of this research was to verify the effect of web risk communication model which has dialog-mode contents with environmental ethics as a meta-cognition and a bulletin board system in light of developing objective risk cognition. The experimental result suggested that this model was able to inspire subjective norm and introspection towards the necessity of pro-social behaviors more effectively than a one-way lecture. (author)

  11. Methodology of safety assessment and sensitivity analysis for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    A deterministic safety assessment methodology has been developed to evaluate long-term radiological consequences associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and to demonstrate a generic feasibility of geologic disposal. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. A computer code system GSRW thus developed is based on a non site-specific model, and consists of a set of sub-modules for calculating the release of radionuclides from engineered barriers, the transport of radionuclides in and through the geosphere, the behavior of radionuclides in the biosphere, and radiation exposures of the public. In order to identify the important parameters of the assessment models, an automated procedure for sensitivity analysis based on the Differential Algebra method has been developed to apply to the GSRW. (author)

  12. The disposal of high level radioactive waste and the need for assessing the radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, G.; Haegg, C.

    1990-01-01

    Different options for the disposal of high level radioactive waste are being considered in several different countries. When assessing the possible future impact of these disposal concepts, very large uncertainties are associated with the predictions. These uncertainties include scenario representation, conceptual and mathematical modelling, parameter evaluation and finally the interpretation of the results. Some of these uncertainties cannot be eliminated regardless of research efforts, e.g. the evolution of the society and the environment. The paper discusses in general terms to what extent uncertainties in the predictions could be reduced and in the light of this discussion the authors present their point of view regarding the fruitfulness of assessing radiological impact in the far future. (orig.)

  13. Integrated model of Korean spent fuel and high level waste disposal options - 16091

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yongsoo; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated model developed by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to simulate options for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and reprocessing products in South Korea. A companion paper (Hwang and Miller, 2009) describes a systems-level model of Korean options for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management in the 21. century. The model addresses alternative design concepts for disposal of SNF of different types (Candu, PWR), high level waste, and fission products arising from a variety of alternative fuel cycle back ends. It uses the GoldSim software to simulate the engineered system, near-field and far-field geosphere, and biosphere, resulting in long-term dose predictions for a variety of receptor groups. The model's results allow direct comparison of alternative repository design concepts, and identification of key parameter uncertainties and contributors to receptor doses. (authors)

  14. Disposal costs for SRP high-level wastes in borosilicate glass and crystalline ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, R.B.; Campbell, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose of this document is to compare and contrast the overall burial costs of the glass and ceramic waste forms, including processing, storage, transportation, packaging, and emplacement in a repository. Amount of waste will require approximately 10,300 standard (24 in. i.d. x 9-5/6 ft length) canisters of waste glass, each containing about 3260 lb of waste at 28% waste loading. The ceramic waste form requires about one-third the above number of standard canisters. Approximately $2.5 billion is required to process and dispose of this waste, and the total cost is independent of waste form (glass or ceramic). The major cost items (about 80% of the total cost) for all cases are capital and operating expenses. The capital and 20-year operating costs for the processing facility are the same order of magnitude, and their sum ranges from about one-half of the total for the reference glass case to two-thirds of the total for the ceramic cases

  15. The suitability of Finnish bedrock to the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, P.; Hakkarainen, V.

    1982-12-01

    A regional investigation of the suitability of Finnish bedrock to the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste is described. International geological criteria are applied to Finnish bedrock conditions. The main bedrock units are classified into different areas as concerning to recommendations for further site selection investigations. The Pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks are generally of tight and strong composition and a major problem from the standpoint of waste disposal is fracturing. On the other hand, fractures are quite unevenly distributed in Finland and the bedrock seems to consist of stabile blocks surrounded by fracture zones. Crustal movements between the different bedrock blocks are in Finland at most only tenths of millimeters a year, and the movements are concentrated in the fracture zones. The fracture pattern also controls the hydrogeological system of the bedrock as the main groundwater flow occurs along the fractures. The fracturing thus has an influence on the stability as well as the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock. The regional recommendations for further site selection studies are based on geological criteria, such as fracturing, seismisity and economic resources. Other criteria, such as topography and erosion, are less significant in comparison. A number of different criteria are likely to prove significant later in more detailed local site investigation studies. The most favorable regions for more detailed investigations contain the granitic rocks of Central Finland and some of them are also to be found in northern and eastern parts of the country. Almost none of the main bedrock units can be classified as completely unsuitable for site selection investigations. Massifs large enough for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste can be found through detailed surveys in most parts of Finland because of the heterogeneity of the bedrock

  16. Study on quality assurance for high-level radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Susumu

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed comparatively detailed quality assurance requirements for the high-level radioactive waste disposal systems. Quality assurance is recognized as a key issue for confidence building and smooth implementation of the HLW program in Japan, and Japan is at an initial phase of repository development. Then the quality assurance requirements at site research and site selection, site characterization, and site suitability analysis used in the Yucca Mountain project were examined in detail and comprehensive descriptions were developed using flow charts. Additionally, the applicability to the Japan high-level radioactive waste disposal project was studied. The examination and study were performed for the following QA requirements: The requirements that have the relative importance at site research and site selection, site characterization, and site suitability analysis (such as planning and performing scientific investigations, sample control, data control, model development and use, technical report review, software control, and control of the electric management of data). The requirements that have the relative importance at the whole repository phases (such as quality assurance program, document control, and control of quality assurance records). (author)

  17. Natural setting of Japanese islands and geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The Japanese islands are a combination of arcuate islands along boundaries between four major plates: Eurasia, North America, Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. The interaction among the four plates formed complex geological structures which are basically patchworks of small blocks of land and sea-floor sediments piled up by the subduction of oceanic plates along the margin of the Eurasia continent. Although frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions clearly indicate active crustal deformation, the distribution of active faults and volcanoes is localized regionally in the Japanese islands. Crustal displacement faster than 1 mm/year takes place only in restricted regions near plate boundaries or close to major active faults. Volcanic activity is absent in the region between the volcanic front and the subduction zone. The site selection is especially important in Japan. The scenarios for the long-term performance assessment of high-level waste disposal are discussed with special reference to the geological setting of Japan. The long-term prediction of tectonic disturbance, evaluation of faults and fractures in rocks and estimation of long-term water-rock interaction are key issues in the performance assessment of the high-level waste disposal in the Japanese islands. (author)

  18. Site investigations for final disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Laine, T.

    1982-12-01

    Research concerning disposal of high-level nuclear waste of the Industrial Power Company Ltd has focused on deep underground disposal in Finnish precambrian bedrock. The present target is to have a repository for high-level waste in operation by 2020. Selection of the repository site is based on site investigations. In addition to geosciences, selection of appropriate site includes many branches of studies; engineering, safety analysis, ecology, transport, demography etc. The investigations required for site selection for high-level waste have been arranged in a sequence of four phases. The aim of the phases is that investigations become more and more detailed as the selection process continues. Phase I of the investigations is the characterization of potential areas. This comprises establishment of criteria for site selection and identification of areas that meet selection criteria. Objective of these studies is to determine areas for phase II field investigations. The studies are largely made by reviewing existing data and remote-sensing techniques. Phase II field investigations will be undertaken between 1986-1992. The number of potential candidates for repository site is reduced to few preferred areas by preceeding generic study. The site selection process culminates in phase III in site confirmation studies carried out at 2...3 most suitable sites during 1992-2010. This is then followed by phase IV, which comprises very detailed investigations at the selected site. An alternative for these investigations is to undertake them by using pilot shaft and drifts. Active development is taking place in all phases concerning investigation methods, criteria, parameters, data processing and modelling. The applicability of the various investigation methods and techniques is tested in a deep borehole in phase I. The co-operation with countries with similar geological conditions makes it possible to compare results obtained by different techniques

  19. Characteristics of high-level radioactive waste forms for their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2000-12-01

    In order to develop a deep geological repository for a high-level radioactive waste coming from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels discharged from our domestic nuclear power plants, the the required characteristics of waste form are dependent upon a solidifying medium and the amount of waste loading in the medium. And so, by the comparative analysis of the characteristics of various waste forms developed up to the present, a suitable medium is recommended.The overall characteristics of the latter is much better than those of the former, but the change of the properties due to an amorphysation by radiation exposure and its thermal expansion has not been clearly identified yet. And its process has not been commercialized. However, the overall properties of the borosilicate glass waste forms are acceptable for their disposal, their production cost is reasonable and their processes have already been commercialized. And plenty informations of their characteristics and operational experiences have been accumulated. Consequently, it is recommended that a suitable medium solidifying the HLW is a borosilicate glass and its composition for the identification of a reference waste form would be based on the glass frit of R7T7

  20. HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.; Stippler, R.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in an one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. The project is funded by the BMFT and the CEC and carrier out in close co-operation with the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

  1. The HAW project. Demonstrative disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.

    1988-04-01

    Since 1968 the GSF has been carrying out research and development programs for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt formations. The heat producing waste has been simulated so far by means of electrical heaters and also cobalt-60-sources. In order to improve the final concept for HAW disposal in salt formations the complete technical system of an underground repository is to be tested in a one-to-one scale test facility. To satisfy the test objectives thirty high radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. For the handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of transportation casks, transportation vehicle, disposal machine, and borehole slider will be developed and tested. The actual scientific investigation program is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This program includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  2. NRC regulations for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories: technical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.; Bell, M.J.; Regnier, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria fo disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

  3. A poor sealing Scenario for Deep disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weetjens, E.

    2005-01-01

    Especially for geological disposal options in clay, the safety of the repository relies chiefly on the performance of the host formation as the main barrier. Understandably, scenarios in which this clay barrier is somehow bypassed earn great concern in PA (Performance Assessment) studies. The Poor Sealing Scenario is one of those scenarios that have been recently studied by the PA section of the Waste and Disposal department in the framework of the Belgian programme on deep disposal of high-level radwaste in Boom Clay. This scenario hypothesises that at least one disposal gallery and an access shaft have been poorly sealed off, providing a preferential pathway for RNs (radionuclides). The scenario further assumes a severe climate change, which would invert the presently downward hydraulic gradient, such that the potential impact would be maximal. The main objective is assessing the contribution from two transport processes to the overall radionuclide migration from a spent fuel repository towards the Neogene aquifer. The processes considered are advective transport through the poorly sealed repository and diffusive transport through the host formation. In addition, we would like to identify the most influential parameters with respect to repository design and performance

  4. Corrosion of container materials for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.; Park, H.S.; Yeon, J.W.; Ha, Y.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    In the corrosion aspect of container for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, disposal concepts and the related container materials, which have been developed by advanced countries, have been reviewed. The disposal circumstances could be divided into the saturated and the unsaturated zones. The candidate materials in the countries, which consider the disposal in the unsaturated zone, are the corrosion resistant materials such as supper alloys and stainless steels, but those in the saturated zone is cupper, one of the corrosion allowable materials. By the results of the pitting corrosion test of sensitized stainless steels (such as 304, 304L, 316 and 316L), pitting potential is decreased with the degree of sensitization and the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L is higher than others. And so, the long-term corrosion experiment with 316L stainless steel specimens, sebsitized and non-sensitized, under the compacted bentonite and synthetic granitic groundwater has been being carried out. The results from the experiment for 12 months indicate that no evidence of pitting corrosion of the specimens has been observed but the crevice corrosion has occurred on the sensitized specimens even for 3 months. (author). 33 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Should the U.S. proceed to consider licensing deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The United States, as well as other countries facing the question of how to handle high-level nuclear waste, has decided that the most appropriate means of disposal is in a deep geologic repository. In recent years, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the Nuclear Energy Agency has developed several position papers on the technical achievability of deep geologic disposal, thus demonstrating the serious consideration of deep geologic disposal in the international community. The Committee has not, as yet, formally endorsed disposal in a deep geologic repository as the preferred method of handling high-level nuclear waste. The United States, on the other hand, has studied the various methods of disposing of high-level nuclear waste, and has determined that deep geologic disposal is the method that should be developed. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the United States' decision on selecting deep geologic disposal as the preferred method of addressing the high-level waste problem. It presents a short history of the steps taken by the U.S. in determining what method to use, discusses the NRC's waste Confidence Decision, and provides information on other issues in the U.S. program such as reconsideration of the final disposal standard and the growing inventory of spent fuel in storage

  6. Conceptual design of the virtual engineering system for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    The role of Virtual Engineering System for High Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal (hereafter the VES) is to accumulate and unify the results of research and development which JNC had been carried out for the completion of the second progress report on a computer system. The purpose and functions of VES with considering the long-term plan for geological disposal in Japan was studied. The analysis between geological environment assessment, safety performance assessment, and engineering technology had not been integrated mutually in the conventional study. The iterative analysis performed by VES makes it possible to analyze natural barrier and engineering barrier more quantitatively for obtaining safety margin and rationalization of the design of a waste repository. We have examined the system functions to achieve the above purpose of VES. Next, conceptual design for codes, databases, and utilities that consist of VES were performed by examining their purpose and functions. The conceptual design of geological environment assessment system, safety performance assessment system, waste repository element database, economical assessment system, investigation support system, quality assurance system, and visualization system are preformed. The whole system configuration, examination of suitable configuration of hardware and software, examination of system implementation, the confirmation of parallel calculation technology, the conceptual design of platform, the development of demonstration program of platform are performed. Based upon studies stated above, the VES development plan including prototype development during the period of selection of the site candidate was studied. The concept of VES was build based on the examination stated above. (author)

  7. Preliminary analysis of engineered barrieer performances in geological disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Maki, Yasuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Motoi.

    1988-01-01

    This report represents preliminary results of safety analysis of a engineered barrier system in geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. Three well-known computer codes; ORIGEN 2, TRUMP, and SWIFT were used in the simulation. Main conceptual design of the repository was almost identical to that of SKB in Sweden and NAGRA in Switzerland; the engineered barrier conasists glass solidified waste, steel overpack, and compacted bentonite. Two different underground formations are considered; granite and neogene sedimentary rock, which are typically found in Japan. We first determined the repository configuration, particularly the space between disposal pitts. The ORIGEN 2 was used to estimate heat generation in the waste glass reprocessed at 4 years after removal from PWR. Then, temperature distribution was calculated by the TRUMP. The results of two or three dimensional calculation indicated that the pit interval should be kept more than 5 m in the case of granite formation at 500 m depth, according to the temperature criteria in the bentonite layer ( 90 Sr, 241 Am, 239 Pu, and 237 Np were chosen in one or two dimensional calculations. For both cases of steady release and instanteneous release, the maximum concentration in the pore water at the boundary between bentonite and surrounding rock had the following order; 237 Np> 239 Pu> 90 Sr> 241 Am. Sensitivity analysis showed that the order mainly due to the different adsorption characteristics of the nuclides in bentonite layer. (author)

  8. Status report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and geologic repository disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)

  9. Radiological protection aspects of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste, generated at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, will be disposed of deep, i.e., several hundred meters, within geological formations, to isolate it from the human environment. Since the waste contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and transuranic elements, the safety of its disposal, particularly as regards the requirement for the radiological protection of human and his environment even in the far future, is one of the essential subjects of all countries engaged in nuclear power production. The radiological protection system has long been established and applied to regulate radiation exposures to the public associated with a relatively short-term release of radioactive materials, during normal and accidental conditions, from nuclear installations such as a power plant and reprocessing plant. Radioactive waste disposal, which potentially offers a long-term radiological consequence on the public, inevitably produces a specific requirement, from the standpoint of radiological protection, that individuals and populations in the future should be accorded at least a current level of the protection. This requirement has caused a serious debate, among the community of radiological protection, on how to establish radiological protection standards and criteria, and how to establish safety assessment methodologies to demonstrate compliance with them. We have discussed in this paper on specific items such as numerical guides to indicate radiological consequences, time frames over which calculations of the consequences are to be carried out, uncertainties to be involved in the calculations, and safety assessment methodologies. (author)

  10. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  11. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arup, O.

    1985-01-01

    A study has been made of the requirements and design features for containers to isolate vitrified high-level radioactive waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The requirements for handling, storing and transporting containers have been identified following a study of disposal operations, and the pressures and temperatures which may possibly be experienced in clay, granite and salt formations have been estimated. A range of possible container designs have been proposed to satisfy the requirements of each of the disposal environments. Alternative design concepts in corrosion resistant or corrosion allowance material have been suggested. Some resist pressure by using a structural shell leaving the contents unstressed whereas others transmit loads to their contents. Potentially suitable container shell materials have been selected following a review of corrosion studies and although metals have not been specified in detail, titanium alloys and low carbon steels are thought to be appropriate for corrosion resistant and corrosion allowance designs respectively. Performance requirements for container filler materials have been identified and candidate materials assessed. However, no entirely suitable materials have been found and further research is required in this area. A preliminary container stress analysis has shown the importance of thermal modelling and that if lead is used as a filler it dominates the stress response of the container. Possible methods of manufacturing disposal containers have been assessed and found to be generally feasible although filling operations and container closure could be difficult

  12. Numerical Model of Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Rock for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, M.; Chiba, R.; Takahashi, T.; Hashida, T.; Fomin, S.; Chugunov, V.; Niibori, Y.

    2007-01-01

    An international consensus has emerged that deep geological disposal on land is one of the most appropriate means for high level radioactive wastes (HLW). The fluid transport is slow and radioactive elements are dangerous, so it's impossible to experiment over thousands of years. Instead, numerical model in such natural barrier as fractured underground needs to be considered. Field observations reveal that the equation with fractional derivative is more appropriate for describing physical phenomena than the equation which is based on the Fick's law. Thus, non-Fickian diffusion into inhomogeneous underground appears to be important in the assessment of HLW disposal. A solute transport equation with fractional derivative has been suggested and discussed in literature. However, no attempts were made to apply this equation for modeling of HLW disposal with account for the radioactive decay. In this study, we suggest the use of a novel fractional advection-diffusion equation which accounts for the effect of radioactive disintegration and for interactions between major, macro pores and fractal micro pores. This model is fundamentally different from previous proposed model of HLW, particularly in utilizing fractional derivative. Breakthrough curves numerically obtained by the present model are presented for a variety of rock types with respect to some important nuclides. Results of the calculation showed that for longer distance our model tends to be more conservative than the conventional Fickian model, therefore our model can be said to be safer

  13. Rethinking high-level radioactive waste disposal: making the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    There is worldwide consensus that geological disposal is best for disposing of high-level radioactive waste; nevertheless, the U.S. program is unlikely to succeed. The program is hampered by its high degree of inflexibility with respect to both schedule and technical specifications that assume the properties and future behavior of a geological repository can be determined and specified with a very high degree of certainty. Geological models, and scientific knowledge generally, have been inappropriately applied. Geophysical analysis can and should have a key role in the assessment of long-term repository isolation; however, geophysial models are being asked to predict the detailed structure and behavior of sites over thousands of years. This is scientifically unsound and will lead to bad engineering practice. The United States has written detailed regulations for repository siting and construction before all of the data are in and is thus bound by requirements that may be impossible to meet. An alternative approach emphasizing flexibility can succeed. It will require time to assess performance, a willingness to respond to problems as they arise, remediation if necessary, and revision of the design and regulations if they are found to impede progress toward the health goal already defined as safe disposal. 6 refs

  14. Text mining analysis of public comments regarding high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to narrow the risk perception gap as seen in social investigations between the general public and people who are involved in nuclear industry, public comments on high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal have been conducted to find the significant talking points with the general public for constructing an effective risk communication model of social risk information regarding HLW disposal. Text mining was introduced to examine public comments to identify the core public interest underlying the comments. The utilized test mining method is to cluster specific groups of words with negative meanings and then to analyze public understanding by employing text structural analysis to extract words from subjective expressions. Using these procedures, it was found that the public does not trust the nuclear fuel cycle promotion policy and shows signs of anxiety about the long-lasting technological reliability of waste storage. To develop effective social risk communication of HLW issues, these findings are expected to help experts in the nuclear industry to communicate with the general public more effectively to obtain their trust. (author)

  15. Seabed disposal of high-level nuclear wastes: an alternative viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Various comments on a published article on subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes are presented. These include the scale of the proposed operation, the technical problems of canister retrievability, the feasibility of the free-fall penetrometer disposal method, canister lifetime, the possible contravention of the 1972 London Dumping Convention and land-based geological repositories as an alternative method of disposal. (author)

  16. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This report is the so-called Synthesis report 1985-1989 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the ASSE salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt-deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos S.A (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated and after some delays in the licensing procedure, the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 32 refs; 76 figs., 11 tabs

  17. Comparison of temperature calculations for an arbitrary high-level waste disposal configuration in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.; Janssen, L.G.J.; Ploumen, P.; Winske, P.

    1979-05-01

    The objective of this report is the comparison of the results of temperature analyses for an arbitrary high-level radioactive waste disposal configuration in salt formations. The analyses were carried out at the RWTH and ECN. The computer programs used are based on finite difference and finite element techniques. From the local temperature analyses that were intended to check the solution techniques, it could be concluded that both finite difference and finite elements are capable to analyse this type of problems. From the global temperature analyses it could be concluded that both analysis approaches: temperature dependent and iteratively determined temperature independent material properties, are suited to analyse the global temperature distribution in the salt formation

  18. JNC thermodynamic database for performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, Mikazu; Azuma, Jiro; Shibata, Masahiro [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report is a summary of status, frozen datasets, and future tasks of the JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB) for assessing performance of high-level radioactive waste in geological environments. The JNC-TDB development was carried out after the first progress report on geological disposal research in Japan (H-3). In the development, thermodynamic data (equilibrium constants at 25degC, I=0) for important radioactive elements were selected/determined based on original experimental data using different models (e.g., SIT, Pitzer). As a result, the reliability and traceability of the data for most of the important elements were improved over those of the PNC-TDB used in H-3 report. For detailed information of data analysis and selections for each element, see the JNC technical reports listed in this document. (author)

  19. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accary, A.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of high level radioactive waste in geological formations, based on the multibarrier concept, may include the use of a container as one of the engineered barriers. In this report the requirements imposed on this container and the possible degradation processes are reviewed. Further on an overview is given of the research being carried out by various research centres in the European Community on the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of candidate container materials. The results obtained on a number of materials under various testing conditions are summarized and evaluated. As a result, three promising materials have been selected for a detailed joint testing programme. It concerns two highly corrosion resistant alloys, resp. Ti-Pd (0.2 Pd%) and Hastelloy C4 and one consumable material namely a low carbon steel. Finally the possibilities of modelling the corrosion phenomena are discussed

  20. The HAW project: demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1991-01-01

    This publication is the interim report 1988-89 of the international HAW project performed in the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geological salt deposits. The HAW-project is carried out by the GSF-Institut fuer Tieflagerung (IFT) in cooperation with the French Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA); the Spanish Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos S.A. (ENRESA) and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters (containers) is now envisaged for early 1991. 20 refs.; 92 figs.; 14 tabs

  1. Experiments on container materials for Swiss high-level waste disposal projects. Part IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.P.

    1989-12-01

    One concept for final disposal of high-level waste in switzerland consists of a repository at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m in the crystalline bedrock of Northern Switzerland. The waste will be placed in a container which will be required to function as a high integrity barrier for at least 100 years. This report is the fourth and last in the current series dealing with the evaluation of potential materials for such containers. Four materials were identified for further evaluation in the first of these reports: cast steel, nodular cast iron, copper and Ti-Code 12. This report deals with the problem of demonstrating that cast steel containers will not fail by stress corrosion cracking and with the problem of hydrogen produced by the reduction of water. The experimental results on pre-cracked specimens revealed no susceptibility of cast steel to stress corrosion cracking under model repository conditions. No crack growth was detected on compact DCB specimens exposed in aerobic and anaerobic groundwaters at 80 and 140 o C for 16-24 months. Cast steel remains a candidate material for high-level waste containers. As expected from thermodynamic considerations no hydrogen could be detected from copper immersed in model groundwaters at 50 o C. Hydrogen is evolved from corroding steel under anaerobic conditions. Hydrogen evolution due to corrosion of iron or steel in waste repositories has to be considered in any safety analysis; the amounts produced can be significant. Evidence todate suggests that both cast steel and copper are suitable container materials. Because the corrosion behaviour of both materials is sensitive to service conditions, in particular length of the aerobic phase, groundwater chemistry and temperature, further testing should be undertaken when a specific site has been identified. (author) 9 tabs., 11 figs., 25 refs

  2. High-level nuclear-waste disposal: information exchange and conflict resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadden, S.G.; Chiles, J.R.; Anaejionu, P.; Cerny, K.J.

    1981-07-01

    The research presented here was conceived as an exploration of the interactions among parties involved in the resolution of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal issue. Because of the major differences in the nature of the interactions between levels of government, on the one hand, and between government and the public, on the other hand, this study is divided into two primary areas - public participation and intergovernmental relations. These areas are further divided into theoretical and practical considerations. The format of the paper reflects the divisions explained above as well as the interaction of the various authors. Public participation is addressed from a theoretical perspective in Part 2. In Part 3 an essentially pragmatic approach is taken drawing on experiences from similar exercises. These two aspects of the study are presented in separate parts because the authors worked largely independently. Intergovernmental relations is treated in Part 4. The treatment is organized as two Sections of Part 4 to reflect the authors' close interaction which yielded a more integrated treatment of the theoretical and practical aspects of intergovernmental relations. Detailed recommendations and conclusions appear in the final subsections of Parts 2, 3, and 4. Part 5, Summary and Conclusions, does not reiterate the detailed conclusions and recommendations presented in previous parts but rather expresses some general perceptions with respect to the high-level waste disposal issue. A brief review of the Table of Contents will assist in visualizing the detailed format of this study and in identifying the portions of greatest relevance to specific questions. A detailed Subject Index and an Acronym Index have been included for the reader's convenience

  3. Strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju

    2004-01-01

    A strategic program for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in China is proposed in this paper. A '3-step technical strategy': site selection and site characterization-site specific underground research laboratory-final repository, is proposed for the development of China's high level radioactive waste repository. The activities related with site selection and site characterization for the repository can be combined with those for the underground research laboratory. The goal of the strategy is to build China's repository around 2040, while the activities can be divided into 4 phases: 1) site selection and site characterization; 2) site confirmation and construction of underground research laboratory, 3) in-situ experiment and disposal demonstration, and 4) construction of repository. The targets and tasks for each phase are proposed. The logistic relationship among the activities is discussed. It is pointed out that the site selection and site characterization provide the basis for the program, the fundamental study and underground research laboratory study are the key support, the performance assessment plays a guiding role, while the construction of a qualified repository is the final goal. The site selection can be divided into 3 stages: comparison among pre-selected areas, comparison among pre-selected sites and confirmation of the final site. According to this strategy, the final site for China's underground research laboratory and repository will be confirmed in 2015, where the construction of an underground laboratory will be started. In 2025 the underground laboratory will have been constructed, while in around 2040, the construction of a final repository is to be completed

  4. The structural integrity of high level waste containers for deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keer, T.J.; Martindale, N.J.; Haijtink, B.

    1990-01-01

    Most countries with a nuclear power program are developing plans to dispose of high level waste in deep geological repositories. These facilities are typically in the range 500-1000m below ground. Although long term safety analyses mainly rely on the isolation function of the geological barrier, for the medium term (between 500 and 1000 years) a barrier such as a container (overpack) may play an important role. This paper addresses the mechanical/structural behavior of these structures under extreme geological pressures. The work described in the paper was conducted within the COMPAS project (Container Mechanical Performance Assessment) funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the United Kingdom Department of the Environment. The work was aimed at predicting the modes of failure and failure pressures which characterize the heavy, thick walled mild steel containers which might be considered for the disposal of vitrified waste. The work involved a considerable amount of analytical work, using 3-D non-linear finite element techniques, coupled with a large parallel program of experimental work. The experimental work consisted of a number of scale model tests in which the response of the containers was examined under external pressures as high as 120MPa. Extensive strain-gauge instrumentation was used to record the behavior of the models as they were driven to collapse. A number of comparative computer calculations were carried out by organizations from various European countries. Correlations were established between experimental and analytical data and guidelines regarding the choice of suitable software were established. The work concluded with a full 3-D simulation of the behavior of a container under long-term disposal conditions. In this analysis, non-linearities due to geological effects and material/geometry effects in the container were properly accounted for. 6 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  5. New evolution on the high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumoto, Harumi

    2001-01-01

    On nuclear power generation, spent fuel is formed and reaches to about 30 ton from a 1 million kW class large power plant. As some nations deal with the spent fuel itself to waste, Japan adopts a reprocessing and recycling route to recover uranium and plutonium reusable for nuclear fuels by reprocessing of the spent fuels. As waste liquid containing about one ton of cinder (fission product) formed by nuclear fission after its recovery, a glass solid solidifying this to a stable glassy state is called the high level radioactive wastes (HLW). As it has extremely high radioactivity which continues for long term in spite of its decay with elapsing time, safety security must be paid enough attention to its countermeasure. Therefore, as a result of long-term research and development in Japan as well as in many other nations, it is admitted to be the most preferable countermeasure to bury HLW into deep stratum to safely isolate from human life environment for its scientific and technical method. Here was introduced on a framework of its disposal business in Japan of which preparation rapidly advanced as a turning point of 2000 at a center of its technical and regulative advancement. (G.K.)

  6. Experiments on container materials for Swiss high-level waste disposal projects. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.P.

    1984-12-01

    The present concept for final disposal of high-level waste in Switzerland consists of a repository at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m in the crystalline bedrock of northern Switzerland. The waste will be placed in a container which is required to function as a high integrity barrier for at least 1000 years. This report is the second of a set of two dealing with the evaluation of potential materials for such containers. Four materials were identified for further evaluation in the first of these reports; they were cast steel, nodular cast iron, copper and Ti-Code 12. It was concluded that some testing was needed, in particular with respect to corrosion, in order to confirm these materials as candidate container materials. The experimental programme included: 1) corrosion tests on copper under gamma radiation; 2) immersion corrosion tests on the four candidate materials including welded specimens; 3) corrosion testing of the four materials in saturated bentonite; 4) constant strain rate testing of Ti-Code 12 and copper at 80 degrees C; 5) the behaviour of copper, Ti-Code 12 and Zircaloy-2 when immersed in liquid lead; 6) corrosion potential and galvanic current measurements on several material pairs. The standard test medium was natural mineral water from the Bad Saeckingen source. This water has a total dissolved solids content of approx. 3200 mg/l, about 1600 mg/l as chloride. The oxygen level was defined as 0.1 μg/g. In certain cases this medium was modified in order to test under more severe conditions. The results of the corrosion tests confirm in general the evaluation in the first part of the report. All of the materials are suitable for high-level waste containers: cast steel, nodular cast iron and copper as single layer containers, and Ti-Code 12 as an outer corrosion resistant layer. Copper could also be used under an outer steel layer, where it could arrest local penetration

  7. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. v.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with material testing as part of the investigations regarding a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 3 of five volumes that together constitute the final report of the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The material testing programme chiefly comprised laboratory investigations and analyses of material samples, partly obtained from the salt dome in question and partly from the overlying geological formation. The test programme was fully completed for Eslev salt dome on Mors. Chemical analyses and mineralogical investigations were carried out in order to determine the type and extent of the impurities confined in the rock salt. Moreover, a programme was carried out to investigate the water content of the salt. Temperature conditions around a repository, the strenght and creep properties of the salt were investigated in order to determine whether drill holes, shafts and mine galleries could be constructed and maintained intact within the period of time required to complete the disposal of high-level waste. Chemical analysis were carried out in order to determine which substances are found dissolved in the water contained by the geological formation overlying the salt dome, as well as chemical/physical investigations regarding the water content, porosity, velocity of a possible leak of radioactive waste products, etc. Materials that would be introduced into a repository were studied with regard to their corrosion resistance in the salt environment. Concrete materials were investigated and characterized for their use in the final sealing of the access routes to the repository through the geological formation. (BP)

  8. Preliminary conceptual design of a geological disposal system for high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo, E-mail: hjchoi@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daeduk-Daero, Yuseong, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A geological disposal system consists of disposal overpacks, a buffer, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel for high-level wastes from a pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is proposed. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. > Four kinds of deposition methods, two horizontal and two vertical, are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program. The spacing between the disposal modules is determined for the peak temperature in buffer not to exceed 100 deg. C. > The effect of the double-layered buffer is compared with the traditional single-layered buffer in terms of disposal density. Also, the effect of cooling time (aging) is illustrated. > All the thermal calculations are represented by comparing the disposal area of PWR spent fuels with the same cooling time. - Abstract: The inventories of spent fuels are linearly dependent on the production of electricity generated by nuclear energy. Pyroprocessing of PWR spent fuels is one of promising technologies which can reduce the volume of spent fuels remarkably. The properties of high-level wastes from the pyroprocessing are totally different from those of spent fuels. A geological disposal system is proposed for the high-level wastes from pyroprocessing of spent fuels. The amount and characteristics of high-level wastes are analyzed based on the material balance of pyroprocessing. Around 665 kg of monazite ceramic wastes are expected from the pyroprocessing of 10 MtU of PWR spent fuels. Decay heat from monazite ceramic wastes is calculated using the ORIGEN-ARP program. Disposal modules consisting of storage cans, overpacks, and a deposition hole or a disposal tunnel are proposed. Four kinds of deposition methods are proposed. Thermal design is carried out with ABAQUS program and geological data obtained from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel. Through the thermal analysis, the spacing between the disposal modules

  9. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.

    1990-04-01

    The HAW-project plants the testwise emplacement of 30 vitrified highly radioactive canisters containing Cs-137 and Sr-90 at the 800 m level of the Asse salt mine for a testing period of approximately five years. The major objective of this project is the pilot testing and demonstration of safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in geological salt formations. During the years 1985 to 1989 the underground test field was excavated, the measuring equipment installed, and two preceedings inactive electrical tests taken into operation. Furthermore, the components of a system for transportation and emplacement of highly radioactive canisters was fabricated, installed, and preliminarily tested. After some delays in the licensing procedure the emplacement of the 30 radioactive canisters is now envisaged for early 1991. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed and will be tested. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./HP)

  10. Region-scale groundwater flow modelling of generic high level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, D.

    1996-02-01

    Regional-scale groundwater flow modelling analyses are performed on generic high level waste (HLW) disposal sites to assess the extent to which a large crystalline rock mass such as a pluton or batholith can be expected to contain and isolate HLW in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a variety of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The two-dimensional cross-sectional conceptual models of generic HLW disposal sites are evaluated using SWIFT III, which is a finite-difference flow and transport code. All steps leading to the final results and conclusions are incorporated in this report. The available data and information on geological and hydrogeologic conditions in plutons and batholiths are summarized. The generic conceptual models developed from this information are defined in terms of the finite difference grid, the geologic and hydrogeologic properties and the hydrologic boundary conditions used. The modelled results are described with contour maps showing the modelled head fields, groundwater flow paths and travel times and groundwater flux rates within the modelled systems. The results of the modelling analyses are used to develop general conclusions on the scales and patterns of groundwater flow in granitic plutons and batholiths. The conclusions focus on geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics that can result in favourable conditions, in terms of hydraulic considerations, for a HLW repository. (author) 43 refs., 9 tabs., 40 figs

  11. Hydraulic properties of buffer and backfill materials for high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Ogata, Nobuhide

    2001-01-01

    The design and development of buffer and backfill materials, which fill up the disposal facility, are important for developing the technology of high-level nuclear wastes disposal. The compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixture are attracting greater attention as buffer and backfill materials because they have impermeable and swelling properties. This study investigated the hydraulic-conductivities at the different sand-bentonite mass ratio and dry density, which are the specifications of material, by the experimental works. This study also obtained the experimental data of hydraulic conductivities of the materials for 120 days at the farthest, and the permeability changes before and after swelling. Furthermore, this study proposed the evaluation method for hydraulic conductivity using the parameter 'Swelling volumetric strain of montmorillonite', which was proposed by the author. The evaluation method can obtain the hydraulic conductivity of buffer and backfill materials at various dry densities and bentonite contents. Therefore, the evaluation method can be used for designing the bentonite content and compaction density from the viewpoint of 'impermeability'. (author)

  12. Execution techniques for high level radioactive waste disposal. 4. Design and manufacturing procedure of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhide; Kosaki, Akio; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Ensuring the physical integrity of engineered barriers for an extremely long time period is necessary for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. This report describes the design process and the designed configurations of both overpack and buffer as engineered barriers. Manufacturing procedure, quality control and inspection methods are also summarized. Carbon steel was selected as a structural material of the overpack and the specification of the overpack was determined assuming disposal in the depths of 1000 m below surface of crystalline rock site. The mixture of bentonite and sand (80% sodium bentonite and 20% silica sand by mass) was selected as material for a buffer from mainly its permeability and characteristics of self-sealing of a gap occurred in construction work. Welding method of a lid onto the main body of the overpack, uniting method of a corrosion-resistance layer and the structural component in the case of a composite overpack and manufacturing procedures of both blocks-type and monolithic-type buffers are also investigated. (author)

  13. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-05-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes; and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides

  14. A performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a methodology for performance assessment of deep geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The applicability of this performance assessment methodology has been demonstrated for disposal in bedded salt and basalt; it has since been modified for assessment of repositories in unsaturated, fractured tuff. Changes to the methodology are primarily in the form of new or modified ground water flow and radionuclide transport codes. A new computer code, DCM3D, has been developed to model three-dimensional ground-water flow in unsaturated, fractured rock using a dual-continuum approach. The NEFTRAN 2 code has been developed to efficiently model radionuclide transport in time-dependent velocity fields, has the ability to use externally calculated pore velocities and saturations, and includes the effect of saturation dependent retardation factors. In order to use these codes together in performance-assessment-type analyses, code-coupler programs were developed to translate DCM3D output into NEFTRAN 2 input. Other portions of the performance assessment methodology were evaluated as part of modifying the methodology for tuff. The scenario methodology developed under the bedded salt program has been applied to tuff. An investigation of the applicability of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to non-linear models indicate that Monte Carlo simulation remains the most robust technique for these analyses. No changes have been recommended for the dose and health effects models, nor the biosphere transport models. 52 refs., 1 fig

  15. Biological ramifications of the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Hessler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The primary goal of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of disposing of high-level nuclear waste in deep-sea sediments. The subseabed biology program is charged with assessing possible ecosystem effects of radionuclides as well as possible health effects to man from radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea and transported to the ocean surface. Current biological investigations are attempting to determine benthic community structure; benthic community metabolism; the biology of deep-sea mobile scavengers; the faunal composition of midwater nekton; rates of microbial processes, and the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. Existing models of the dispersal of radionuclides in the deep sea have not considered many of the possible biological mechanisms which may influence the movement of radionuclides. Therefore, a multi-compartment foodweb model is being developed which considers both biological and physical influences on radionuclide transport. This model will allow parametric studies to be made of the impact on the ocean environment and on man of potential releases of radionuclides

  16. Application of systems analysis to the disposal of high level waste in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marsily, G.; Dorp, F. van

    1982-01-01

    Emplacement in deep ocean sediments is one of the disposal options being considered for solidified high level radioactive waste. Task groups set up within the framework of the NEA Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. The methods of systems analysis have been applied to enable the various parts of the problem to be assessed within an integrated framework. This paper describes the progress made by the Systems Analysis Task Group towards the development of an overall system model. The Task Group began by separating the problem into elements and defining the interfaces between these elements. A simple overall system model was then developed and used in both a preliminary assessment and a sensitivity analysis to identify the most important parameters. These preliminary analyses used a very simple model of the overall system and therefore the results cannot be used to draw any conclusions as to the acceptability of the sub-seabed disposal option. However they served to show the utility of the systems analysis method. The work of the other task groups will focus on the important parameters so that improved results can be fed back into an improved system model. Subsequent iterations will eventually provide an input to an acceptability decision. (Auth.)

  17. Execution techniques for high-level radioactive waste disposal. 2. Fundamental concept of geological disposal and implementing approach of disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Motoi; Komada, Hiroya; Tsuchino, Susumu; Shiozaki, Isao; Kitayama, Kazumi; Akasaka, Hidenari; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawamura, Hideki

    1999-01-01

    The making high activity of the high-level radioactive waste disposal business shall be fully started after establishing of the implementing organization which is planned around 2000. Considering each step of disposal business, in this study, the implementation procedure for a series of disposal business such as the selection of the disposal site, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of the disposal facility and the management after closure, which are carried forward by the implementation body is discussed in detail from the technical viewpoint and an example of the master schedule is proposed. Furthermore, we investigate and propose the concept of the geological disposal which becomes important in carrying forward to making of the business of the disposal, such as the present site selection smoothly, the fundamental idea of the safe securing for disposal, the basic idea to get trust to the disposal technique and the geological environmental condition which is the basic condition of this whole study for the disposal business making. (author)

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.; Kass, J.N.

    1988-06-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of both spent fuel assemblies from reactors and borosilicate glass will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including undesirable phase transformations due to a lack of phase stability; atmospheric oxidation; general aqueous corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; intergranular stress corrosion cracking; and transgranular stress corrosion cracking. Problems specific to welds, such as hot cracking, may also occur. A survey of the literature has been prepared as part of the process of selecting, from among the candidates, a material that is adequate for repository conditions. The modes of degradation are discussed in detail in the survey to determine which apply to the candidate alloys and the extent to which they may actually occur. The eight volumes of the survey are summarized in Sections 1 through 8 of this overview. The conclusions drawn from the survey are also given in this overview

  19. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Conceptual repository design in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Griffin, J.R.; Davies, J.W.; Burton, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper gives an interim report on UK studies on possible designs for a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock. The properties of the waste are described and general technical considerations of consequences of disposal in the rock. As an illustration, two basic designs are described associated with pre-cooling in an intermediate store. Firstly, a 'wet repository' is outlined wherein canisters are sealed up closely in boreholes in the rock in regions of low groundwater movement. Secondly, a 'dry repository' above sea level is described where emplacement in tunnels is followed by a loose backfill containing activity absorbers. A connection to deep permeable strata maintains water levels below emplacement positions. Variants on the two basic schemes (tunnel emplacement in a wet repository and in situ cooling) are also assessed. It is concluded that all designs discussed produce a size of repository feasible for construction in the UK. Further, (1) a working figure of 100 0 C per maximum rock temperature is not exceeded, (2) no insuperable engineering problems have so far been found, though rock mechanics studies are at an early stage; (3) it is not possible to discount the escape of a few long-lived 'man-made' isotopes. A minute increment to natural activity in the biosphere may occur from traces of uranium and its decay chains; (4) at this stage, all the designs are still possible candidates for the construction of a UK repository. (author)

  20. 2008 State-of-the-Art : High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities and Project Review of Proceding Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Youl; Jung, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Min Soo; Cho, Dong Keun; Kook, Dong Hak

    2008-11-15

    High level radioactive waste disposal system project for advanced nuclear fuel cycle produced this report which are dealing with the repository status of proceding countries as of 2008. This report has brief review on disposal facilities which are operating and will be operating and on future plan of those nations. The other report 'Development of the Geological Disposal System for High Level Waste' which was produced like this report time and this report would help the readers grasp the current repository status. Because our country is a latecomer in the HLW disposal world, it is strongly recommended to catch up with advanced disposal system and concepts of developed nations and this report is expected to make it possible. There are several nations which were the main survey target; Finland, USA, Sweden, Germany, France, Switzerland, and Japan. Recent information was applied to this report and our project team will produce annual state-of-the-art report with continuous updates.

  1. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  2. On barrier performance of high compaction bentonite in facilities of disposing high level radioactive wastes in formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hidefumi; Komada, Hiroya

    1989-01-01

    As for the method of disposing high level radioactive wastes generated in the reprocessing of spent fuel, at present formation disposal is regarded as most promising. The most important point in this formation disposal is to prevent the leak of radioactive nuclides within the disposal facilities into bedrocks and their move to the zone of human life. As the method of formation disposal, the canisters containing high level radioactive wastes are placed in the horizontal or vertical holes for disposal dug from horizontal tunnels which are several hundreds m underground, and the tunnels and disposal holes are filled again. For this filling material, the barrier performance to prevent and retard the leak of radioactive nuclides out of the disposal facilities is expected, and the characteristics of low water permeability, the adsorption of nuclides and long term stability are required. However, due to the decay heat of wastes just after the disposal, high temperature and drying condition arises, and this must be taken in consideration. The characteristics required for filling materials and the selection of the materials, the features and classification of bentonite, the properties of high compaction bentonite, and the move of water, heat and nuclides in high compaction bentonite are reported.(Kako, I.)

  3. An assessment of overseas developments in methods for treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1982-10-01

    The principles of management and disposal of highly radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel from nuclear power generation are described. The status of developments in spent fuel reprocessing, high-level waste solidificaton and geologic isolation is reviewed. Some generic studies on the possible range of annual radiological doses to individuals from waste repositories are discussed and compared with doses from some existing nuclear power and fuel cycle operations, and with the dose received annually from an average background of naturally occurring radiation

  4. On ocean island geological repository - a second-generation option for disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of an ocean subseabed geological high-level waste repository with access via an ocean island is discussed. The technical advantages include, in addition to geologic waste isolation, geographical isolation, near-zero groundwater flow through the disposal site, and near-infinite ocean dilution as a backup in the event of a failure of the repository geological waste isolation system. The institutional advantages may include reduced siting problems and the potential of creating an international waste repository. Establishment of a repository accepting wastes from many countries would allow cost sharing, aid international nonproliferation goals, and ensure proper disposal of spent fuel from developing countries. Major uncertainties that are identified in this concept are the uncertainties in rock conditions at waste disposal depths, costs, and ill-defined institutional issues

  5. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  6. Pre-disposal storage, transport and handling of vitrified high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.; Martin, A.

    1981-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to review non site-specific engineering features of the storage, transport and handling of vitrified high level radioactive waste prior to its transfer into an underground repository, and to identify those features which require validation or development. Section headings are: introduction (historical and technical background); characteristics and arisings of vitrified high level waste; overpacks (additional containment barrier, corrosion resistant); interim storage of HLW; transport of HLW; handling; conclusions and recommendations. (U.K.)

  7. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and geological environment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Seo, Toshihiro; Yshida, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    The geological environment has two main functions in terms of ensuring the safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. One relates to the fundamental long-term stability of the site and the other to the properties of the host rock formations and groundwaters which facilitate the emplacement of the engineered barrier system and act as a natural barrier. In this connection, the feasibility of selecting a geological environment in Japan which is appropriate for geological disposal was discussed, based on findings obtained from case studies and field measurements. Considering long-term stability of the site, it is important to understand the effects and spatial distributions of the natural phenomena such as fault movement, volcanic activity, uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes. Fault movement and volcanic activity are relatively localized phenomena, and can be avoided by considering only areas that are sufficiently remote from existing volcanoes and major active faults for these phenomena to have a negligible probability of causing significant effects. Uplift/denudation and climatic/sea-level changes are gradual phenomena and are more ubiquitous. It is, nevertheless, possible to estimate future trends by extrapolating the past changes into the future, and then to identify areas that may not be affected significantly by such phenomena. Considering the properties of the host rocks and groundwaters, it can be understood, from the presently available data, that deep groundwater in Japan generally flows slowly and its chemistry is in a reduced state. The data also suggest that deep rock masses, where the ground temperature is acceptably low and the rock pressure is almost homogeneous, are widely located throughout Japan. Based on the examination of the geological environment in Japan, it is possible to discuss the requirements for the geological environment to be considered and the investigations to be performed during the site selection

  8. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with construction, operation and sealing of disposal facilities for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 4 of five volumes that together constitute the final report on the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The safety investigations were carried out for a deep-hole disposal facility located in the salt dome on Mors. In principle the results of the investigations also apply to a shaft/mine disposal facility. The facility is designed for the disposal of vitrified high-level waste in the shape of glass canisters. There is a low concentration of waste in each canister, approx. 10%. Furthermore, it was selected to place the waste in an intermediate storage for about 40 years prior to its final disposal. Consequently, heat generation in the waste at the time of final disposal will be modest, resulting in low temperature increase in the salt. As an example, the highest temperature increase will be approx. 40 deg. C. and it will occur at the edge of the hole five years after disposal has taken place. Prior to disposal, the glass canisters are encased in steel casks with 15 cm thick walls. Three canisters are placed in each cask, and 215 casks are stacked on top on one another in each deep-hole from a depth of 1200 m to 2500 m underground. The additional encasing is designed to protect the glass from dissolution should any brine reach the disposal facility. Furthermore, the steel cask protects the glass canisters against pressure from the wall of the hole. The technical design of the disposal facility gives it a considerable safety margin against unexpected events. The investigations proved Cretaceous strata to constitute an effective secondary barrier that would prevent radioactive matter from travelling from the underlying disposal facility to the biosphere. (BP)

  9. Annotated bibliography for the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, K.J.; Miller, N.E.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography identifies documents that are pertinent to the design of waste packages for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The bibliography is divided into fourteen subject categories so that anyone wishing to review the subject of leaching, for example, can turn to the leaching section and review the abstracts of reports which are concerned primarily with leaching. Abstracts are also cross referenced according to secondary subject matter so that one can get a complete list of abstracts for any of the fourteen subject categories. All documents which by their title alone appear to deal with the design of waste packages for the geologic disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste were obtained and reviewed. Only those documents which truly appear to be of interest to a waste package designer were abstracted. The documents not abstracted are listed in a separate section. There was no beginning date for consideration of a document for review. About 1100 documents were reviewed and about 450 documents were abstracted

  10. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 0 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms

  11. Preliminary assessments for disposal of high-level waste within small islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.L.; Li, S.H.; Yu, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes, for the final disposal of high-level waste (HLW), the possibility of a repository sited below the fresh/saline groundwater interface within islet rock formations. Because of their relatively stable tectonics, the offshore islets of some countries (such as those of Taiwan) are worthy of being considered as potential repository sites. Before the emplacement of radwastes in such a repository, however, the mass exchange across the fresh/saline groundwater interface must be limited and the horizontal movement of advective saline ground-water must be extremely low. Theoretical equations for the location and shape of the interface are derived. When radwastes are buried in rock formations, the temperature effect of the decay heat could cause buoyant convection flow of saline groundwater upward across the groundwater interface. This could carry released radionuclides across the groundwater interface to upper formation layers where fresh groundwater flows. The radionuclides could then be carried by the fresh groundwater to the sea. Although basic HLW repository designs should eliminate the significance of this temperature effect, it is incorporated into this preliminary analysis for the purpose of conservative estimations

  12. Quantitative performance allocation of multi-barrier system for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joon-Hong; Ikeda, Takao; Ohe, Toshiaki

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment of each barrier consisting of geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive wastes is carried out quantitatively, and key radionuclides and parameters are pointed out. Chemical compositions and solubilities of radionuclides under repository conditions are determined by PHREEQE code staring from compositions of granitic groundwater observed in Japan. Glass dissolution analysis based on mass transfer theory and precipitation analysis have been done in order to determine the inner boundary condition for radionuclide diffusion through a bentonite-filled buffer region, where multi-member decay chain and isotopic sharing of solubility at the inner boundary are considered. Natural barrier is treated as homogeneous porous rock, or porous rock with infinite planar fractures. Performance of each barrier is evaluated in terms of non-dimensionalized hazard defined as the ratio of annual radioactivity release from each barrier to the annual limit on intake. At the outer edge of the engineered barriers, 239 Pu is the key unclide to the performance, whereas at the exit of the natural barrier, weakly-sorbing fission product nuclides such as 135 Cs, 129 I and 99 Tc dominate the hazard. (author) 50 refs

  13. Social acceptance process model for ensuring the high-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Satoru; Nagasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Generally speaking, a vast, advanced and unfamiliar science and technology are unacceptable to the public for fear of their unknown nature. Here, the social acceptance process model was examined on the basis of the analysis of the cause phenomenon and numerical grounds, by referring to the problems on the application of literature documentation for location examination of a high-level radioactive waste disposal site in Toyo town in Kochi Pref. in April 2007. In analyzing the Toyo town case, we have found a possibility that the majority of local residents knew very little about the object opposed by the fringe route processing. To ensure a healthy decision making by the public, it is vital to convey fundamental information using sufficient wide-area PR media before the issue becomes actual. After the issue becomes actual, dialog with residents through a careful technology assessment is indispensable. The authors focus attention on the decision-making process of human beings from the social and psychological viewpoints, and point out that it is desirable for promoting social acceptance by adopting two approaches: a direct approach aiming at better intelligibility for the different resident layers and a deductive approach in technological essence. (author)

  14. Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the role of rock engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Kozo

    2008-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and its predecessors have been conducting an extensive geoscientific research program since the 1970's in order to contribute to the formation of a firm scientific and technological basis for the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Japan. As a part of this program, in situ experiments have been performed at the Tono Mine in soft sedimentary rocks and at the Kamaishi Mine in hard crystalline rocks. An experiment on excavation disturbance has been one of these experiments and has revealed the extent and properties of the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and the applicability of available measurement methods. It is suggested that mechanical excavation and controlled excavation have reduced excavation damage of the rock mass around a drift, although some improvements in the currently available methods for measuring and simulating the EDZ are essential to understand excavation disturbance in more detail. JAEA is now promoting two underground research laboratory projects in Japan; the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project for crystalline rocks and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (Horonobe URL) project for sedimentary rocks. From a rock mechanical point of view, the major interest in these projects will be paid to failure phenomenon deep underground, rock stress estimation at larger scales and long-term physical stability of underground structure. These projects are open for international collaboration. (author)

  15. Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100 degree C. 52 refs., 9 figs

  16. Geologic disposal as optimal solution of managing the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Ionescu, A.; Deaconu, V.

    2002-01-01

    To date there exist three alternatives for the concept of geological disposal: 1. storing the high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on ground repositories; 2. solutions implying advanced separation processes including partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and eventual disposal in outer space; 3. geological disposal in repositories excavated in rocks. Ground storing seems to be advantageous as it ensures a secure sustainable storing system over many centuries (about 300 years). On the other hand ground storing would be only a postponement in decision making and will be eventually followed by geological disposal. Research in the P and T field is expected to entail a significant reduction of the amount of long-lived radioactive waste although the long term geological disposal will be not eliminated. Having in view the high cost, as well as the diversity of conditions in the countries owning power reactors it appears as a reasonable regional solution of HLW disposal that of sharing a common geological disposal. In Romania legislation concerning of radioactive waste is based on the Law concerning Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in View of Final Disposal. One admits at present that for Romania geological disposal is not yet a stressing issue and hence intermediate ground storing of SNF will allow time for finding a better final solution

  17. Radiation and environmental safety of spent nuclear fuel management options based on direct disposal or reprocessing and disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, S.

    1996-05-01

    The report considers the various stages of two nuclear fuel cycle options: direct disposal and reprocessing followed by disposal of vitrified high-level waste. The comparative review is based on the results of previous international studies and concentrates on the radiation and environmental safety aspects of technical solutions based on today's technology. (23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.)

  18. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1988-05-01

    Three copper-based alloys --- CDA 102 (OFHC copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni) --- are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement. The three copper-based alloys discussed here are being considered in addition to the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials discussed in Volume 3. The decay of radionuclides will result in substantial heat generation and in fluxes of gamma radiation. In this environment, container materials may degrade by atmospheric oxidation, uniform aqueous phase corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC) in tarnishing environments, or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in nontarnishing environments. This report is a critical survey of available data on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three copper-based alloys. The requisite conditions for TGSCC and IGSCC include combinations of stress, oxygen, ammonia or nitrite, and water. Note that nitrite is generated by gamma radiolysis of moisture films in air but that ammonia is not. TGSCC has been observed in CDA 102 and CDA 613 exposed to moist ammonia-containing environments whereas SCC has not been documented for CDA 715 under similar conditions. SCC is also promoted in copper by nitrite ions. Furthermore, phosphorus-deoxidized copper is unusually susceptible to embrittlement in such environments. The presence of tin in CDA 613 prevents IGSCC. It is believed that tin segregates to grain boundaries, where it oxidizes very slowly, thereby inhibiting the oxidation of aluminum. 117 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Temperature distributions in a salt formation used for the ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploumen, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the works on waste disposal is focussed on the utilization of a salt formation for ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat released from the high-level waste will be dissipated in the salt and the surrounding geologic formations. The occuring temperature distributions will be calculated with computer codes. A survey of the developed computer codes will be shown; the results for a selected example, taking into account the loading sequence of the waste, the mine ventilation as well as an air gap between the waste and the salt, will be discussed. Furthermore it will be shown that by varying the disposal parameters, the maximum salt temperature can be below any described value. (Auth.)

  2. The inventory model for feasibility studies of a deep geological disposal for high level and long lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Lagrange, M.H.; Porcher, J.B.; Chupeau, J.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed inventory of high level and long lived waste packages was established to perform studies for the feasibility of an underground repository. This inventory takes into account existing conditioned waste, unconditioned waste and arisings generated by existing facilities. Grouping of waste package sorts in package types is done regarding relevant characteristics that determine the design of disposal vaults. The radiological content of each package type is derived from calculations of nuclear interactions inside the reactors, from the distribution of the nuclides in the different package types; it is cross-checked with available data on waste sorts. (author)

  3. An alternative waste form for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) on the basis of a survey of solidification and final disposal of HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, C.

    1982-01-01

    The dissertation comprises two separate parts. The first part presents the basic conditions and concepts of the process leading to the development of a waste form, such as:origin, composition and characteristics of the high-level radioactive waste; evaluation of the methods available for the final disposal of radioactive waste, especially the disposal in a geological formation, including the resulting consequences for the conditions of state in the surroundings of the waste package; essential option for the conception of a waste form and presentation of the waste forms developed and examined on an international level up to now. The second part describes the production of a waste form on TiO 2 basis, in which calcined radioactive waste particles in the submillimeter range are embedded in a rutile matrix. That waste form is produced by uniaxial pressure sintering in the temperature range of 1223 K to 1423 K and pressures between 5 MPa and 20 MPa. Microstructure, mechanical properties and leaching rates of the waste form are presented. Moreover, a method is explained allowing compacting of the rutile matrix and also integration of a wasteless overpack of titanium or TiO 2 into the waste form. (orig.) [de

  4. Overview of the US program for developing a waste disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive high-level waste (HLW) has been a matter of national concern ever since the first US civilian nuclear reactor began generating electricity in 1957. Based on current projections of commercial generating capacity, by the turn of the century, there will be >40,000 tonne of spent fuel in the Untied States. In addition to commercial spent fuel, defense HLW is generated in the United States and currently stored at three US Department of Energy (DOE) sites: The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 provided for financial incentives to host a repository or a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility; mandated the areas in which DOE's siting efforts should concentrate (Yucca Mountain, Nevada); required termination of site-specific activities at other sites; required a resisting process for an MRS facility, which DOE had proposed as an integral part of the waste disposal system; terminated all activities for identifying candidates for a second repository; established an 11-member Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; established a three-member MRS commission to be appointed by heads of the US Senate and House; directed the President to appoint a negotiator to seek a state or Indian tribe willing to host a repository or MRS facility at a suitable site and to negotiate terms and conditions under which the state or tribe would be willing to host such a facility; and amended, adjusted, or established other requirements contained in the 1982 law

  5. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  6. Radiological assessment of the consequences of the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in subseabed sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Marsily, G.; Behrendt, V.; Ensminger, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the seabed option consists in estimating the detriment to man and to the environment that could result from the disposal of high-level waste (HLW) within the seabed sediments in deep oceans. The assessment is made for the high-level waste (vitrified glass) produced by the reprocessing of 10 5 tons of heavy metal from spent fuel, which represents the amount of waste generated by 3333 reactor-yr of 900-MW(electric) reactors, i.e., 3000 GW(electric) x yr. The disposal option considered is to use 14,667 steel penetrators, each of them containing five canisters of HLW glass (0.15 m 3 each). These penetrators would reach a depth of 50 m in the sediments and would be placed at an average distance of 180 m from each other, requiring a disposal area on the order of 22 x 22 km. Two such potential disposal areas in the Atlantic Ocean were studied, Great Meteor East (GME) and South Nares Abyssal Plains (SNAP). A special ship design is proposed to minimize transportation accidents. Approximately 100 shipments would be necessary to dispose of the proposed amount of waste. The results of this radiological assessment seem to show that the disposal of HLW in subseabed sediments is radiologically a very acceptable option

  7. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has primary federal responsibility for the development and implementation of safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear waste disposal methods. Currently, the principal emphasis in the program is on emplacement of nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories well beneath the earth's surface. A brief description of the mined geologic disposal system is provided. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was established under DOE's predecessor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, to provide facilities for the mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The NWTS program includes both the development and the implementation of the technology necessary for designing, constructing, licensing, and operating repositories. The program does not include the management of processing radioactive wastes or of transporting the wastes to repositories. The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the NWTS program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document presents the functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel. A separate document to be developed, NWTS-33(4b), will present the requirements and criteria for waste packages for TRU wastes. The hierarchy and application of these requirements and criteria are discussed in Section 2.2

  8. Process and research method of radionuclide migration in high level radioactive waste geological disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Rui; Zhang Zhanshi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides released from waste can migrate from the repository to the rock and soil outside. On the other hand, nuclides also are retarded by the backfill material. Radionuclide migration is the main geochemical process of the waste disposal. This paper introduces various methods for radionuclide migration research, and give a brief analysis of the geochemical process of radionuclide migration. Finally, two of the most important processes of the radionuclide migration have been instanced. (authors)

  9. SCFR Fuel Cycles and Their Impact on the Performance of High-Level Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Daisuke; Nogi, Naoyuki; Saito, Takumi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Nagasaki, Shinya [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concept of supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (SCFR) is developed and studied at the University of Tokyo. The impact of disposal of the waste generated in a fuel cycle with SCFR is also investigated in the project. It is of great interest how a fuel cycle with SCFR compares to the other fuel cycles from the back-end view point. With its various neutron spectrum, SCFR may be used to transmute both actinides and fission products. The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare multiple fuel cycle designs in order to investigate the effects of SCFR and its transmutation capability upon the back-end risks. Three designs of fuel cycle are considered for evaluation in the present study. First, a simple fuel cycle with PWR and recycling is considered. The spent fuel from the PWR is reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium, and the rest of the radioactive nuclides are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository. In the second design, the recovered uranium and plutonium in the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel is fabricated into a MOX fuel and irradiated in SCFR. The spent fuel from the SCFR is reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. In the third design, actinide elements are also separated from the PWR spent fuel and is loaded as the blanket fuel in SCFR core together with the MOX fuel fabricated from the recovered uranium and plutonium. In the same way as in the second design, the spent fuel from the SCFR is reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. In the second and the third designs, there are two streams of highly radioactive waste; one from the reprocessing (separation process) of the PWR spent fuel, and the other from the reprocessing of the SCFR spent fuel. Numerical codes Origen2.1 and SWAT is used for fuel irradiation calculation. The performance of the high-level radioactive waste repository is evaluated for each design of fuel cycle. It is assumed that the repository is located in a water-saturated geologic

  10. Survey and analysis of the domestic technology level for the concept development of high level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Sun; Kim, Byung Su; Song, Jae Hyok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwang Hon; Hwang, Ju Ho; Park, Sung Hyun; Lee, Jae Min [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joung Sang; Kim, Ku Young [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae Ki; Chang, Jae Kwon [Hangyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    The objectives of this study are the analysis of the status of HLW disposal technology and the investigation of the domestic technology level. The study has taken two years to complete with the participation of forty five researchers. The study was mainly carried out through means of literature surveys, collection of related data, visits to research institutes, and meetings with experts in the specific fields. During the first year of this project, the International Symposium on the Concept Development of the High Level Waste Disposal System was held in Taejon, Korea in October, 1997. Eight highly professed foreign experts whose fields of expertise projected to the area of high level waste disposal were invited to the symposium. This study is composed of four major areas; disposal system design/construction, engineered barrier characterization, geologic environment evaluation and performance assessment and total safety. A technical tree scheme of HLW disposal has been illustrated according to the investigation and an analysis for each technical area. For each detailed technology, research projects, performing organization/method and techniques that are to be secured in the order of priority are proposed, but the suggestions are merely at a superfluous level of propositional idea due to the reduction of the budget in the second year. The detailed programs on HLW disposal are greatly affected by governmental HLW disposal policy and in this study, the primary decisions to be made in each level of HLW disposal enterprise and a rough scheme are proposed. (author). 20 refs., 97 figs., 33 tabs.

  11. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A summary is presented of a report in five volumes on possible disposal of radioactive waste in Denmark. The investigation was made by the Danish electric utilities ELKRAFT and ELSAM at the request of the Danish Government. The investigation proved it possible to consider two alternative designs for a disposal facility, one based on the deposition of waste in individual, deep holes, the other on placing the waste in mine galleries. A safety analysis was completed with the Mors dome as example. The purpose of the analysis was to prove whether safe disposal of high-level waste in Denmark was feasible. The utilities concluded that the results of the analysis were satisfactory and the report is now being assessed by the authorities. (BP)

  12. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  13. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear... the hotel for meeting attendees. To ensure receiving the meeting rate, reservations must be made by October 6, 2010. For directions to the hotel or to make reservations, go to http://www.marriott.com/hotels...

  14. Hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Lv Chuanhe

    2005-01-01

    Based on the research experiences of our country and some developed countries in the world, the purpose, process and methods, as well as the function of hydrogeological investigation for sitting disposal repository for high radioactive waste are discussed. Meanwhile, the topic related to the acquisition of hydrogeological parameters is described as well, aiming at providing reference for the future study. (authors)

  15. Systems analysis approach to the disposal of high-level waste in deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsily, G. de; Hill, M.D.; Murray, C.N.; Talbert, D.M.; Van Dorp, F.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Among the different options being studied for disposal of high-level solidified waste, increasing attention is being paid to that of emplacement of glasses incorporating the radioactivity in deep oceanic sediments. This option has the advantage that the areas of the oceans under investigation appear to be relatively unproductive biologically, are relatively free from cataclysmic events, and are areas in which the natural processes are slow. Thus the environment is stable and predictable so that a number of barriers to the release and dispersion of radioactivity can be defined. Task Groups set up in the framework of the International Seabed Working Group have been studying many aspects of this option since 1976. In order that the various parts of the problem can be assessed within an integrated framework, the methods of systems analysis have been applied. In this paper the Systems Analysis Task Group members report the development of an overall system model. This will be used in an iterative process in which a preliminary analysis, together with a sensitivity analysis, identifies the parameters and data of most importance. The work of the other task groups will then be focussed on these parameters and data requirements so that improved results can be fed back into an improved overall systems model. The major requirements for the development of a preliminary overall systems model are that the problem should be separated into identified elements and that the interfaces between the elements should be clearly defined. The model evolved is deterministic and defines the problem elements needed to estimate doses to man

  16. Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for high-level radioactive waste disposal in basalt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Davis, P.A.; Shipers, L.R.; Brinster, K.F.; Beyler, W.E.; Updegraff, C.D.; Shepherd, E.R.; Tilton, L.M.; Wahi, K.K.

    1989-06-01

    This document describes a performance assessment methodology developed for a high-level radioactive waste repository mined in deep basalt formations. This methodology is an extension of an earlier one applicable to bedded salt. The differences between the two methodologies arise primarily in the modeling of round-water flow and radionuclide transport. Bedded salt was assumed to be a porous medium, whereas basalt formations contain fractured zones. Therefore, mathematical models and associated computer codes were developed to simulate the aforementioned phenomena in fractured media. The use of the methodology is demonstrated at a hypothetical basalt site by analyzing seven scenarios: (1) thermohydrological effects caused by heat released from the repository, (2) mechanohydrological effects caused by an advancing and receding glacier, (3) normal ground-water flow, (4) pumping of ground water from a confined aquifer, (5) rerouting of a river near the repository, (6) drilling of a borehole through the repository, and (7) formation of a new fault intersecting the repository. The normal ground-water flow was considered the base-case scenario. This scenario was used to perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses and to demonstrate the existing capabilities for assessing compliance with the ground-water travel time criterion and the containment requirements. Most of the other scenarios were considered perturbations of the base case, and a few were studied in terms of changes with respect to initial conditions. The potential impact of these scenarios on the long-term performance of the disposal system was ascertained through comparison with the base-case scenario or the undisturbed initial conditions. 66 refs., 106 figs., 27 tabs

  17. Geothermal characteristics in Korean peninsula for the disposal concept of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jin Woong; Han, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik

    2001-04-01

    In order to review the state-of-the-art of geothermal conditions and to supply the references for the concept development of high level radioactive waste disposal at deep geological formation in Korea. The existing data for the heat flow and geothermal gradient were evaluated and summarized over 300m in depth, which are mainly of the hot spring area. The heat flow in Korean peninsula is recorded as about 69mW/m 2 and has no significant differences, in general. This value is regarsed as similar as the average value over Korean peninsula, of 71mW/m 2 . This means The high geothermal anomalies are distributed around the south-western part of Korea and mainly covered with volcanic rocks. And, this value is within the range of the heat flow in Korean peninsula, as 50-80mW/m 2 . The geothermal gradient in each rock type are also shown a similar pattern by depth in Korea as belows. The sedimentary rock area: 25.34 deg C/km The plutonic rock area: 25.24 deg C/km (mainly granites) The metamorphic rock area: 23.56 deg C/km And, the geothermal gradient was measured as about 30 deg C/km around north- eastern part of Korea in 1996, where is distributed with granites. These values has been evaluated according to the existing data, which were mainly from the records of hot spring, in general. However, these properties would be abe to a propper references consideration with the low geothermal and areal characteristics of Korean peninsular. In the following stages, it is suggested that geothermal characteristics should be evaluated for the preferred host rocks

  18. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references

  19. Prediction of pressure of bentonite buffer in model test of disposal pit for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Osada, Toru; Takao, Hajime; Ueda, Hiroyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Bentonite-based buffer materials for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal are expected to fill up the space between buffer and a wall of the disposal pit, and/or between buffer and an waste-container called as overpack by its swelling deformation. That is called as self-sealing ability. This study performs the model tests simulated the relationship between buffer and space mentioned above. It also investigates the validity of the theoretical equations for evaluating the swelling characteristics of bentonite-based buffer and backfill material, which were proposed in Komine and Ogata (2003, 2004), by comparing the calculations and the experimental results. (author)

  20. China's deep geological disposal program for high level radioactive waste, background and status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Wang; Xu Guoqing; Guo Yonghai

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the background and progress made in the study of China's high level radioactive waste, including site screening, site evaluation, the study on radionuclide migration, bentonite, natural analogue studies, and performance assessment, etc. The study on Beishan area, the potential area for China's geological repository, is also presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. An extra issue: background of the geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, an extra issue of the progress report, was prepared for the expected readers of the report to have background information on the geological disposal. Thus it gives information about (1) generation of high-level radioactive wastes, (2) history of plans proposed for HLW disposal in Japan, and (3) procedure until the geological disposal plan is finally adopted and basic future schedules. It further discusses on such problems in HLW treatment and disposal, as for example a problem of reliable safety for a very long period. (Ohno, S.)

  2. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency's long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards

  3. Geotechnical modeling of high-level nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the geotechnical modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting (DRM). Three seeparate tasks were performed to reach this objective: a review of the four scenarios which have been proposed for DRM, to date; an evaluation of computer-based numerical models which could be used to analyze the mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic processes involved in DRM; and a critical review of rock mass properties which are relevant to the design and safety of waste disposal by rock melting. It is concluded that several geotechnical aspects of DRM can be studied realistically with current state-of-the-art model capabilities and knowledge of material properties. The next step in the feasibility study of DRM should be a best-estimate calculation of the four cavity-melt and canister-burial concepts. These new analyses will indicate the most critical areas for subsequent research

  4. Reliability of sub-seabed disposal operations for high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarshar, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes a study carried out into the reliability of two methods of disposal of heat generating radioactive waste: by drilled emplacement in holes drilled into the ocean sediments, and by the use of penetrators to drive the waste below the ocean floor. The study has concentrated on the risk of events leading to the release of radioactivity to the environment, and also on the hazard to personnel involved in the operation. A Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis and a Fault Tree Analysis have been used in the assessment, and the relative importance of each contributory factor estimated. (author)

  5. Preliminary study on the three-dimensional geoscience information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peinan; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun; Wang Ju; Zhong Xia

    2010-01-01

    The 3D geosciences information system of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an important research direction in the current high-level radioactive waste disposal project and a platform of information integration and publishing can be used for the relevant research direction based on the provided data and models interface. Firstly, this paper introduces the basic features about the disposal project of HLW and the function and requirement of the system, which includes the input module, the database management module, the function module, the maintenance module and the output module. Then, the framework system of the high-level waste disposal project information system has been studied, and the overall system architecture has been proposed. Finally, based on the summary and analysis of the database management, the 3D modeling, spatial analysis, digital numerical integration and visualization of underground project, the implementations of key functional modules and the platform have been expounded completely, and the conclusion has been drawn that the component-based software development method should be utilized in system development. (authors)

  6. Development of a ceramic waste form for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic waste form is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of the demonstration of the electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The halide, alkaline earth, alkali, transuranic, and rare earth fission products are stabilized in zeolite which is combined with glass and processed in a hot isostatic press (HIP) to form a ceramic composite. The mineral sodalite is formed in the HIP from the zeolite precursor. The process, from starting materials to final product, is relatively simple. An overview of the processing operations is given. The metrics that have been developed to measure the success or completion of processing operations are developed and discussed. The impact of variability in processing metrics on the durability of the final product is presented

  7. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1981-01-01

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  8. Critical review of welding technology for canisters for disposal of spent fuel and high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, S.; Allen, C.; Punshon, C.; Threadgill, P.; Gallegillo, M.; Holmes, B.; Nicholas, J.

    2010-03-01

    Nagra is the Swiss national cooperative for the disposal of radioactive waste and is responsible for final disposal of all types of waste produced in Switzerland, which are partitioned into two repository types, one for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level waste and one for low and intermediate level waste. In the general licences applied for these repositories, documentation has to show that long-term safety can be ensured and that factors for the construction, operation, and closure of the facility have been considered. Nagra has commissioned TWI to carry out a critical review of welding technologies for the sealing of HLW and SF canisters made of carbon steel. In conjunction with a material selection report, the information gained will be used as a preliminary step to provide input to developing design concepts for the canisters. The features to be considered are: a) Suitability of techniques for thickness of weld required; b) Suitability for remote operation, maintenance and set-up; c) Welding speed, weld quality, tolerances and cost; d) Effect of welding process on parent materials properties including microstructure corrosion resistance, distortion and residual stress; e) Potential post-weld treatments to reduce residual stress and enhance corrosion resistance; f) Suitability of inspection techniques for the weld thickness required; g) Impact of welding techniques on the canister design and material selection; h) Critique of emerging technologies which may be suitable in the future. The review of potential welding technologies began with a feasibility study carried out by TWI experts, where the unsuitable processes were rejected. For the remaining processes attention was focused on previous applications for the material and thickness suggested, and especially on safety critical applications such as applied in the nuclear and pressure vessel industry. Once the relevant information was gathered each process was

  9. Canister design concepts for disposal of spent fuel and high level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Punshon, C.; Nicholas, J.; Bastid, P.; Zhou, R.; Schneider, C.; Bagshaw, N.; Howse, D.; Hutchinson, E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge, (United Kingdom); Asano, R. [Hitachi Zosen Corporation, Osaka (Japan); King, S. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    As part of its long-term plans for development of a repository for spent fuel (SF) and high level waste (HLW), Nagra is exploring various options for the selection of materials and design concepts for disposal canisters. The selection of suitable canister options is driven by a series of requirements, one of the most important of which is providing a minimum 1000 year lifetime without breach of containment. One candidate material is carbon steel, because of its relatively low corrosion rate under repository conditions and because of the advanced state of overall technical maturity related to construction and fabrication. Other materials and design options are being pursued in parallel studies. The objective of the present study was to develop conceptual designs for carbon steel SF and HLW canisters along with supporting justification. The design process and outcomes result in design concepts that deal with all key aspects of canister fabrication, welding and inspection, short-term performance (handling and emplacement) and long-term performance (corrosion and structural behaviour after disposal). A further objective of the study is to use the design process to identify the future work that is required to develop detailed designs. The development of canister designs began with the elaboration of a number of design requirements that are derived from the need to satisfy the long-term safety requirements and the operational safety requirements (robustness needed for safe handling during emplacement and potential retrieval). It has been assumed based on radiation shielding calculations that the radiation dose rate at the canister surfaces will be at a level that prohibits manual handling, and therefore a hot cell and remote handling will be needed for filling the canisters and for final welding operations. The most important canister requirements were structured hierarchically and set in the context of an overall design methodology. Conceptual designs for SF canisters

  10. Canister design concepts for disposal of spent fuel and high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.; Punshon, C.; Nicholas, J.; Bastid, P.; Zhou, R.; Schneider, C.; Bagshaw, N.; Howse, D.; Hutchinson, E.; Asano, R.; King, S.

    2012-10-01

    As part of its long-term plans for development of a repository for spent fuel (SF) and high level waste (HLW), Nagra is exploring various options for the selection of materials and design concepts for disposal canisters. The selection of suitable canister options is driven by a series of requirements, one of the most important of which is providing a minimum 1000 year lifetime without breach of containment. One candidate material is carbon steel, because of its relatively low corrosion rate under repository conditions and because of the advanced state of overall technical maturity related to construction and fabrication. Other materials and design options are being pursued in parallel studies. The objective of the present study was to develop conceptual designs for carbon steel SF and HLW canisters along with supporting justification. The design process and outcomes result in design concepts that deal with all key aspects of canister fabrication, welding and inspection, short-term performance (handling and emplacement) and long-term performance (corrosion and structural behaviour after disposal). A further objective of the study is to use the design process to identify the future work that is required to develop detailed designs. The development of canister designs began with the elaboration of a number of design requirements that are derived from the need to satisfy the long-term safety requirements and the operational safety requirements (robustness needed for safe handling during emplacement and potential retrieval). It has been assumed based on radiation shielding calculations that the radiation dose rate at the canister surfaces will be at a level that prohibits manual handling, and therefore a hot cell and remote handling will be needed for filling the canisters and for final welding operations. The most important canister requirements were structured hierarchically and set in the context of an overall design methodology. Conceptual designs for SF canisters

  11. Modeling by GASP-IV simulation of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A. Jr.; DePorter, E.L.; Turek, J.L.; Funk, S.K.; Rasbach, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste generated by defense-oriented and commercial nuclear energy activities are to be stored ultimately in underground repositories. Research continues on the waste-form and waste-form processing. DOE managers must coordinate the results of this research, the capacities and availability times of the permanent geologic storage repositories, and the capacities and availability times of interim storage facilities (pending availability of permanent repositories). Comprehensive and active DOE program-management information systems contain predicted generation of nuclear wastes from defense and commercial activities; milestones on research on waste-forms; and milestones on research and development, design, acquisition, and construction of facilities and repositories. A GASP IV simulation model is presented which interfaces all of these data. The model accepts alternate management decisions; relates all critical milestones, all research and development data, and the generation of waste nuclear materials; simulates the passage of time; then, predicts the impact of those alternate decisions on the availability of storage capacity for waste nuclear materials. 3 references, 3 figures

  12. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 3: Geoscience characterization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, L.E.; Auffret, G.A.; Buckley, D.E.; Schuettenhelm, R.T.E.; Searle, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the results of a study performed to establish if, on the basis of available data, sites may be found that will satisfy the geoscience requirements for a potential subseabed high-level waste repository

  13. The disposal of high level radioactive waste in argillaceous host rocks identification of parameters, constraints and geological assessment priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report, commissioned by ENRESA, is to examine the characteristics, properties and responses of argillaceous media (clays and more indurated mudrocks) in some detail in order to identify the main parameters that will influence the radiological safety of a deep underground facility for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) and to highlight possible constraints and other important issues relating to the construction, operation and performance of such a facility

  14. Is an institute for the study of high-level radioactive waste disposal needed in southern Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, M.B.; Robison, A.C.; Baepler, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines key questions about the need for a formal institute that would study storage and disposal concepts for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) in the United States and throughout the world. The questions that have been analyzed so far include: Why is an institute needed? What could this institute do to achieve the goal? How could an institute of this nature work? When could an institute form and begin functioning to meet the goals? Where could an institute be located?

  15. The disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Proposed solutions and uses in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.F.A.

    1992-06-01

    The characteristics of high level radioactive waste produced in nuclear plants similar to that used in Brazil is presented. Subsequently it is described the international experience, and the way to apply such knowledge to the Brazilian situation, defining the magnitude of the problem, applying a methodology to select sites, and choosing areas for the location of a repository. Once such areas are defined, it is presented the behaviour of rock mass, similar to those found in the brazilian territory, based on the requirements for a high radioactive waste repository site. Finally, two Projects are presented for countries with lithologies similar to that of Brazil. The first one is choosing sites for a high radioactive waste repository program, and the second is an investigation of rock mass responses program. (author)

  16. Hypothetical accidents at disposal facilities for high-level liquid radioactive wastes and pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabakchi, S.A.; Zagainov, V.A.; Lishnikov, A.A.; Nazin, E.R.

    1994-01-01

    Four accidents are postulated and analyzed for interim storage of high-level, liquid radioactive wastes at a fuel reprocessing facility. Normal waste storage operation is based on wastes stored in steel drums, partially buried in concrete canyons, and equipped with heat exchangers for cooling and ventilation systems for removal of explosive gases and vapors. The accident scenarios analyzed are: (1) shutdown of ventilation with open entrance and exit ventilation pipes, (2) shutdown of ventilation with closed entrance and exit ventilation pipes, (3) shutdown of the cooling system with normally functioning ventilation, and (4) simultaneous cooling and ventilation system failure (worst case). A mathematical model was developed and used to calculate radiation consequences of various accidents. Results are briefly presented for the worst case scenario and compared to an actual accident for model validation. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Examination on rational disposal concept, layout, and methods of molding and settling for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Masatoshi

    1998-01-01

    As for the concept of disposing high level radioactive waste in the place of disposal, the method of securing safety by isolating the waste from human environment with the combination of artificial barriers and natural barriers has been adopted. At present in Japan, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation has considered the concept of disposal, but it is considered to be necessary to review it from the viewpoints of the uncertainty in safety characteristics, the possibility of realizing construction and settlement, economical efficiency and others. Recently, the investigation of the rational disposal concept has been advanced jointly with Dr. McKinley. The conditions to be considered for artificial barriers at the time of reviewing the disposal concept are described on bentonite buffer and carbon steel overpack enclosing glass-solidified body. As the disposal concept, the private plan of Toyota and that of Toyota and McKinley are shown. Also the layout for settling two modules each in horizontal adits on both sides of the connecting tunnel is proposed. The methods of molding and settling the engineered barrier system are explained. This disposal concept can reduce uncertainty, heighten safety and reduce the cost. (K.I.)

  18. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested.

  19. Preliminary analyses of the deep geoenvironmental characteristics for the deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su

    2016-01-01

    Spent fuels from nuclear power plants, as well as high-level radioactive waste from the recycling of spent fuels, should be safely isolated from human environment for an extremely long time. Recently, meaningful studies on the development of deep borehole radioactive waste disposal system in 3-5 km depth have been carried out in USA and some countries in Europe, due to great advance in deep borehole drilling technology. In this paper, domestic deep geoenvironmental characteristics are preliminarily investigated to analyze the applicability of deep borehole disposal technology in Korea. To do this, state-of-the art technologies in USA and some countries in Europe are reviewed, and geological and geothermal data from the deep boreholes for geothermal usage are analyzed. Based on the results on the crystalline rock depth, the geothermal gradient and the spent fuel types generated in Korea, a preliminary deep borehole concept including disposal canister and sealing system, is suggested

  20. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 1: Overview of research and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume provides an overview of the research and a summary of the results

  1. Preliminary consideration for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the overseas practical experiences with combination of domestic realistic conditions a preliminary consideration of a long-range plan is proposed for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040. An overview of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the overseas and mainland is presented shortly first in this paper. Then the discussion is centered on the preliminary consideration of a long-range plan for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The partition of stages of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the goal, task, research contents and time table for each research stage is stated in this preliminary consideration. The data mentioned above will probably be useful for making plan for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the future in China. (author)

  2. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  3. Feasibility of high level radioactive waste disposal in deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    For the past ten years, an international program has been conducted to investigate the concept feasibility for disposing of spent nuclear fuel waste in deep ocean sediments. These studies by the Seabed Working Group were coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Penetrators have been considered as the primary method of waste emplacement. This required emphasis on studies of the nature of the plastic sediments which would form the primary barrier to the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Site qualification guidelines, included criteria for tectonic and sedimentary stability over periods of at least 10 5 years. Using these guidelines two potential areas were identified: one in the Madeira Abyssal Plain; and one in the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain, both in the North Atlantic

  4. The potential for microbial life in a Canadian high-level nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1989-12-01

    Recent studies have concluded that microbial contamination of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is inevitable. Factors that will affect the development of substantial population of micro-organisms include: physiological tolerance of microbes; fluid movement in a vault; availability of nutrients; and availability of energy sources. It is difficult to resolve whether microbial growth will either positively or negatively affect the performance of a vault. One of the necessary steps towards ultimately answering this question is to assess the potential for microbial growth in a disposal vault, based on a nutrient and energy budget. This report gives a quantitative (but conservative) inventory of nutrients and potential energy sources present in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste vault, which hypothetically could support the growth of micro-organisms. Maximum population densities are calculated based on these inventories and assuming that all conditions for microbial growth are optimal, although this will certainly not be the case. Laboratory studies under the vault-relevant conditions are being performed to put realistic boundaries on the calculated numbers. Initial results from these studies, combined with data from a natural analogue site indicate that the calculated population densities could be overestimated by four to five orders of magnitude. Limited data show no effect of the presence of microbes on the transport of Tc, I, and Sr in backfill sand columns. Additional work is needed to address transport effects on buffer and backfill clay columns

  5. Analysis of environmental effects from disposal of solidified ICPP high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipman, N.A.; Simpson, G.G.; Lawroski, H.; Rodger, W.A.; Frendberg, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This work is part of a comprehensive study to assess possible environmental impacts from six different options for managing high-level defense wastes generated at the ICPP. Only radiological consequences are considered in this report; population doses to those within 80 km of ICPP were estimated for time periods up to 100 million years. The population dose to future generations from any option is insignificant compared with that from natural background radiation: less than 1 cancer death in 1,000 years compared with 20,000 cancer deaths from natural background radiation. 16 tables

  6. Ecological risk assessment of deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Lush, D.L.; Acton, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Contaminant fate and transport models, radiological dosimetry models, chemical dose-response models and population dynamic models were used to estimate ecological risks to moose and brook trout populations arising from a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. Risks from potential contaminant releases were compared with risks from physical habitat alteration in constructing a repository and service community, and with risks from increased hunting and fish pressure in the area. For a reference environment typical of a proposed location somewhere in the Canadian Shield, preliminary results suggest that the population consequences of contaminant release will be minor relative to those of habitat alteration and natural resource use

  7. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-10-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the US high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the US program, these processes, which are well defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the US program

  8. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, L.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Site selection and characterization processes for deep geologic disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costin, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the major elements of the site selection and characterization processes used in the U. S. high level waste program are discussed. While much of the evolution of the site selection and characterization processes have been driven by the unique nature of the U. S. program, these processes, which are well-defined and documented, could be used as an initial basis for developing site screening, selection, and characterization programs in other countries. Thus, this paper focuses more on the process elements than the specific details of the U. S. program. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Corrosion aspects of high-level waste disposal in salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roerbo, K.

    1979-12-01

    In the ELSAM/ELKRAT waste management project it is planned that the high-level waste is glassified, encapsuled in canisters and finally deposited in a deep hole drilled in a salt dome. In the present report corrosion aspects of the canisters after deposition are discussed. The chemical environment will probably be a limited amount of brine coming from brine inclusions in the surrounding salt and moving up against the temperature gradient, the temperature at the canister surface being in the range of 100-150degC. The possible types of corrosion and the expected corrosion rates for a number of potential canister materials (mild steel, austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, Ni-base alloys, copper, titanium and a few combinations of materials) are discussed. Mild steel (possibly combined with an inner layer of copper or titanium) might possibly be an appropriate choice of material for the canister. (author)

  11. Report to the Radioactive Waste Management Committee on the first international workshop on seabed disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Talbert, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The basic conclusion of the workshop is that, while a very considerable amount of work must be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technical reasons are apparent at this moment that would preclude disposal of radioactive wastes underneath the seafloor. Subsidiary conclusions reached by subgroups dealing with undersea geology, biology, the water column, and disposal canister research are given. General conclusions reached by the workshop are detailed, together with proposals for an international program furthering an undersea disposal scheme

  12. Site selection procedure for high level radioactive waste disposal in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Vachev, B.

    1993-01-01

    A combined site selection approach is implemented. Bulgaria's territory has been classified in three categories, presented on a 1:500000 scale map. The number of suitable sites has been reduced to 20 using the method of successive screening. The formulated site selection problem is a typical discrete multi-criteria decision making problem under uncertainty. A 5-level procedure using Expert Choice Rating and relative models is created. It is a part of a common procedure for evaluation and choice of variants for high level radwaste disposal construction. On this basis 7-8 more preferable sites are demonstrated. A new knowledge and information about the relative importance of the criteria and their subsets, about the level of criteria uncertainty and the reliability are gained. It is very useful for planning and managing of the next final stages of the site selection procedure. 7 figs., 8 refs., 4 suppls. (author)

  13. Numerical evaluation of the water saturation in a high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L.V.; Bouillet, Ch.; Tulita, C.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work is a contribution of the ANDRA's program of numerical simulations of the evolution in time of hydrogeological flows in a radioactive waste repository in deep clay formations. This study aims at evaluating the water contact areas with steel for corrosion modeling in a High-Level radioactive waste disposal, from the building to the total saturation, more than 100 000 years later [HSPA6b]. Energy release by radioactive spent fuel and thermal expansion of the interstitial water is taken into account in the models. Thermal transfers in the porous media and free convection in the gaps (Navier-Stokes equations) are computed with a linear Finite Element scheme. The mass transfers in the porous media are solved with a P0-P1 Mixed Finite Element method (Richard's equations during exploitation and two phases flow equations after the closure). All numerical simulations are performed with the Cast3M code (http://wwwcast3m. cea.fr/). During the exploitation, the H-L radioactive waste storage cell is not supposed to be hermetically closed. The pressure in the storage cell remains atmospheric and mass transfers towards the main gallery are possible. So a seepage boundary condition is used on excavation surface in order to provide evolution in time of saturation limit along the storage cell. For each cell of the boundary mesh: - No water flux is imposed in contact with unsaturated media. - Atmospheric pressure is imposed in contact with saturated media. A relative humidity of 50% is imposed for the atmosphere in the gallery. Vapour diffusive flux is implemented in Richard's equations with a suction pressure formula according to Kelvin law. Temperature impact on vapour flux is neglected. Vapour diffusive flux is significant in the concrete wall of gallery due to the ventilation. The free convection steady state in the gap is solved at different times of the thermal transient to evaluate location of

  14. Execution techniques and approach for high level radioactive waste disposal in Japan: Demonstration of geological disposal techniques and implementation approach of HLW project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, M.; Komada, H.; Kitayama, K.; Akasaka, H.; Tsuchi, H.

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal project is expected to start fully after establishment of the implementing organization, which is planned around the year 2000 and to dispose the wastes in the 2030s to at latest in the middle of 2040s. Considering each step in the implementation of the HLW disposal project in Japan, this paper discusses the execution procedure for HLW disposal project, such as the selection of candidate/planned disposal sites, the construction and operation of the disposal facility, the closure and decommissioning of facilities, and the institutional control and monitoring after the closure of disposal facility, from a technical viewpoint for the rational execution of the project. Furthermore, we investigate and propose some ideas for the concept of the design of geological disposal facility, the validation and demonstration of the reliability on the disposal techniques and performance assessment methods at a candidate/planned site. Based on these investigation results, we made clear a milestone for the execution of the HLW disposal project in Japan. (author)

  15. Design study on containers for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This study has considered the feasibility of three designs for containers which would isolate the waste from the environment for a minimum period of 500 to 1000 years. The candidate container designs were taken from the results of a previous study by Ove Arup and Partners (1985) and were developed as the study progressed. Their major features can be summarized as follows: Type A: A thin-walled corrosion-resistant metal shell filled with lead or cement grout. Type B: An unfilled thick-walled carbon steel shell. Type C: an unfilled carbon steel shell plated externally with corrosion-resistant metal. Reference repository conditions in clay, granite and salt, reference disposal operations and metals corrosion data have been taken from various European Community radioactive waste management research and engineering projects. The study concludes that design types A and B are feasible in manufacturing terms but design Type C is not. Furthermore, a titanium-palladium alloy is considered the most suitable metal for Type A container shells and lead is the preferred filler. The analysis shows that design Types A and B both have adequate resistance to pressure and temperature loadings and both would resist accidental impact damage when upright. A reduction in waste heat output at disposal would lower the stress levels in Type A containers but would have virtually no effect on Type B. There is insufficient data to compare the relative costs and benefits of design Types A and B. In conclusion design Types A and B are both considered feasible but Type A would require more development than Type B. In both cases further research is needed to confirm the long-term corrosion performance of the candidate materials. It is recommended that model containers should be produced to demonstrate the proposed methods of manufacture and that they should be tested to validate the analytical techniques used

  16. The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; White, I.F.; Fleishman, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    It has often been suggested that the potential hazard to man from the disposal of high-level radioactive waste could be reduced by removing a substantial fraction of the actinide elements. In this report the effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of one of the disposal options currently under consideration, that of burial in deep geologic formations, are examined. The results show that the potential radiological impact of geologic disposal of high-level waste arises from both long-lived fission products and actinides (and their daughter radionuclides). Neither class of radionuclides is of overriding importance and actinide separation would therefore reduce the radiological impact to only a limited extent and over limited periods. There might be a case for attempting to reduce doses from 237 Np. To achieve this it appears to be necessary to separate both neptunium and its precursor element americium. However, there are major uncertainties in the data needed to predict doses from 237 Np; further research is required to resolve these uncertainties. In addition, consideration should be given to alternative methods of reducing the radiological impact of geologic disposal. The conclusions of this assessment differ considerably from those of similar studies based on the concept of toxicity indices. Use of these indices can lead to incorrect allocation of research and development effort. (author)

  17. Proceedings of workshop 5: Flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock -- related to high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.; Nicholson, T.J.

    1993-06-01

    The ''Workshop on Flow and Transport Through Unsaturated Fractured Rock Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal'' was cosponsored by the NRC, the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, and the University of Arizona (UAZ) and was held in Tucson, Arizona, on January 7--10, 1991. The focus of this workshop, similar to the earlier four (the first being in 1982), related to hydrogeologic technical issues associated with possible disposal of commercial high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in a geologic repository within an unsaturated fractured rock system which coincides with the UAZ field studies on HLW disposal. The presentations and discussions centered on flow and transport processes and conditions, relevant parameters, as well as state-of-the-art measurement techniques, and modeling capabilities. The workshop consisted of: four half-day technical meetings, a one day field visit to the Apache Leap test site to review ongoing field studies that are examining site characterization techniques and developing data sets for model validation studies, and a final half-day session devoted to examining research needs related to modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. These proceedings provide extended abstracts of the technical presentations and short summaries of the research group reports

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Environmental impact assessment of the Swedish high-level radioactive waste disposal system - examples of likely considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sweden is investigating the feasibility of establishing a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system consisting of three components as follows: (1) Encapsulation facility, (2) system for transporting waste and (3) geologic repository. Swedish law requires that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) be written for any planned action expected to have a significant impact on the environment. Before embarking on construction and operation of a HLW disposal system, the Swedish government will evaluate the expected environmental impacts to assure that the Swedish people and environmental will not be unduly affected by the disposal system. The EIA process requires that reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the 'zero' or 'no action' alternative, be considered so that the final approved plan for disposal will have undergone scrutiny and comparison of alternatives to arrive at a plan which is the best achievable given reasonable physical and monetary constraints. This report has been prepared by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) for use by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of this report is to establish a document which outlines the types of information which would be in an EIA for a three part disposal system like that envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for the disposal of Sweden's HLW. Technical information that would normally be included in an EIA is outlined in this document. The SSI's primary interest is in radiological impacts. However, for the sake of completeness and also to evaluate all environmental impacts in a single document, non-radiological impacts are also included. Swedish authorities other than the SSI may have interest in the non-radiological parts of the document. 26 refs

  1. Feasibility of high level radioactive waste disposal in deep sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    For the past ten years, an international program has been conducted to investigate the concept feasibility for disposing of spent nuclear fuel waste in deep ocean sediments. These studies by the Seabed Working Group were coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Penetrators have been considered as the primary method of waste emplacement. This required emphasis on studies of the nature of the plastic sediments which would form the primary barrier to the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. Site qualification guidelines, included criteria for tectonic and sedimentary stability over periods of at least 10 5 years. Using these guidelines two potential areas were identified: one in the Madeira Abyssal Plain; and one in the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain, both in the North Atlantic. The sediment barrier properties are quite different in terms of dominant mineralogy (carbonates in MAP, and silicous clays in SNAP). The MAP is dominated by thick wide-spread turbidites, but SNAP is dominated by thin discontinuous turbidites

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C.; Bullen, D.B.

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Uncertainties in geologic disposal of high-level wastes - groundwater transport of radionuclides and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Bard, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis for radionuclide transport in groundwater considers models and methods for characterizing (1) the present geologic environment and its future evolution due to natural geologic processes and to repository development and waste emplacement, (2) groundwater hydrology, (3) radionuclide geochemistry, and (4) the interactions among these phenomena. The discussion of groundwater transport focuses on the nature of the sources of uncertainty rather than on quantitative estimates of their magnitude, because of the lack of evidence that current models can provide realistic quantitative predictions of radionuclide transport in groundwater for expected repository environments. The analysis for the long-term health risk to man following releases of long-lived radionuclides to the biosphere is more quantitative and involves estimates of uncertainties in (1) radionuclide concentrations in man's exposure environment, (2) radionuclide intake by exposed individuals per unit concentration in the environment, (3) the dose per unit intake, (4) the number of exposed individuals, and (5) the health risk per unit dose. For the important long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste, uncertainties in most of the different components of a calculation of individual and collective dose per unit release appear to be no more than two or three orders of magnitude; these uncertainties are certainly much less than uncertainties in predicting groundwater transport of radionuclides between a repository and the biosphere. Several limitations in current models for predicting the health risk to man per unit release to the biosphere are discussed

  5. TWRS retrieval and disposal mission. Immobilized high-level waste storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    This project plan has a two fold purpose. First, it provides a plan specific to the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Immobilized High-Level Waste (EMW) Storage Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1996) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan. Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 (DOE 1992a) and 430.1 (DOE 1995)). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the plan's dual purpose. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed

  6. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  7. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Safety of geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. The peer reviews help national programmes assess accomplished work. The general comments expressed in these reviews are also of potential interest to other member countries. The French Government requested that the NEA organize an international peer review of the Dossier 2005 Argile produced by the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). The scope and objectives of the review were laid out in the Terms of Reference (ToR). The peer review was to inform the French Government whether the Dossier 2005 Argile was: consistent with international practices and with other national disposal programmes, in particular those considering argillaceous formations, and whether the future research needs were consistent with the available knowledge basis and priorities well-identified. The French authorities were particularly interested in receiving detailed recommendations for specific improvements, notably if the decision-making process led to a site-selection phase. According to the ToR, the NEA Secretariat established an international review team (IRT) made up of ten international specialists, including one member of the NEA Secretariat. The experts were chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. This report presents the consensus view of the IRT. It is based on the Dossier 2005 Argile and supporting documents, on information provided by ANDRA in answers to questions raised by the IRT, and on direct interactions with staff from ANDRA during two working seminars in France. (author)

  9. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with safety evaluation as part of the investigations regarding a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 5 of five volumes that together constitute the final report on the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. Two characteristics of the waste are of special importance for the safety evaluation: the encasing of the waste in steel casks with 15 cm thick walls affording protection against corrosion, protecting the surroundings against radiation, and protecting the glass cylinders from mechanical damage resulting from the pressure at the bottom of the disposal hole, and the modest generation of heat in the waste at the time of disposal resulting in a maximum temperature increase in the salt close to the waste of approx. 40 deg. C. These characteristics proved to considerably improve the safety margin with respect to unforeseen circumstances. The character of the salt dome and of the salt in the proposed disposal area offers in itself good protection against contact with the ground water outside the dome. The relatively large depth of 1200 and 2500 m of the salt surface also means that neither dome nor disposal facility will be appreciably influenced by glaciations or earthquakes. The chalk above the proposed disposal area is very tight and to retain radioactive matter effectively even in the precence of high concentrations of NaCL. The safety investigations included a number of natural processes and probable events such as the segregation of crystal water from overlooked salt minerals, faulty sealings of disposal holes, permeable fault zones in the chalk overlying the dome, the risk in connection with human penetration into the dome. These conditions will neither lead to the destruction of the waste casks or to the release of waste from the dome. Leaching of a cavern is the only situation which proved to result in a release of radioactive material to the biosphere, but the resulting doses was found to be small

  10. Containers and overpacks for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological disposal. Conditions: French Corrosion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crusset, D.; Plas, F.; Santarini, G.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the act of French law dated 31 December, 1991, ANDRA (National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) is responsible for conducting the feasibility study on disposal of reversible and irreversible high-level or long-life radioactive waste in deep geological formations. Consequently, ANDRA is carrying out research on corrosion of the metallic materials envisaged for the possible construction of overpacks for vitrified waste packages or containers for spent nuclear fuel. Low-alloy or unalloyed steels and the passive alloys (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo) constitute the two families of materials studied and ANDRA has set up a research programme in partnership with other research organisations. The 'broad outlines' of the programme, which includes experimental and modelling operations, are presented. (authors)

  11. Mechanisms of hydrothermal alteration in a granitic rock. Consequences for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parneix, J.C.

    1987-06-01

    The study of hydrothermal alteration in the Auriat granitic rock (France, Massif-Central) has evidenced three main events: - a pervasive chloritisation of biotites in some parts of the drill-core, - an alteration localized around subvertical cracks and superimposed on previously chloritized or unaltered granite, - an alteration localized around subhorizontal cracks cross-cutting the preceding ones. The second type of alteration, produced by a geothermal system, gives the most interesting results to be applied to the nuclear radwaste disposal problem. Among primary minerals of granite, only biotite (or chlorite) and oligoclase are intensively altered. Therefore, the chemical composition of these minerals induces the nature of secondary parageneses. These, associated to the subvertical cracks network, indicate a thermal gradient of 150 C/Km. The geochemical code has allowed to corroborate that the thermal gradient was responsible for the occurrence of different parageneses with depth. Moreover, it was shown that the variable mineralogy around cracks was due to a thermal profile established at equilibrium between the rock and the fluid. Therefore, the extent of the alteration was proportional to the thermal power of the fluid. A dissolution and next a precipitation phase of new minerals characterize hydrothermal alteration, which is due to the thermal power emitted by radioactive waste and linked with the evolution of temperature during time. This alteration provokes two favourable events to storage: decrease of rock porosity and increase of sorption capacity [fr

  12. A review and synthesis of international proposals for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into crystalline rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    Examination of the broad range of international concepts for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into crystalline rock formations has indicated that systems based upon solid waste units provide the greatest degree of engineering control and security. Three particular disposal concepts are considered worthy of detailed evaluation. In order of priority these are:-tunnel networks with 'in-floor' waste emplacement; matrix of vertical emplacement holes drilled from the surface; tunnel networks with 'in-room' waste emplacement. A review of the international literature has shown that at least ten countries have embarked upon study programmes, but only five have developed detailed conceptual design proposals. These are:- Canada, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Differing economic, environmental, historical and political circumstances have influenced the pattern of international studies and, to the uninitiated, these factors may obscure some of the relevant technical considerations. Nevertheless, a broad technical concensus is apparent in that all countries currently favour tunnel networks with 'in-floor' waste emplacement. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  13. Prediction of geological and mechanical processes while disposing of high-level waste (HLW) into the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedrovsky, O.L.; Morozov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Prediction of geological and mechanical processes while disposing of high-level waste of atomic industry into the earth crust is the fundamental base for ecological risk assessment (possible consequences) while developing repository designs. The subject of this paper is the analytical estimate of possibilities of rock fracturing mechanisms to predict isolation properties loss by massif beginning from crystal lattice of minerals up to large fracture disturbances under conditions of long-term influence of pressure, temperature, and radiation. To solve the problem possibilities of kinetic

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on physical oceanography related to the subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    At this workshop a group of expert scientists: (1) assessed the current state of knowledge with regard to the physical oceanographic questions that must be answered generally if high level nuclear waste is to be disposed of on or under the seabed; (2) discussed physical oceanographic science necessarily related to the US Subseabed Disposal Program; (3) recommended necessary research; and (4) identified other ongoing programs with which important liaisons should be made and continued. This report is a collection of workshop presentations, and recommendations, and a synthesis of topical group recommendations into a unified statement of research needs. The US Seabed Disposal Program is described. The goal is to assess the technical, environmental and engineering feasibility of seabed disposal. The environmental studies program will assess possible ecosystem and health effects from radionuclides which may be released due to accidental leakage. Discussion on the following topics are also included: bottom boundary layer; mixing across isopycnal surfaces; circulation modeling; mesoscale dispersion; deep circulation of the Pacific Ocean; vertical transport at edges; instrumentation; chemical oceanography; plutonium distribution in the Pacific; biology report; chemical dumping report; and low-level waste report

  15. Scoping studies to reduce ICPP high-level radioactive waste volumes for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Chipman, N.A.; Cole, H.S.; Geczi, L.S.; Kerr, W.B.; Staples, B.A.

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the results of scoping studies carried out to determine the feasibility of the following candidate options to reduce high-level waste volume: (1) low-fluoride, low-volume glass, (2) glass-ceramic and ceramic, (3) Modified Zirflex, (4) inerts removal by neutralization, and (5) modified Fluorinel processes. The results of the scoping studies show that the glass-ceramic/ceramic waste forms and neutralization process with potential HLW volume reductions ranging from 60 to 80% appear feasible, based on laboratory-scale tests. The presently used Fluorinel process modified by reducing HF usage also appears to be feasible and could result in up to a 10% potential volume reduction. If the current process start-up tests verify the practicality, reduced HF usage will be implemented. The low-volume glass and Modified Zirflex processes may also be feasible, based on laboratory tests, but would require significantly more process development and/or modifications and could result in only a 20 to 30% potential volume reduction. Based on these scoping studies, it is recommended that (1) the glass-ceramic/ceramic and neutralization processes be developed further, (2) reduced HF use for the Modified Fluorinel process be implemented as soon as practical and other options reducing chemical usage for criticality control be evaluated, (3) basic development for the glass process be continued as a back-up technology, and (4) laboratory-scale radioactive fuel dissolution testing for the Modified Zirflex process be completed with further process development discontinued unless needed in the future

  16. Disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic and tank wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 3. Appendices M-V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of final disposal actions for high-level, transuranic and tank wastes located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, and into the construction, operation and decommissioning of waste treatment facilities that may be required in implementing waste disposal alternatives. Specifically evaluated are a Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Transportable Grout Facility, and a Waste Receiving and Packaging Facility. Also an evaluation is presented to assist in determining whether any additional action should be taken in terms of long-term environmental protection for waste that was disposed of at Hanford prior to 1970 as low-level waste (before the transuranic waste category was established by the AEC) but which might fall into that category if generated today. The alternatives considered in this EIS are: (1) in-place stabilization and disposal, where waste is left in place but is isolated by protective and natural barriers; (2) geologic disposal, where most of the waste (to the extent practicable) is exhumed, treated, segregated, packaged and disposed of in a deep geologic repository; waste classified as high-level would be disposed of in a commercial repository developed pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; transuranic waste would be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico; (3) reference alternative, where some classes of waste are disposed of in geologic repositories and other classes of waste are disposed of by in-place stabilization and disposal; and (4) a ''no disposal'' action alternative (continued storage)

  17. Disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic and tank wastes, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Appendices A-L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of final disposal actions for high-level, transuranic and tank wastes located at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, and into the construction, operation and decommissioning of waste treatment facilities that may be required in implementing waste disposal alternatives. Specifically evaluated are a Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Transportable Grout Facility, and a Waste Receiving and Packaging Facility. Also an evaluation is presented to assist in determining whether any additional action should be taken in terms of long-term environmental protection for waste that was disposed of at Hanford prior to 1970 as low-level waste (before the transuranic waste category was established by the AEC) but which might fall into that category if generated today. The alternatives considered in this EIS are: (1) in-place stabilization and disposal, where waste is left in place but is isolated by protective and natural barriers; (2) geologic disposal, where most of the waste (to the extent practicable) is exhumed, treated, segregated, packaged and disposed of in a deep geologic repository; waste classified as high-level would be disposed of in a commercial repository developed pursuant to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; transuranic waste would be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico; (3) reference alternative, where some classes of waste are disposed of in geologic repositories and other classes of waste are disposed of by in-place stabilization and disposal; and (4) a ''no disposal'' action alternative (continued storage)

  18. Thermal effects on clay rocks for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal effects on the Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus clay rocks for hosting high-level radioactive waste were comprehensively investigated with laboratory and in situ experiments under repository relevant conditions: (1 stresses covering the range from the initial lithostatic state to redistributed levels after excavation, (2 hydraulic drained and undrained boundaries, and (3 heating from ambient temperature up to 90 °C–120 °C and a subsequent cooling phase. The laboratory experiments were performed on normal-sized and large hollow cylindrical samples in various respects of thermal expansion and contraction, thermally-induced pore water pressure, temperature influences on deformation and strength, thermal impacts on swelling, fracture sealing and permeability. The laboratory results obtained from the samples are consistent with the in situ observations during heating experiments in the underground research laboratories at Bure and Mont-Terri. Even though the claystones showed significant responses to thermal loading, no negative effects on their favorable barrier properties were observed.

  19. Radionuclide transport in fractured rock: quantifying releases from final disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a potentially suitable matrix for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository because it is found in very stable geological formations and may have very low permeability. In this study the adopted physical system consists of the rock matrix containing a discrete horizontal fracture in a water saturated porous rock and a system of vertical fractures as a lineament. The transport in the fractures - horizontal and vertical, is assumed to obey a relation convection-diffusion, while the molecular diffusion is considered dominant mechanism of transport in porous rock. In this model the decay chain is considered. We use a code in Fortran 90, where the partial differential equations that describe the movement of radionuclides were discretized by finite differences methods. We use the fully implicit method for temporal discretization schemes. The simulation was performed with relevant data of nuclides in spent fuel for performance assessment in a hypothetical repository, thus quantifying the radionuclides released into the host rock. (author)

  20. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Numerical analysis of thermal process in the near field around vertical disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW in granite, the temperature on the HLW canisters is commonly designed to be lower than 100 °C. This criterion dictates the dimension of the repository. Based on the concept of HLW disposal in vertical boreholes, thermal process in the near field (host rock and buffer surrounding HLW canisters has been simulated by using different methods. The results are drawn as follows: (a the initial heat power of HLW canisters is the most important and sensitive parameter for evolution of temperature field; (b the thermal properties and variations of the host rock, the engineered buffer, and possible gaps between canister and buffer and host rock are the additional key factors governing the heat transformation; (c the gaps width and the filling by water or air determine the temperature offsets between them.

  2. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone: technical considerations and response to comments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackbarth, C.J.; Nicholson, T.J.; Evans, D.D.

    1985-10-01

    On July 22, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated amendments to 10 CFR Part 60 concerning disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in geologic repositories in the unsaturated zone (50 FR 29641). This report contains a discussion of the principal technical issues considered by the NRC staff during the development of these amendments. It expands or revises certain technical discussions originally presented in draft NUREG-1046 (February 1984) based on public comment letters and an increasing understanding of the physical, geochemical, and hydrogeologic processes operative in unsaturated geologic media. The following issues related to disposal of HLW within the unsaturated zone are discussed: hydrogeologic properties and conditions, heat dissipation and temperature, geochemisty, retrievability, potential for exhumation of the radioactive waste by natural causes and by human intrusion, the effects of future climatic changes on the level of the regional water table, and transport of radionuclides in the gaseous state. The changes to 10 CFR Part 60 in definitions, siting criteria, and design criteria for the geologic repository operations area are discussed. Other criteria examined by the NRC staff but which were not changed in rule are the minimum 300-meter depth for waste emplacement, limitations on exploratory boreholes, backfill requirements, waste package design criteria, and provisions for ventilation

  3. Guidelines for the operation and closure of deep geological repositories for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The operation and closure of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes is a long term project involving many disciplines. This unique combination of nuclear operations in a deep underground location will require careful planning by the operating organization. The basic purpose of the operation stage of the deep repository is to ensure the safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. The purpose of the closure stage is to ensure that the wastes are safely isolated from the biosphere, and that the surface region can be returned to normal use. During these two stages of operation and closure, it is essential that both workers and the public are safely protected from radiation hazards, and that workers are protected from the hazards of working underground. For these periods of the repository, it is essential to carry out monitoring for purposes of radiological protection, and to continue testing and investigations to provide data for repository performance confirmation and for final safety assessment. Over the lengthy stages of operation and closure, there will be substantial feedback of experience and generation of site data. These will lead both to improved quality of operation and a better understanding of the site characteristics, thereby enhancing the confidence in the ability of the repository system to isolate the waste and protect future generations. 15 refs

  4. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  5. Preliminary assessment of the radiological protection aspects of disposal of high-level waste in geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D; Grimwood, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to carry out a preliminary assessment of the potential radiological consequences of disposing of vitrified high-level radioactive waste in geologic formations. The events which could lead to the release of radioactivity from a geologic repository are reviewed and ingress of ground-water is identified as the principal mechanism by which radioactivity may be transported back to the biosphere. A mathematical model of radionuclide migration with ground-water is used to predict possible rates of release of radioactivity into fresh water from a hypothetical repository containing all the high-level waste which may be generated in the UK up to the year 2000. The individual and collective doses which could be received as a result of man's use of contaminated fresh water are evaluated. The numerical results of the study depend very much on the assumptions made and cannot be used to draw any detailed conclusions. The main result is the identification of areas where further studies are required in order to carry out a full evaluation of this disposal option. (author)

  6. Assessment report of research and development on 'geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notoya, Shin; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Ota, Kunio; Sasao, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research and Development (R and D) Activities for Geological Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste', for interim assessment of R and D on high-level radioactive waste disposal in accordance with 'General Guideline for Evaluation of Government R and D Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by Japan. In response to JAEA's request, the Committee assessed mainly the progress of the R and D project according to guidelines, which addressed the rationale behind the R and D project, the relevance of the project outcome and the efficiency of the project implementation during the period of the first midterm plan. As a result, the Committee concluded that the progress of the R and D project is satisfactory. In addition, the Committee provided a couple of issues and suggestions to be addressed in the implementation of the project during the period of the second midterm. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  7. Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste - An International Peer Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinnes, Stephane; Fabbri, Olivier; Rubenstone, James; Seppaelae, Timo; Siemann, Michael; ); Kwong, Gloria; )

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site - that is both appropriate and accepted by the community - to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process. (authors)

  8. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  9. King's Trough Flank: geological and geophysical investigations of its suitability for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, R.B.; Searle, R.C.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.; Noel, M.J.; Schultheiss, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The King's Trough Flank study area in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean was chosen in 1979 as a location at which to examine the suitability of pelagic carbonate sequences for sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This report summarises investigations up to the end of 1982; following visits by four research ships to the area during which geophysical data and sediment samples were collected. The region is a characteristically rugged portion of the deep ocean floor with hills and scarps 10 to 30 km apart and slopes around the hills ranging from 18 deg to 30 deg. Areas of relatively smooth seafloor occur, however, up to 35 km across, where slopes no greater than 2 deg are recorded. At this stage an apparent discrepancy between the geophysical and sediment core data leaves some uncertainty regarding the stability of the sediment cover and the likelihood of current erosion in these areas. The general suitability of the area is discussed by comparing our present geological and geophysical data with the set of 'desirable characteristics' for a sub-seabed disposal site first outlined in 1979. The difficulties involved in extrapolating findings from presently-sampled depths of up to 10 metres to depths envisaged for shallow waste disposal are emphasised. (author)

  10. Analysis of Weld Fabrication Flaws in High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Containers: Experiences from the US Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, Daniel; Apted, Mick

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine key issues regarding the fabrication, closure and defect detection in canisters for radioactive waste disposal in a deep geological repository. As a preliminary step, a review is made of the closure-weld design and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure seal for the US high-level waste repository programme. This includes statistical analysis of the data obtained by NDE and identification of key areas of investigation where additional data are required. Information from other industrial experiences on closure and flaw detection of metal containers is also reviewed. The canister material and closure methods for the US programme and industrial activities reviewed here differ from those of SKB's KBS-3 reference design. The issues and approaches to issue resolution identified from the US programme and industrial analogues, however, can provide an initial basis for preparing for independent review of SKB's canister closure plans and encapsulation facility

  11. Safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Shima, Shigeki; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1994-11-01

    This report describes safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for HLW, using a GSRW code and an automated sensitivity analysis methodology based on the Differential Algebra. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. The results of sensitivity analyses indicate that parameters related to a homogeneous rock surrounding a disposal facility have higher sensitivities to the output analyzed here than those of a fractured zone and engineered barriers. The sensitivity analysis methodology provides technical information which might be bases for the optimization of design of the disposal facility. Safety analyses were performed on the reference disposal system which involve HLW in amounts corresponding to 16,000 MTU of spent fuels. The individual dose equivalent due to the exposure pathway ingesting drinking water was calculated using both the conservative and realistic values of geochemical parameters. In both cases, the committed dose equivalent evaluated here is the order of 10 -7 Sv, and thus geologic disposal of HLW may be feasible if the disposal conditions assumed here remain unchanged throughout the periods assessed here. (author)

  12. Radiation damage study in montmorillonites. Application to the high-level nuclear waste disposal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorieul, St.

    2003-11-01

    Smectite is a major component of bentonite, a material considered for engineered barriers in high level nuclear wastes repositories (HLNWR). In order to predict the long-term performance of the bentonite, various physical and chemical factors such as, e.g., thermal gradient, redox potential or mechanical stresses are currently considered. By contrast, little is known about radiation effects in smectite, although it might affect the properties of this mineral through cumulative radiation damages produced by ionizing radiations. The present study focuses on radiation damage in montmorillonite considered herein as a simplified model of bentonite. Two reference clays have been selected, one from Liaoning (China, CHI), containing native radiation-induced defects, and the other (called MX) separated from the MX80 reference bentonite (Wyoming, USA). They are distinguished by layer composition, particularly iron content (1 % and 4 % for CHI and MX, respectively). Radiation effects have been studied by combining X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Ionizing irradiation induces two main effects. First, several paramagnetic point defects are identified as trapped holes located on oxygen atoms of the smectite structure. These defects are characterized by different thermal stabilities, according to annealing experiments. Their creation is limited by saturation curve with maximum damage around 100 MGy. The response of the two montmorillonites is different in terms of nature and production of point defects, indicating a role of layer composition and structural precursors. Besides, EPR and Moessbauer results show substantial modifications of the oxidation state of structural iron, which are sample and dose-dependent. Irradiation induces reduction and oxidation of iron in CHI and MX samples, respectively. Moreover, physico-chemical treatments show that intensity of redox effects varies

  13. The Role of Temperature in the Safety Case for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Comparison of Design Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Heierli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep underground facilities requires a sparing use of spatial resources on the one side and favorable temperature conditions over the project lifetime on the other side. Under heat-sensitive conditions, these goals run in opposite directions and therefore a balance of some kind must be found. Often the elected strategy is to determine the size of the repository by capping the temperatures in the near-field, thus setting an upper limit to the deterioration of barrier materials. Alternatively, the spatial resources available in the siting area can be used to further reduce temperatures as long as supplementary benefits are returned from doing so. Using analytical modeling of the heat flow in the circumambient rock of a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel, this contribution examines possible obstacles in substantiating the safety case, namely the retrievability of waste during the operational lifetime of the facility, the representativeness of pilot disposal areas for monitoring, and the effect of thermal anomalies underground. The results indicate that there are, amongst the visited criteria, several benefits to the temperature-optimizing strategy over the prevailing space-optimizing concepts. The right balance between saving spatial resources and obtaining optimal temperature conditions is yet to be found.

  14. Biosphere modelling for the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Japanese H12 assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yuji; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Naito, Morimasa; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Takao; Little, Richard H.; Smith, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    JNC has an on-going programme of research and development relating to the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). In the safety assessment of a HLW disposal system, it is often necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate dose, consideration needs to be given to the surface environment (biosphere) into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and to the associated future human behaviour. However, for a deep repository, such releases might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is not possible to predict with any certainty how the biosphere and human behaviour will evolve. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, the reference biosphere le concept has been developed for use in the safety assessment of HLW disposal. The Reference Biospheres Methodology was originally developed by the BIOMOVS II Reference Biospheres Working Group and subsequently enhanced within Theme 1 of the BIOMASS programme. As the aim of the H12 assessment with a hypothetical HLW disposal system was to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of the Japanese disposal concept for a range of geological and surface environments, some assessment specific reference biospheres were developed for the biosphere modelling in the H12 assessment using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II/BIOMASS approach. They have been used to derive factors to convert the radionuclide flux from a geosphere to a biosphere into a dose. The influx to dose conversion factor also have been derived for a range of different geosphere-biosphere interfaces (well, river and marine) and potential exposure groups (farming, freshwater-fishing and marine-fishing). This paper summarises the approach used for the derivation of the influx to dose conversion factor also for the range of geosphere-biosphere interfaces and

  15. Microbial effects on high-level waste disposal. Research review and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-09-01

    Various microorganisms have been observed in deep geologic formation. The effects of such microorganisms on the performance of HLW disposal are still unknown. This paper reviews the studies of microbial effects on the long-term containment of HLW disposal, and discusses the future work to be carried out. Microbial reduction and oxidation and byproducts derived from microbial activities affect performance of HLW repository and have a potential to enhance actinides migration in geologic formation (degradation of the materials of repository, complex-formation, dissolution of actinides precipitates and occurrence of nm scale colloid formation). Potential microbial perturbation of performance of the barriers may enhance confinement of actinides by biomineralization, bioadsorption, bioaccumulation and precipitation. These studies indicate that further experiments are required to elucidate microbial effects on the performance of HLW disposal. (author)

  16. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 8: Review of processes near a buried waste canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and infomation exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report investigates the phenomena arriving in the proximity of the waste package immersed in the sea sediments

  17. Corrosion problems related to the containment of high-level nuclear waste for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is examined under the headings: introduction (nature of problem; system of barriers which will initially contain the wasteform and subsequently limit the rate of transport of products from the wasteform to the external environment); environmental data (disposal in land-based repositories; disposal on or in the deep seabed); design philosophies and materials data (design; criteria for materials selection (kinetics of corrosion)); specific materials considerations (environmental parameters -temperature, pressure, heat transfer and radiation effects; single metals and alloys - steels, nickel based alloys, copper, lead, titanium, aluminium oxide); alternative approaches; an overview - information needs; summary. (U.K.)

  18. Corrosion problems related to the containment of high-level nuclear waste for disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G P

    1981-10-01

    The subject is examined under the headings: introduction (nature of problem; system of barriers which will initially contain the wasteform and subsequently limit the rate of transport of products from the wasteform to the external environment); environmental data (disposal in land-based repositories; disposal on or in the deep seabed); design philosophies and materials data (design; criteria for materials selection (kinetics of corrosion)); specific materials considerations (environmental parameters -temperature, pressure, heat transfer and radiation effects; single metals and alloys - steels, nickel based alloys, copper, lead, titanium, aluminium oxide); alternative approaches; an overview - information needs; summary.

  19. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories

  20. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste, as mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The waste forms comprised about 700 metric tons of initial heavy metal (or equivalent units) stored at the INEL: graphite spent fuel, experimental low enriched and highly enriched spent fuel, and high-level waste generated during reprocessing of some spent fuel. Five different waste treatment options were studied; in the analysis, the options and resulting waste forms were analyzed separately and in combination as five waste disposal groups. When the waste forms were studied in combination, the repository was assumed to also contain vitrified high-level waste from three DOE sites for a common basis of comparison and to simulate the impact of the INEL waste forms on a moderate-sized repository, The performance of the waste form was assessed within the context of a whole disposal system, using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191, promulgated in 1985. Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  1. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  2. A study on closure performance in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (H14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Makino, Hitoshi; Sawada, Atsushi; Kurihara, Yuji; Mihara, Morihiro

    2003-04-01

    Regarding closure technology of underground facilities in geological disposal of the HLW in H12 report, the fundamental concept that closure technology has no impact against the engineered barrier system (EBS) was described. Performance Assessment (PA) has been performed without considering of the barrier function of closure elements. Following H12 report, the various in-situ data of the closure elements (ex. plug, backfill) have been obtained. Therefore, we considered that the PA of the EBS considering the expecting performance of the closure elements from the view points of both the engineering technology and the PA should be examined. First, the characteristics of rock mass and the function of the closure elements were summarized. Then, the closure scenario was developed preliminarily based on hydrological analysis between a hydraulic fracture and a disposal panel, the fault tree analysis, and so on. (author)

  3. Parametric survey for benefit of partitioning and transmutation technology in terms of high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Kenji; Morita, Yasuji; Yokoo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takao; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Benefit of implementing Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology was parametrically surveyed in terms of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal by discussing possible reduction of the geological repository area. First, the amount and characteristics of HLWs caused from UO 2 and MOX spent fuels of light-water reactors (LWR) were evaluated for various reprocessing schemes and cooling periods. The emplacement area in the repository site required for the disposal of these HLWs was then estimated with considering the temperature constrain in the repository. The results showed that, by recycling minor actinides (MA), the emplacement area could be reduced by 17-29% in the case of UO 2 -LWR and by 63-85% in the case of MOX-LWR in comparison with the conventional PUREX reprocessing. This significant impact in MOX fuel was caused by the recycle of 241 Am which was a long-term heat source. Further 70-80% reduction of the emplacement area in comparison with the MA-recovery case could be expected by partitioning the fission products (FP) into several groups for both fuel types. To achieve this benefit of P and T, however, it is necessary to confirm the engineering feasibility of these unconventional disposal concepts. (author)

  4. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, L.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  5. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, L.A. [ed.] [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Murphy, W.M. [ed.] [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1995-09-01

    A Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste was held in San Antonio, Texas on July 22--25, 1991. The proceedings comprise seventeen papers submitted by participants at the workshop. A series of papers addresses the relation of natural analog studies to the regulation, performance assessment, and licensing of a geologic repository. Applications of reasoning by analogy are illustrated in papers on the role of natural analogs in studies of earthquakes, petroleum, and mineral exploration. A summary is provided of a recently completed, internationally coordinated natural analog study at Pocos de Caldas, Brazil. Papers also cover problems and applications of natural analog studies in four technical areas of nuclear waste management-. waste form and waste package, near-field processes and environment, far-field processes and environment, and volcanism and tectonics. Summaries of working group deliberations in these four technical areas provide reviews and proposals for natural analog applications. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  6. Thermal analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch on the 2nd progress report for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Iwasa, Kengo

    1999-11-01

    For the underground facility of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the space is needed to set the engineered barrier, and the set engineered barrier and rock-mass of near field are needed to satisfy some conditions or constraints for their performance. One of the conditions above mentioned is thermal condition arising from heat outputs of vitrified waste and initial temperature at the disposal depth. Hence, it is needed that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. Therefore, the design of engineered barrier and underground facility is conducted so that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. One of these design is establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch. In this report, thermal analysis is conducted to establish the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch to satisfy the constraint temperature in the near field. Also, other conditions or constraints for establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch are investigated. Then, design of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch, considering these conditions or constraints, is conducted. For the near field configuration using the results of the design above mentioned, the temperature with time dependency is studied by analysis, and then the temperature variation due to the gaps, that will occur within the engineered barrier and between the engineered barrier and rock mass in setting engineered barrier in the disposal tunnel or pit, is studied. At last, the disposal depth variation is studied to satisfy the temperature constraint in the near field. (author)

  7. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  8. The application of quadtree algorithm for information integration in the high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Min; Zhong Xia; Huang Shutao

    2008-01-01

    A multi-source database for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal, aims to promote the information process of the geological of HLW. In the periods of the multi-dimensional and multi-source and the integration of information and applications, it also relates to computer software and hardware, the paper preliminary analysises the data resources Beishan area, Gansu Province. The paper introduces a theory based on GIS technology and methods and open source code GDAL application, at the same time, it discusses the technical methods how to finish the application of the Quadtree algorithm in the area of information resources management system, fully sharing, rapid retrieval and so on. A more detailed description of the characteristics of existing data resources, space-related data retrieval algorithm theory, programming design and implementation of ideas are showed in the paper. (authors)

  9. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 18 O, 2 H, 13 C, 34 S, 87 Sr, 15 N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  10. Decommissioning of surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1978-11-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the decommissioning of the surface facilities associated with repositories for the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. A cost/risk index (figure of merit), expressed as $/manrem, is proposed as an evaluation criteria. On the basis of this cost/risk index, we gain insight into the advisability of adapting certain decontamination design options into the original facility. Three modes are considered: protective storage, entombment, and dismantlement. Cost estimates are made for the direct labor involved in each of the alternative modes for a baseline design case. Similarly, occupational radiation exposures are estimated, with a larger degree of uncertainty, for each of the modes. Combination of these estimates produces the cost/risk index. To illustrate the methodology, an example using a preliminary baseline repository design is discussed

  11. A natural analogy of high-level radioactive waste disposal. A case study of the groundwater from a uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Zhang Zhanshi; Ouyang Hegen

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide migration is one of the key effects of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The groundwater is considered the primary means of radionuclide migration. Uranium and rare earth element(REE) in groundwater from a uranium deposit were used as a chemical analogue to study the migration of radionuclides. The results show that REE and its chemical analogue might migrate under the uranium deposit condition, but uranium and its analogue do not migrate obviously. According to the results, we might infer that after the groundwater penetrates into the HLW repository, REE and its analogue might migrate with the groundwater; but there is no obvious migration of uranium and its chemical analogue,which might increase our confidence to built a safe HLW repository. (authors)

  12. A preliminary study on the geochemical environment for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Park, Byoung Yun

    2000-03-01

    Geochemical study on the groundwater from crystalline rocks (granite and gneiss) for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste was carried out in order to elucidate the hydrogeochemical and isotope characteristics and geochemical evolution of the groundwater. Study areas are Jungwon, Chojeong, Youngcheon and Yusung for granite region, Cheongyang for gneiss region, and Yeosu for volcanic region. Groundwaters of each study areas weree sampled and analysed systematically. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rock. Origin of the groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S, {sup 87}Sr, {sup 15}N) studies and the age of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based ont the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  13. Corrosion considerations of high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. High nickel alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessments of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns of involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degrees C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 31 refs., 1 tab

  14. A preliminary study on the regional fracture systems for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kown; Park, Byoung Yoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, it is essential to characterize the fracture system in rock mass which has a potential pathways of nuclide. Currently, none of research results are in classification and detailed properties for the fracture system in Korea. This study aims to classify and describe the regional fracture system in lithological and geotectonical point of view using literature review, shaded relief map, and aeromagnetic survey data. This report contains the following: - Theoretical review of the fracture development mechanism. - Overall fault and fracture map. - Geological description on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zone) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical province. 122 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  15. Review on influences of colloids on geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste. For better understanding of natural colloidal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Masaya; Kamioka, Hikari; Yoshida, Takahiro; Suko, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    Although the influences of colloidal materials on radionuclide transport in geological media are pointed out, their behaviors in natural environment have not yet been well elucidated and therefore their influences on the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are not fully estimated quantitatively. This paper reviewed the studies on natural colloids, especially focused on inorganic, organic and biological colloids, and discussed the future works to be carried out. Much attention should be paid to the sampling and analysis. Excellent techniques for in-situ observation, concentration without changing the state of colloid, standard procedure for analysis, are necessary to be developed. More research studies on the behaviors of colloids are required in not only far- and near-fields but also items on effects of the environments and its evolution. (author)

  16. Glossary of terms used in the disposal of high-level wastes: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This glossary provides definitions of words and phrases specific to, or used in a special way in, documents of the US Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. In many cases, two or more definitions of a word or phrase are given. Sources are provided for all definitions. 33 refs

  17. Alternative way to dispose of high-level waste in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Chen, Xinyi.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new approach to dispose of Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFPs) of type II such as 99 T c and 129 I into outer solar space by providing an escape velocity from the solar system of 42 km/sec from a parking orbit or the moon's surface using a electrostatic accelerator and neutralizing the charged ions. LLFPs disposed uniformly in outer solar space pose no hazard as do LLFPs packages in Earth orbit, and have no effects on astronomical observations. This mode of disposition requires energy in the order of 1 keV for each nucleus, which is far smaller than the propulsion energy needed for launching a LLFPs package by rocket. Further, the power required of an accelerator ejecting most of the LLFPs generated by one LWR is 2.2 kW, which is much smaller than a medium-energy proton accelerator, a few tens of MW, which would be necessary to transmute these LLFPs using spallation neutrons created by protons

  18. Alternative way to dispose of high-level waste in outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahasi, H.; Chen, X.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new approach to dispose of Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFPs) of type II such as 99 Tc and 129 I into outer solar space by providing an escape velocity from the solar system of 42 km/sec from a parking orbit or the moon's surface using a electrostatic accelerator and neutralizing the charged ions. LLFPs disposed uniformly in outer solar space pose no hazard as do LLFPs packages in Earth orbit, and have no effects on astronomical observations. This mode of disposition requires energy in the order of 1 keV for each nucleus, which is far smaller than the propulsion energy needed for launching a LLFPs package by rocket. Further, the power required of an accelerator ejecting most of the LLFPs generated by one LWR is 2.2 kW, which is much smaller than a medium-energy proton accelerator, a few tens of MW, which would be necessary to transmute these LLFPs using spallation neutrons created by protons. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Review of international near-field modeling for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.; Andersson, K.; Pescatore, C.

    1993-01-01

    The primary components of nuclear waste repositories that mitigate radionuclide release are the near-field and the far-field subsystems. The near-field encompasses the waste package, which is composed of engineered barriers; the far-field includes the natural barriers. An international survey and review is being conducted on the latest developments in modeling of near-field performance, with particular emphasis on the conceptual and mathematical models for source-term calculations. The objectives of this review will be to establish the status and commonality among models and methods for assessing near-field performance, as well as to identify possible future needs for continued comparison and collaboration. In parallel with the technical evaluation, an international technical Workshop on near-field performance assessment will be held, in association with the Nuclear Energy Agency, on May 11-13, 1993 in Cadarache, France

  20. Parametric analysis of mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Ichel, A.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model has been developed to screen potential mined geological repository sites taking into account the uncertainty in the input data. Initial input data that was assumed constant was inventory of radioactive wastes, number and size of cannisters, size of repository, and the ground water flow area. Though there is some uncertainty in these data, by far the greatest uncertainty pertained to leach rate of the waste form and cannister, ground water velocity, retardation rates of nuclides relative to ground water, distance to the biosphere and flow rate in the receiving waters in the biosphere. These were varied over realistic ranges from 1 to 4 orders of magnitude. The results showed that there are a wide variety of combinations of these parameters that allow a waste repository to be sited without exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations of isotopes in drinking water. It is concluded that for the artificially-created nuclides it is the intermediate time period, greater than 1000 years and less than 1 million years, that poses the greatest problem

  1. The HAW-project: Demonstration facility for the disposal of high-level waste in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Duijves, K.A.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1990-04-01

    To satisfy the test objectives thirty highly radioactive canisters containing the radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two test galleries at the 800 m-level in the Asse salt mine. For handling of the radioactive canisters and their emplacement into the boreholes a system consisting of a transport cask, a transport vehicle, a disposal machine, and of a borehole slider has been developed. The actual scientific investigation programme is based on the estimation and observation of the interaction between the radioactive canisters and the rock salt. This programme includes measurement of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Also the thermally induced stress and deformation fields in the surrounding rock mass will be investigated carefully. (orig./DG)

  2. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment to high-level radioactive waste geological disposal. Application of reference biosphere methodology to safety assesment of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yuji; Naito, Morimasa

    2000-01-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, saline specific reference biospheres' were developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. (author)

  3. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    In the past, German research and development (R and D) activities regarding the disposal of radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, focused mainly on domal rock salt because rock salt was the preferred host rock formation. In addition, generic R and D work regarding alternative host rocks (crystalline rocks and claystones) had been performed as well for a long time but with lower intensity. Around the year 2000, as a consequence of the moratorium on the Gorleben site, the Federal Government decided to have argillaceous rocks and crystalline rocks investigated in more detail. As Germany does not have any underground research and host rock characterization facilities, international cooperation received a high priority in the German R and D programme for high-level waste (HLW) disposal in order to increase the knowledge regarding alternative host rocks. Major cornerstones of the cooperation are joint projects and experiments conducted especially in underground research laboratories (URL) in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland) and the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) Aespoe(Sweden) and in argillaceous rocks at the URL Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Bure (France). In 2001, the topic of radioactive waste disposal was integrated into the agreement between the former Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom, now Rosatom) and the German Ministry of Labor (BMWA), now Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), on cooperation regarding R and D on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power (agreement on ''Wirtschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit'' WTZ). The intention was to have a new and interesting opportunity for international R and D cooperation regarding HLW disposal in crystalline rocks and the unique possibility to perform site-specific work, to test the safety demonstration tools available, and to expand the knowledge to all aspects specific to these host rocks. Another motivation for joining this cooperation was the

  5. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilisation of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. Existing studies are assessed and possibilities considered for additional analogues. Conclusions are drawn for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Auth.)

  6. Public and state responses to high-level nuclear waste disposal: Learning from policy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear waste policy in the United States has faded in large part because of public and state opposition to repository siting. However, that outcome was not inevitable. This paper argues that better policy design and greater attention to the crucial tasks of policy legitimation both by the U.S. Congress and by the Department of Energy might have significantly increased the chances for successful implementation. Even though the program now has a highly uncertain future, suggestions are offered for policy learning and change that may increase the probability of success

  7. Argentine project for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes; Projecto Argentino para la eliminacion de residuos radioactivos de alta actividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, E; Ciallella, N R; Petraitis, E J

    1990-12-31

    From 1980 Argentina is carrying out a research program on the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The quantity of wastes produced will be significant in next century. However, it was decided to start with the studies well in advance in order to demonstrate that the high level wastes could be disposed in a safety way. The option of the direct disposal of irradiated fuel elements was discarded, not only by the energetic value of the plutonium, but also for ecological reasons. In fact, the presence of a total inventory of actinides in the non-processed fuel would imply a more important radiological impact than that caused if the plutonium is recycled to produce energy. The decision to solve the technological aspects connected with the elimination of high-level radioactive wastes well in advance, was made to avoid transfering the problem to future generations. This decision is based not only on technical evaluations but also on ethic premises. (Author).

  8. Aluminium oxide containers for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-03-01

    The report presents a highly radioactive waste container concept based on the use of hot isostatically pressed aluminium oxide. The container is made of two cylindrical parts closed each at one end, which are sealed by means of a gold diffusion weld after introduction of the vitrified waste package. It is shown that the corrosion rate of the alumina material under conditions similar to those expected in Switzerland will most probably be less than 0.15 mm in 1000 years. The design consists of a cylinder about 2 m in length and 0.7 m in outer diameter, with hemispherical ends, ensuring that no tensional stress is present when the container is subjected to an external uniform pressure. The seal is positioned in the cylindrical part of the container, 150 mm away from the hemispherical end; in this way the stresses in the seal due to end effects and local bending can be made sufficiently small. A stress analysis shows that for such a design a wall thickness of 60 mm is sufficient to fulfill the requirements of the stress and stability criteria even with the use of a very high safety factor, for an external pressure of 300 bar, corresponding to a repository depth of 1200 m. For the protection of the personnel during the transport operations in the repository a metallic, temporary transport overpack is necessary; this overpack also protects the container against shocks. (author)

  9. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  10. A biosphere assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Tobias; Valentin, Jack

    2015-04-01

    Licence applications to build a repository for the disposal of Swedish spent nuclear fuel have been lodged, underpinned by myriad reports and several broader reviews. This paper sketches out the technical and administrative aspects and highlights a recent review of the biosphere effects of a potential release from the repository. A comprehensive database and an understanding of major fluxes and pools of water and organic matter in the landscape let one envisage the future by looking at older parts of the site. Thus, today's biosphere is used as a natural analogue of possible future landscapes. It is concluded that the planned repository can meet the safety criteria and will have no detectable radiological impact on plants and animals. This paper also briefly describes biosphere work undertaken after the review. The multidisciplinary approach used is relevant in a much wider context and may prove beneficial across many environmental contexts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Natural phenomena with low probability and crustal movement on high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunose, Kinichiro; Sato, Takashi; Cho, Akio

    1997-01-01

    By forecast of Ministry of International Trade and Industry, total amount of glassification materials will attain to about 40,000 of can of 200 liter in 2050 year. A geological circumstance of geological disposal needs to be stable for long time (at least more than 10,000 years). By development of long-term prediction method of crusted movement, the experiments of fracture of granite sample under confining pressure of 100 MPa suggested that the physical properties were Young's modulus 68 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.29, the maximum strength 731 MPa and pressure of beginning dilatancy 457 MPa. The rupture behavior of granite belongs to class II. Skewness of perimeter at the largest strength was about 1%. There are static and dynamic process in the rupture cross-section forming process. With developing an evaluation method of volcanic activities effects on the basis of study on the change of circumstances caused on the large eruption, the change of vegetation was proved in the large area by analysis of pollen. Ionium age determination measurement equipment have lower back ground level than that of γ-ray counter. Accordingly, it is useful for measurement of low concentration of them. (S.Y.)

  12. Canister materials proposed for final disposal of high level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, E; Odoj, R; Merz, E [eds.

    1981-06-01

    The nuclear waste will be enclosed in corrosion resistant canisters. These will be deposited in repositories in geological formations, such as granite, basalt, clay, bedded or domed salt, or the sediments beneath the deep ocean floor. There the canisters will be exposed to groundwater, brine or seawater at an elevated temperature. Species formed by radiolysis may effect the corrosivity of the agent. The corrosion resistance of candidate canister materials is evaluated by corrosion tests and by thermodynamic and mass transport calculations. Examinations of ancient metal objects after long exposure in nature may give additional information. On the basis of the work carried out so far, the principal candidate canister materials are titanium materials, copper, and highpurity alumina.

  13. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  14. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27

  15. Feasibility of using a high-level waste canister as an engineered barrier in disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Pitman, S.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Partain, W.L.

    1982-08-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of designing a process canister that could also serve as a barrier canister. To do this a general set of performance criteria is assumed and several metal alloys having a high probability of demonstrating high corrosion resistance under repository conditions are evaluated in a qualitative design assessment. This assessment encompasses canister manufacture, the glass-filling process, interim storage, transportation, and to a limited extent, disposal in a repository. A series of scoping tests were carried out on two titanium alloys and Inconel 625 to determine if the high temperature inherent in the glass-fill processing would seriously affect either the strength or corrosion resistance of these metals. This is a process-related concern unique to the barrier canister concept. The material properties were affected by the heat treatments which simulated both the joule-heated glass melter process (titanium alloys and Inconel 625) and the in-can melter (ICM) process (Inconel 625). However, changes in the material properties were generally within 20% of the original specimens. Accelerated corrosion testing of the heat treated coupons in a highly oxygenated brine showed basic corrosion resistance of titanium grade 12 and Inconel 625 to compare favorably with that of the untreated coupons. The titanium grade 2 coupons experienced severe corrosion pitting. These corrosion tests were of a scoping nature and suitable primarily for the detection of gross sensitivity to the heat treatment inherent in the glass-fill process. They are only suggstive of repository performance since the tests do not adequately model the wide range of repository conditions that could conceivably occur

  16. On the way of advancing technical development related to behavior of bentonite and overpack in high level waste disposal place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Masatoshi; Ueda, Hiroyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    When the concept on disposal in a high level waste disposal place and the layout including the thickness of bentonite, overpack and so on are investigated, it is necessary to elucidate the dynamic behavior of bentonite and overpack for long period, in particular, the dynamic interaction of bentonite and overpack accompanying the corrosion and expansion of the overpack by its reaction with the groundwater containing little oxygen. At present, the experiment on the dynamic behavior of bentonite is carried out in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and others, and the obtained knowledges are reported. The shape of hollow cylinder bentonite specimen is discussed. As for the breaking of overpack accompanying the corrosion and expansion, the equation for evaluating various quantities and the flow chart of the analysis works are shown. The method of judging overpack breaking is explained. The effective thickness of bentonite for safety evaluation is given. If the subjects to be examined hereafter are not concluded by 2000, the alternative of covering overpack with titanium alloy should be investigated in parallel. (K.I.)

  17. Double-layered buffer to enhance the thermal performance in a high-level radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Choi, Jongwon

    2008-01-01

    A thermal performance is one of the most important factors in the design of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive wastes. According to the conceptual design of the Korean Reference disposal System, the maximum temperature of its buffer with a domestic Ca-bentonite is close to the thermal criterion, 100 deg. C. In order to improve the thermal conductivity of its buffer, several kinds of additives are compared. Among the additives, graphite shows the best result in that the thermal conductivity of the bentonite block is more than 2.0 W/m deg. C. We introduced the concept of a double-layered buffer instead of a traditional bentonite block in order to use the applied additive more effectively. The thermal analysis, based upon the three-dimensional finite element method, shows that a double-layered buffer could reduce the maximum temperature on a canister's surface by 7 deg. C under identical conditions when compared with a single-layered buffer. An analytical solution was derived to efficiently analyze the effects of a double-layered buffer. The illustrative cases show that the temperature differences due to a double-layered buffer depend on the thickness of the buffer

  18. Evaluation of critical properties of SYNROC for disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, R.L.; Myhra, S.; Smart, R.; Turner, P.S.

    1983-12-01

    Factors influencing leaching of caesium and strontium and the contribution to improved leach resistance of SYNROC C fabrication in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission SYNROC program are examined. The results confirm the good caesium leach resistance under hydrothermal conditions of properly fabricated SYNROC and provide some insight into mechanisms that control the higher initial (first day) leach rates. Studies have been completed detailing the partitioning of different elements into the SYNROC phases. The microstructure of SYNROC C has been extensively investigated and correlated with leach resistance. Attack at specific regions in the surface and changes in the composition of the surface region have been monitored with a variety of electron microscopic and surface analytical techniques. A set of mechanisms for the leaching and dissolution of SYNROC are proposed. On the basis of these different lines of research, recommendation of optimal conditions for fabrication are given. This has resulted in the manufacture of high quality SYNROC on a routine basis. Other aspects of quality control particularly of variations in waste loading and large-scale operation, are also reported

  19. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small (∼1 m 3 ) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ''secondary.'' The induced current in the ''secondary'' heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., ∼1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature

  20. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  1. Research on advanced technology of performance assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    JAEA and RWMC have carried out a joint research program on advanced technologies that could be used to support performance assessments of geological disposal concepts for high-level radioactive waste. The following 5 items were considered in the program: 1) planning of a basic strategy for the development of analysis technologies on nuclide migration over various spatial and temporal scales; 2) development of analysis technologies for vitrified waste scale; 3) development of analysis technologies for repository scale; 4) development of integration technologies for geochemical information; and 5) development of technologies to promote the logical understanding of repository performance and safety. The above items were discussed in the context of technological experiences gained by JAEA and RWMC in previous repository-related studies. According to the results of these discussions, development strategies for each of the technology areas identified above were efficiently formulated by appropriate task allocations. Specific technical subjects requiring further investigation were also identified using this approach, and potential feed-backs from the results of these investigations into the overall research plan and strategy were considered. These specific research and development subjects in the overall strategy defined by this project should be implemented in the future. (author)

  2. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high-level waste. Joint annual progress report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the Community R and D programme on management and storage of radioactive waste (shared-cost action), a research activity is aiming at the assessment of corrosion behaviour of potential container materials for geological disposal of vitrified high-level wastes. In this report, the results obtained during the year 1983 are described. Research performed at the Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie/Centre d'Etudes de l'Energie Nucleaire (SCK/CEN) at Mol (B), concerns the corrosion behaviour in clay environments. The behaviour in salt is tested by the Kernforschungszentrum (KfK) at Karlsruhe (D). Corrosion behaviour in granitic environments is being examined by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) at Fontenay-aux-Roses (F) and the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Harwell (UK); the first is concentrating on corrosion-resistant materials and the latter on corrosion-allowance materials. Finally, the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) at Vitry (F) is examining the formation and behaviour of passive layers on the metal alloys in the various environments

  3. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueero, A.; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Moraleda, M.; Trueba, C.; Perez-Sanchez, D.

    2008-01-01

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS 'Reference Biospheres Methodology'. The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of 36 Cl, 79 Se, 99 Tc, 129 I, 135 Cs, 226 Ra, 231 Pa, 238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and sensitivity

  5. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  6. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 2. Engineering technology for geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the deep geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, part 2 of the progress report, concerns engineering aspect with reference to Japanese geological disposal plan, according to which the vitrified HLW will be disposed of into a deep, stable rock mass with thick containers and surrounding buffer materials at the depth of several hundred meters. It discusses on multi-barrier systems consisting of a series of engineered and natural barriers that will isolate radioactive nuclides effectively and retard their migrations to the biosphere environment. Performance of repository components, including specifications of containers for vitrified HLW and their overpacks under design as well as buffer material such as Japanese bentonite to be placed in between are described referring also to such possible problems as corrosion arising from the supposed system. It also presents plans and designs for underground disposal facilities, and the presumed management of the underground facilities. (Ohno, S.)

  7. Evaluation of commercial repository capacity for the disposal of defense high-level waste. Comments and responses for DOE/DP--0020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) requires that the President evaluate the use of disposal capacity at one or more repositories to be developed for permanent disposal of civilian spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste for the disposal of defense high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy prepared a report titled ''An Evaluation of Commercial Repository Capacity for the Disposal of Defense High-Level Waste,'' DOE/DP-0020, to provide input for the President's evaluation. The report constituted the Department's input and recommendation to be considered by the President in making his evaluation. Although not required by the Act, the Department made the July 1984 draft of the report available to the general public for review and comment in order to increase public awareness, and develop a public record on the issue of disposal of defense high-level waste. Over 400 copies of the draft report were distributed. Thirty comment letters containing over 400 comments were received from representatives of states, localities, and Indian tribes, federal agencies, organizations representing utilities, public interest groups, individual utilities, and private citizens. All letters were reviewed and considered. Where appropriate, changes were made in the final report reflecting the comments received

  8. An overview of microbial research related to high-level nuclear waste disposal with emphasis on the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroes-Gascoyne, S.; West, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Current research on the effects of microbiology on nuclear waste disposal, carried out in a number of countries, is summarized. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has developed a concept for the permanent disposal of nuclear fuel waste in Canada. A program was initiated in 1991 to address and quantify the potential effects of microbial action on the integrity of the multibarrier system on which the disposal concept is based. This microbial program focuses on answering specific questions in areas such as the survival of bacteria under relevant radiation and desiccation conditions; growth and mobility of microbes in compacted clay buffer materials and the potential consequences for container corrosion and microbial gas production; the presence and activity of microbes in deep granitic groundwaters; and the effects of biofilms on radionuclide migration in the geosphere. (author)

  9. Perspective on methods to calculate a fee for disposal of defense high-level waste in combined (civilian/defense) repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Department of Energy intends to send the high-level waste from defense operations to combined civilian/defense repositories for disposal. The federal government must pay a fee to cover its fair share of the cost for the disposal system. This report provides an overview perspective on the defense high-level waste (DHLW) quantities and characteristics and on potential alternatives for calculation and payment of the disposal fee. Information on the DHLW expected from government sites includes the number of waste canisters, radioactivity, thermal decay power, mass of defense reactor fuel, and total electrical energy-equivalents. Ranges in quantities are shown where different operating scenarios are being considered. Several different fee determination methods are described and fees for different quantities of waste are estimated. Information is also included on possible payment alternatives, production and shipping schedules, and credits which could be applied to the fee

  10. Status of nuclear fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, and high-level waste disposal. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Committee, California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the current status of technologies and issues in the major portions of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The discussion on nuclear fuel reprocessing covers the reprocessing requirement, reprocessing technology assessment, technology for operation of reprocessing plants, and approval of reprocessing plants. The chapter devoted to spent fuel storage covers the spent fuel storge problem, the legislative response, options for maintaining full core discharge capacity, prospective availability of alterntive storage options, and the outlook for California. The existence of a demonstrated, developed high-level waste disposal technology is reviewed. Recommendations for Federal programs on high-level waste disposal are made

  11. Temperature calculations on different configurations for disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt dome model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Kevenaar, J.W.A.M.

    1978-06-01

    A medium size salt dome is considered as a structure in which a repository can be located for all radioactive wastes to be produced within the scope of a postulated nuclear power program. A dominating design factor for the lay-out of such a waste repository is the temperature distribution in the salt dome resulting from decay heat released from the buried solidified high-level reprocessing waste. Two numerical models are presented for the calculation of both global and local rock salt temperatures. The results of calculations performed with these models are demonstrated to be compatible. Rock salt temperatures related to several types of burial configurations, ranging from two layer configurations with various vertical distances between the layers via a three and a four layer repository to deep bore hole concepts varying from 100 to 600 m bore hole depth, can therefore be calculated with one rather simple unit cell model. The results of these calculations indicate that rock salt temperatures can be kept within acceptable limits to realize a repository using standard mining techniques. The temperatures at mine galery level prove to be a dominating factor in the selection of a repository configuration. More detailed calculations of these temperatures taking into account the loading sequence and the cooling capacity of the mine ventilation are recommended. Finally the apparent advantages of a deep bore hole concept emphasize the need for R and D work with respect to advanced drilling techniques in order to achieve deep dry disposal bore holes that can be realized from a burial mine in the salt dome. (Auth.)

  12. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  14. Waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Stockman, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments (PAs) conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, the waste degradation module, or succinctly called the source-term, evolved from initial assumptions in 1984 to results based on process modeling in 2008. In early PAs, waste degradation had significant influence on calculated behavior but as the robustness of the waste container was increased and modeling of the container degradation improved, waste degradation had much less influence in later PAs. The variation of dissolved concentrations of radionuclides progressed from simple probability distributions in early PAs to functions dependent upon water chemistry in later PAs. Also, transport modeling of radionuclides in the waste, container, and invert were added in 1995; and, colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides was added in 1998. - Highlights: • Progression of modeling of waste degradation in performance assessments is discussed for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. • Progression of evaluating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term is discussed. • Radionuclide transport modeling in the waste, container, and invert in 1995 and thereafter is discussed. • Colloid-facilitated transport in the waste, container, and invert in 1998 and thereafter is discussed

  15. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Breslin, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following subjects: waste isolation and the natural geohydrologic system; repository perturbations of the natural system; radionuclide migration through the natural system; and repository design technology. Individual papers are abstracted

  16. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Breslin, J.J. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover the following subjects: waste isolation and the natural geohydrologic system; repository perturbations of the natural system; radionuclide migration through the natural system; and repository design technology. Individual papers are abstracted.

  17. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, P.; Ordoñez, M.; Andrade, C.; Castellote, M.

    2011-04-01

    The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW), which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  18. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW, which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  19. Comparison of national programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel and disposal of high-level waste in seven countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.; Mattson, R.J.; Gaunt, J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes programs and regulatory requirements affecting the management of spent fuel and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in seven nations with large nuclear power programs. The comparison is intended to illustrate that the range of spent fuel management options is influenced by certain technical and political constraints. It begins by providing overall nuclear fuel cycle facts for each country, including nuclear generating capacities, rates of spent fuel discharge, and policies on spent fuel reprocessing. Spent fuel storage techniques and reprocessing activities are compared in light of constraints such as fuel type. Waste disposal investigations are described, including a summary of the status of regulatory developments affecting repository siting and disposal. A timeline is provided to illustrate the principle milestones in spent fuel management and waste disposal in each country. Finally, policies linking nuclear power licensing and development to nuclear waste management milestones and RandD progress are discussed

  20. Main outcomes from in situ thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments programme to demonstrate feasibility of radioactive high-level waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Armand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of radioactive waste disposal, an underground research laboratory (URL is a facility in which experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a radioactive waste disposal facility within a geological formation. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is a site-specific facility planned to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx claystone. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behaviour of the host rock is significant for the design of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility and for its long-term safety. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra has begun a research programme aiming to demonstrate the relevancy of the French high-level waste (HLW concept. This paper presents the programme implemented from small-scale (small diameter boreholes to full-scale demonstration experiments to study the THM effects of the thermal transient on the COx claystone and the strategy implemented in this new programme to demonstrate and optimise current disposal facility components for HLW. It shows that the French high-level waste concept is feasible and working in the COx claystone. It also exhibits that, as for other plastic clay or claystone, heating-induced pore pressure increases and that the THM behaviour is anisotropic.

  1. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  2. Study on manufacturing technique of synthetic shock-absorbers for underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takashi; Onodera, Yoshio; Hayashi, Hiromichi; Ebina, Takeo; Nagase, Takako; Torii, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    On the cse of underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes, natural bentonite is planned to be used for artificial barrier shock-absorber. This is due to expectation of sealing water or adsorbing nuclear materials using swelling and ion-exchanging capacities of smectite, which is a main component of bentonite. In this study, some swelling laminar compounds with various compositions and structures are synthesized to investigate their water sealing and nuclear adsorbing properties. And, according to their results, an optimum material is selected to develop its economic manufacturing method and investigate its alternative possibility for natural bentonite. From such reason, following two titled studies have been executed; 1) Synthesis of the swelling laminar compounds, and 2) Development of manufacturing technique of artificial shock-absorber. In 1995 FY, 1) Detail investigation on synthetic condition of double octahedral type smectite and 2) modeling of the smectite and stability of same type displacement for base of inducing the computer simulation for estimating creation process of optimum materials, were conducted. (G.K.)

  3. Preliminary investigation results as applied to utilization of Ukrainian salt formations for disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhunova, S.B.; Khrushchov, D.P.; Petrichenko, O.I.

    1994-01-01

    The salt-bearing formations have been investigated in five regions of Ukraine. Upper Devonian and Lower Permian evaporite formations in Dnieper-Donets Depression and in the NW part of Donets basin are considered to be promising for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). Rock salt occurs there either as bedded salts or as salt pillows and salt diapirs. Preliminary studies have resulted in selection of several candidate sites that show promise for construction of a subsurface pilot lab. Ten salt domes and two sites in bedded salts have been proposed for further exploration. Based on microstructural studies it is possible to separate the body of a salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt structure and to locate within its limits the rock salt blocks of different genesis, i.e.: (a) blocks characteristic of initial undisturbed sedimentary structure; (b) flow zones; (c) sliding planes; (d) bodies of loose or uncompacted rock salt. Ultramicrochemical examination of inclusions in halite have shown that they are composed of more than 40 minerals. It is emphasized that to assess suitability of a structure for construction of subsurface lab, and also the potential construction depth intervals, account should be taken of the results of ultra microchemical and microstructural data

  4. In situ corrosion studies on selected high level waste packaging materials under simulated disposal conditions in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to qualify corrosion resistant materials for high level waste (HLW) packagings acting as a long-term barrier in a rock salt repository, the corrosion behavior of preselected materials is being investigated in laboratory-scale and in-situ experiments. This work reports about in-situ corrosion experiments on unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, and iron-base alloys, as nodular cast iron, Ni-Resist D4 and Si-cast iron, under simulated disposal conditions. The results of the investigations can be summarized as follows: (1) all materials investigated exhibited high resistance to corrosion under the conditions prevailing in the Brine Migration Test; (2) all materials and above all the materials with passivating oxide layers such as Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 which may corrode selectively already in the presence of minor amounts of brine had been resistant with respect to any type of local corrosion attack; the gamma-radiation of 3 · 10 2 Gy/h did not exert an influence on the corrosion behavior of the materials

  5. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.L. (ed.)

    1982-01-01

    The twenty papers in this volume are divided into three parts: site exploration and characterization; repository development and design; and waste package development and design. These papers represent the status of technology that existed in 1981 and 1982. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Technology of high-level nuclear waste disposal. Advances in the science and engineering of the management of high-level nuclear wastes. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The twenty papers in this volume are divided into three parts: site exploration and characterization; repository development and design; and waste package development and design. These papers represent the status of technology that existed in 1981 and 1982. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  8. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

  9. Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1995-03-01

    This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM

  10. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories

  11. Initial performance assessment of the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1, Methodology and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This performance assessment characterized plausible treatment options conceived by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for its spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste and then modeled the performance of the resulting waste forms in two hypothetical, deep, geologic repositories: one in bedded salt and the other in granite. The results of the performance assessment are intended to help guide INEL in its study of how to prepare wastes and spent fuel for eventual permanent disposal. This assessment was part of the Waste Management Technology Development Program designed to help the US Department of Energy develop and demonstrate the capability to dispose of its nuclear waste. Although numerous caveats must be placed on the results, the general findings were as follows: Though the waste form behavior depended upon the repository type, all current and proposed waste forms provided acceptable behavior in the salt and granite repositories.

  12. Interfaces between transport and geologic disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel: A new international guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Baekelandt, L.; Hoorelbeke, J.M.; Han, K.W.; Pollog, T.; Blackman, D.; Villagran, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Document (TECDOC) has been developed and will be published by the IAEA. The TECDOC addresses the interfaces between the transport and geologic disposal systems for, high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The document is intended to define and assist in discussing, at both the domestic and the international level, regulatory, technical, administrative, and institutional interfaces associated with HLW and SNF transport and disposal systems; it identifies and discusses the interfaces and interface requirements between the HLW and SNF, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the HLW/SNF disposal facility. It provides definitions and explanations of terms; discusses systems, interfaces and interface requirements; addresses alternative strategies (single-purpose packages and multipurpose packages) and how interfaces are affected by the strategies; and provides a tabular summary of the requirements

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  14. Environmental standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes, 40 CFR part 191: draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of environmental standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel and high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes is proposed. The standards would require that maximum individual doses from all normal operations be limited to 25 millirem to the whole body, 75 millirem to the thyroid, and 25 millirem to any other organ. Regarding disposal of subject materials in geologic sites, the standards would include numerical containment requirements for the first 10,000 years following disposal, assurance requirements, and procedural requirements. The assurance requirements would provide seven principles necessary for developing confidence that long-term containment requirements would be upheld. The principles would call for well-designed, multiple-barrier disposal systems that would not rely on future generations for maintenance and would not be located near potential valuable resources. The principles would also require that future generations be provided with information about the location and dangers of the wastes and an option to recover the wastes if necessary. Procedural requirements would be developed to assure that the containment requirements were upheld. The implementation of the standards would protect public health and the environment against emissions of radioactivity. The maximum impact expected from a disposal system complying with the proposed standards would be less than 1000 premature cancer deaths over the first 10,000 years for disposal of high-level wastes produced by all currently operating reactors over their lifetime

  15. Simulation of fluid flow and energy transport processes associated with high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Many parts of the Great Basin have thick zones of unsaturated alluvium which might be suitable for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of energy, water (vapor and liquid), and dry air was used to analyze one-dimensional, vertical transport above and below an areally extensive repository. Numerical simulations were conducted for a hypothetical repository containing spent nuclear fuel and located 100 m below land surface. Initial steady state downward water fluxes of zero (hydrostatic) and 0.0003 m yr−1were considered in an attempt to bracket the likely range in natural water flux. Predicted temperatures within the repository peaked after approximately 50 years and declined slowly thereafter in response to the decreasing intensity of the radioactive heat source. The alluvium near the repository experienced a cycle of drying and rewetting in both cases. The extent of the dry zone was strongly controlled by the mobility of liquid water near the repository under natural conditions. In the case of initial hydrostatic conditions, the dry zone extended approximately 10 m above and 15 m below the repository. For the case of a natural flux of 0.0003 m yr−1 the relative permeability of water near the repository was initially more than 30 times the value under hydrostatic conditions, consequently the dry zone extended only about 2 m above and 5 m below the repository. In both cases a significant perturbation in liquid saturation levels persisted for several hundred years. This analysis illustrates the extreme sensitivity of model predictions to initial conditions and parameters, such as relative permeability and moisture characteristic curves, that are often poorly known.

  16. An assessment of the radiological consequences of disposal of high-level waste in coastal geologic formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Lawson, G.

    1980-11-01

    This study was carried out with the objectives of assessing the potential radiological consequences of entry of circulating ground-water into a high-level waste repository sited on the coast; and comparing the results with those of previous assessments for a repository sited inland. Mathematical models are used to calculate the rate of release of radioactivity into ground-water by leaching, the rates of migration of radionuclides with ground-water from the repository to the sea and the concentrations of radionuclides in sea-water and sea-food as a function of time. Estimates are made of the peak annual collective doses and collective dose commitments which could be received as a result of sea-food consumption. Since there are considerable uncertainties associated with the values of many of the parameters used in the calculations the broad features of the results are more significant than the numerical values of predicted annual doses and collective dose commitments. The results of the assessment show that the rates of migration of radionuclides with ground-water are of primary importance in determining the radiological impact of ground-water ingress. The implications of this result for selection of coastal sites and allocation of research effort are discussed. The comparison of coastal and inland sites suggest that coastal siting may have substantial advantages in terms of the radiological consequences to the public after disposal and that a significant fraction of available research effort should therefore be directed towards investigation of coastal sites. This study has been carried out under contract to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell, on behalf of the Commission of the European Communities. (author)

  17. Report on financing the disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and processed high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny, R.I.; Sprecher, W.M.

    1983-06-01

    Projected revenues generated from the 1.0 mill per kWh fee mandated by the Act are sufficient to cover the full range of reference case program costs, assuming 3% annual inflation and nuclear installed capacity of 165 gigawatts-electric by the year 2000. Total estimated costs of the reference waste disposal program, encompassing either spent nuclear fuel disposal or reprocessing waste disposal, range between $18 to 20 billion in constant 1982 dollars. Sensitivity case analyses established upper and lower program cost bounds of $28 billion and $16 billion, respectively (in 1982 dollars). In terms of discounted levelized unit costs, the disposal of spent fuel equates to $122 to 125 per kilogram (uranium) compared with $115 to 119 per kilogram for the reprocessing waste equivalent. The levelized unit costs for reprocessing exclude the solidification of liquid wastes. Such costs are estimated to be $8 per kilogram. Discounted levelized unit costs corresponding to the upper and lower limits of the sensitivity cases equate to $176 per kilogram and $107 per kilogram. The 1.0 mill per kWh fee will be reviewed annually and adjusted, if necessary, to accommodate changes in program costs due to inflation and program shifts. When adjustments are made for applicable discount rates, inflation, repository design changes, and other factors, levelized unit costs for the reference case presented in this analysis agree closely with the results of two previous Department of Energy studies concerning charges for spent fuel storage and disposal services provided by the Federal government. The cost estimates developed for the program were based on the best available data

  18. The effects of actinide separation on the radiological consequences of disposal of high-level radioactive waste on the ocean bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Grimwood, P.D.; White, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    One option in the management of high-level radioactive wastes is to separate the actinides prior to vitrification and disposal. This option is examined in the context of disposal of high-level wastes on the deep ocean bed. The initial quantity of waste corresponds to the generation of 1000 GW(e)y of nuclear energy, and the actinide-separation process is assumed to remove 99% of all elements of atomic number greater than that of actinium. The models used to describe the dispersion of activity from a single disposal site on the bed of the Atlantic Ocean represent both local dispersion and long-term mixing. Collective doses and doses to individuals are calculated for six potential pathways: ingestion of fish, crustacea, molluscs, plankton and seaweed, and external irradiation from contaminated beach sediments. The period from 400 to 1,000,000 years after disposal is considered. The potential radiological impact from disposal of high-level waste without separation of actinides on the ocean bed arises from the actinides; isotopes of americium, neptunium and plutonium give the highest doses. Actinide separation would reduce these doses in proportion to the effectiveness of the separation process, until doses become determined by fission products rather than actinides: the achievable dose reduction would be a factor of approximately a hundred, or less for certain pathways. This reduction applies only to doses to the public from waste disposal: no account was taken of doses arising from the separation process itself or from the management of the separated actinides. The results of the assessment are contrasted with those of similar studies based on toxicity indices. Major deficiencies are identified in the use of toxicity indices as a basis for decision-making. (author)

  19. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs

  20. Toward a risk assessment of the spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste disposal system. Risk assessment requirements, literature review, methods evaluation: an interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Hill, D.; Rowe, M.D.; Stern, E.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides background information for a risk assessment of the disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). It contains a literature review, a survey of the statutory requirements for risk assessment, and a preliminary evaluation of methods. The literature review outlines the state of knowledge of risk assessment and accident consequence analysis in the nuclear fuel cycle and its applicability to spent fuel and HLW disposal. The survey of statutory requirements determines the extent to which risk assessment may be needed in development of the waste-disposal system. The evaluation of methods reviews and evaluates merits and applicabilities of alternative methods for assessing risks and relates them to the problems of spent fuel and HLW disposal. 99 refs.

  1. The relationship between the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Cloke, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential applicability of the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to the disposal of spent commercial nuclear fuel and of high-level (vitrified) radioactive waste. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the associated regulations issued by the US NRC provides many requirements that apply to these waste forms and largely, if not entirely, pre-empts the applicability of RCRA. The RCRA would apply only to the non-radioactive components of these wastes, and then only in respect to hazardous components. In view of these restrictions it becomes important to evaluate whether any components of spent fuel or high-level waste are toxic, as defined by the RCRA regulations. Present indications are that they are not and, hence, the US DOE is proceeding on the basis that these wastes and others that may be generated in the future are non-hazardous in respect to RCRA definitions

  2. Coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-02-01

    Geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan is based on a multibarrier system composed of engineered and natural barriers. The engineered barriers are composed of vitrified waste confined within a canister, overpack and buffer material. Highly compacted bentonite clay is considered one of the most promising candidate buffer material mainly because of its low hydraulic conductivity and high adsorption capacity of radionuclides. In a repository for HLW, complex thermal, hydraulic and mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena will take place, involving the interactive processes between radioactive decay heat from the vitrified waste, infiltration of ground water and stress generation due to the earth pressure, the thermal loading and the swelling pressure of the buffer material. In order to evaluate the performance of the buffer material, the coupled T-H-M behaviors within the compacted bentonite have to be modelled. Before establishing a fully coupled T-H-M model, the mechanism of each single phenomenon or partially coupled phenomena should be identified and modelled physically and numerically. Under the unsaturated condition, the water movement within the buffer material has often been expressed as a simple diffusion model with the constant apparent water diffusivity. However, the water movement in the low permeable and unsaturated porous medium has been known as a transfer process in both vapor and liquid phases. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the two-phase contribution into the physical model. In this study, the water diffusivity of compacted bentonite is obtained as a function of water content and temperature. The proposed water movement model is constructed by applying the Philip and de Vries' model and Darcy's law. While the water retention curve is measured by the thermocouple psychrometer, van Genuchten model is applied as the water retention curve because the smooth derivative of the water potential with respect to water content is

  3. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  4. Review of science and technology for disposal of low-level waste on the seabed and high-level waste in the subseabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Boyer, D.G.; Hollister, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    In 1980 it was recommended that an effort be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristic of the Northeast Atlantic dumping area. The overall safety of sea dumping operations depends on a number of factors such as the characteristics of the dumping site, the amount, composition, conditioning, and packaging of waste, and the way in which operations are organized and controlled. An NEA research and environmental surveillance program related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is proceeding. Information from these studies will apply to disposal of LLW such as reactors from nuclear submarines and contaminated soil, as well as to packaged LLW. In Sweden, construction has begun on a repository located in the granitic rock beneath the seabed. The feasibility of a concept of burying high-level radioactive waste within the geologically stable formations of the deep ocean floor is being assessed. These subseabed options for a waste repository are being considered for several reasons. The granitic rock selected for the Swedish repository has a low hydraulic gradient, thereby reducing the amount of radioactivity tht will diffuse out of the repository. The sea water that covers the repository will dilute and disperse any radioisotopes that do escape from the repository. The other nations studying the feasibility of a subseabed repository are examining the fine-grained clay formations within the stable, predictable deep-sea regions, away from the boundaries of the lithospheric plates and productive surface waters. This clay has properties that may serve to permanently isolate radioactive waste. The most important characteristics of such clays are their vertical and lateral uniformity, low permeability, very high cation retention capacity, and potential for self-healing when disturbed

  5. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high-level waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two- and three-dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media for spent fuel canisters. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters. Results of the studies on spent fuel assembly canisters showed that the canisters could be stored in salt formations with a maximum heat loading of 134 kw/acre without exceeding the temperature limits set for salt stability. The use of an overpack had little effect on the peak canister temperatures. When the total heat load per acre decreased, the peak temperatures reached in the geologic formations decreased; however, the time to reach the peak temperatures increased. Results of the studies on high-level waste canisters showed that an increased canister diameter will increase the canister interior temperatures considerably; at a constant areal heat loading, a 381 mm diameter canister reached almost a 50 0 C higher temperature than a 305 mm diameter canister. An overpacked canister caused almost a 30 0 C temperature rise in either case

  6. Analysis on regional hydrogeological condition of Beishan preselected area for high level radioactive waste disposal repository in Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Su Rui; Liu Shufen; Lu Chuanhe

    2004-01-01

    Based on the field investigation which has been carried out in the Beishan preselected area for high level radioactive waste repository in Gansu province during the last few years and the previous hydrogeological investigation results, the different groundwater types are divided initially and the hydrogeological features of different water-bearing media are described in this paper. Meanwhile, the preliminary evaluation of the regional hydrogeological condition of the study area is carried out. (author)

  7. Study on quality assurance for high-level radioactive waste disposal project (2). Quality assurance system for the site characterization phase in the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assist related organizations in the development of quality assurance systems for a high-level radioactive waste disposal system. This report presents detail information with which related organizations can begin the development of quality assurance systems at an initial phase of repository development for a high-level radioactive waste disposal program, including data qualification, model validation, systems and facilities for quality assurance (e.g., technical data management system, sample management facility, etc.), and QA program applicability (items and activities). These descriptions are based on information in QA program for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), such as the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD), DOE/RW-0333P, quality implementing procedures, and reports implemented by the procedures. Additionally, this report includes some brief recommendations for developing of quality assurance systems, such as establishment of quality assurance requirements, measures for establishment of QA system. (author)

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action

  9. Thermal-hydraulic-geochemical coupled processes around disposed high level nuclear waste in deep granite hosted geological repositories: frontier areas of advanced groundwater research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Indian policy for permanent disposal of high level nuclear wastes with radionuclide having very long half lives include their immobilization in a stable matrix i.e. glasses of suitable composition, its storage in high integrity steel canisters and subsequent disposal in suitable host rock like granites at a depth of 400-500m in stable geological set up. The site for such disposal facilities are selected after vigorous assessment of their stability implying an exhaustive site selection methodology based on a large number of criteria and attributes. In India, an area of about 70000 square kilometers occupied by granites has been subjected to such evaluation for generating comprehensive database on host rock parameters. The sites selected after such intensive analysis are expected to remain immune to processes like seismicity, volcanism, faulting, uplift, erosion, flooding etc. even in distant future spanning over tens of thousands of years. Nevertheless, groundwater has emerged as the only credible pathway through which disposed waste can eventually find its way to accessible biosphere. Hence groundwater research constitutes one of the most important aspects in demonstration of safety of such disposal. The disposed waste due to continuous emission of decay heat creates high temperature field around them with resultant increase in groundwater temperature in the vicinity. Hot groundwater on reacting with steel canisters, backfill clays and cement used around the disposed canister, produces geochemical environment characterized by altered Ph, Eh and groundwater compositions. Acceleration in geochemical interaction among waste-groundwater-clay-cement-granite often results in dissolution or precipitation reactions along the groundwater flow paths i.e. fractures with resultant increase or decrease in their permeability. Thus thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes work interdependently around the disposed waste. These coupled processes also control the release and

  10. A construction of Japanese consensus-formation model for the selection of last disposal site of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Naotaka; Saigusa, Shin; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2010-01-01

    A group with Shizuoka University as the center one is promoting the investigation of the subject 'A construction of Japanese consensus - formation model for the selection of last disposal site of high-level radioactive wastes' adopted in 'Atomic Energy Fundamental Strategic Initiative' at the 20th fiscal year of Heisei, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The result of this investigation is described here. (M.H.)

  11. Basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area with reference to high level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Ryul; Park, J. K.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, H. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, H. S.; Koo, S. B.; Cho, J. D.; Kim, K. E. [Korea Inst. of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area to develope underground disposal technique of high level radioactive waste in future. The study has been done for the crystalline rocks(especially granitic rocks) with emphasis of abandoned metallic mines and uranium ore deposits, and for the geological structure study by using gravity and aeromagnetic data. 138 refs., 54 tabs., 130 figs. (author)

  12. A reconsideration on deep sea bed disposal of high level radiological wastes. A post-Fukushima reflection on sustainable nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) is a common issue among all nuclear developing countries. However, this becomes especially a hard issue for sustainable nuclear energy in Japan after Fukushima Daiichi accident. In this paper, the difficulty of realizing underground HLW disposal in Japanese islands is first discussed from socio-political aspects. Then, revival of old idea of deep seabed disposal of HLW in Pacific Ocean is proposed as an alternative way of HLW disposal. Although this old idea had been abandoned in the past for the reason that it would violate London Convention which prohibits dumping radioactive wastes in public sea, the author will stress the merit of seabed disposal of HLW deep in Pacific Ocean not only from the view point of more safe and ultimate way of disposing HLWs (both vitrified and spent fuel) than by underground disposal, but also the emergence of new marine project by synergetic collaboration of rare-earth resource exploration from the deep sea floor in Pacific Ocean. (author)

  13. In situ investigations on the impact of heat production and gamma radiation with regard to high-level radioactive waste disposal in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.

    1986-01-01

    Deep geological formations especially rock salt formations, are considered worldwide as suitable media for the final disposal of radioactive high-level waste (HLW). In the Federal Republic of Germany, the Institut fur Tieflagerung of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Munchen operates the Asse Salt Mine as a pilot facility for testing the behavior of an underground nuclear waste repository. The tests are performed using heat and radiation sources to simulate disposed HLW canisters. The measured data obtained since 1965 show that the thermomechanical response of the salt formation and the physical/chemical changes in the vicinity of disposal boreholes are not a serious concern and that their long-term consequences can be estimated based on theoretical considerations and in-situ investigations

  14. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Selection of thermodynamic data of cobalt and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yui, Mikazu; Kirishima, Akira; Saito, Takumi; Shibutani, Sanae; Tochiyama, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes, the selection of the thermodynamic data on the inorganic compounds and complexes of cobalt and nickel have been carried out. For cobalt, extensive literature survey has been performed and all the obtained literatures have been carefully reviewed to select the thermodynamic data. Selection of thermodynamic data of nickel has been based on a thermodynamic database published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA), which has been carefully reviewed by the authors, and then thermodynamic data have been selected after surveying latest literatures. Based on the similarity of chemical properties between cobalt and nickel, complementary thermodynamic data of nickel and cobalt species expected under the geological disposal condition have been selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  15. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Refinement of thermodynamic data for trivalent actinoids and samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Fujiwara, Kenso; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-01-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive and TRU wastes, the refinement of the thermodynamic data for the inorganic compounds and complexes of trivalent actinoids (actinium(III), plutonium(III), americium(III) and curium(III)) and samarium(III) was carried out. Refinement of thermodynamic data for these elements was based on the thermodynamic database for americium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). Based on the similarity of chemical properties among trivalent actinoids and samarium, complementary thermodynamic data for their species expected under the geological disposal conditions were selected to complete the thermodynamic data set for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (author)

  16. The federal structure: Can Congress commmandeer Nevada to participate in its federal high level waste disposal program?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the national disposal system for nuclear waste under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), as enacted in 1982 and amended in 1987 and 1992, focusing particularly on the constitutionality of the Act's open-quotes notice of disapprovalclose quotes and open-quotes congressional overrideclose quotes provisions. Part I of this article describes the notice of disapproval and congressional override provisions of the NWPA, including a brief analysis of their legislative history. Part II discusses the advantages of the federal structure as a protection against the exercise of autocratic congressional power, and studies the United States Supreme Court's approach to federalism in two recent cases. Part III addresses Nevada's experience under the NWPA. Parts IV and V analyze the constitutionality of the notice of disapproval and congressional override provisions of the NWPA in light of these two Supreme Court holdings. Part VI discusses the open-quotes environmental subsidyclose quotes imposed by the NWPA. Part VII concludes the article with a more practical, workable and constitutionally-defensible alternative to the existing waste disposal siting process

  17. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 5: Dispersal of radionuclides in the oceans: Models, data sets and regional descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.; Simmons, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the development of a realistic and credible methodology to describe the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides for risk assessment calculations

  18. Development of grouting technologies for geological disposal of high level waste in Japan (1). Overall program and application of developed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoo; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Sugita, Yutaka; Matsui, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency started a grout project for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in 2007. The aim of the project was to develop new grouting technologies and grout materials and also to develop models for performance assessments, prediction of the long-term radionuclide migration and identify detrimental changes in the host rock by the grout material leachate. This study presents the overall program and the application of key engineering technologies to the construction and operation of an underground facility for the geological disposal of HLW, with particular emphasis on the long-term effects of grout materials. (author)

  19. The JAERI program for development of safety assessment models and acquisition of data needed for assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.

    1991-01-01

    The JAERI is conducting R and D program for the development of safety assessment methodologies and the acquisition of data needed for the assessment of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, aiming at the elucidation of feasibility of geologic disposal in Japan. The paper describes current R and D activities to develop interim versions of both a deterministic and a probabilistic methodologies based on a normal evolution scenario, to collect data concerning engineered barriers and geologic media through field and laboratory experiments, and to validate the models used in the methodologies. 2 figs., 2 refs

  20. In situ-experiments on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HAW) at the Asse salt mine Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.; Rothfuchs, T.

    1989-01-01

    Deep geological salt formations are considered as being the most suitable medium for the disposal of radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This paper reports how, in order to develop and to prove the necessary disposal techniques, the Asse Salt Mine in the northern part of Germany is being used as a national R and D facility for the execution of representative in situ-tests. Besides the test-wise disposal of low-and medium-level radioactive waste, a series of in situ experiments was performed on the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW). The so-called HAW repository is being performed from 1983 through 1994 will be the most important pilot test for the HAW repository in the FRG. During this experiment, 30 vitrified high-level radioactive heat and radiation sources will be emplaced in six underground boreholes. The duration of testing will be approximately five years. In addition to the investigations of the interactions of the heat and radiation sources and the host rock, a complete handling system for HAW-canisters is being developed and proved

  1. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  2. Role of geochemical factors in the assessment and regulation of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kelley, G.D.; Meyer, R.E.

    1984-03-01

    It is generally agreed that in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste, the agent most likely to mobilize radionuclides and disperse them into the accessible environment is groundwater. Analyses of the performance of a high-level waste repository will require a detailed study of the chemical factors involved in the interaction of water-mobilized nuclides with the host rock. These chemical factors include sorption phenomena, redox processes, the roles of hydrolysis and complexation in the determination of speciation, solubility, and the formation of polymeric and colloidal forms of the nuclides. A discussion and review of these factors is given along with their pertinence to the migration of the nuclides and the development of computer codes for the prediction of this migration. Of particular interest are the formation of negatively charged species of the nuclides, which tend to exhibit very low adsorption, and the formation of insoluble products through redox processes. Knowledge of the different chemical factors must be used to postulate geochemical scenarios for the release of nuclides. Much of the chemistry of the nuclides is very sensitive to pH and redox conditions and, in general, increase of acidity and oxidizing power of the groundwater could have serious consequences with respect to mobilization of the nuclides. 33 references

  3. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  4. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  5. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  6. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  7. JAEA thermodynamic database for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU wastes. Selection of thermodynamic data of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Reisuke; Kitamura, Akira; Yui, Mikazu

    2010-02-01

    Within the scope of the JAEA thermodynamic database project for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level and TRU radioactive wastes, the selection of the thermodynamic data on the inorganic compounds and complexes of selenium was carried out. Selection of thermodynamic data of selenium was based on a thermodynamic database of selenium published by the Nuclear Energy Agency in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). The remarks of a thermodynamic database by OECD/NEA found by the authors were noted in this report and then thermodynamic data was reviewed after surveying latest literatures. Some thermodynamic values of iron selenides were not selected by the OECD/NEA due to low reliability. But they were important for the performance assessment of geological disposal of radioactive wastes, so we selected them as a tentative value with specifying reliability and needs of the value to be determined. (author)

  8. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  9. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes. An evaluation based on recent research on the bedrock at great depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahaell, Karl-Inge

    2006-05-01

    New knowledge in hydrogeology and boring technology have opened the possibility to use deep boreholes as a repository for the Swedish high-level radioactive wastes. The determining property is that the repository can be housed in the stable bedrock at levels where the ground water has no contact with the biosphere and disposal and sealing can take place without disturbing the ground water stratification outside the disposal area. An advantage compared to a shallow repository of KBS-3 type, that is now being planned in Sweden, is that a borehole repository is likely to be technologically more robust, since the concept 'deep boreholes' seems to admit such a deep disposal that the entire disposal area would be surrounded by stable density-layered ground water, while a KBS-3 repository would be surrounded by moving ground water in contact with level close to the surface. This hydrological difference is of great importance for the safety in scenarios with leaching of radioactive substances. A deep repository is also less vulnerable for effects from natural events such as glaciation and earthquakes as well as from technological mishaps and terrorist actions. A crucial factor is, however, that the radioactive waste can be disposed of, in a secure way, at the intended depth, which will require new research and technology development

  10. Report to the Radioactive Waste Management Committee on the first international workshop on seabed disposal of high-level wastes, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, February 16--20, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Talbert, D.M.

    1976-04-01

    The basic conclusion of the workshop is that, while a very considerable amount of work must be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technical reasons are apparent at this moment that would preclude disposal of radioactive wastes underneath the seafloor. Subsidiary conclusions reached by subgroups dealing with undersea geology, biology, the water column, and disposal canister research are given. General conclusions reached by the workshop are detailed together with proposals for an international program furthering an undersea disposal scheme

  11. The IAEA Biomass programme: reference biospheres for long-term safety assessment of high level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Phil; Crossland, Ian; Torres, Carlos; Crossland, Ian J.

    2002-01-01

    Phil Metcalf and Ian Crossland presented the IAEA Biomass project. Phil Metcalf explained that the Biomass project, begun in 1996, by an international forum organised by the IAEA was a very good exercise for exchanging information through technical meetings and documentation such as Biomass newsletters or CD Rom. Ian Crossland continued by giving a presentation of the Biomass theme 1 that concerns the radioactive waste disposal topic. Its objective was mainly to develop the reference biosphere methodology and to demonstrate its usefulness through some exercises related to the development of a practical set of example biospheres such as: 1. drinking water well, 2. agricultural irrigation, with a well source and 3. Set of natural groundwater discharges to natural, semi-natural systems. Input data would always change to accommodate a given repository simulation and location. Thus this project must be seen as a good exercise for the application of a methodology and should be considered as a good source of reference biospheres that might be viewed as a benchmark for comparison with site-specific safety assessments for a selected number of radionuclides. The main conclusion from the Biomass theme 1 project was that there appears to be an international consensus on preparing generic reference biospheres for postclosure safety assessment but waste management organisations should also consider the specific requirements of regulators and other stakeholders

  12. Canister materials proposed for final disposal of high level nuclear waste - a review with respect to corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, E; Odoj, R; Merz, E [eds.

    1981-06-01

    Spent fuel from nuclear reactors has to be disposed of either after reprocessing or without such treatment. Due to toxic radiation the nuclear waste has to be isolated from the biosphere for 300-1000 years, or in extreme cases for more than 100,000 years. The nuclear waste will be enclosed in corrosion resistant canisters. These will be deposited in repositories in geological formations, such as granite, basalt, clay, bedded or domed salt, or the sediments beneath the deep ocean floor. There the canisters will be exposed to groundwater, brine or seawater at an elevated temperature. Species formed by radiolysis may affect the corrosivity of the agent. The corrosion resistance of candidate canister materials is evaluated by corrosion tests and by thermodynamic and mass transport calculations. Examination of ancient metal objects after long exposure in nature may give additional information. On the basis of the work carried out so far, the principal candidate canister materials are titanium materials, copper and high purity alumina.

  13. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on high-level waste disposal for the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and/or transmutation (PT) technology on high-level waste management was investigated for the equilibrium state of several potential fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycles. Three different fuel cycle scenarios involving PT technology were analyzed: 1) partitioning process only (separation of some fission products), 2) transmutation process only (separation and transmutation of minor actinides), and 3) both partitioning and transmutation processes. The conventional light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle without PT technology, on which the current repository design is based, was also included for comparison. We focused on the thermal constraints in a geological repository and determined the necessary predisposal storage quantities and time periods (by defining a storage capacity index) for several predefined emplacement configurations through transient thermal analysis. The relation between this storage capacity index and the required repository emplacement area was obtained. We found that the introduction of the FBR fuel cycle without PT can yield a 35% smaller repository per unit electricity generation than the LWR fuel cycle, although the predisposal storage period is prolonged from 50 years for the LWR fuel cycle to 65 years for the FBR fuel cycle without PT. The introduction of the partitioning-only process does not result in a significant reduction of the repository emplacement area from that for the FBR fuel cycle without PT, but the introduction of the transmutation-only process can reduce the emplacement area by a factor of 5 when the storage period is extended from 65 to 95 years. When a coupled partitioning and transmutation system is introduced, the repository emplacement area can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude by assuming a predisposal storage of 60 years for glass waste and 295 years for calcined waste containing the Sr and Cs fraction. The storage period of 295 years for the calcined waste does not require a large

  14. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  15. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  16. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Introductory part and summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan and comprises seven chapters. Chapter I briefly describes the importance of HLW management in promoting nuclear energy utilization. According to the long-term program, the HLW separated from spent fuels at reprocessing plants is to be vitrified and stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, then be disposed of in a deep geological formation. Chapter II mainly explains the concepts of geological disposal in Japan. Chapters III to V are devoted to discussions on three important technical elements (the geological environment of Japan, engineering technology and safety assessment of the geological disposal system) which are necessary for reliable realization of the geological disposal concept. Chapter VI demonstrates the technical ground for site selection and for setup of safety standards of the disposal. Chapter VII summarizes together with plans for future research and development. (Ohno, S.)

  17. Is Yucca Mountain a long-term solution for disposing of US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C

    2012-06-01

    On 26 January 2012, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future released a report addressing, amongst other matters, options for the managing and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel. The Blue Ribbon Commission was not chartered as a siting commission. Accordingly, it did not evaluate Yucca Mountain or any other location as a potential site for the storage or disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. Nevertheless, if the Commission's recommendations are followed, it is clear that any future proposals to develop a repository at Yucca Mountain would require an extended period of consultation with local communities, tribes and the State of Nevada. Furthermore, there would be a need to develop generally applicable regulations for disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, so that the Yucca Mountain site could be properly compared with alternative sites that would be expected to be identified in the initial phase of the site-selection process. Based on what is now known of the conditions existing at Yucca Mountain and the large number of safety, environmental and legal issues that have been raised in relation to the DOE Licence Application, it is suggested that it would be imprudent to include Yucca Mountain in a list of candidate sites for future evaluation in a consent-based process for site selection. Even if there were a desire at the local, tribal and state levels to act as hosts for such a repository, there would be enormous difficulties in attempting to develop an adequate post-closure safety case for such a facility, and in showing why this unsaturated environment should be preferred over other geological contexts that exist in the USA and that are more akin to those being studied and developed in other countries.

  18. The Belgian demonstration programme for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, F.; Demarche, M.

    2006-01-01

    The EIG EURIDICE is responsible for performing large-scale tests, technical demonstrations and experiments so as to assess the feasibility of a final disposal of vitrified radioactive waste in deep clay layers. This programme is part of the Belgian Research and Development programme managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS. The research infrastructure includes the Underground Research Facilities HADES (URF HADES) in the Boom Clay geological formation and surface facilities. The achievements of the demonstration programme are the demonstration of the construction of shafts and galleries at industrial scale, the characterisation of the hydro-mechanical response of the host rock, and the 'OPHELIE mock-up' a large scale hydration test under thermal load of pre-fabricated bentonite blocks. The future works will consist mainly in the realisation of the 'PRACLAY experiments' including a large scale heater test. The results of this test will constitute an important input for the Safety and Feasibility Cases 1 (SFC-1, 2013) and 2 (SFC-2, 2020). (author)

  19. Development of an assessment methodology for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste into deep ocean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.N.; Stanners, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical study concerning the option of disposal of vitrified high activity waste (HAW) into deep ocean sediments. The development of a preliminary methodology is presented which concerns the assessment of the possible effects of a release of radioactivity on the ecosystem and eventually on man. As the long-term hazard is considered basically to be due to transuranic elements (and daughter products) the period studied for the assessment is from 10 3 to 10 6 years. A simple ecosystem model is developed so that the transfer of activity between different compartments of the systems, e.g. the sediment column, sediment-water interface, deep sea water column, can be estimated. A critical pathway analysis is made for an imaginary critical group in order to complete the assessment. A sensitivity analysis is undertaken using the computed minimum-maximum credible values for the different parameters used in the calculations in order to obtain a minimum-maximum dose range for a critical group. (Auth.)

  20. Analysis of the effect of variations in parameter values on the predicted radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1979-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste (Hill and Grimwood. NRPB-R69 (1978)) identified several areas where further research is required before this disposal option can be fully evaluated. This report is an analysis of the sensitivity of the results of the preliminary assessment to the assumptions made and the values of the parameters used. The parameters considered include the leach rate of the waste, the ground-water velocity, the length of the flow path from the repository to a source of drinking water and the sorption constants of the principle radionuclides. The results obtained by varying these parameters are used to examine the effects of assumptions such as the time at which leaching of the waste begins. The sensitivity analysis shows the relative importance of the waste canisters, the waste form and the geologic barrier to radionuclide migration in determining potential doses. These results are used to identify research priorities, establish preliminary design criteria and indicate developments needed in the mathematical modelling of the movement of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere. (author)

  1. Review of models for use in probabilistic assessments of the disposal of high level radioactive wastes on or beneath the seabed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, A.G.; Gibson, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    The report describes a review of computer models applicable to probabilistic assessments of the ocean disposal of vitrified high level waste. Computer models were identified and each evaluated against a common set of criteria. The review covers each stage of the chain of radionuclide transport: canister deterioration and leaching, migration through the bottom sediments, dispersion in the ocean, suspended sediment effects, biological aspects and uptake by man. The models identified are generally at a relatively early stage of development and documentation was often only of a general nature. These overall systems models and sub-models considered to be most suitable for probabilistic assessments were identified and areas of further development identified. (author)

  2. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  3. Perspective of the waste management research program at NRC on modeling phenomena related to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, J.D.; Costanzi, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modeling the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste falls short of ideal for a variety of reasons. The understanding of the physical processes involved may be incomplete or incorrect. It may not be possible to specify mathematically all relationships among the processes involved. The initial conditions or boundary conditions may not be known or directly measurable. Further, often it is impossible to obtain exact solutions to the mathematical relationships that constitute the mathematical model. Finally, many simplifications, approximations, and assumptions will be needed to make the models both understandable and calculationally tractable. Yet, modeling is the only means available by which any quantitative estimation of the expected performance of a geologic repository over the long term can be made. If modeling estimates of the performance of a geologic repository are to provide effective support for an NRC finding of reasonable assurance of no unreasonable risk to the public health and safety, then the strengths and limitations of the modeling process, the models themselves, and the use of the models must be understood and explored fully

  4. A discussion about high-level radioactive waste disposal program. From the results of dialogue with citizens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Masashi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Chida, Taiji

    2008-01-01

    Implementation of HLW disposal is one of urgent issue, when we will continue the use of nuclear power. But, the citizens may not have the sufficient amount of information or knowledge about HLW disposal in order to make themselves decision to this issue. To know how the citizens understand about HLW disposal, we tried to talk about the HLW disposal with 11 citizen groups through the face-to-face dialogue. One group consists of 2-3 persons, and we had 3 times dialogue to one group. In this dialogue, the participants had a certain amount of knowledge about HLW disposal, and their opinions to the issue of HLW disposal program. These opinions include the doubt against open application system to select the siting area, the emotion like NIMBY, indication of lack of public relations about HLW disposal, and so on. (author)

  5. The framework which aims at improving compatibility of the high-level radioactive waste disposal technology with social values and the role of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Shuichi; Kanda, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    Public perception on safety is the key factor for achieving public acceptance of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal program. Past studies on public perception and HLW management have confirmed that the public do not share the confidence of the experts in safety and feasibility of HLW disposal. The importance of a more comprehensive approach to enhance acceptability of the HLW disposal technology is recognized. This paper proposes a framework for inducing the implementers and regulators to improve compatibility of the HLW disposal technology with social values. In this framework, the implementers and regulators identify technical components which are subject to substantial influence from public concerns. Then, they manage these components through the following actions: 1) establishing policies, targets and plans to make these components compatible with social values, 2) developing and utilizing the components based on the above policies, targets and plans, 3) checking the extent of compatibility through intensive risk communication and 4) improving the process of developing and utilizing the components. This framework requires information disclosure and evaluation by an independent body which are expected to intensify the incentive to take the above actions. Canada's environmental assessment review process regarding the HLW disposal concept suggests that this framework could work effectively. (author)

  6. An opinion survey on the image of incidents or accidents at a final disposal site for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that a major psychological factor of attitudes toward final disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste (hereinafter referred to as 'disposal sites') is risk perception. On the basis of this finding, the present survey attempted to identify mental images of assumable incidents and accidents likely to occur at disposal sites. Specifically, 402 respondents in the Kansai Area were asked to describe their mental image of what kind/level of incident or accident could possibly occur at a Disposal Site by what cause and what size of damage was expectable from such incident/accident. The results showed that following: regarding assumable incidents/accidents (1) people are most afraid of a large-scale natural disaster including a major earthquake beyond an assumed level of intensity, that they feel would probably generate the heaviest damage, (2) people assume that no major accident leading to serious damage is likely to occur in the early days after the launch of operation, (3) people have an impression that the longer the passage of time, the higher the probability of incident/accident occurrence becomes, regardless of the size of resulting damage. Those who strongly feel that Disposal Sites are dangerous are, when compared to others who do not have such a strong impression, apt to overestimate the size of assumable damage regardless of the cause of damage and also to overestimate the growth rate of the probability of incident/accident occurrence over the course of time. (author)

  7. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. volume 7: Review of laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This volume contains a review of the laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments. In addition, it discusses the data selected for the radiological assessment, on the basis of both field and laboratory studies

  8. Discussion of quantitative assessment index system of suitability of the site for geological disposal repository of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju

    2014-01-01

    Site selection and suitability assessment of site are one of important tasks of research and development of geological disposal engineering for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is based on the scientific, reasonable and operational index system. The discussion of index screening of quantitative assessment of suitability of the site is conducted. Principle of index screening is presented and index systems are established for different stages of site selection, including planning stage of site selection, region or area investigation stage, site characterization and site confirmation stage. But the considerations are taken of the complexity of site selection of geological disposal engineering for HLW and itself development of quantitative assessment method, so improvement of the index systems presented above is needed in the further. (authors)

  9. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 6: Deep-sea biology, biological processes and radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Hargrave, B.T.; Roe, H.S.J.; Sibuet, M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the biological description of selected sites, the means by which radionuclides could result in human exposure via seafood pathways, and the doses likely to be received by, and effects on, the deep-sea fauna

  10. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  11. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  12. The Beishan underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China: Planning, site selection, site characterization and in situ tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of nuclear power in China, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW has become an important issue for nuclear safety and environmental protection. Deep geological disposal is internationally accepted as a feasible and safe way to dispose of HLW, and underground research laboratories (URLs play an important and multi-faceted role in the development of HLW repositories. This paper introduces the overall planning and the latest progress for China's URL. On the basis of the proposed strategy to build an area-specific URL in combination with a comprehensive evaluation of the site selection results obtained during the last 33 years, the Xinchang site in the Beishan area, located in Gansu Province of northwestern China, has been selected as the final site for China's first URL built in granite. In the process of characterizing the Xinchang URL site, a series of investigations, including borehole drilling, geological mapping, geophysical surveying, hydraulic testing and in situ stress measurements, has been conducted. The investigation results indicate that the geological, hydrogeological, engineering geological and geochemical conditions of the Xinchang site are very suitable for URL construction. Meanwhile, to validate and develop construction technologies for the Beishan URL, the Beishan exploration tunnel (BET, which is a 50-m-deep facility in the Jiujing sub-area, has been constructed and several in situ tests, such as drill-and-blast tests, characterization of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ, and long-term deformation monitoring of surrounding rocks, have been performed in the BET. The methodologies and technologies established in the BET will serve for URL construction. According to the achievements of the characterization of the URL site, a preliminary design of the URL with a maximum depth of 560 m is proposed and necessary in situ tests in the URL are planned. Keywords: Beishan, Xinchang site, Granite

  13. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O 2 - ) and ozonide (O 3 - ) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K 2 O: 56 SiO 2 was prepared from reagent grade K 2 CO3 and SiO 2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10 8 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  14. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with the geological investigations performed for determing the feasibility of a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 2 of five volumes that together constitute the final report of the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The purpose of the work was to procure a more detailed knowledge of the geology of salt domes in North Jutland on example of Mors. The Mors dome is oval with the two axes of approx. 12.5 km and 8 km respectively. Two deep wells have been drilled into the salt. These wells reach 3400-3500 m below surface. Until a depth of about 3200 m Erslev 2 passes through rock salt of Zechstein 1 which is the oldest evaporite series. However, it could also be interlayed with the slightly younger Zechstein 2. At about 3200 m a marker layer was met with Zechstein 2 salt below. Interpretation of cores and results of downhole electromagnetic and borehole gravimetric measurements show that there is a large area around Erslev 2 which consists of very pure sodium chloride with traces of anhydrite (calcium, sulphate) 1-3%. This area is used for the repository design and safety evaluation. The hydrological conditions existing in the strata above the salt dome (caprock) have been investigated with the help of four hydrogeological wells, placed two each, on two different sites. The cores themselves were taken at various depths in all four holes. With these laboratory methods it has been possible to measure data relevant to hydrology - such as porosity and permeability - as well as geochemistry. (BP)

  15. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  16. High polymer-based composites for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage or disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedema, I.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This study considers the application of PEEK and continuous graphite fibre composite as the principal component in a high level nuclear waste disposal container. The ultimate radioactive environment to which the containers will be exposed has been simulated using a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor and a specialized heated irradiation chamber. Doses of up to 1 MGy were given to samples in combination with elevated temperatures (15{sup o}C to 75{sup o}C), which induced mechanical and chemical changes in the material. Mechanically, the composite and virgin polymer samples were minimally affected, rarely deviating beyond one standard deviation of the properties of unirradiated samples. Molecularly, crosslinking between adjacent polymer chains in the amorphous region is the primary observed phenomenon as a consequence of the radiation treatment. This effect is diminished with the application of heat during irradiation. Slight changes in crystallinity were also noted through molecular rearrangement, beginning with slight increases at lower radiation doses, and then minor decreases are noted with larger doses ({approx}10{sup 6} Gy). It is also shown in this study that the rate of radiation effects that is typical in this polymer is dependent on the temperature of irradiation. The results confirm that polymer-based composite materials, such as the PEEK/graphite fibre material studied here, are excellent candidates for the fabrication of the containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  17. Evaluation for swelling characteristics of buffer and backfill materials for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Influence of sand-bentonite content and cation compositions in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Hideo; Ogata, Nobuhide

    1999-01-01

    Compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixture are attracting greater attention as buffer and backfill materials for disposal pits and access tunnels in the underground facilities for repositories of high-level nuclear waste. Buffer and backfill materials must have the swelling characteristics and are expected to fill up the space between these materials and surrounding ground by swelling. This role is called as 'Self-sealing'. To design the specifications, such as dry density, bentonite content and size, of buffer and backfill materials for the disposal facilities of high-level nuclear wastes described above, we must evaluate the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixtures. For this purpose, this study proposed the evaluation formula for swelling characteristics of buffer and backfill materials containing bentonite. This study derived new equations for evaluating the relationship between the swelling deformation of compacted bentonite and sand-bentonite mixtures, and the swelling behavior of montmorillonite minerals, which are swelling clay minerals. This study also proposed new equations for evaluating the ion compositions of bentonite, ion concentration of pore water and the specific surface of bentonite, which significantly influence the swelling characteristics of buffer and backfill materials. The evaluation formula proposed in this study is presented by combining the above-mentioned new equations with theoretical equations, of which are the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double layer theory and the van der Waals force, of repulsive and attractive forces of montmorillonite minerals. (author)

  18. Evaluated and estimated solubility of some elements for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste using updated version of thermodynamic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) established the thermodynamic database (JAEA-TDB) for performance assessment of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and TRU waste. Twenty-five elements which were important for the performance assessment of geological disposal were selected for the database. JAEA-TDB enhanced reliability of evaluation and estimation of their solubility through selecting the latest and the most reliable thermodynamic data at present. We evaluated and estimated solubility of the 25 elements in the simulated porewaters established in the 'Second Progress Report for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal of HLW in Japan' using the JAEA-TDB and compared with those using the previous thermodynamic database (JNC-TDB). It was found that most of the evaluated and estimated solubility values were not changed drastically, but the solubility and speciation of dominant aqueous species for some elements using the JAEA-TDB were different from those using the JNC-TDB. We discussed about how to provide reliable solubility values for the performance assessment. (author)

  19. The approach to individual and collective risk in regard to radiation and its application to disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1994-01-01

    In international and national criteria on disposal of HLW there are at present a number of requirements to the protection of individuals now and in the future. The protection of society (or environment) is directly or indirectly addressed in some criteria, but the number of people exposed, potentially exposed or at risk is not considered as a specific issue or quantity with constraints and implications. The report describes the various attitudes of society and its individuals towards the protection of the individual and the public. In particular, it treats how the number of people concerned by an irradiation situation influences the involvement of society in social and economic terms. Some conclusions can be drawn that are applicable to the situation of disposal of HLW. The discussion may illuminate the problems of disposal of HLW from some new angles and further the ambition of the society to present the disposal problems as broadly as possible. 23 refs

  20. Anthropogenic analogues for geological disposal of high level and long lived waste. Final report of a coordinated research project 1999-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Human-made materials comprise important elements of the engineered barriers within the multi-barrier containment system in all concepts for the geological disposal of long lived radioactive wastes. A typical waste package consists of a metallic container for the solid waste (e.g. spent fuel or borosilicate glass in the case of high level waste, or cemented intermediate level wastes), possibly with an additional metallic over-pack to provide added protection or further corrosion resistance to the container. In the repository, waste packages are surrounded by buffer or backfill materials, such as clays, which have been subject to varying degrees of mechanical or chemical processing. Repository concepts for intermediate level wastes generally contain large volumes of cement and concrete in various applications: as a waste conditioning matrix, in boxes for waste components, as backfill between waste packages and as vault and silo structures within excavated caverns and tunnels. The long term behaviour and interactions of these materials is an important aspect of the performance of a repository, and post-closure safety assessment requires information on their durability, stability and slow degradation characteristics. Analogue information from archaeological and other anthropogenic materials can indicate the mechanisms and rates of long term corrosion of glasses and metals and of degradation of cements over hundreds or thousands of years, which can be used to constrain estimates of degradation rates over similar or longer periods. Under some circumstances it is also possible to find these materials in locations where they have interacted with natural radionuclides over long periods. This can provide useful data on how radionuclides might be sorbed or precipitated as they pass from the waste matrix into the surrounding, degrading engineered barrier system of a repository far into the future. Over the last twenty five years, many countries have gathered information on the

  1. On the pathway towards disposal. The need for long-term interim storage of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budelmann, Harald; Koehnke, Dennis; Reichardt, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel is a still unsolved problem with social, ethical, economical, ecological and political dimensions. The stagnating decision process on the final repository concept in several countries has the consequence of the inclusion of long-term interim storage into the disposal concept. The contribution discusses several approaches. This opens the question whether the long-term interim storage is a matter of delaying tactic or a pragmatic solution on the way to a final repository.

  2. Ramifications of defining high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Campbell, M.H.; Shupe, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering rule making to provide a concentration-based definition of high-level waste (HLW) under authority derived from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Low Level Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE), which has the responsibility to dispose of certain kinds of commercial waste, is supporting development of a risk-based classification system by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to assist in developing and implementing the NRC rule. The system is two dimensional, with the axes based on the phrases highly radioactive and requires permanent isolation in the definition of HLW in the NWPA. Defining HLW will reduce the ambiguity in the present source-based definition by providing concentration limits to establish which materials are to be called HLW. The system allows the possibility of greater-confinement disposal for some wastes which do not require the degree of isolation provided by a repository. The definition of HLW will provide a firm basis for waste processing options which involve partitioning of waste into a high-activity stream for repository disposal, and a low-activity stream for disposal elsewhere. Several possible classification systems have been derived and the characteristics of each are discussed. The Defense High Level Waste Technology Lead Office at DOE - Richland Operations Office, supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations, has coordinated reviews of the ORNL work by a technical peer review group and other DOE offices. The reviews produced several recommendations and identified several issues to be addressed in the NRC rule making. 10 references, 3 figures

  3. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system.

  4. A preliminary study on the suitability of host rocks for deep geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-02-01

    It is expected that the key issues are listed as the disposal concept, reference disposal system and other relevant technical development for the deep geological disposal of HLW in each country. First above all, however, the preferred host rocks should be suggested prior execution of these activities. And, it is desirable to be reviewed and proposed some host rocks representative its country. For the reviewing of host rocks in Korean peninsula, several issues were considered such as the long-term geological stability, fracture system, surface and groundwater system and geochemical characteristics in peninsula. The three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the R and D of HLW disposal based on the upper stated information. In the following stages, it is suggested that these preferred host rocks would be made an object of all relevant R and D activities for HLW disposal. And, many references for these geologic medium should be characterized and constructed various technical development for the Korean reference disposal system

  5. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  6. Hydro-mechanical behaviour of bentonite-based materials used for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted bentonite-based materials used as sealing materials in high-level radioactive waste repositories. The pure MX80 bentonite, mixtures of MX80/crushed clay-stone and MX80/sand were used in the investigation. An experimental study on the swelling pressure of the bentonite-based materials was first performed. The results evidenced the effects of water chemistry, hydration procedure and duration, pre-existing technological void and experimental methods. Emphasis was put on the relationship between the swelling pressure and the final dry density of bentonite. Afterwards, the water retention test, hydration test and suction controlled oedometer test were conducted on samples with different voids including the technological void and the void inside the soil. By introducing the parameters as bentonite void ratio and water volume ratio, an overall analysis of the effects of voids on the hydro-mechanical response of the compacted material was performed. To get better insight into the seal evolution in case of technological void, the effects of final dry density and hydration time on the microstructure features were also characterized. Then, the hydraulic properties under unsaturated state were investigated by carrying out water retention test and infiltration test as well as the microstructure observation. The results obtained allowed relating the variation of hydraulic conductivity to the microstructure changes. A small scale (1/10) mock up test of the SEALEX in situ experiment was also performed to study the recovery capacity of bentonite-based material with consideration of a technological void. The results were used for interpreting the in-situ observations. With a reduced time scale, it provides useful information for estimating the saturation duration and sealing effectiveness of the field design. Finally, the experimental data obtained in the laboratory on bentonite/sand mixture were interpreted in the

  7. Methods and results of the investigation of the thermomechanical behaviour of rock salt with regard to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, K.; Klarr, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge about thermal and mechanical behaviour of rock salt that has been accumulated by various R and D institutions in Germany from laboratory and in situ investigations. An important objective is to give a comprehensive overview of the investigation methods and instruments available and to discuss these methods and instruments with regard to their applicability and reliability for the investigation of the thermomechanical effects of high level radioactive waste emplacement in rock salt formations. The report is focused on the activities of the GSF-Institut fur Tieflagerung in the Asse mine regarding the disposal of high and intermediate level radioactive waste during the last decades. The design and the results of the most important in situ experiments are presented and discussed in detail. The results are compared to model calculations in order to evaluate the reliability of both the measurements and the calculation results. The relevance of the results for the situation in Spain is discussed in a separate chapter. As the investigations in Germany have been performed in domal salt, while the Spanish concept is based on waste disposal in bedded salt, significant differences in the thermomechanical behaviour cannot be excluded. The investigation methods, however, will be applicable. (Author)

  8. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  9. Fundamental problem of high-level radioactive waste disposal policy in Japan. Critical analysis responding to the publication of 'Nationwide Map of Scientific Features for Geological Disposal' by the Japanese government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juraku, Kohta

    2017-01-01

    The government explains that 'Scientific Characteristic Map' (hereinafter 'Map') shows the scientific characteristics of sites that are thought necessary to be taken into account when choosing the place to implement geological disposal and their geographical distribution on the Japanese map for the convenience to 'roughly overlook.' Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) as the implementing agency for geological disposal and the government (Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) stress that this Map does not indicate so-called 'optimum land,' but it is the 'first step of a long way to realize disposal' for high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, there clearly lurks a debate about the acceptance of the location of geological disposal in the future. The author has pointed out that the essence of the HLW disposal problem is a problem of 'value selection' that should be decided prior to the location of disposal site. The author believes that it is the competence of society how to identify the path of countermeasures by reconciling in a high degree the justice of the policies supported by scientific and professional knowledge and the justice of social decision making through a democratic duty process. However, the government is trying to forward HLW disposal only from the viewpoint of location problems, while neglecting the problem of 'value selection.' (A.O.)

  10. Biosphere assessment for high-level radioactive waste disposal: modelling experiences and discussion on key parameters by sensitivity analysis in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Makino, Hitoshi; Uchida, Masahiro; Suzuki, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    In the safety assessment of the deep geological disposal system of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW), biosphere assessment is often necessary to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings (e.g. radiation dose). In order to estimate the dose, the surface environment (biosphere) into which future releases of radionuclides might occur and the associated future human behaviour needs to be considered. However, for a deep repository, such releases might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is impossible to predict with any certainty how the biosphere and human behaviour will evolve. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, the 'Reference Biospheres' concept has been developed for use in the safety assessment of HLW disposal. As the aim of the safety assessment with a hypothetical HLW disposal system by JNC was to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of the Japanese disposal concept for a range of geological and surface environments, some biosphere models were developed using the 'Reference Biospheres' concept and the BIOMASS M