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Sample records for high-latitude ionospheric response

  1. High latitude ionospheric structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossakow, S. L.; Burke, W.; Carlson, H. C.; Gary, P.; Heelis, R.; Keskinen, M.; Maynard, N.; Meng, C.; Szuszczewicz, E.; Vickrey, J.

    Contents: 1. Introduction: Ionospheric structure in general. Equatorial spread-F irregularities - a success story and a guide for high latitudes. Focus on high-latitude structure. 2. Sources and observations of high-latitude structure: Electron precipitation structures. Electric fields. Field-aligned currents. Plasma density structure. 3. Plasma instability theory: Macroinstabilities and high latitude structure. Microinstabilities and high latitude structure. 4. An emerging picture. 5. Future studies: Theoretical thrusts. Experimental emphasis.

  2. High-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-10

    Owen, and J. A. Klobuchar , "Recent Studies of the Structure and Morphology of Auroral Zone F- Region Irregularities," Radio Sci., -8, 6, 1167-1180, 1983...We present observations of electron density variations in the F1 region of the ionosphere at two locations near the magnetic equator . Oscillations in...just off the magnetic equator during equatorial spread F conditions. One, a Javalin sounding rocket, was launched by NASA from Natal, Brazil, on 18

  3. Response of High Latitude Birkeland Currents and Ionospheric Convection to Transitions in Solar Wind Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Merkin, V. G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent results from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) indicate that at least some transitions from northward to southward IMF produce a specific sequence in the development of large-scale Birkeland currents. First, a set of Region 1 and Region 2 currents forms on the dayside restricted to within a few hours of noon. After about 40 minutes, currents strongly intensify on the nightside, first near midnight local time associated with substorm onset, and then progressively further toward the dayside via dawn and dusk. Only after an hour or more after the transition to stronger solar wind forcing, is the complete Region 1, Region 2 current system developed. The results imply that the initial response to a transition from weak to strong forcing is convection into the polar cap and lobes without strong return convection to the dayside from the nightside magnetosphere. Return convection from the nightside begins with substorm onset and progresses to the dayside. This analysis is extended by examining a large number of transitions from prolonged auroral quiescence, associated with northward IMF, to southward IMF and the development of large-scale Region 1/Region 2 Birkeland currents, to assess whether the above progression holds in general. In addition, transition events to particularly intense driving, for example, associated with shocks are examined to assess how this ordering of events may be changed for onsets of particularly intense solar wind forcing.

  4. Formation and detection of high latitude ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Buchau, J.; Carlson, H. C., Jr.; Klobuchar, J. A.; Weber, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of Total Electron Content (TEC) and airglow variations show that large scale plasma patches appearing in the high-latitude ionsophere have irregular structures evidenced by the satellite phase and amplitude scintillations. Whistler waves, intense quasi-DC electric field, and atmospheric gravity waves can become potential sources of various plamsa instabilities. The role of thermal effects in generating ionospheric irregularities by these sources is discussed. Meter-scale irregularities in the ionospheric E and F regions can be excited parametrically with lower hybrid waves by intense whistler waves. Ohmic dissipation of Pedersen current in the electron gas is able to create ionospheric F region irregularities in plasma blobs or plasma patches (i.e., high ambient plasma density environment) with broad scale lengths ranging from tens of meters to a few kilometers. Through the neutral-charged particle collisions, gravity waves can excite large-scale (less than tens of kilometers) ionospheric irregularities simultaneously with forced ion acoustic modes in the E region. The large-scale ionospheric density fluctuations produced in the E region can extend subsequently alogn the earth's magnetic field to the F region and the topside ionospheric regions. These mechanisms characterized by various thermal effects can contribute additively with other processes to the formation of ionospheric irregularities in the high latitude region.

  5. Ionosphere Scintillation at Low and High Latitudes (Modelling vs Measurement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béniguel, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    This paper will address the problem of scintillations characteristics, focusing on the parameters of interest for a navigation system. Those parameters are the probabilities of occurrence of simultaneous fading, the bubbles surface at IPP level, the cycle slips and the fades duration statistics. The scintillation characteristics obtained at low and high latitudes will be compared. These results correspond to the data analysis performed after the ESA Monitor ionosphere measurement campaign [1], [2]. A second aspect of the presentation will be the modelling aspect. It has been observed that the phase scintillation dominates at high latitudes while the intensity scintillation dominates at low latitudes. The way it can be reproduced and implemented in a propagation model (e.g. GISM model [3]) will be presented. Comparisons of measurements with results obtained by modelling will be presented on some typical scenarios. References [1] R. Prieto Cerdeira, Y. Beniguel, "The MONITOR project: architecture, data and products", Ionospheric Effects Symposium, Alexandria (Va), May 2011 [2] Y. Béniguel, R Orus-Perez , R. Prieto-Cerdeira , S. Schlueter , S. Scortan, A. Grosu "MONITOR 2: ionospheric monitoring network in support to SBAS and other GNSS and scientific purposes", IES Conference, Alexandria (Va), May 2015-05-22 [3] Y. Béniguel, P. Hamel, "A Global Ionosphere Scintillation Propagation Model for Equatorial Regions", Journal of Space Weather Space Climate, 1, (2011), doi: 10.1051/swsc/2011004

  6. The excitation of plasma convection in the high-latitude ionosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Mike; Cowley, S. W. H.; Freeman, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Recent observations of ionospheric flows by ground-based radars, in particular by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) facility using the “Polar” experiment, together with previous analyses of the response of geomagnetic disturbance to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), suggest that convection in the high-latitude ionosphere should be considered to be the sum of two intrinsically time-dependent patterns, one driven by solar wind-magnetosphere coupling at the dayside ma...

  7. Different responses of northern and southern high latitude ionospheric convection to IMF rotations: a case study based on SuperDARN observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ambrosino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We use SuperDARN data to study high-latitude ionospheric convection over a three hour period (starting at 22:00 UT on 2 January 2003, during which the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF flipped between two states, one with By>>|Bz| and one with Bz>0, both with negative Bx. We find, as expected from previous works, that day side ionospheric convection is controlled by the IMF in both hemispheres. For strongly northward IMF, we observed signatures of two reverse cells, both in the Northern Hemisphere (NH and in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, due to lobe reconnection. On one occasion, we also observed in the NH two viscous cells at the sides of the reverse cell pair. For duskward IMF, we observed in the NH a large dusk clockwise cell, accompanied by a smaller dawn cell, and the signature of a corresponding pattern in the SH. On two occasions, a three cell pattern, composed of a large clockwise cell and two viscous cells, was observed in the NH. As regards the timings of the NH and SH convection reconfigurations, we find that the convection reconfiguration from a positive Bz dominated to a positive By dominated pattern occurred almost simultaneously (i.e. within a few minutes in the two hemispheres. On the contrary, the reconfiguration from a By dominated to a northward IMF pattern started in the NH 8–13 min earlier than in the SH. We suggest that part of such a delay can be due to the following mechanism: as IMF Bx<0, the northward-tailward magnetosheath magnetic field reconnects with the magnetospheric field first tailward of the northern cusp and later on tailward of the southern cusp, due to the IMF draping around the magnetopause.

  8. Observations of the response time of high-latitude ionospheric convection to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field using EISCAT and IMP-8 data

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    H. Khan

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available We have combined ~300 h of tristatic measurements of the field-perpendicular F region ionospheric flow measured overhead at Tromsø by the EISCAT UHF radar, with simultaneous IMP-8 measurements of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere, in order to examine the response time of the ionospheric flow to changes in the north-south component of the IMF (Bz. In calculating the flow response delay, the time taken by field changes observed by the spacecraft to first effect the ionosphere has been carefully estimated and subtracted from the response time. Two analysis methods have been employed. In the first, the flow data were divided into 2 h-intervals of magnetic local time (MLT and cross-correlated with the "half-wave rectifier" function V2Bs, where V is the solar wind speed, and Bs is equal to IMF Bz if the latter is negative, and is zero otherwise. Response delays, determined from the time lag of the peak value of the cross-correlation coefficient, were computed versus MLT for both the east-west and north-south components of flow. The combined data set suggests minimum delays at ~1400 MLT, with increased response times on the nightside. For the 12-h sector centred on 1400 MLT, the weighted average response delay was found to be 1.3 ± 0.8 min, while for the 12-h sector centred on 0200 MLT the weighted average delay was found to increase to 8.8 ± 1.7 min. In the second method we first inspected the IMF data for sharp and enduring (at least ~5 min changes in polarity of the north-south component, and then examined concurrent EISCAT flow data to determine the onset time of the corresponding enhancement or decay of the flow. For the case in which the flow response was timed from whichever of the flow components responded first, minimum response delays were again found at ~1400 MLT, with average delays of 4.8 ± 0.5 min for the 12-h sector centred on 1400 MLT, increasing to 9.2 ± 0.8 min on the

  9. Observations of the response time of high-latitude ionospheric convection to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field using EISCAT and IMP-8 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    Full Text Available We have combined ~300 h of tristatic measurements of the field-perpendicular F region ionospheric flow measured overhead at Tromsø by the EISCAT UHF radar, with simultaneous IMP-8 measurements of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere, in order to examine the response time of the ionospheric flow to changes in the north-south component of the IMF (Bz. In calculating the flow response delay, the time taken by field changes observed by the spacecraft to first effect the ionosphere has been carefully estimated and subtracted from the response time. Two analysis methods have been employed. In the first, the flow data were divided into 2 h-intervals of magnetic local time (MLT and cross-correlated with the "half-wave rectifier" function V2Bs, where V is the solar wind speed, and Bs is equal to IMF Bz if the latter is negative, and is zero otherwise. Response delays, determined from the time lag of the peak value of the cross-correlation coefficient, were computed versus MLT for both the east-west and north-south components of flow. The combined data set suggests minimum delays at ~1400 MLT, with increased response times on the nightside. For the 12-h sector centred on 1400 MLT, the weighted average response delay was found to be 1.3 ± 0.8 min, while for the 12-h sector centred on 0200 MLT the weighted average delay was found to increase to 8.8 ± 1.7 min. In the second method we first inspected the IMF data for sharp and enduring (at least ~5 min changes in polarity of the north-south component, and then examined concurrent EISCAT flow data to determine the onset time of the corresponding enhancement or decay of the flow. For the case in which the flow response was timed from whichever of the flow components responded first, minimum response delays were again found at ~1400 MLT, with average

  10. Magnetic and solar effects on ionospheric absorption at high latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pietrella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Some periods of intense solar events and of strong magnetic storms have been selected and their effects on the ionospheric D region have been investigated on the basis of ionospheric absorption data derived from riometer measurements made at the Italian Antarctic Base of Terra Nova Bay (geographic coordinates: 74.69 S, 164.12 E; geomagnetic coordinates: 77.34 S, 279.41 E. It was found that sharp increases in ionospheric absorption are mainly due to solar protons emission with an energy greater than 10 MeV. Moreover, the day to night ratios of the ionospheric absorption are greater than 2 in the case of strong events of energetic protons emitted by the Sun, while during magnetic storms, these ratios range between 1 and 2.

  11. Inverse procedure for high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics: Analysis of satellite-borne magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomoko; Knipp, Delores J.; Richmond, Arthur D.; Kilcommons, Liam; Anderson, Brian J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data from the magnetometers on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F-15, F-16, F-17, and F-18 satellites and the Iridium satellite constellation, using an inverse procedure for high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamics, during the period of 29-30 May 2010. The Iridium magnetometer data are made available through the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) program. The method presented here is built upon the assimilative mapping of ionospheric electrodynamics procedure but with a more complete treatment of the prior model uncertainty to facilitate an optimal inference of complete polar maps of electrodynamic variables from irregularly distributed observational data. The procedure can provide an objective measure of uncertainty associated with the analysis. The cross-validation analysis, in which the DMSP data are used as independent validation data sets, suggests that the procedure yields the spatial prediction of DMSP perturbation magnetic fields from AMPERE data alone with a median discrepancy of 30-50 nT. Discrepancies larger than 100 nT are seen in about 20% of total samples, whose location and magnitude are generally consistent with the previously identified discrepancy between DMSP and AMPERE data sets. Resulting field-aligned current (FAC) patterns exhibit more distinct spatial patterns without spurious high-frequency oscillatory features in comparison to the FAC products provided by AMPERE. Maps of the toroidal magnetic potential and FAC estimated from both AMPERE and DMSP data under four distinctive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions during a magnetic cloud event demonstrate the IMF control of high-latitude electrodynamics and the opportunity for future scientific investigation.

  12. Response of the convecting high-latitude F layer to a powerful HF wave

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    G. I. Mingaleva

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere, which takes into account the convection of the ionospheric plasma, has been developed and utilized to simulate the F-layer response at auroral latitudes to high-power radio waves. The model produces the time variations of the electron density, positive ion velocity, and ion and electron temperature profiles within a magnetic field tube carried over an ionospheric heater by the convection electric field. The simulations have been performed for the point with the geographic coordinates of the ionospheric HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway, when it is located near the midnight magnetic meridian. The calculations have been made for equinox, at high-solar-activity, and low-geomagnetic-activity conditions. The results indicate that significant variations of the electron temperature, positive ion velocity, and electron density profiles can be produced by HF heating in the convecting high-latitude F layer.

  13. High-latitude F region large-scale ionospheric irregularities under different solar wind and zenith angle conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukianova, R. Yu.; Uvarov, V. M.; Coïsson, P.

    2017-01-01

    A numerical model is used to study systematically the evolution of large scale irregularities depending on the IMF Bz and By components, solar zenith angle (seasonal and daily variation), solar and geomagnetic activity. The model enables to reproduce the 3-D distribution of electron density over the high-latitude F region ionosphere in the altitude range between 130 and 640 km. Since the convection electric field driven by changes in solar wind conditions has an important effect on the high-latitude ionosphere, the rotation of the IMF vector in the Y-Z plane causes a significant redistribution of the ionospheric plasma. Under the southward IMF conditions the plasma density is enhanced over a large portion of the near-pole ionosphere as a tongue of ionization, while the northward IMF leads to a considerable depletion and occurrence of the polar hole. The IMF By polarity is crucial for the shift and extension of the tongue of ionization to the dusk or dawn side. Particle precipitation also plays a role through a localized increase of the electron density mostly within the auroral oval and more pronounced auroral peak. The solar zenith angle, especially its seasonal variation, is the strongest regular factor influencing the electron density magnitude and spatial distribution. In winter, when the polar ionosphere is in darkness, large variations associated with different solar wind condition are more prominent. The daily variation of the zenith angle considerably modifies the Ne within a particular pattern. At a given time, the combined action of the IMF, solar zenith angle, level of solar and geomagnetic activity produces a complicated ionospheric response which can be considered as a superposition of different effects. Quantitative estimates of the ionospheric response to each factor are presented.

  14. Influence of the solar flares in March 2012 on the conductivity profile of the high-latitude lower ionosphere

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    Lebed O. M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric D-layer affects the electromagnetic waves propagated in the Earth – ionosphere waveguide. It is known that the propagation velocity of atmospherics – electromagnetic pulses from lightning discharge depends on the conductivity profile of the lower ionosphere. In this paper the authors have considered the influence of solar flares in March 2012 on the propagation velocity of atmospherics and thus the state of the high-latitude lower ionosphere. The possibility to estimate the conductivity profiles of the daytime ionosphere under disturbed and undisturbed geomagnetic conditions using the measurements of the propagation velocity of atmospherics along the high-latitude path has been demonstrated

  15. Localized structure in the cusp and high-latitude ionosphere: a modelling study

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    H. F. Balmforth

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric signature of a flux transfer event (FTE seen in EISCAT radar data has been used as the basis for a modelling study using a new numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere developed at the University of Sheffield, UK. The evolution of structure in the high-latitude ionosphere is investigated and examined with respect to the current views of polar patch formation and development. A localized velocity enhancement, of the type associated with FTEs, is added to the plasma as it passes through the cusp. This is found to produce a region of greatly enhanced ion temperature. The new model can provide greater detail during this event as it includes anisotropic temperature calculations for the O+ ions. This illustrates the uneven partitioning of the energy during an event of this type. O+ ion temperatures are found to become increasingly anisotropic, with the perpendicular temperature being substantially larger than the parallel component during the velocity enhancement. The enhanced temperatures lead to an increase in the recombination rate, which results in an alteration of the ion concentrations. A region of decreased O+ and increased molecular ion concentration develops in the cusp. The electron temperature is less enhanced than the ions. As the new model has an upper boundary of 10 000 km the topside can also be studied in great detail. Large upward fluxes are seen to transport plasma to higher altitudes, contributing to the alteration of the ion densities. Plasma is stored in the topside ionosphere and released several hours after the FTE has finished as the flux tube convects across the polar cap. This mechanism illustrates how concentration patches can be created on the dayside and be maintained into the nightside polar cap.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; polar ionosphere. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp and boundary layers

  16. High-latitude ionospheric convection during strong interplanetary magnetic field B-y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Sofko, G.J.; Murr, D.

    1999-01-01

    An unusual high-latitude ionospheric pattern was observed on March 23, 1995. ionospheric convection appeared as clockwise merging convection cell focused at 84 degrees magnetic latitude around 1200 MLT. No signature of the viscous convection cell in the afternoon sector was observed....... The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions corresponding to the occurrence of the ionospheric convection were B-x approximate to 1 nT, B-y approximate to 10 nT, and B-z ... conditions. It is found that the location of the convection cell focus in this event is at least two hours earlier than those previously observed and about 5 hours earlier than that predicted by the MHD model. The observations may have some significant implications on the antiparallel merging theory....

  17. Nonlinear Evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the High Latitude Ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-21

    Report 6043 AD-A 188 875 Nonlinear Evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the High Latitude Ionosphere M.J. KESKINEN, H.G. MITCHELL,* J.A...Nonlinezir Evolut ion of the Ke lvi n-HIlmhoIt z Inst ah i its’ in) tHe High l.a t itlude’ 1011IF~sh~re a 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) (c aei)O 13a TYPE OF...be described as "brcaknoiws . and 141 Lcencrate. in tile nosni near ret! it I. ,mlil seci c t urbu lenrce by mecans of’ sectsnla r\\ instabilities

  18. Imaging of structures in the high-latitude ionosphere: model comparisons

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    D. W. Idenden

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The tomographic reconstruction technique generates a two-dimensional latitude versus height electron density distribution from sets of slant total electron content measurements (TEC along ray paths between beacon satellites and ground-based radio receivers. In this note, the technique is applied to TEC values obtained from data simulated by the Sheffield/UCL/SEL Coupled Thermosphere/Ionosphere/Model (CTIM. A comparison of the resulting reconstructed image with the 'input' modelled data allows for verification of the reconstruction technique. All the features of the high-latitude ionosphere in the model data are reproduced well in the tomographic image. Reconstructed vertical TEC values follow closely the modelled values, with the F-layer maximum density (NmF2 agreeing generally within about 10%. The method has also been able successfully to reproduce underlying auroral-E ionisation over a restricted latitudinal range in part of the image. The height of the F2 peak is generally in agreement to within about the vertical image resolution (25 km.Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere · Radio Science (instruments and techniques

  19. Imaging of structures in the high-latitude ionosphere: model comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available The tomographic reconstruction technique generates a two-dimensional latitude versus height electron density distribution from sets of slant total electron content measurements (TEC along ray paths between beacon satellites and ground-based radio receivers. In this note, the technique is applied to TEC values obtained from data simulated by the Sheffield/UCL/SEL Coupled Thermosphere/Ionosphere/Model (CTIM. A comparison of the resulting reconstructed image with the 'input' modelled data allows for verification of the reconstruction technique. All the features of the high-latitude ionosphere in the model data are reproduced well in the tomographic image. Reconstructed vertical TEC values follow closely the modelled values, with the F-layer maximum density (NmF2 agreeing generally within about 10%. The method has also been able successfully to reproduce underlying auroral-E ionisation over a restricted latitudinal range in part of the image. The height of the F2 peak is generally in agreement to within about the vertical image resolution (25 km.

    Key words. Ionosphere (modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere · Radio Science (instruments and techniques

  20. The high latitudes in the International Reference Ionosphere; Meeting C4 of Commission C, COSPAR Scientific Assembly, 30th, Hamburg, Germany, July 11-21, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawer, K.; Bilitza, D.; Singer, W.

    1995-01-01

    An international conference on high-latitude ionospheric modeling produced 27 papers in the areas of ionospheric mapping, electron density and distribution, ion density and distribution, ionospheric storems, ionospheric composition, and ionospheric sounding techniques. Upgrades to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model were proposed in several papers.

  1. Some distinctive features in the behavior of small-scale artificial ionospheric irregularities at mid-and high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kornienko, V. A.; Frolov, V. L.; Rietveld, M. T.; Brekke, A.

    2007-08-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of some features in the behavior of small-scale artificial irregularities (SSAIs) at mid-and high latitudes based on the “Sura” and EISCAT/HEATING HF facilities. Observations were performed by the method of aspect scattering using a network of diagnostic paths having a common reception point located near St. Petersburg. We found that an extremely long duration of the second (slow) stage of SSAI relaxation of up to 5 min occurs in the evening hours when the ionosphere above the “Sura” facility is illuminated by the Sun, but the solar terminator travels through the magnetically conjugated ionosphere. The conjecture is made that the processes initiated by the terminator are mostly responsible for secondary ionospheric turbulence maintaining the irregularities above “Sura.” A drastic increase in the Doppler spectra width of the scattered signals is revealed when the magnetically conjugate point of the ionosphere is located on the shade side of the terminator, but the ionosphere above the “Sura” facility is still lighted. It is assumed that the “ run away” of photoelectrons from the day to the night side could reduce the threshold of excitation of artificial irregularities, leading to an increase in their intensity. The presence of fairly intense scattered signals was detected from the “Sura” and EISCAT/HEATING experimental results both under conditions of pulsed HF heating after continuous heater-on periods and cycled HF heating by short pulses. In the case of pulsed heating by short pulses with duration τp effect, was found in the SSAI intensity. The residual turbulence aftereffects played a significant role in the SSAI development.

  2. A note on chaotic vs. stochastic behavior of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma density fluctuations

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    A. W. Wernik

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Four data sets of density fluctuations measured in-situ by the Dynamics Explorer (DE 2 were analyzed in an attempt to study chaotic nature of the high-latitude turbulence and, in this way to complement the conventional spectral analysis. It has been found that the probability distribution function of density differences is far from Gaussian and similar to that observed in the intermittent fluid or MBD turbulence. This indicates that ionospheric density fluctuations are not stochastic but coherent to some extent. Wayland's and surrogate data tests for determinism in a time series of density data allowed us to differentiate between regions of intense shear and moderate shear. We observe that in the region of strong field aligned currents (FAC and intense shear, or along the convection in the collisional regime, ionospheric turbulence behaves like a random noise with non-Gaussian statistics implying that the underlying physical process is nondeterministic. On the other hand, when FACs are weak, and shear is moderate or observations made in the inertial regime the turbulence is chaotic. The attractor dimension is lowest (1.9 for 'old' convected irregularities. The dimension 3.2 is found for turbulence in the inertial regime and considerably smaller (2.4 in the collisional regime. It is suggested that a high dimension in the inertial regime may be caused by a complicated velocity structure in the shear instability region.

  3. Probe experiment characterizing 30-MHz radio wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, M.; Gorokhov, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamagishi, H.; Hansen, T.

    1999-07-01

    A probe experiment, consisting of radio links between a common 30-MHz transmitter located at Murmansk, Russia, and two receivers used as the imaging riometer (two-dimensional 64 multiple-beam antenna) located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, and Tjornes, Iceland, was carried out to characterize wave scatter in the high-latitude ionosphere. They are nearly aligned with and perpendicular to the geomagnetic meridian, respectively. In experiments conducted in March-April 1994, the 30-MHz probe signals were identified at nighttime more frequently than during the day at both receiver stations during periods of increased geomagnetic activity near the path midpoints, indicating that a relationship between the propagation path and the location of the auroral oval controls signal identification. For the nighttime propagation paths within or crossing through the auroral oval, duty cycles of the probe signals were roughly correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. Their arrival directions showed a spread with a dominant power on the low elevation and a normal distribution in azimuth. These results indicate that the probe signals are characterized as nonmeteoric "auroral E" scatter caused by irregular, large-scale profiles of electron density enhancements at the lower edge of the ionosphere. However, on 2 days of weak geomagnetic activity, strong probe signals with bursty behavior were identified by an extremely high duty cycle (˜98%) for the nighttime meridian path only, and their arrival directions showed an isotropic spread in azimuth. Such nonmeteoric probe signals are characterized as "coherent" scatter caused by small-scale (˜5 m) field-aligned irregularities in electron density in the E region ionosphere, related to "sporadic E" occurrence.

  4. Structure of high latitude currents in global magnetospheric-ionospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltberger, M; Rigler, E. J.; Merkin, V; Lyon, J. G

    2016-01-01

    Using three resolutions of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global magnetosphere-ionosphere model (LFM) and the Weimer 2005 empirical model we examine the structure of the high latitude field-aligned current patterns. Each resolution was run for the entire Whole Heliosphere Interval which contained two high speed solar wind streams and modest interplanetary magnetic field strengths. Average states of the field-aligned current (FAC) patterns for 8 interplanetary magnetic field clock angle directions are computed using data from these runs. Generally speaking the patterns obtained agree well with results obtained from the Weimer 2005 computing using the solar wind and IMF conditions that correspond to each bin. As the simulation resolution increases the currents become more intense and narrow. A machine learning analysis of the FAC patterns shows that the ratio of Region 1 (R1) to Region 2 (R2) currents decreases as the simulation resolution increases. This brings the simulation results into better agreement with observational predictions and the Weimer 2005 model results. The increase in R2 current strengths also results in the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) pattern being concentrated in higher latitudes. Current-voltage relationships between the R1 and CPCP are quite similar at the higher resolution indicating the simulation is converging on a common solution. We conclude that LFM simulations are capable of reproducing the statistical features of FAC patterns.

  5. The structure of mid- and high-latitude ionosphere during September 1999 storm event obtained from GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shagimuratov

    Full Text Available TEC data, obtained from over 60 GPS stations, were used to study the ionospheric effects of the 12–16 September 1999 magnetic storm over Europe. The spatial and temporal changes of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps, which present 15 min averages of TEC. The data set consisting of GPS observations, collected by a dense network of European stations, with sampling rate of 30 s, enable the creation of TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. The storm included the positive as well as the negative phase. The positive phase took place during the first storm day of 12 September 1999. The short-lived daytime TEC enhancement was observed at all latitudes. The maximal enhancement reached a factor of 1.3–1.5. On the second and third days, the negative phase of the storm developed. The TEC decrease was registered regardless of time of the day. The TEC depression exceeded 70% relative to quiet days. On the following days (15 and 16 September, a significant daytime enhancement of TEC was observed once again. The complex occurrence of the ionospheric storm was probably related to the features of development of the magnetic storm. We found out that during the storm the large and medium-scale irregularities developed in the high-latitude ionosphere. The multi-stations technique, employed to create TEC maps, was particularly successful while studying the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. We found out that the essential changes of TEC during the storm, which were registered at the auroral and sub-auroral ionosphere, were connected with the effect of the trough and its dynamics, which depends on geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; auroral ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere

  6. PFISR GPS tracking mode for researching high-latitude ionospheric electron density gradients associated with GPS scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, D. C.; Palo, S. E.; Pilinski, M.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Hampton, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Ionospheric behavior in the high-latitudes can significantly impact Ultra High Frequency (UHF) signals in the 300 MHz to 3 GHz band, resulting in degradation of Global Positioning System (GPS) position solutions and satellite communications interruptions. To address these operational concerns, a need arises to identify and understand the ionospheric structure that leads to disturbed conditions in the Arctic. Structures in the high-latitude ionosphere are known to change on the order of seconds or less, can be decameters to kilometers in scale, and elongate across magnetic field lines at auroral latitudes. Nominal operations at Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) give temporal resolution on the order of minutes, and range resolution on the order of tens of kilometers, while specialized GPS receivers available for ionospheric sensing have a 100Hz observation sampling rate. One of these, ASTRA's Connected Autonomous Space Environment Sensor (CASES) is used for this study. We have developed a new GPS scintillation tracking mode for PFISR to address open scientific questions regarding temporal and spatial electron density gradients. The mode will be described, a number of experimental campaigns will be analyzed, and results and lessons learned will be presented.

  7. The effects of an interplanetary shock on the high-latitude ionospheric convection during an IMF By-dominated period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanuise

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 1998 an interplanetary shock hit the magnetosphere around 14:15 UT and caused a reconfiguration of the northern high-latitude ionospheric convection. We use SuperDARN, spacecraft and ground magnetometer data to study such reconfiguration. We find that the shock front was tilted towards the morning flank of the magnetosphere, while the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF was By-dominated, with By<0, IMF Bz>0 and |By|>>Bz. As expected, the magnetospheric compression started at the first impact point of the shock on the magnetopause causing an increase of the Chapman-Ferraro current from dawn to dusk and yielding an increase of the geomagnetic field at the geostationary orbit and on the ground. Moreover, the high-latitude magnetometer data show vortical structures clearly related to the interaction of the shock with the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. In this context, the SuperDARN convection maps show that at very high latitudes above the northern Cusp and in the morning sector, intense sunward convection fluxes appear, well correlated in time with the SI arrival, having a signature typical for Bz>0 dominated lobe reconnection. We suggest that in this case the dynamic pressure increase associated to the shock plays a role in favouring the setting up of a new lobe merging line albeit |By|>>Bz≥0.

  8. High-Latitude Thermosphere Neutral Density Response to Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Zesta, E.; Connor, H. K.; Su, Y.-J.; Sutton, E. K.; Huang, C. Y.; Ober, D. M.; Christodoulou, C.; Delay, S.; Oliveira, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    We examine the response of the thermosphere to the impact of solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements using observations and global magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulations by the OpenGGCM model. Combining neutral density observations from the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites with simultaneous Poynting flux measurements from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16, we find that thermospheric density as well as downward Poynting flux intensified shortly after a sudden enhancement of the solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensification manifested mostly on the dayside high-latitude region with peak intensity in the vicinity of the noon and prenoon cusp. OpenGGCM modeling results show that the ionospheric Joule heating increased abruptly in response to the sudden enhancement of the dynamic pressure in the same region as the observed Poynting flux and neutral density enhancements. The modeling results show that the enhanced Joule heating coincides, both in time and location, with the appearance of a pair of high-latitude localized field-aligned currents (FACs) in the cusp region. The FACs intensified and extended azimuthally. Coincidental with the solar wind dynamic pressure enhancement, the y component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By became strongly positive and, in addition, had some large fluctuations. We explore the separate and combined effects of the dynamic pressure and IMF By perturbations, with specifically designed simulation experiments that isolate the effect of each solar wind parameter. We find that the dynamic pressure enhancement is the primary source for the Joule heating and neutral density enhancements, but the IMF By modulates the level of enhancement.

  9. Spacecraft Charging at Geosynchronous Orbit and Large Scale Electric Fields in the High Latitude Ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    parameters [rom E!fs. Sb._ 2, 297-387, 1962. geomagnetic records, Solar Phs., 42, 259, Link, F., Observations et catalogue des aurores 1975. boreales ...ionosphere- magnetosphere interactions in the polar cap and auroral zone. Air Force measurements of S3-2 electric and magnetic fields and electron and thermal...plasma fluxes were used as well as DMSP auroral imagery. I S~cUITYCLASIFIATIO OFTH SPAG(W~. Soa 3a.,i 9 i Scientific Personnel Principal Investigators

  10. A comparative study of ionospheric irregularity drift velocity derived from a GNSS receiver array and Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar measurements during high-latitude ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Morton, Yu T.

    2017-06-01

    The conventional ionospheric scintillation-based, spaced-receiver technique uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) signal intensity measurements. It is not suitable, however, for high-latitude regions where phase scintillations occur much more often than amplitude scintillations. This paper demonstrates that GNSS signal carrier phase scintillations observed from a spaced-receiver array can be used to infer horizontal ionospheric drift velocities via time domain correlation. Drift velocities measured by the colocated Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar are cross compared against the estimated results from the GNSS receiver array. A comparative study is conducted based on two case studies on 20 and 31 December 2015, both accompanied by intense geomagnetic storms. Overall, the comparison results show statistical agreement between the GNSS receiver array estimation and incoherent scatter radar measurements.

  11. Measurements of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields by means of balloon-borne sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, M.M.; Iversen, I.B.; D' Angelo, N.

    1976-08-01

    Measurements of ionospheric electric fields in the auroral and polar cap regions by means of balloon-borne sensors are described. Launches took place from the Norwegian station of Andenes (Andoya) (69degreeN, 16degreeE) during summer 1974. The Balloons drifted over the Atlantic to the west coast of Greenland nearly along 69.5degreeN geographic latitude (within +- 1.5degree) and were followed by telemetry stations at Andenes, Raufarhofn (Iceland), and Sondre Stromfjord (Greenland). The electric field data are discussed from the point of view of the two-cell magnetospheric convection pattern which has been established in recent years. Of particular interest are the well-recognized features of the Harang discontinuity as well as electric field data in the vicinity of the polar cusp region. (AIP)

  12. High-latitude ionospheric currents during very quiet times: their characteristics and predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAMP passes the geographic poles at a distance of 2.7° in latitude, thus providing a large number of magnetic readings of the dynamic auroral regions. The data of these numerous overflights were used for a detailed statistical study on the level of activity. A large number of tracks with very low rms of the residuals between the scalar field measurements and a high degree field model were singled out over both the northern and southern polar regions, independently. Low rms values indicate best model fits and are therefore regarded as a measure of low activity, although we are aware that this indicator also has its limitations. The occurrence of quiet periods is strongly controlled by the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, indicating the importance of the ionospheric conductivity. During the dark polar season, about 30% of the passes can be qualified as quiet. The commonly used magnetic activity indices turn out not to be a reliable measure for the activity state in the polar region. Least suitable is the Dst index, followed by the Kp. Slightly better results are obtained with the PC and the IMAGE-AE indices. The latter is rather effective within a time sector of ±4 hours of magnetic local time around the IMAGE array. The orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is an important controlling factor for the activity. This is also supported by the prevailing FAC distribution during quiet times, which resembles the typical NBZ (northward Bz pattern. In a superposed epoch analysis we show that the merging electric field is a suitable geoeffective solar wind parameter. Based on the size of this electric field and the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, a prediction method for quiet auroral region periods is proposed. This may, among others, be useful for the data selection in main field modelling approaches.

  13. High-latitude ionospheric currents during very quiet times: their characteristics and predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ritter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAMP passes the geographic poles at a distance of 2.7° in latitude, thus providing a large number of magnetic readings of the dynamic auroral regions. The data of these numerous overflights were used for a detailed statistical study on the level of activity. A large number of tracks with very low rms of the residuals between the scalar field measurements and a high degree field model were singled out over both the northern and southern polar regions, independently. Low rms values indicate best model fits and are therefore regarded as a measure of low activity, although we are aware that this indicator also has its limitations. The occurrence of quiet periods is strongly controlled by the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, indicating the importance of the ionospheric conductivity. During the dark polar season, about 30% of the passes can be qualified as quiet. The commonly used magnetic activity indices turn out not to be a reliable measure for the activity state in the polar region. Least suitable is the Dst index, followed by the Kp. Slightly better results are obtained with the PC and the IMAGE-AE indices. The latter is rather effective within a time sector of ±4 hours of magnetic local time around the IMAGE array.

    The orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF is an important controlling factor for the activity. This is also supported by the prevailing FAC distribution during quiet times, which resembles the typical NBZ (northward Bz pattern. In a superposed epoch analysis we show that the merging electric field is a suitable geoeffective solar wind parameter. Based on the size of this electric field and the solar zenith angle at the geomagnetic poles, a prediction method for quiet auroral region periods is proposed. This may, among others, be useful for the data selection in main field modelling approaches.

  14. Excitation of Artificial Ionospheric Turbulence in the High-Latitude Ionospheric F Region as a Function of the Eiscat/Heating Effective Radiated Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T. D.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of the parameters of HF-enhanced ion-acoustic and Langmuir plasma waves, as well as small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs) when the EISCAT/Heating effective radiated power is varied from 10 to 560 MW. In the course of the experiments, a high-power HF radio wave with the alternating ordinary (O-mode) and extraordinary (X-mode) polarizations was radiated towards the magnetic zenith at a frequency of 7.953 MHz lying below the cutoff frequency of the F2 layer. A fundamental difference in the development of artificial ion-acoustic and Langmuir turbulence, which is seen as HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines in the EISCAT spectra, under the O- and X-mode HF pumping was found. The minimum values of the HF pump-wave electric fields in the ionosphere when the HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines, as well as small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities, start to be excited, were determined from experimental data both for the O- and X-mode HF pumping. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical threshold values of the electric field required for the excitation of artificial ionospheric turbulence in thermal, Langmuir, and ion-acoustic modes in the high-latitude ionospheric F2 layer for the O-mode HF pump wave was made.

  15. Excitation of Artificial Ionospheric Turbulence in the High-Latitude Ionospheric F Region as a Function of the Eiscat/Heating Effective Radiated Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T. D.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of the parameters of HF-enhanced ion-acoustic and Langmuir plasma waves, as well as small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs) when the EISCAT/Heating effective radiated power is varied from 10 to 560 MW. In the course of the experiments, a high-power HF radio wave with the alternating ordinary (O-mode) and extraordinary (X-mode) polarizations was radiated towards the magnetic zenith at a frequency of 7.953 MHz lying below the cutoff frequency of the F2 layer. A fundamental difference in the development of artificial ion-acoustic and Langmuir turbulence, which is seen as HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines in the EISCAT spectra, under the O- and X-mode HF pumping was found. The minimum values of the HF pump-wave electric fields in the ionosphere when the HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines, as well as small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities, start to be excited, were determined from experimental data both for the O- and X-mode HF pumping. Comparison between the experimental and theoretical threshold values of the electric field required for the excitation of artificial ionospheric turbulence in thermal, Langmuir, and ion-acoustic modes in the high-latitude ionospheric F2 layer for the O-mode HF pump wave was made.

  16. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  17. A Statistical study of the Doppler spectral width of high-latitude ionospheric F-region echoes recorded with SuperDARN coherent HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Villain

    Full Text Available The HF radars of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN provide measurements of the E × B drift of ionospheric plasma over extended regions of the high-latitude ionosphere. We have conducted a statistical study of the associated Doppler spectral width of ionospheric F-region echoes. The study has been conducted with all available radars from the Northern Hemisphere for 2 specific periods of time. Period 1 corresponds to the winter months of 1994, while period 2 covers October 1996 to March 1997. The distributions of data points and average spectral width are presented as a function of Magnetic Latitude and Magnetic Local Time. The databases are very consistent and exhibit the same features. The most stringent features are: a region of very high spectral width, collocated with the ionospheric LLBL/cusp/mantle region; an oval shaped region of high spectral width, whose equator-ward boundary matches the poleward limit of the Holzworth and Meng auroral oval. A simulation has been conducted to evaluate the geometrical and instrumental effects on the spectral width. It shows that these effects cannot account for the observed spectral features. It is then concluded that these specific spectral width characteristics are the signature of ionospheric/magnetospheric coupling phenomena.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  18. The Relationship of High-Latitude Thermospheric Wind With Ionospheric Horizontal Current, as Observed by CHAMP Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Lühr, Hermann; Wang, Hui; Xiong, Chao

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between high-latitude ionospheric currents (Hall current and field-aligned current) and thermospheric wind is investigated. The 2-D patterns of horizontal wind and equivalent current in the Northern Hemisphere derived from the CHAMP satellite are considered for the first time simultaneously. The equivalent currents show strong dependences on both interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By and Bz components. However, IMF By orientation is more important in controlling the wind velocity patterns. The duskside wind vortex as well as the antisunward wind in the morning polar cap is more evident for positive By. To better understand their spatial relation in different sectors, a systematic superposed epoch analysis is applied. Our results show that in the dusk sector, the vectors of the zonal wind and equivalent current are anticorrelated, and both of them form a vortical flow pattern for different activity levels. The currents and zonal wind are intensified with the increase of merging electric field. However, on the dawnside, where the relation is less clear, antisunward zonal winds dominate. Plasma drift seems to play a less important role for the wind than neutral forces in this sector. In the noon sector, the best anticorrelation between equivalent current and wind is observed for a positive IMF By component and it is less obvious for negative By. A clear seasonal effect with current intensities increasing from winter to summer is observed in the noon sector. Different from the currents, the zonal wind intensity shows little dependence on seasons. Our results indicate that the plasma drift and the neutral forces are of comparable influence on the zonal wind at CHAMP altitude in the noon sector.

  19. New advantages of the combined GPS and GLONASS observations for high-latitude ionospheric irregularities monitoring: case study of June 2015 geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring, tracking and nowcasting of the ionospheric plasma density disturbances using dual-frequency measurements of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals are effectively carried out during several decades. Recent rapid growth and modernization of the ground-based segment gives an opportunity to establish a great database consisting of more than 6000 stations worldwide which provide GPS signals measurements with an open access. Apart of the GPS signals, at least two-third of these stations receive simultaneously signals transmitted by another Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)—the Russian system GLONASS. Today, GLONASS signal measurements are mainly used in navigation and geodesy only and very rarely for ionosphere research. We present the first results demonstrating advantages of using several independent but compatible GNSS systems like GPS and GLONASS for improvement of the permanent monitoring of the high-latitude ionospheric irregularities. For the first time, the high-resolution two-dimensional maps of ROTI perturbation were made using not only GPS but also GLONASS measurements. We extend the use of the ROTI maps for analyzing ionospheric irregularities distribution. We demonstrate that the meridional slices of the ROTI maps can be effectively used to study the occurrence and temporal evolution of the ionospheric irregularities. The meridional slices of the geographical sectors with a high density of the GPS and GLONASS measurements can represent spatio-temporal dynamics of the intense ionospheric plasma density irregularities with very high resolution, and they can be effectively used for detailed study of the space weather drivers on the processes of the ionospheric irregularities generation, development and their lifetimes. Using a representative database of 5800 ground-based GNSS stations located worldwide, we have investigated the occurrence of the high-latitude ionospheric plasma density irregularities during the geomagnetic storm of

  20. X-mode HF Pump-induced Phenomena at High Heater Frequencies in the High Latitude Ionosphere F-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kalishin, A. S.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results concentrating on X-mode HF-induced phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere F region are discussed. Experiments have been carried out at the HF Heating facility at Tromsø with an effective radiated power of 450 - 650 MW at high heater frequencies of 6.2 - 8.0 MHz. Multi-instriment diagnostics included the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar at 931 MHz at Tromsø, the Finland CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) radar, the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) equipment at Tromsø, and the HF receiver near St. Petersburg for the observations of narrow band SEE features. The key parameter considered is the ratio between the heater frequency and critical frequency of the F2 layer (fH/foF2). We have analyzed the behaviors of small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines (HFPLs and HFILs) depending on the pump proximity to the critical frequency. It was shown that the HFPLs and HFILs coexisted with FAIs throughout the whole heater pulse when fH/foF2 > 1 as well as fH/foF2 ≤ 1. It is indicative that parametric decay instability was not quenched by fully developed FAIs. The comparison between contrasting O/X mode HF-induced phenomena, when the heater frequency is below or near the critical frequency of F2 layer, is made. It was found that an X-mode HF pumping is able to excite different narrow band spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency), such as ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves) observed at a long distance from the HF Heating facility. It was suggested that these spectral component can be attributed to the stimulated Brillion scatter (SBS) process. The results obtained show that an X-polarized electromagnetic wave scattered by SBS can propagate more than one thousand km without significant attenuation.

  1. Mapping plasma structures in the high-latitude ionosphere using beacon satellite, incoherent scatter radar and ground-based magnetometer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Neubert

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of the year 2000, four radio receivers capable of tracking various beacon satellites were set up along the southwestern coast of Greenland. They are used to reconstruct images of the ionospheric plasma density distribution via the tomographic method. In order to test and validate tomographic imaging under the highly variable conditions often prevailing in the high-latitude ionosphere, a time interval was selected when the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar conducted measurements of the ionospheric plasma density while the radio receivers tracked a number of beacon satellites. A comparison between two-dimensional images of the plasma density distribution obtained from the radar and the satellite receivers revealed generally good agreement between radar measurements and tomographic images. Observed discrepancies can be attributed to F region plasma patches moving through the field of view with a speed of several hundred meters per second, thereby smearing out the tomographic image. A notable mismatch occurred around local magnetic midnight when a magnetospheric substorm breakup occurred in the vicinity of southwest Greenland (identified from ground-based magnetometer observations. The breakup was associated with a sudden intensification of the westward auroral electrojet which was centered at about 69 and extended up to some 73 corrected geomagnetic latitude. Ground-based magnetometer data may thus have the potential of indicating when the tomographic method is at risk and may fail. We finally outline the application of tomographic imaging, when combined with magnetic field data, to estimate ionospheric Joule heating rates.

  2. High-latitude observations of impulse-driven ULF pulsations in the ionosphere and on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Menk

    Full Text Available We report the simultaneous observation of 1.6–1.7 mHz pulsations in the ionospheric F-region with the CUTLASS bistatic HF radar and an HF Doppler sounder, on the ground with the IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer arrays, and in the upstream solar wind. CUTLASS was at the time being operated in a special mode optimized for high resolution studies of ULF waves. A novel use is made of the ground returns to detect the ionospheric signature of ULF waves. The pulsations were initiated by a strong, sharp decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure near 09:28 UT on 23 February 1996, and persisted for some hours. They were observed with the magnetometers over 20° in latitude, coupling to a field line resonance near 72° magnetic latitude. The magnetic pulsations had azimuthal m numbers ~ -2, consistent with propagation away from the noon sector. The radars show transient high velocity flows in the cusp and auroral zones, poleward of the field line resonance, and small amplitude 1.6–1.7 mHz F-region oscillations across widely spaced regions at lower latitudes. The latter were detected in the radar ground scatter returns and also with the vertical incidence Doppler sounder. Their amplitude is of the order of ± 10 ms-1. A similar perturbation frequency was present in the solar wind pressure recorded by the WIND spacecraft. The initial solar wind pressure decrease was also associated with a decrease in cosmic noise absorption on an imaging riometer near 66° magnetic latitude. The observations suggest that perturbations in the solar wind pressure or IMF result in fast compressional mode waves that propagate through the magnetosphere and drive forced and resonant oscillations of geomagnetic field lines. The compressional wave field may also stimulate ionospheric perturbations. The observations demonstrate that HF radar ground scatter may contain important information on small-amplitude features, extending the scope and capability of these radars to

  3. High-latitude observations of impulse-driven ULF pulsations in the ionosphere and on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Menk

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the simultaneous observation of 1.6–1.7 mHz pulsations in the ionospheric F-region with the CUTLASS bistatic HF radar and an HF Doppler sounder, on the ground with the IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer arrays, and in the upstream solar wind. CUTLASS was at the time being operated in a special mode optimized for high resolution studies of ULF waves. A novel use is made of the ground returns to detect the ionospheric signature of ULF waves. The pulsations were initiated by a strong, sharp decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure near 09:28 UT on 23 February 1996, and persisted for some hours. They were observed with the magnetometers over 20° in latitude, coupling to a field line resonance near 72° magnetic latitude. The magnetic pulsations had azimuthal m numbers ~ -2, consistent with propagation away from the noon sector. The radars show transient high velocity flows in the cusp and auroral zones, poleward of the field line resonance, and small amplitude 1.6–1.7 mHz F-region oscillations across widely spaced regions at lower latitudes. The latter were detected in the radar ground scatter returns and also with the vertical incidence Doppler sounder. Their amplitude is of the order of ± 10 ms-1. A similar perturbation frequency was present in the solar wind pressure recorded by the WIND spacecraft. The initial solar wind pressure decrease was also associated with a decrease in cosmic noise absorption on an imaging riometer near 66° magnetic latitude. The observations suggest that perturbations in the solar wind pressure or IMF result in fast compressional mode waves that propagate through the magnetosphere and drive forced and resonant oscillations of geomagnetic field lines. The compressional wave field may also stimulate ionospheric perturbations. The observations demonstrate that HF radar ground scatter may contain important information on small-amplitude features, extending the scope and capability of these radars to track

  4. Excitation thresholds of field-aligned irregularities and associated ionospheric hysteresis at very high latitudes observed using SPEAR-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 October 2006 the SPEAR high power radar facility was operated in a power-stepping mode where both CUTLASS radars were detecting backscatter from the SPEAR-induced field-aligned irregularities (FAIs. The effective radiated power of SPEAR was varied from 1–10 MW. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the power thresholds for excitation (Pt and collapse (Pc of artificially-induced FAIs in the ionosphere over Svalbard. It was demonstrated that FAI could be excited by a SPEAR ERP of only 1 MW, representing only 1/30th of SPEAR's total capability, and that once created the irregularities could be maintained for even lower powers. The experiment also demonstrated that the very high latitude ionosphere exhibits hysteresis, where the down-going part of the power cycle provided a higher density of irregularities than for the equivalent part of the up-going cycle. Although this second result is similar to that observed previously by CUTLASS in conjunction with the Tromsø heater, the same is not true for the equivalent incoherent scatter measurements. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR failed to detect any hysteresis in the plasma parameters over Svalbard in stark contract with the measurements made using the Tromsø UHF.

  5. Excitation thresholds of field-aligned irregularities and associated ionospheric hysteresis at very high latitudes observed using SPEAR-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 October 2006 the SPEAR high power radar facility was operated in a power-stepping mode where both CUTLASS radars were detecting backscatter from the SPEAR-induced field-aligned irregularities (FAIs. The effective radiated power of SPEAR was varied from 1–10 MW. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the power thresholds for excitation (Pt and collapse (Pc of artificially-induced FAIs in the ionosphere over Svalbard. It was demonstrated that FAI could be excited by a SPEAR ERP of only 1 MW, representing only 1/30th of SPEAR's total capability, and that once created the irregularities could be maintained for even lower powers. The experiment also demonstrated that the very high latitude ionosphere exhibits hysteresis, where the down-going part of the power cycle provided a higher density of irregularities than for the equivalent part of the up-going cycle. Although this second result is similar to that observed previously by CUTLASS in conjunction with the Tromsø heater, the same is not true for the equivalent incoherent scatter measurements. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR failed to detect any hysteresis in the plasma parameters over Svalbard in stark contract with the measurements made using the Tromsø UHF.

  6. Southern high-latitude Digisonde observations of ionosphere E-region Bragg scatter during intense lacuna conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Monselesan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available During summer months at solar cycle minimum, F-region lacuna and slant-Es conditions (SEC are common features of daytime ionograms recorded around local magnetic noon at Casey, Antarctica. Digisonde measurements of drift velocity height profiles show that the occurrence of lacuna prevents the determination of F-region drift velocities and also affects E-region drift velocity measurements. Unique E-region spectral features revealed as intervals of Bragg scatter superimposed on typical background E-region reflection were observed in Digisonde Doppler spectra during intense lacuna conditions. Daytime E-region Doppler spectra recorded at carrier frequencies from 1.5 to 2.7MHz, below the E-region critical frequency foE, have two side-peaks corresponding to Bragg scatter at approximately ±1-2Hz symmetrically located on each side of a central-peak corresponding to near-zenith total reflections. Angle-of-arrival information and ray-tracing simulations show that echo returns are coming from oblique directions most likely resulting from direct backscatter from just below the total reflection height for each sounding frequency. The Bragg backscatter events are shown to manifest during polar lacuna conditions, and to affect the determination of E-region background drift velocities, and as such must be considered when using standard Doppler-sorted interferometry (DSI techniques to estimate ionospheric drift velocities. Given the Doppler and spatial separation of the echoes determined from high-resolution Doppler measurements, we are able to estimate the Bragg scatter phase velocity independently from the bulk E-region motion. The phase velocity coincides with the ExB direction derived from in situ fluxgate magnetometer records. When ionospheric refraction is considered, the phase velocity amplitudes deduced from DSI are comparable to the ion-acoustic speed expected in the E-region. We briefly consider the plausibility that these previously unreported polar

  7. The relationship between small-scale and large-scale ionospheric electron density irregularities generated by powerful HF electromagnetic waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Tereshchenko

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radio beacons were used in June 2001 to probe the ionosphere modified by a radio beam produced by the EISCAT high-power, high-frequency (HF transmitter located near Tromsø (Norway. Amplitude scintillations and variations of the phase of 150- and 400-MHz signals from Russian navigational satellites passing over the modified region were observed at three receiver sites. In several papers it has been stressed that in the polar ionosphere the thermal self-focusing on striations during ionospheric modification is the main mechanism resulting in the formation of large-scale (hundreds of meters to kilometers nonlinear structures aligned along the geomagnetic field (magnetic zenith effect. It has also been claimed that the maximum effects caused by small-scale (tens of meters irregularities detected in satellite signals are also observed in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Contrary to those studies, the present paper shows that the maximum in amplitude scintillations does not correspond strictly to the magnetic zenith direction because high latitude drifts typically cause a considerable anisotropy of small-scale irregularities in a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field resulting in a deviation of the amplitude-scintillation peak relative to the minimum angle between the line-of-sight to the satellite and direction of the geomagnetic field lines. The variance of the logarithmic relative amplitude fluctuations is considered here, which is a useful quantity in such studies. The experimental values of the variance are compared with model calculations and good agreement has been found. It is also shown from the experimental data that in most of the satellite passes a variance maximum occurs at a minimum in the phase fluctuations indicating that the artificial excitation of large-scale irregularities is minimum when the excitation of small-scale irregularities is maximum.

  8. Ecosystem responses to recent oceanographic variability in high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Broms, Cecilie; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Friedland, Kevin D.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hunt, George L., Jr.; Melle, Webjørn; Taylor, Maureen

    2009-04-01

    As part of the international MENU collaboration, we compared and contrasted ecosystem responses to climate-forced oceanographic variability across several high latitude regions of the North Pacific (Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA)) and North Atlantic Oceans (Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank (GOM/GB) and the Norwegian/Barents Seas (NOR/BAR)). Differences in the nitrate content of deep source waters and incoming solar radiation largely explain differences in average primary productivity among these ecosystems. We compared trends in productivity and abundance at various trophic levels and their relationships with sea-surface temperature. Annual net primary production generally increases with annual mean sea-surface temperature between systems and within the EBS, BAR, and GOM/GB. Zooplankton biomass appears to be controlled by both top-down (predation by fish) and bottom-up forcing (advection, SST) in the BAR and NOR regions. In contrast, zooplankton in the GOM/GB region showed no evidence of top-down forcing but appeared to control production of major fish populations through bottom-up processes that are independent of temperature variability. Recruitment of several fish stocks is significantly and positively correlated with temperature in the EBS and BAR, but cod and pollock recruitment in the EBS has been negatively correlated with temperature since the 1977 shift to generally warmer conditions. In each of the ecosystems, fish species showed a general poleward movement in response to warming. In addition, the distribution of groundfish in the EBS has shown a more complex, non-linear response to warming resulting from internal community dynamics. Responses to recent warming differ across systems and appear to be more direct and more pronounced in the higher latitude systems where food webs and trophic interactions are simpler and where both zooplankton and fish species are often limited by cold temperatures.

  9. Modification of the high latitude ionosphere F region by X-mode powerful HF radio waves: Experimental results from multi-instrument diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.; Kalishin, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present experimental results concentrating on a variety of phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere F2 layer induced by an extraordinary (X-mode) HF pump wave at high heater frequencies (fH=6.2-8.0 MHz), depending on the pump frequency proximity to the ordinary and extraordinary mode critical frequencies, foF2 and fxF2. The experiments were carried out at the EISCAT HF heating facility with an effective radiated power of 450-650 MW in October 2012 and October-November 2013. Their distinctive feature is a wide diapason of critical frequency changes, when the fH/foF2 ratio was varied through a wide range from 0.9 to 1.35. It provides both a proper comparison of X-mode HF-induced phenomena excited under different ratios of fH/foF2 and an estimation of the frequency range above foF2 in which such X-mode phenomena are still possible. It was shown that the HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines are excited above foF2 when the HF pump frequency is lying in range between the foF2 and fxF2, foF2≤fH≤fxF2, whereas small-scale field-aligned irregularities continued to be generated even when fH exceeded fxF2 by up to 1 MHz and an X-polarized pump wave cannot be reflected from the ionosphere. Another parameter of importance is the magnetic zenith effect (HF beam/radar angle direction) which is typical for X-mode phenomena under fH/foF2 >1 as well as fH/foF2 ≤1. We have shown for the first time that an X-mode HF pump wave is able to generate strong narrowband spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency) in the ionosphere F region, which were recorded at distance of 1200 km from the HF heating facility. The observed spectral lines can be associated with the ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves). The comparison between the O- and X-mode SEE spectra recorded at distance far from HF heating facility clearly demonstrated that variety of the narrowband

  10. Heat flux and thermal conduction in O+ and H+ ion flows deduced from EISCAT-VHF radar observations in the high-latitude topside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Taieb, Charley

    1994-06-01

    With two periods of EISCAT-VHF radar observations, magnetically quiet and moderately disturbed, we have calculated the H+ and O+ heat fluxes in using formulae of Wu and Taieb (1993), accounting not only for temperature gradients but also for pressure gradients, velocity gradients, and diffusion-thermal effects. They correspond to different physical processes that are calculated and compared between them. Then, the general features of the H+ and O+ ion thermal conductions are studied during the two periods of observation in the high-latitude topside ionosphere. The analysis of the two periods of measurements revealed the following trends, to be confirmed by further observations: (1) During the two periods the H+ heat flux Q2 is always upward in the altitude range from 600 km up to about 1000 km. It is larger during the quiet period than during the disturbed period. (2) The most important dominant mechanism for H+ heat flux is the diffusion-thermal effect due to the H+-O+ collision, with a correcting term due to the H+ temperature gradient. (3) The O+ heat flux is always downward in the same altitude range during the two periods of observations. The absolute value during the disturbed period is slightly larger than that during the quiet period. (4) The dominant mechanism for O+ heat flux is its temperature gradient, corrected by the coupling with the H+ ion. (5) The O+ thermal conduction is less important during the quiet period than during the disturbed period, while for the H+ thermal conduction it is the contrary. (6) The H+ thermal conduction increases with altitude below about 1000 km.

  11. Temperature-induced water stress in high-latitude forests in response to natural and anthropogenic warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Matthew W; Schubert, Brian A

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic is particularly sensitive to climate change, but the independent effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2 ) and temperature on high-latitude forests are poorly understood. Here, we present a new, annually resolved record of stable carbon isotope (δ(13) C) data determined from Larix cajanderi tree cores collected from far northeastern Siberia in order to investigate the physiological response of these trees to regional warming. The tree-ring record, which extends from 1912 through 1961 (50 years), targets early twentieth-century warming (ETCW), a natural warming event in the 1920s to 1940s that was limited to Northern hemisphere high latitudes. Our data show that net carbon isotope fractionation (Δ(13) C), decreased by 1.7‰ across the ETCW, which is consistent with increased water stress in response to climate warming and dryer soils. To investigate whether this signal is present across the northern boreal forest, we compiled published carbon isotope data from 14 high-latitude sites within Europe, Asia, and North America. The resulting dataset covered the entire twentieth century and spanned both natural ETCW and anthropogenic Late Twentieth-Century Warming (~0.7 °C per decade). After correcting for a ~1‰ increase in Δ(13) C in response to twentieth century pCO2 rise, a significant negative relationship (r = -0.53, P warming and pCO2 rise across the twentieth century. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. High-latitude ionospheric response to a sudden impulse event during northward IMF conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Ridley, A.J.; Engebretson, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    A high-density structure under northward interplanetary magnetic field B-z conditions is identified at the Wind and IMP 8 satellites, both in the solar wind on August 22, 1995. A compression of the magnetosphere is observed by the GOES 7 magnetometer within a few minutes of the pressure increase ...... the interpretation as events of traveling convection vortices, as has been suggested by past studies....

  13. Experimental estimation of effective recombination coefficients in the D-region ionosphere at high latitudes during solar eclipses by the method of partial reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyakov S. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The photochemical theory of processes in the lower ionosphere is very complicated and up to now it is not completely developed. Therefore introduction of the effective coefficients determining the total speed of several important reactions has been widely adopted when modeling the D-region of the ionosphere. Experimental opportunities for obtaining effective recombination coefficients are rather limited. One of the methods to estimate effective recombination coefficients uses the phenomenon of a solar eclipse. The basis of this method is the idea of Appleton about similarity of the behavior of the linear inductive circuit and variations of the electron concentration in the ionosphere on a fixed height in the absence of the transport processes, the change in the rate of formation of electrons in time and the disappearance of free electrons due to recombination. By analogy with the time constant of the electric circuit Appleton called the reaction of the ionosphere on the process of ionization in the ionosphere as "sluggishness" with a characteristic time constant τ, which is also called the "relaxation time" or "time constant of the ionosphere". During 11 August 1999, 1 August 2008, 11 June 2011, 20 March 2015 solar eclipses at the partial reflection facility of the observatory "Tumanny" (69.0N, 35.7E observations of the amplitudes of reflections of ordinary and extraordinary waves have been carried out. Using the obtained data the two-dimensional (time, height distribution of the electron density ne at altitudes of the D-region ionosphere has been calculated. This has made it possible to obtain the behavior of the electron concentration in time at selected altitudes (temporal profiles of electron density at selected altitudes. Using the obtained experimental profiles, the effective recombination coefficients on the heights of the D-region ionosphere have been evaluated. Transport processes of plasma (for example, propagation of acoustic

  14. Preliminary prediction model for the ROTI index at high latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochel Grimald, Sandrine; Boscher, Daniel; Fabbro, Vincent; Rougerie, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    The variation of electron density can be described by the ROTI index (i.e. the Rate of change of Total electron content Index). This index is indicative of the electron density gradients which can be responsible of loss of satellite communications or loss of lock of GNSS system.. At high latitude, the ionosphere is connected to the magnetosphere through the magnetic field lines. When the magnetic activity increases, particles from the magnetosphere are injected in the ionosphere along the magnetic field lines. They disturb the ionospheric layer and are responsible of changes in the ROTI index. In this paper, we will use the NOAA POES satellites data to study the link between the ROTI index value and the particles flux in the inner magnetosphere. Then we will use the results to developp a preliminary ROTI model.

  15. Ionospheric Response to the Magnetic Storm of 22 June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, Gustavo A.

    2017-11-01

    A global study is made of the response of the total electron content of the ionosphere (TEC) to the geomagnetic storm occurred on 22 June 2015 (one of the strongest geomagnetic storms of the current Solar Cycle 24). Using data from 44 sites, a hemispheric comparison is made by considering high latitudes (> 50°), middle latitudes (30°-50°) and low latitudes (30°N-30°S). The main features observed were: increases in TEC at high latitudes prior to the storm main phase, a considerable asymmetry of TEC response at middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere and decreases at equatorial latitudes. The long duration enhancements in TEC were well correlated with increases in the O/N2 ratio but decreases in TEC had not associated decreases in the O/N2 ratio as occur with the decreases in the electron density. Besides, prompt penetration electric fields can play an important role in the equatorial and low-latitude ionosphere during main phase of the storm.

  16. Variable responses of benthic communities to anomalously warm sea temperatures on a high-latitude coral reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Tom C L; Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Hovey, Renae; Figueira, Will F; Williams, Stefan B; Pizarro, Oscar; Harborne, Alastair R; Byrne, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m(2) plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies) prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes.

  17. Variable responses of benthic communities to anomalously warm sea temperatures on a high-latitude coral reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom C L Bridge

    Full Text Available High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m(2 plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes.

  18. Sporadic E S Layers at High Latitudes During a Magnetic Storm of March 17, 2015 According to the Vertical and Oblique Ionospheric Sounding Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Maltseva, O. A.; Anishin, M. M.; Rogov, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the behavior of the parameters of the ionospheric E s layers according to the vertical sounding at the Sodankylä observatory and oblique sounding at the Lovozero (Murmansk region)—Gor'kovskaya station (Leningrad region) path during a superstorm of March 17, 2015. Temporal and spatial behavior of these parameters is compared. It was found that the storm significantly distorted the normal course of variations of the sporadic E s layer characteristics. Specific behavior of the layers during a storm at points separated by about 300 km was detected. With the help of ray tracing calculations using the IRI model, oblique sounding ionograms were constructed for the radio path analyzed. Primary attention is given to the maximum usable frequency of the F 2 layer—MUF- F 2. Additionally, for the disturbed conditions where there is only a high-power E s layer on the experimental ionograms, the values of MUF- E s and the ratio K =MUF- E s/ f o E s for various cutoff frequencies f o E s of the E s layer and its altitudes {h}_{E_s} are calculated within the framework of the well-known approximations. Calculations for the case of weak disturbance and semitransparent E s layers are carried out with the IRI model adapted to the current diagnostics parameters. It was found that the calculated and experimental values of MUF- F 2 are close to each other or coincide, while this cannot be said about MUF- E s. The calculated and experimental values of MUF- E s can be matched in the model of mirror reflection from a flat layer for intense layers and the model of the E layer for thick E s layers of low intensity.

  19. Monitoring Coral Health to Determine Coral Bleaching Response at High Latitude Eastern Australian Reefs: An Applied Model for A Changing Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Andrew G.; Dalton, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Limited information is available on the bleaching susceptibility of coral species that dominate high latitude reefs along the eastern seaboard of Australia. The main aims of this study were to: (i) monitor coral health and spatial patterns of coral bleaching response at the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP) and Lord Howe Island Marine Park (LHIMP), to determine variability of bleaching susceptibility among coral taxa; (ii) predict coral bleaching thresholds at 30 °S and 31.5 °S, extrapolate...

  20. GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during geomagnetic storms of 7–17 March 2012 – Part 2: Interhemispheric comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the ascending phase of solar cycle 24, a series of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs in the period 7–17 March 2012 caused geomagnetic storms that strongly affected high-latitude ionosphere in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. GPS phase scintillation was observed at northern and southern high latitudes by arrays of GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitors (GISTMs and geodetic-quality GPS receivers sampling at 1 Hz. Mapped as a function of magnetic latitude and magnetic local time (MLT, the scintillation was observed in the ionospheric cusp, the tongue of ionization fragmented into patches, sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap, and nightside auroral oval and subauroral latitudes. Complementing a companion paper (Prikryl et al., 2015a that focuses on the high-latitude ionospheric response to variable solar wind in the North American sector, interhemispheric comparison reveals commonalities as well as differences and asymmetries between the northern and southern high latitudes, as a consequence of the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere. The interhemispheric asymmetries are caused by the dawn–dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field controlling the MLT of the cusp entry of the storm-enhanced density plasma into the polar cap and the orientation relative to the noon–midnight meridian of the tongue of ionization.

  1. Incredibly distant ionospheric responses to earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, Kamil; Akchurin, Adel

    2015-04-01

    Attempts to observe ionospheric responses to the earthquake has been going on for decades. In recent years, the greatest progress in the study of this question have GPS-measurements with simultaneous HF-measurements. The use of a dense network of GPS-receivers and getting with it sufficiently detailed two-dimensional maps of the total electron content (TEC) greatly clarified the nature of the ionospheric response to strong earthquakes. For ionospheric responses observation, that are remote more than 1000 km from the strong earthquakes epicentres, it is necessary to applying more sensitive methods than GPS. The most experience in the observation of the ionospheric responses to earthquakes accumulated with Doppler sounding. Using these measurements, ionospheric disturbances characteristic features (signature) have been allocated, which associated with the passage of Rayleigh waves on the surface. Particular, this Rayleigh wave signatures allocation is implemented in the Nostradamus coherent backscatter radar. The authors of this method suggest using radar techniques like a sensitive "ionospheric seismometer." The most productive allocation and studying of the vertical structure ionospheric responses could be ionosonde observations. However, their typical 15 minute sounding rate is quite sufficient for observing the regular ionosphere, but it is not enough for studying the ionospheric responses to earthquakes, because ionospheric responses is often seen only in one ionogram and it is absent in adjacent. The decisive factor in establishing the striking ionospheric response to the earthquake was the Tohoku earthquake in 2011, when there was three ionosondes distant at 870-2000 km from the epicentre. These ionosondes simultaneously showed distortion of the F1-layer traces as its multiple stratification (multiple-cusp signature - MCS), which generated by Rayleigh wave. Note that there was another fourth Japanese ionosonde. It is located a little further near boundaries

  2. Quantitative modeling of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Fuller-Rowell

    Full Text Available A physical model of the coupled thermosphere and ionosphere has been used to determine the accuracy of model predictions of the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity, and assess our understanding of the physical processes. The physical model is driven by empirical descriptions of the high-latitude electric field and auroral precipitation, as measures of the strength of the magnetospheric sources of energy and momentum to the upper atmosphere. Both sources are keyed to the time-dependent TIROS/NOAA auroral power index. The output of the model is the departure of the ionospheric F region from the normal climatological mean. A 50-day interval towards the end of 1997 has been simulated with the model for two cases. The first simulation uses only the electric fields and auroral forcing from the empirical models, and the second has an additional source of random electric field variability. In both cases, output from the physical model is compared with F-region data from ionosonde stations. Quantitative model/data comparisons have been performed to move beyond the conventional "visual" scientific assessment, in order to determine the value of the predictions for operational use. For this study, the ionosphere at two ionosonde stations has been studied in depth, one each from the northern and southern mid-latitudes. The model clearly captures the seasonal dependence in the ionospheric response to geomagnetic activity at mid-latitude, reproducing the tendency for decreased ion density in the summer hemisphere and increased densities in winter. In contrast to the "visual" success of the model, the detailed quantitative comparisons, which are necessary for space weather applications, are less impressive. The accuracy, or value, of the model has been quantified by evaluating the daily standard deviation, the root-mean-square error, and the correlation coefficient between the data and model predictions. The modeled quiet-time variability, or standard

  3. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 in high latitude wetlands: measuring, modelling and predicting response to climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Panikov, Nicolai S.

    1999-01-01

    This review covers selected aspects of recent international efforts to measure and model greenhouse gas emission from northern wetlands, to identify the environmental factors that control gas emission, and to investigate wetlands’responses (particularly with respect to gas emission) to global change. Both bottom-up and top-to-bottom approaches, based respectively on local observations plus inventory of gas fluxes and inverse modelling of global circulation, agree on the size of the high latit...

  4. Inconclusive Predictions and Contradictions: A Lack of Consensus on Seed Germination Response to Climate Change at High Altitude and High Latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh K. Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change directly affects arctic-alpine plants and acute responses to increased temperatures may be seen in their reproductive fitness and germination ability. However, uncertainties prevail in predicting whether a future warmer climate favors or hampers seed germination in high latitude and high altitude soils and seed germination research in such systems has not been able to provide generalizable patterns of response. The available literature on this subject has been conducted at various locations contributing to difficulties in predicting the response of arctic-alpine seeds to climate change. Here, we show that discrepancies in seed collection, dormancy breaking treatments, and germination conditions found in the published literature are possible reasons for our inability to draw large scale conclusions. We explore how these factors influence the results and highlight the fact that many of the previous investigations have reported the effects of warmer temperature, rather than a warmer climate and all the associated complex environmental interactions, on seed germination. We recommend that long-term monitoring of seed response to treatments that mimic the present and future alpine climate is likely to produce more ecologically meaningful insights and suggest several practical steps that researchers can take that would facilitate greater coherence between studies.

  5. DMSP observations of high latitude Poynting flux during magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheryl Y.; Huang, Yanshi; Su, Yi-Jiun; Hairston, Marc R.; Sotirelis, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that energy can enter the high-latitude regions of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere (IT) system on open field lines. To assess the extent of high-latitude energy input, we have carried out a study of Poynting flux measured by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites during magnetic storms. We report sporadic intense Poynting fluxes measured by four DMSP satellites at polar latitudes during two moderate magnetic storms which occurred in August and September 2011. Comparisons with a widely used empirical model for energy input to the IT system show that the model does not adequately capture electromagnetic (EM) energy at very high latitudes during storms. We have extended this study to include more than 30 storm events and find that intense EM energy is frequently detected poleward of 75° magnetic latitude.

  6. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  7. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  8. Precipitation Mediates the Response of Carbon Cycle to Rising Temperature in the Mid-to-High Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lin

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, rising air temperature has been accompanied by changes in precipitation. Despite relatively robust literature on the temperature sensitivity of carbon cycle at continental to global scales, less is known about the way this sensitivity is affected by precipitation. In this study we investigate how precipitation mediates the response of the carbon cycle to warming over the mid-to-high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (north of 30 °N. Based on atmospheric CO2 observations at Point Barrow (BRW in Alaska, satellite-derived NDVI (a proxy of vegetation productivity, and temperature and precipitation data, we analyzed the responses of carbon cycle to temperature change in wet and dry years (with precipitation above or below the multiyear average. The results suggest that, over the past three decades, the net seasonal atmospheric CO2 changes at BRW were significantly correlated with temperature in spring and autumn, yet only weakly correlated with temperature and precipitation during the growing season. We further found that responses of the net CO2 changes to warming in spring and autumn vary with precipitation levels, with the absolute temperature sensitivity in wet years roughly twice that in dry years. The analyses of NDVI and climate data also identify higher sensitivity of vegetation growth to warming in wet years for the growing season, spring and summer. The different temperature sensitivities in wet versus dry years probably result from differences in soil moisture and/or nutrient availability, which may enhance (inhibit the responsiveness of carbon assimilation and/or decomposition to warming under high (low precipitation levels. The precipitation-mediated response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to warming reported here emphasizes the important role of precipitation in assessing the temporal variations of carbon budgets in the past as well as in the future. More efforts are required to reduce uncertainty in future

  9. Precipitation Mediates the Response of Carbon Cycle to Rising Temperature in the Mid-to-High Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Li, Junsheng; Luo, Jianwu; Wu, Xiaopu; Tian, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, rising air temperature has been accompanied by changes in precipitation. Despite relatively robust literature on the temperature sensitivity of carbon cycle at continental to global scales, less is known about the way this sensitivity is affected by precipitation. In this study we investigate how precipitation mediates the response of the carbon cycle to warming over the mid-to-high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (north of 30 °N). Based on atmospheric CO2 observations at Point Barrow (BRW) in Alaska, satellite-derived NDVI (a proxy of vegetation productivity), and temperature and precipitation data, we analyzed the responses of carbon cycle to temperature change in wet and dry years (with precipitation above or below the multiyear average). The results suggest that, over the past three decades, the net seasonal atmospheric CO2 changes at BRW were significantly correlated with temperature in spring and autumn, yet only weakly correlated with temperature and precipitation during the growing season. We further found that responses of the net CO2 changes to warming in spring and autumn vary with precipitation levels, with the absolute temperature sensitivity in wet years roughly twice that in dry years. The analyses of NDVI and climate data also identify higher sensitivity of vegetation growth to warming in wet years for the growing season, spring and summer. The different temperature sensitivities in wet versus dry years probably result from differences in soil moisture and/or nutrient availability, which may enhance (inhibit) the responsiveness of carbon assimilation and/or decomposition to warming under high (low) precipitation levels. The precipitation-mediated response of the terrestrial carbon cycle to warming reported here emphasizes the important role of precipitation in assessing the temporal variations of carbon budgets in the past as well as in the future. More efforts are required to reduce uncertainty in future precipitation

  10. Modeling the ionosphere-thermosphere response to a geomagnetic storm using physics-based magnetospheric energy input: OpenGGCM-CTIM results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor Hyunju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetosphere is a major source of energy for the Earth’s ionosphere and thermosphere (IT system. Current IT models drive the upper atmosphere using empirically calculated magnetospheric energy input. Thus, they do not sufficiently capture the storm-time dynamics, particularly at high latitudes. To improve the prediction capability of IT models, a physics-based magnetospheric input is necessary. Here, we use the Open Global General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM coupled with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (CTIM. OpenGGCM calculates a three-dimensional global magnetosphere and a two-dimensional high-latitude ionosphere by solving resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD equations with solar wind input. CTIM calculates a global thermosphere and a high-latitude ionosphere in three dimensions using realistic magnetospheric inputs from the OpenGGCM. We investigate whether the coupled model improves the storm-time IT responses by simulating a geomagnetic storm that is preceded by a strong solar wind pressure front on August 24, 2005. We compare the OpenGGCM-CTIM results with low-earth-orbit satellite observations and with the model results of Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe. CTIPe is an up-to-date version of CTIM that incorporates more IT dynamics such as a low-latitude ionosphere and a plasmasphere, but uses empirical magnetospheric input. OpenGGCM-CTIM reproduces localized neutral density peaks at ~ 400 km altitude in the high-latitude dayside regions in agreement with in situ observations during the pressure shock and the early phase of the storm. Although CTIPe is in some sense a much superior model than CTIM, it misses these localized enhancements. Unlike the CTIPe empirical input models, OpenGGCM-CTIM more faithfully produces localized increases of both auroral precipitation and ionospheric electric fields near the high-latitude dayside region after the pressure shock and after the storm onset

  11. Monitoring Coral Health to Determine Coral Bleaching Response at High Latitude Eastern Australian Reefs: An Applied Model for A Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Carroll

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the bleaching susceptibility of coral species that dominate high latitude reefs along the eastern seaboard of Australia. The main aims of this study were to: (i monitor coral health and spatial patterns of coral bleaching response at the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP and Lord Howe Island Marine Park (LHIMP, to determine variability of bleaching susceptibility among coral taxa; (ii predict coral bleaching thresholds at 30 °S and 31.5 °S, extrapolated from published bleaching threshold data; and (iii propose a subtropical northern New South Wales coral bleaching model from biological and physical data. Between 2005 and 2007 minor bleaching was observed in dominant coral families including Pocilloporidae, Poritidae and Dendrophylliidae in the SIMP and Pocilloporidae, Poritidae and Acroporidae (Isopora and Montipora spp. in the LHIMP, with a clear difference in bleaching susceptibility found between sites, both within and between locations. Bleaching susceptibility was highest in Porites spp. at the most offshore island site within the SIMP during summer 2005. Patterns of subtropical family bleaching susceptibility within the SIMP and LHIMP differed to those previously reported for the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR. These differences may be due to a number of factors, including temperature history and/or the coral hosts association with different zooxanthellae clades, which may have lower thermal tolerances. An analysis of published estimates of coral bleaching thresholds from the Caribbean, South Africa, GBR and central and northern Pacific regions suggests that the bleaching threshold at 30–31.5 °S ranges between 26.5–26.8 °C. This predicted threshold was confirmed by an extensive coral bleaching event on the world’s southernmost coral reef at Lord Howe Island, during the 2010 austral summer season. These results imply that dominant coral taxa at subtropical reefs along the eastern Australian

  12. Ionospheric F-region response to the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm in the Antarctica American and Australian sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Emilia; Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Cesaroni, Claudio; Gulisano, Adriana M.; Thomas, Evan G.; Hidalgo Ramirez, Ray F.; Rodel, Alexandre A.

    2017-10-01

    The ionospheric response at middle and high latitudes in the Antarctica American and Australian sectors to the 26-27 September 2011 moderately intense geomagnetic storm was investigated using instruments including an ionosonde, riometer, and GNSS receivers. The multi-instrument observations permitted us to characterize the ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED) and tongues of ionization (TOIs) as a function of storm time and location, considering the effect of prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs). During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm, dayside SEDs were observed at middle latitudes, and in the nightside only density depletions were observed from middle to high latitudes. Both the increase and decrease in ionospheric density at middle latitudes can be attributed to a combination of processes, including the PPEF effect just after the storm onset, dominated by disturbance dynamo processes during the evolution of the main phase. Two SEDs-TOIs were identified in the Southern Hemisphere, but only the first episode had a counterpart in the Northern Hemisphere. This difference can be explained by the interhemispheric asymmetry caused by the high-latitude coupling between solar wind and the magnetosphere, which drives the dawn-to-dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The formation of polar TOI is a function of the SED plume location that might be near the dayside cusp from which it can enter the polar cap, which was the case in the Southern Hemisphere. Strong GNSS scintillations were observed at stations collocated with SED plumes at middle latitudes and cusp on the dayside and at polar cap TOIs on the nightside.

  13. Modeling of the ionosphere response on the earthquake preparation

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, M I; Namgaladze, A A

    2012-01-01

    Seismo-ionosphere coupling processes have been investigated considering the GPS observed anomalous ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) variations before strong earthquakes as their precursors. The numerical simulations' results of the TEC response on the vertical electric currents flowing between the Earth and ionosphere during the earthquake (EQ) preparation time have been performed. Model experiments have been carried out using the Upper Atmosphere Model. The following currents' parameters were varied in: (i) direction (to or from the ionosphere); (ii) latitudinal zone of the sources' (EQ epicenters) location; (iii) currents' configuration: (1) grid nodes with "straight" currents were surrounded by "border" grid points with currents of opposite direction ("return" currents); (2) the "return" currents were spread out over the globe; (3) without "return" currents. Numerical simulations have shown that electric currents with density of 4\\times10-8 A/m2 over the area of about 200 km in longitude and 2500 k...

  14. Analysis of Wind Vorticity and Divergence in the High-latitude Lower Thermosphere: Dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Kwak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the physical processes that control the high-latitude lower thermospheric dynamics, we analyze the divergence and vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the lower thermosphere during the southern summertime for different IMF conditions. For this study the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIEG CM is used. The analysis of the large-scale vorticity and divergence provides basic understanding flow configurations to help elucidate the momentum sources that ultimately determine the total wind field in the lower polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum responsible for driving winds. The mean neutral wind pattern in the high-latitude lower thermosphere is dominated by rotational flow, imparted primarily through the ion drag force, rather than by divergent flow, imparted primarily through Joule and solar heating. The difference vorticity, obtained by subtracting values with zero IMF from those with non-zero IMF, in the high-latitude lower thermosphere is much larger than the difference divergence for all IMF conditions, indicating that a larger response of the thermospheric wind system to enhancement in the momentum input generating the rotational motion with elevated IMF than the corresponding energy input generating the divergent motion. the difference vorticity in the high-latitude lower thermosphere depends on the direction of the IMF. The difference vorticity for negative and positive B_y shows positive and negative, respectively, at higher magnetic latitudes than -70°. For negative B_z, the difference vorticities have positive in the dusk sector and negative in the dawn sector. The difference vorticities for positive B_z have opposite sign. Negative IMF B_z has a stronger effect on the vorticity than does positive B_z.

  15. Wavelet-based analogous phase scintillation index for high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Tiwari, R.; Strangeways, H. J.; Dlay, S.; Johnsen, M. G.

    2015-08-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) performance at high latitudes can be severely affected by the ionospheric scintillation due to the presence of small-scale time-varying electron density irregularities. In this paper, an improved analogous phase scintillation index derived using the wavelet-transform-based filtering technique is presented to represent the effects of scintillation regionally at European high latitudes. The improved analogous phase index is then compared with the original analogous phase index and the phase scintillation index for performance comparison using 1 year of data from Trondheim, Norway (63.41°N, 10.4°E). This index provides samples at a 1 min rate using raw total electron content (TEC) data at 1 Hz for the prediction of phase scintillation compared to the scintillation monitoring receivers (such as NovAtel Global Navigation Satellite Systems Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor receivers) which operate at 50 Hz rate and are thus rather computationally intensive. The estimation of phase scintillation effects using high sample rate data makes the improved analogous phase index a suitable candidate which can be used in regional geodetic dual-frequency-based GPS receivers to efficiently update the tracking loop parameters based on tracking jitter variance.

  16. GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17-18 March 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prikryl, P.; Ghoddousi-Fard, R.; Weygand, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The geomagnetic storm of 17–18 March 2015 was caused by the impacts of a coronal mass ejection and a high-speed plasma stream from a coronal hole. The high-latitude ionosphere dynamics is studied using arrays of ground-based instruments including GPS receivers, HF radars, ionosondes, riometers...

  17. Simulation of Ionospheric Response During Solar Eclipse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordella, L.; Earle, G. D.; Huba, J.

    2016-12-01

    Total solar eclipses are rare, short duration events that present interesting case studies of ionospheric behavior because the structure of the ionosphere is determined and stabilized by varying energies of solar radiation (Lyman alpha, X-ray, U.V., etc.). The ionospheric response to eclipse events is a source of scientific intrigue that has been studied in various capacities over the past 50 years. Unlike the daily terminator crossings, eclipses cause highly localized, steep gradients of ionization efficiency due to their comparatively small solar zenith angle. However, the corona remains present even at full obscuration, meaning that the energy reduction never falls to the levels seen at night. Previous eclipse studies performed by research groups in the US, UK, China and Russia have shown a range of effects, some counter-intuitive and others contradictory. In the shadowed region of an eclipse (i.e. umbra) it is logical to assume a reduction in ionization rates correlating with the reduction of incident solar radiation. Results have shown that even this straightforward hypothesis may not be true; effects on plasma distribution, motion and temperature are more appreciable than might be expected. Recent advancements in ionospheric simulation codes present the opportunity to investigate the relationship between geophysical conditions and geomagnetic location on resulting eclipse event ionosphere. Here we present computational simulation results using the Naval Research Lab (NRL) developed ionospheric modeling codes Sami2 and Sami3 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) modified with spatio-temporal photoionization attenuation functions derived from theory and empirical data.

  18. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; hide

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  19. Equator and High-Latitude Ionosphere-to-Magnetosphere Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-04

    S, 355.3 E), Kwajalein (3.8 N, 238.2 E), Ascension Island (2.5 S, 56.8 E), and Ramey (28.6 N, 5.2 E). The strongest geomagnetic storms for recent...following stations were used: Jicamarca (Geomagnetic Coordinates: 2.0 S, 355.3 E), Kwajalein (3.8 N, 238.2 E), Ascension Island (2.5 S, 56.8 E...Remote Terminal DEMETER Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions

  20. Ionospheric F-region response to the 26 September 2011 geomagnetic storm in the Antarctica American and Australian sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Correia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric response at middle and high latitudes in the Antarctica American and Australian sectors to the 26–27 September 2011 moderately intense geomagnetic storm was investigated using instruments including an ionosonde, riometer, and GNSS receivers. The multi-instrument observations permitted us to characterize the ionospheric storm-enhanced density (SED and tongues of ionization (TOIs as a function of storm time and location, considering the effect of prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs. During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm, dayside SEDs were observed at middle latitudes, and in the nightside only density depletions were observed from middle to high latitudes. Both the increase and decrease in ionospheric density at middle latitudes can be attributed to a combination of processes, including the PPEF effect just after the storm onset, dominated by disturbance dynamo processes during the evolution of the main phase. Two SEDs–TOIs were identified in the Southern Hemisphere, but only the first episode had a counterpart in the Northern Hemisphere. This difference can be explained by the interhemispheric asymmetry caused by the high-latitude coupling between solar wind and the magnetosphere, which drives the dawn-to-dusk component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The formation of polar TOI is a function of the SED plume location that might be near the dayside cusp from which it can enter the polar cap, which was the case in the Southern Hemisphere. Strong GNSS scintillations were observed at stations collocated with SED plumes at middle latitudes and cusp on the dayside and at polar cap TOIs on the nightside.

  1. Top-side ionosphere response to extreme solar events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dmitriev

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Strong X-flares and solar energetic particle (SEP fluxes are considered as sources of topside ionospheric disturbances observed by the ROCSAT-1/IPEI instrument during the Bastille Day event on 14 July 2000 and the Halloween event on 28 October–4 November 2003. It was found that within a prestorm period in the dayside ionosphere at altitudes of ~600 km the ion density increased up to ~80% in response to flare-associated enhancements of the solar X-ray emission. Ionospheric response to the SEP events was revealed both at sunlit and nightside hemispheres, where the ion density increased up to ~40% and 100%, respectively. We did not find any prominent response of the ion temperature to the X-ray and SEP enhancements. The largest X-ray and SEP impacts were found for the X17 solar flare on 28 October 2003, which was characterized by the most intense fluxes of solar EUV (Tsurutani et al., 2005 and relativistic solar particles (Veselovsky et al., 2004. Solar events on 14 July 2000 and 29 October 2003 demonstrate weaker impacts with respect to their X-ray and SEP intensities. The weakest ionospheric response is observed for the limb X28 solar flare on 4 November 2003. The topside ionosphere response to the extreme solar events is interpreted in terms of the short-duration impact of the solar electromagnetic radiation and the long-lasting impact of the SEP.

  2. Seasonal effects in the ionosphere-thermosphere response to the precipitation and field-aligned current variations in the cusp region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    1998-10-01

    By < 0 but for the Northern (winter Hemisphere there is a disagreement at high latitudes in the afternoon sector of the cusp region. At the same time, the model results for this sector agree with other DE-2 data and with the ground-based FPI data. All ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances in the second variant of the calculations are more intensive in the winter cusp region in comparison with the summer one and this seasonal difference is larger than in the first variant of the calculations, especially in the electron density and all temperature variations. The means that the seasonal effects in the cusp region are stronger in the thermospheric and ionospheric responses to the FAC variations than to the precipitation disturbances.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances.

  3. A model of high-latitude thermospheric density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael J.; Sutton, Eric K.

    2015-09-01

    We present an empirical model of the high-latitude air density at 450 km, derived from accelerometer measurements by the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites during 2002-2006, which we call HANDY (High-Latitude Atmospheric Neutral DensitY). HANDY consists of a quiet model and disturbance model. The quiet model represents the background thermospheric density for "zero geomagnetic activity" conditions. The disturbance model represents the response of the thermospheric density to solar wind forcing at high latitudes. The solar wind inputs used are the following: (1) solar wind electric field ESW, (2) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle CSW, and (3) solar wind dynamic pressure PSW. Both quiet and disturbance models are constructed on the basis of spherical harmonic function fitting to the data. Magnetic coordinates are used for the disturbance model, while geographical coordinates are used for the quiet model. HANDY reproduces main features of the solar wind influence on the high-latitude thermospheric density, such as the IMF By effect that produces a hemispheric asymmetry in the density distribution.

  4. The role played by thermal feedback in heated Farley-Buneman waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. St.-Maurice

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that electron thermal effects have to be taken into account when dealing with the theory of ionospheric instabilities in the high-latitude ionosphere. Unfortunately, the mathematical complexity often hides the physical processes at work. We follow the limiting cases of a complex but systematic generalized fluid approach to get to the heart of the thermal processes that affect the stability of E region waves during electron heating events. We try to show as simply as possible under what conditions thermal effects contribute to the destabilization of strongly field-aligned (zero aspect angle Farley-Buneman modes. We show that destabilization can arise from a combination of (1 a reduction in pressure gradients associated with temperature fluctuations that are out of phase with density fluctuations, and (2 thermal diffusion, which takes the electrons from regions of enhanced temperatures to regions of negative temperature fluctuations, and therefore enhanced densities. However, we also show that, contrary to what has been suggested in the past, for modes excited along the E0×B direction thermal feedback decreases the growth rate and raises the threshold speed of the Farley-Buneman instability. The increase in threshold speed appears to be important enough to explain the generation of `Type IV' waves in the high-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; iono- spheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities

  5. The role played by thermal feedback in heated Farley-Buneman waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. St.-Maurice

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that electron thermal effects have to be taken into account when dealing with the theory of ionospheric instabilities in the high-latitude ionosphere. Unfortunately, the mathematical complexity often hides the physical processes at work. We follow the limiting cases of a complex but systematic generalized fluid approach to get to the heart of the thermal processes that affect the stability of E region waves during electron heating events. We try to show as simply as possible under what conditions thermal effects contribute to the destabilization of strongly field-aligned (zero aspect angle Farley-Buneman modes. We show that destabilization can arise from a combination of (1 a reduction in pressure gradients associated with temperature fluctuations that are out of phase with density fluctuations, and (2 thermal diffusion, which takes the electrons from regions of enhanced temperatures to regions of negative temperature fluctuations, and therefore enhanced densities. However, we also show that, contrary to what has been suggested in the past, for modes excited along the E0×B direction thermal feedback decreases the growth rate and raises the threshold speed of the Farley-Buneman instability. The increase in threshold speed appears to be important enough to explain the generation of `Type IV' waves in the high-latitude ionosphere.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; iono- spheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities

  6. UV-B absorbing pigments in spores: biochemical responses to shade in a high-latitude birch forest and implications for sporopollenin-based proxies of past environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry V. Callaghan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current attempts to develop a proxy for Earth's surface ultraviolet-B (UV-B flux focus on the organic chemistry of pollen and spores because their constituent biopolymer, sporopollenin, contains UV-B absorbing pigments whose relative abundance may respond to the ambient UV-B flux. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microspectroscopy provides a useful tool for rapidly determining the pigment content of spores. In this paper, we use FTIR to detect a chemical response of spore wall UV-B absorbing pigments that correspond with levels of shade beneath the canopy of a high-latitude Swedish birch forest. A 27% reduction in UV-B flux beneath the canopy leads to a significant (p<0.05 7.3% reduction in concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds in sporopollenin. The field data from this natural flux gradient in UV-B further support our earlier work on sporopollenin-based proxies derived from sedimentary records and herbaria collections.

  7. The Role of Ionospheric Conductivity in the Response of the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere to Changes in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, I.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Richmond, A. D.; Ouellette, J.

    2014-12-01

    The strength and orientation of the Earth's magnetic field play an important role in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. This is demonstrated in a set of idealized experiments with the Coupled Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere model using a dipolar magnetic field. A decrease of the dipole moment (M) causes an increase in ionospheric conductance. This increase in conductance results in enhanced field-aligned currents (FACs), which change the shape of the magnetosphere, and causes a deviation from theoretical scaling relations of the stand-off distance, the size of the polar cap, and the cross-polar cap potential with M. The orientation of the Earth's magnetic field determines how the angle μ between the geomagnetic dipole axis and the geocentric solar magnetospheric (GSM) z-axis varies with season and universal time (UT). The angle μ can affect solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in two distinct ways: via variations in ionospheric conductivity over the polar caps or via a change in the coupling efficiency between the solar wind and magnetosphere as a result of changes in geometry. Simulations in which the ionospheric conductivity was either kept fixed or allowed to vary realistically demonstrated that variations in ionospheric conductance are responsible for ~10-30% of the variations in the cross-polar cap potential associated with variations in μ for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The remainder was mostly due to variations in the magnetic reconnection rate, which were associated with variations in the length of the section of the separator line along which relatively strong reconnection occurs.

  8. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  9. Response of equatorial ionosphere to episodes of asymmetric ring current activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Sastri

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the characteristics of the response of equatorial ionospheric zonal electric field and F-region plasma density to the asymmetric ring current intensifications that occurred in succession on 16 December 1991, corresponding to the STEP/EITS-2 campaign period. The study is based on high-time- resolution (1-min data of asymmetic ring current indices, ASY(H/D and F-region vertical plasma drift, Vz measurements at Kodaikanal (10.25°N; 77.5°E; dip 4°, India and quarter-hourly ionosonde data of Fortaleza (4°S; 322°E; dip –9°, Brazil. It is shown that short-lived disturbances in F-layer vertical plasma drift, Vz and height (h'F/hpF2 indicative of westward and eastward electric fields prevail simultaneously in the dusk (18–21 LT and predawn (02–05 LT sectors, respectively, in association with the decay phase of asymmetic ring current events. Electric fields of opposite polarity do also seem to manifest at these local times, particularly in the early-morning sector in conjunction with the intensification of the asymmetric ring current. At a given location, electric field disturbances associated with individual asymmetric ring current events are thus bipolar in nature, with fields of opposite polarity during the growth and decay phases. The nature and polarity structure of the observed electric field disturbances are in agreement with the theoretical/model predictions of prompt penetration of high-latitude electric fields to the equatorial region.

  10. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  11. Birkeland current effects on high-latitude groundmagnetic field perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M; Lehtinen, N; Gjerloev, J W; Østgaard, N; Tenfjord, P; Reistad, J P; Snekvik, K; Milan, S E; Ohtani, S; Anderson, B J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic perturbations on ground at high latitudes are directly associated only with the divergence-free component of the height-integrated horizontal ionospheric current, $\\textbf{J}_{\\perp,df}$. Here we show how $\\textbf{J}_{\\perp,df}$ can be expressed as the total horizontal current $\\textbf{J}_\\perp$ minus its curl-free component, the latter being completely determined by the global Birkeland current pattern. Thus in regions where $\\textbf{J}_\\perp = 0$, the global Birkeland current distribution alone determines the local magnetic perturbation. We show with observations from ground and space that in the polar cap, the ground magnetic field perturbations tend to align with the Birkeland current contribution in darkness but not in sunlight. We also show that in sunlight, the magnetic perturbations are typically such that the equivalent overhead current is anti-parallel to the convection, indicating that the Hall current system dominates. Thus the ground magnetic field in the polar cap relates to different c...

  12. Azimuthal expansion of high-latitude auroral arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Safargaleev

    Full Text Available We used the TV auroral observations in Barentsburg (78.05° N 14.12° E in Spitsbergen archipelago, together with the data of the CUTLASS HF radars and the POLAR satellite images to study azimuthal (in the east-west direction expansion of the high-latitude auroral arcs. It is shown that the east or west edge of the arc moved in the same direction as the convection flow, westward in the pre-midnight sector and eastward in the post-midnight sector. The velocity of arc expansion was of the order of 2.5 km/s, which is 2–3 times larger than the convection velocity measured in the arc vicinity and 2–3 times smaller than the velocity of the bright patches propagating along the arc. The arc expanded from the active auroras seen from the POLAR satellite around midnight as a region of enhanced luminosity, which might be the auroral bulge or WTS. The pole- or equatorward drift of the arcs occurred at the velocity of the order of 100 m/s that was close to the convection velocity in the same direction. These experimental results can be well explained in terms of the interchange (or flute instability.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  13. Ionospheric responses during equinox and solstice periods over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatay, Secil; Cinar, Ali; Arikan, Feza

    2017-11-01

    Ionospheric electron density is the determining variable for investigation of the spatial and temporal variations in the ionosphere. Total Electron Content (TEC) is the integral of the electron density along a ray path that indicates the total variability through the ionosphere. Global Positioning System (GPS) recordings can be utilized to estimate the TEC, thus GPS proves itself as a useful tool in monitoring the total variability of electron distribution within the ionosphere. This study focuses on the analysis of the variations of ionosphere over Turkey that can be grouped into anomalies during equinox and solstice periods using TEC estimates obtained by a regional GPS network. It is observed that noon time depletions in TEC distributions predominantly occur in winter for minimum Sun Spots Numbers (SSN) in the central regions of Turkey which also exhibit high variability due to midlatitude winter anomaly. TEC values and ionospheric variations at solstice periods demonstrate significant enhancements compared to those at equinox periods.

  14. The ionospheric response to the Saint Patrick storm over South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spogli, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Di Mauro, D.; Pezzopane, M.; Cesaroni, C.; Povero, G., Sr.; Pini, M., Sr.; Dovis, F., Sr.; Romero, R.; Linty, N.; Abadi, P.; Nuraeni, F.; Husin, A.; Huy Le, M.; La The, V.; Pillat, V. G.; Floury, N.

    2015-12-01

    ERICA, a project funded by the European Space Agency, aims at characterizing the ionospheric variability of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly in the South East Asia. In particular, ERICA focuses on the variation of the plasma electron density in the southern and northern crests of the anomaly and over the dip equator identified by the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough. To achieve this goal, an ad hoc measurements campaign is on-going with ground-based instruments located in the footprints of the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly and of the Equatorial Ionospheric Trough in Vietnam and Indonesia.The campaign started on the 1st of March 2015, timing to monitor the Saint Patrick storm effects on the ionosphere by means of ionosondes, double frequency hardware and software defined radio GNSS receivers, ground based and spaceborne magnetometers and Langmuir probe. Such multi-instrumental and multi-parametric observations of the region enables an in-depth investigation of the ionospheric response to the largest geomagnetic storm of the current solar cycle. The observations record positive and negative ionospheric storms, sporadic E layer and spread F conditions, scintillations enhancement and inhibition, TEC gradients. The ancillary information on the local magnetic field allows to highlight the variety of ionospheric perturbations happened during the main and the long recovery phase of the storm.The paper presents the outcomes of the investigation evidencing the peculiarities of a region not yet extensively reported in the open literature.

  15. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help

  16. Analysis of the positive ionospheric response to a moderate geomagnetic storm using a global numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of F-layer storms are discussed using numerical simulations with the Upper Atmosphere Model, a global self-consistent, time dependent numerical model of the thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere system including electrodynamical coupling effects. A case study of a moderate geomagnetic storm at low solar activity during the northern winter solstice exemplifies the complex storm phenomena. The study focuses on positive ionospheric storm effects in relation to thermospheric disturbances in general and thermospheric composition changes in particular. It investigates the dynamical effects of both neutral meridional winds and electric fields caused by the disturbance dynamo effect. The penetration of short-time electric fields of magnetospheric origin during storm intensification phases is shown for the first time in this model study. Comparisons of the calculated thermospheric composition changes with satellite observations of AE-C and ESRO-4 during storm time show a good agreement. The empirical MSISE90 model, however, is less consistent with the simulations. It does not show the equatorward propagation of the disturbances and predicts that they have a gentler latitudinal gradient. Both theoretical and experimental data reveal that although the ratio of [O]/[N2] at high latitudes decreases significantly during the magnetic storm compared with the quiet time level, at mid to low latitudes it does not increase (at fixed altitudes above the quiet reference level. Meanwhile, the ionospheric storm is positive there. We conclude that the positive phase of the ionospheric storm is mainly due to uplifting of ionospheric F2-region plasma at mid latitudes and its equatorward movement at low latitudes along geomagnetic field lines caused by large-scale neutral wind circulation and the passage of travelling atmospheric disturbances (TADs. The calculated zonal electric field disturbances also help to create the positive ionospheric

  17. Dayside ionospheric convection changes in response to long-period interplanetary magnetic field oscillations: Determination of the ionospheric phase velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, M.A.; Freeman, M.P.; Southwood, D.J.; Cowley, S.W.H. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)); Lockwood, M. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)); Samson, J.C. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)); Farrugia, C.J. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Hughes, T.J. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    Ground magnetic field perturbations recorded by the CANOPUS magnetometer network in the 7 to 13 MLT sector are used to examine how reconfigurations of the dayside polar ionospheric flow take place in response to north-south changes of the IMF. During the 6-hour interval in question IMF B[sub z] oscillates between [plus minus] 7 nT with about a 1-hour period. Corresponding variations in the ground magnetic disturbance are observed which the authors infer are due to changes in ionospheric flow. Cross correlation of the data obtained from two ground stations at 73.5[degrees] magnetic latitude, but separated by [approximately]2 hours in MLT, shows that changes in the flow are initiated in the prenoon sector ([approximately]10 MLT) and then spread outward toward dawn and dusk with a phase speed of [approximately]5 km s[sup [minus]1] over the longitude range [approximately]8 to 12 MLT, slowing to [approximately] 2 km s[sup [minus]1] outside this range. Cross correlating the data from these ground stations with IMP 8 IMF B[sub z] records produces a MLT variation in the ground response delay relative to the IMF which is compatible with these deduced phase speeds. The authors interpret these observations in terms of the ionospheric response to the onset, expansion and decay of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause.

  18. Response of the ionosphere to natural and man-made acoustic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available A review is presented of the effects influencing the ionosphere which are caused by acoustic emission from different sources (chemical and nuclear explosions, bolides, meteorites, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, launches of spacecrafts and flights of supersonic jets. A terse statement is given of the basic theoretical principles and simplified theoretical models underlying the physics of propagation of infrasonic pulses and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. The observations of "quick" response by the ionosphere are pointed out. The problem of magnetic disturbances and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave generation in the ionosphere is investigated. In particular, the supersonic propagation of ionospheric disturbances, and the conversion of the acoustic energy into the so-called gyrotropic waves in the ionospheric E-layer are considered.

  19. Response of the ionosphere to natural and man-made acoustic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    Full Text Available A review is presented of the effects influencing the ionosphere which are caused by acoustic emission from different sources (chemical and nuclear explosions, bolides, meteorites, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, launches of spacecrafts and flights of supersonic jets. A terse statement is given of the basic theoretical principles and simplified theoretical models underlying the physics of propagation of infrasonic pulses and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. The observations of "quick" response by the ionosphere are pointed out. The problem of magnetic disturbances and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave generation in the ionosphere is investigated. In particular, the supersonic propagation of ionospheric disturbances, and the conversion of the acoustic energy into the so-called gyrotropic waves in the ionospheric E-layer are considered.

  20. Dynamic response of the Martian ionosphere to an interplanetary shock: Mars Express and MAVEN observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.; Lee, C. O.; Hara, T.; Espley, J.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Larson, D. E.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    Multipoint observations from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission reveal a dynamic response of the Martian ionosphere to abrupt variations in the upstream solar wind plasma. On 2 February 2017, MAVEN, located upstream from the Martian bow shock, encountered a corotating interaction region-related interplanetary shock with a sudden enhancement in the dynamic pressure. MARSIS, operating in the upper ionosphere at ˜478 km altitudes and ˜78° solar zenith angles, observed a sharp increase in the local magnetic field magnitude ˜1 min after the shock passage at MAVEN. The time lag is roughly consistent with the expected propagation time of a pressure pulse from the bow shock to the upper ionosphere at the fast magnetosonic speed. Subsequently, remote soundings recorded disturbed signatures of the topside ionosphere below Mars Express.

  1. Seasonal effects in the ionosphere-thermosphere response to the precipitation and field-aligned current variations in the cusp region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    from DE-2 data for IMF By < 0 but for the Northern (winter Hemisphere there is a disagreement at high latitudes in the afternoon sector of the cusp region. At the same time, the model results for this sector agree with other DE-2 data and with the ground-based FPI data. All ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances in the second variant of the calculations are more intensive in the winter cusp region in comparison with the summer one and this seasonal difference is larger than in the first variant of the calculations, especially in the electron density and all temperature variations. The means that the seasonal effects in the cusp region are stronger in the thermospheric and ionospheric responses to the FAC variations than to the precipitation disturbances.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances.

  2. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds I: optical and radar experimental comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermospheric neutral winds at Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E are compared using both direct optical Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI measurements and those derived from European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT measurements. This combination of experimental data sets, both covering well over a solar cycle of data, allows for a unique comparison of the thermospheric meridional component of the neutral wind as observed by different experimental techniques. Uniquely in this study the EISCAT measurements are used to provide winds for comparison using two separate techniques: the most popular method based on the work of Salah and Holt (1974 and the Meridional Wind Model (MWM (Miller et al., 1997 application of servo theory. The balance of forces at this location that produces the observed diurnal pattern are investigated using output from the Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere (CTIM numerical model. Along with detailed comparisons from short periods the climatological behaviour of the winds have been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using the experimental techniques. While there are features which are consistent between the 3 techniques, such as the evidence of the equinoctial asymmetry, there are also significant differences between the techniques both in terms of trends and absolute values. It is clear from this and previous studies that the high-latitude representation of the thermospheric neutral winds from the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM, though improved from earlier versions, lacks accuracy in many conditions. The relative merits of each technique are discussed and while none of the techniques provides the perfect data set to address model performance at high-latitude, one or more needs to be included in future HWM reformulations.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics, Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions, auroral ionosphere

  3. The response of the azimuthal component of the ionospheric electric field to auroral arc brightening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Safargaleev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the response of azimuthal component of the ionospheric electric field to auroral arc activity. We have chosen for analysis three intervals of coordinated EISCAT and TV observations on 18 February, 1993. These intervals include three kinds of arc activity: the appearance of a new auroral arc, the gradual brightening of the existing arc and variations of the arc luminosity. The arcs were mostly east-west aligned. In all cases, the enhancement of arc luminosity is accompanied by a decrease in the westward component of the ionospheric electric field. In contrast, an increase of that component seems to be connected with arc fading. The observed response is assumed to have the same nature as the "short circuit" of an external electric field by the conductor. The possible consequence of this phenomenon is discussed..Keywords. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionospheric irregularities · Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  4. Positive and negative ionospheric responses to the March 2015 geomagnetic storm from BDS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Jin, Rui; Kutoglu, H.

    2017-06-01

    The most intense geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24 occurred on March 17, 2015, and the detailed ionospheric storm morphologies are difficultly obtained from traditional observations. In this paper, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) observations of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) are for the first time used to investigate the ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm. Using BDS GEO and GIMs TEC series, negative and positive responses to the March 2015 storm are found at local and global scales. During the main phase, positive ionospheric storm is the main response to the geomagnetic storm, while in the recovery phase, negative phases are pronounced at all latitudes. Maximum amplitudes of negative and positive phases appear in the afternoon and post-dusk sectors during both main and recovery phases. Furthermore, dual-peak positive phases in main phase and repeated negative phase during the recovery are found from BDS GEO observations. The geomagnetic latitudes corresponding to the maximum disturbances during the main and recovery phases show large differences, but they are quasi-symmetrical between southern and northern hemispheres. No clear zonal propagation of traveling ionospheric disturbances is detected in the GNSS TEC disturbances at high and low latitudes. The thermospheric composition variations could be the dominant source of the observed ionospheric storm effect from GUVI [O]/[N2] ratio data as well as storm-time electric fields. Our study demonstrates that the BDS (especially the GEO) observations are an important data source to observe ionospheric responses to the geomagnetic storm.

  5. Energy-Efficient Office Buildings at High Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerum, V.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes a method for energy efficient office building design at high latitudes and cold climates. The method combines daylighting, passive solar heating, solar protection, and ventilative cooling. The thesis focuses on optimal design of an equatorial-facing fenestration system. A spreadsheet framework linking existing simplified methods is used. The daylight analysis uses location specific data on frequency distribution of diffuse daylight on vertical surfaces to estimate energy savings from optimal window and room configurations in combination with a daylight-responsive electric lighting system. The passive solar heating analysis is a generalization of a solar load ratio method adapted to cold climates by combining it with the Norwegian standard NS3031 for winter months when the solar savings fraction is negative. The emphasis is on very high computational efficiency to permit rapid and comprehensive examination of a large number of options early in design. The procedure is illustrated for a location in Trondheim, Norway, testing the relative significance of various design improvement options relative to a base case. The method is also tested for two other locations in Norway, at latitudes 58 and 70 degrees North. The band of latitudes between these limits covers cities in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia, and Northern Japan. A comprehensive study of the ``whole building approach`` shows the impact of integrated daylighting and low-energy design strategies. In general, consumption of lighting electricity may be reduced by 50-80%, even at extremely high latitudes. The reduced internal heat from electric lights is replaced by passive solar heating. 113 refs., 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. GPS phase scintillation and proxy index at high latitudes during a moderate geomagnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude and phase scintillation indices are customarily obtained by specialised GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors (GISTMs from L1 signal recorded at the rate of 50 Hz. The scintillation indices S4 and σΦ are stored in real time from an array of high-rate scintillation receivers of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN. Ionospheric phase scintillation was observed at high latitudes during a moderate geomagnetic storm (Dst = −61 nT that was caused by a moderate solar wind plasma stream compounded with the impact of two coronal mass ejections. The most intense phase scintillation (σΦ ~ 1 rad occurred in the cusp and the polar cap where it was co-located with a strong ionospheric convection, an extended tongue of ionisation and dense polar cap patches that were observed with ionosondes and HF radars. At sub-auroral latitudes, a sub-auroral polarisation stream that was observed by mid-latitude radars was associated with weak scintillation (defined arbitrarily as σΦ Φ > 0.1 rad and DPR > 2 mm s−1, both mapped as a function of magnetic latitude and magnetic local time, are very similar.

  7. High-latitude HF Doppler observations of ULF waves: 2. Waves with small spatial scale sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The DOPE (Doppler Pulsation Experiment HF Doppler sounder located near Tromsø, Norway (geographic: 69.6°N 19.2°E; L = 6.3 is deployed to observe signatures, in the high-latitude ionosphere, of magnetospheric ULF waves. A type of wave has been identified which exhibits no simultaneous ground magnetic signature. They can be subdivided into two classes which occur in the dawn and dusk local time sectors respectively. They generally have frequencies greater than the resonance fundamentals of local field lines. It is suggested that these may be the signatures of high-m ULF waves where the ground magnetic signature has been strongly attenuated as a result of the scale size of the waves. The dawn population demonstrate similarities to a type of magnetospheric wave known as giant (Pg pulsations which tend to be resonant at higher harmonics on magnetic field lines. In contrast, the waves occurring in the dusk sector are believed to be related to the storm-time Pc5s previously reported in VHF radar data. Dst measurements support these observations by indicating that the dawn and dusk classes of waves occur respectively during geomagnetically quiet and more active intervals.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  8. Space Weather effects on airline communications in the high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honary, Farideh

    2014-05-01

    Efficient air traffic management depends on reliable communications between aircraft and the air traffic control centres at all times. At high latitudes, and especially on polar routing, VHF ground infrastructure does not exist and the aircraft have to rely on HF radio for communications. HF relies on reflections from the ionosphere to achieve long distance communications. Unfortunately the high latitude ionosphere is affected by space weather events. During such events HF radio communication can be severely disrupted and aircraft are forced to use longer low latitude routes with consequent increased flight time, fuel consumption and cost. This presentation describes a new research programme at the University of Lancaster in collaboration with the University of Leicester, Solar Metrics Ltd and Natural Resources Canada for the development of a nowcasting and forecasting HF communications tool designed for the particular needs of civilian airlines. This project funded by EPSRC will access a wide variety of solar and interplanetary measurements to derive a complete picture of space weather disturbances affecting radio absorption and reflection

  9. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Mesospheric Semidiurnal Tides at mid- and High-Latitudes: Influence of Quasi Biennial Oscillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, F. I.; Stober, G.; Chau, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-diurnal tides (SDT) are the dominant component of the dynamical variations in the mid-and high-latitude mesosphere. These tides are known to influence the energy and momentum budget of the ionosphere thermosphere system. The seasonal and climatological studies of these tides are being made since long using systematic radio sounding measurements. Here in this study, meteor radar based horizontal wind observations during 2003-2014 from a high-latitude station, Andenes (69oN, 16oE) and during 2008-2014 from a mid-latitude station, Juliusruh (54oN, 13oE) are used to study the behavior of mesospheric SDTs. It has been observed that the amplitudes of SDTs are enhanced in both the stations during September equinox in all the years and after the March equinox in some years. Some earlier studies from low-latitudes, where quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) has maximum influence, showed SDT amplitude enhancement in both March and September equinox in all the years. Previous studies attributed such enhancements to be due to changes in the refractive properties of the medium arising from wind and temperature variations. In this study it has been observed that these enhancements in September equinox are below/above mean level for those years in which the low-latitude QBO wind at 50 hPa is westward/eastward (QBOe/QBOw). It is conjectured that a Holton-Tan type mechanism, wherein the equatorial Kelvin waves influence the high- and mid-latitude tidal and planetary waves, is responsible for lower values of the SDT amplitudes during September equinox of the QBOe phase cases. These results will be discussed with supporting evidence from reanalysis data and WACCM model simulations.

  10. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution. All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity. An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to auroral arcs as a result of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, as discussed by Aikio et al. (2004 In

  11. Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Aikio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Statistical properties of Joule heating rate, electric field and conductances in the high latitude ionosphere are studied by a unique one-month measurement made by the EISCAT incoherent scatter radar in Tromsø (66.6 cgmlat from 6 March to 6 April 2006. The data are from the same season (close to vernal equinox and from similar sunspot conditions (about 1.5 years before the sunspot minimum providing an excellent set of data to study the MLT and Kp dependence of parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution.

    All the parameters show a clear MLT variation, which is different for low and high Kp conditions. Our results indicate that the response of morning sector conductances and conductance ratios to increased magnetic activity is stronger than that of the evening sector. The co-location of Pedersen conductance maximum and electric field maximum in the morning sector produces the largest Joule heating rates 03–05 MLT for Kp≥3. In the evening sector, a smaller maximum occurs at 18 MLT. Minimum Joule heating rates in the nightside are statistically observed at 23 MLT, which is the location of the electric Harang discontinuity.

    An important outcome of the paper are the fitted functions for the Joule heating rate as a function of electric field magnitude, separately for four MLT sectors and two activity levels (Kp<3 and Kp≥3. In addition to the squared electric field, the fit includes a linear term to study the possible anticorrelation or correlation between electric field and conductance. In the midday sector, positive correlation is found as well as in the morning sector for the high activity case. In the midnight and evening sectors, anticorrelation between electric field and conductance is obtained, i.e. high electric fields are associated with low conductances. This is expected to occur in the return current regions adjacent to

  12. Global variations in Magnetosphere-Ionosphere system due to Sudden Impulses under different IMF By conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, D. S.; Zou, S.; Slavin, J. A.; Ridley, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    A sudden impulse (SI) event is a rapid increase in solar wind dynamic pressure, which compresses the Earth's magnetosphere from the dayside and travels towards the Earth's tail. During the SI events, compression front reconfigures the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (MI) current systems. This compression launches fast magnetosonic waves that carry the SI through magnetosphere and Alfven waves that enhance the field-aligned currents (FACs) at high-latitudes. FAC systems can be measured by Active Magnetosphere and Polar Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). The propagation front also creates travelling convection vortices (TCVs) in the ionosphere that map to the equatorial flank regions of the Earth's magnetosphere. The TCVs then move from dayside to the nightside ionosphere. To understand these SI-driven disturbances globally, we use the University of Michigan Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) with Global Magnetosphere (GM), Inner Magnetosphere (IM) and Ionosphere (IE) modules. We study the changes in the FAC systems, which link ionospheric and magnetospheric propagating disturbances under different IMF By conditions and trace the ionospheric disturbances to magnetospheric system to better understand the connection between two systems. As shown by previous studies, IMF By can cause asymmetries in the magnetic perturbations measured by the ground magnetometers. By using model results we determine the global latitudinal and longitudinal dependencies of the SI signatures on the ground. We also use the SWMF results to drive the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) to reveal how the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system is affected by the SI propagation. Comparisons are carried out between the IE model output and high latitude convection patterns from Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) measurements and SuperMAG ground magnetic field perturbations. In closing we have modeled the field-aligned currents, ionospheric convection patterns, temperature and

  13. Is plant migration restrained by available nitrogen supply in high latitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Schlosser, C. A.; Felzer, B.; Kicklighter, D.; Cronin, T.; Melillo, J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that growth and distribution of natural vegetation in high latitudes may be controlled by the amount of available nitrogen. Yet few studies have examined the role of available nitrogen on plant migration in response to anticipated climate change. We use a modeling approach to explore this issue. With a projected climate dataset (GFDL CM 2.0) from the IPCC AR4 archive, we first estimate net nitrogen mineralization values for natural plant functional types in high latitudes (north of 52N), using the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). Previous work with TEM indicates that warming increases the rates of net nitrogen mineralization in high latitudes (e.g. 10 percent increase in boreal forests), which may help support a pattern of increased woodiness in northern systems such as boreal woodlands filling in with trees and tundra becoming more shrubby. Constrained with the available nitrogen for each vegetation type, a simple rule- based model, which describes the migration process and adopts processes of climatic tolerances of trees from the BIOME biogeography model, is used to generate a newly projected vegetation map for high latitudes. Our study emphasizes the significance of the role of nitrogen in the high latitude plant distribution. We also investigate the climatic consequences of the changing albedo, resulting from shifts in the vegetation distribution.

  14. Ionospheric Responses to Nonlinear Acoustic Waves Generated by Natural Hazard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) fluctuations following large-magnitude earthquakes and resulting tsunamis, e.g. Tohoku in 2011, have been noted in many recent investigations [e.g., Galvan et al., Radio Science, 47(4), 2012]. Earthquakes impact the atmosphere through vertical displacements of the Earth's crust or ocean surfaces producing, as one effect, low-frequency acoustic waves. These waves can achieve significant amplitudes during propagation through the rarefied upper atmosphere, and are capable of driving sizable ionospheric electron density (TEC) fluctuations and electrical currents. Earthquake-generated acoustic waves are readily identifiable in GPS observations as 0.1-2 TECU, 3-5 mHz, oscillations, which are delayed from the quake occurrence by roughly the sound travel time between the ground and ionosphere. In some extreme cases, the onset of acoustic oscillations is concurrent with a persistent, sharp decrease in TEC (~5 TECU) above the epicenter [e.g., Kakinami et al., GRL, 39(13), 2012]. Ionospheric responses to large amplitude acoustic waves are investigated using a coupled atmosphere-ionosphere model [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. Of particular interest are effects of acoustic wave amplitude and nonlinearity on ionospheric responses, including production of detectable TEC oscillations and longer-lived responses like TEC depletions. The atmospheric dynamics model solves a Navier-Stokes' system of equations and incorporates generation of acoustic waves through acceleration source terms at ground-level. The ionospheric model solves a fluid system of equations for each of the major ionospheric species, and includes an electrostatic description of dynamo currents. The coupled model enables direct computation of observable quantities, such as vertical TEC and magnetic field fluctuations. Here we construct simulation case studies for realistic earthquake events and compare results against published TEC and magnetic field data. This

  15. Comparison of high-latitude thermospheric meridionalwinds II: combined FPI, radar and model Climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Griffin

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The climatological behaviour of the thermospheric meridional wind above Kiruna, Sweden (67.4°N, 20.4°E has been investigated for seasonal and solar cycle dependence using six different techniques, comprising both model and experimental sources. Model output from both the empirical Horizontal Wind Model (HWM (Hedin et al., 1988 and the numerical Coupled Thermosphere and Ionosphere Model (CTIM are compared to the measured behaviour at Kiruna, as a single site example. The empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model is used as input to an implementation of servo theory, to provide another climatology combining empirical input with a theoretical framework. The experimental techniques have been introduced in a companion paper in this issue and provide climatologies from direct measurements, using Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPI, together with 2 separate techniques applied to the European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT database to derive neutral winds. One of these techniques uses the same implementation of servo theory as has been used with the IRI model. Detailed comparisons for each season and solar activity category allow for conclusions to be drawn as to the major influences on the climatological behaviour of the wind at this latitude. Comparison of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR derived neutral winds with FPI, empirical model and numerical model winds is important to our understanding and judgement of the validity of the techniques used to derive thermospheric wind databases. The comparisons also test model performance and indicate possible reasons for differences found between the models. In turn, the conclusions point to possible improvements in their formulation. In particular it is found that the empirical models are over-reliant on mid-latitude data in their formulation, and fail to provide accurate estimates of the winds at high-latitudes.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics

  16. Venus Ionosphere and Induced Magnetosphere Responses to Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure and IMF Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjuan; Toth, Gabor; Nagy, Andew; Russell, Chris

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we focus on the responses of the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere of Venus to two typical changes in the solar wind: solar wind dynamic pressure changes and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction changes. Often regarded as the Earth’s ‘sister planet’, Venus has similar size and mass as Earth. But it is also remarkably different from Earth in many respects. Even though we have some basic knowledge of the solar wind interaction with Venus based on spacecraft observations, little is known about how the interaction and the resulting plasma escape rates vary in response to solar wind variations due to the lack of coordinated observations of both upstream solar wind conditions and simultaneous plasma properties in the Venus ionosphere. Furthermore, recent observations suggest that plasma escape rates are significantly enhanced during stormy space weather in response to solar wind pressure pulses (Edberg et al., 2011). Thus it is important to understand the plasma interaction under varying solar wind conditions. We use a sophisticated multi-species MHD model that has been recently developed for Venus (Ma et al., 2013) to characterize the changes of the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere for varying solar wind conditions. Based on model results, we discuss the perturbations of the magnetic field in the ionosphere and its variation with altitude; the variation of the total plasma escape-rate; and the time scale of the Venus ionosphere and induced magnetosphere in responding to both types of changes in the solar wind.

  17. Propagation of ULF waves through the ionosphere: Inductive effect for oblique magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Sciffer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solutions for ultra-low frequency (ULF wave fields in the frequency range 1–100mHz that interact with the Earth's ionosphere in the presence of oblique background magnetic fields are described. Analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic wave fields in the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere are derived within the context of an inductive ionosphere. The inductive shielding effect (ISE arises from the generation of an "inductive" rotational current by the induced part of the divergent electric field in the ionosphere which reduces the wave amplitude detected on the ground. The inductive response of the ionosphere is described by Faraday's law and the ISE depends on the horizontal scale size of the ULF disturbance, its frequency and the ionosphere conductivities. The ISE for ULF waves in a vertical background magnetic field is limited in application to high latitudes. In this paper we examine the ISE within the context of oblique background magnetic fields, extending studies of an inductive ionosphere and the associated shielding of ULF waves to lower latitudes. It is found that the dip angle of the background magnetic field has a significant effect on signals detected at the ground. For incident shear Alfvén mode waves and oblique background magnetic fields, the horizontal component of the field-aligned current contributes to the signal detected at the ground. At low latitudes, the ISE is larger at smaller conductivity values compared with high latitudes.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; electric fields and currents; wave propagation

  18. Propagation of ULF waves through the ionosphere: Inductive effect for oblique magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Sciffer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solutions for ultra-low frequency (ULF wave fields in the frequency range 1–100mHz that interact with the Earth's ionosphere in the presence of oblique background magnetic fields are described. Analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic wave fields in the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere are derived within the context of an inductive ionosphere. The inductive shielding effect (ISE arises from the generation of an "inductive" rotational current by the induced part of the divergent electric field in the ionosphere which reduces the wave amplitude detected on the ground. The inductive response of the ionosphere is described by Faraday's law and the ISE depends on the horizontal scale size of the ULF disturbance, its frequency and the ionosphere conductivities. The ISE for ULF waves in a vertical background magnetic field is limited in application to high latitudes. In this paper we examine the ISE within the context of oblique background magnetic fields, extending studies of an inductive ionosphere and the associated shielding of ULF waves to lower latitudes. It is found that the dip angle of the background magnetic field has a significant effect on signals detected at the ground. For incident shear Alfvén mode waves and oblique background magnetic fields, the horizontal component of the field-aligned current contributes to the signal detected at the ground. At low latitudes, the ISE is larger at smaller conductivity values compared with high latitudes. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; electric fields and currents; wave propagation

  19. High-latitude dust in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gassó, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; McKenna-Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-06-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (≥50°N and ≥40°S) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 km2 and contribute at least 80-100 Tg yr-1 of dust to the Earth system (~5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  20. High-latitude dust in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; NcKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Mockford, Tom; Stewart, Helena; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2016-01-01

    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (≥50°N and ≥40°S) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 km2 and contribute at least 80–100 Tg yr−1 of dust to the Earth system (~5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  1. Non-Uniform Plasma Discharges in Near Earth Space Environment and Ionosphere to Troposphere Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanney, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Most earth weather and ionosphere-space environment coupling studies separate the problems into distinct groups. Heliosphere to solar wind - solar storm activity to ionospheric coupling - thermosphere and mid- altitude to the ionosphere and electrical effects such as elves and sprites and thunderstorms in another group - additionally mid and high latitude weather systems are many times separated also. The theoretical work here shows that not only are these areas coupled and related, but it also shows that without the constant electrical and resulting magnetic driving forces from space environments, earth would have little if no weather variability at all below the ionosphere. With only solar light energy as input, earth (and the other planets) would have little weather at all. The realization that extensive electrical activates occur in and above the troposphere, extending to the ionosphere and ultimately coupling to the magnetosphere have raised the theoretical and experimental questions regarding the sources of EMF which create the observed effects. The current work has identified 17 Local Electrical Batteries (LEBs), which provide the electrical EMF that can be linked to the observed effects the jet streams and lower atmospheric weather phenomenon. The path of the sources of EMF can be followed from the passing solar wind through "tunnels" that end in electrical currents that pass into the atmosphere via the ionosphere to storm cloud systems in the lower atmosphere. However the source of energy comes from localized plasma discharging of a non-uniform plasma environment that powers the electrical systems of the entire solar system. These are ultimately the sources of electrical energy that power the severe lower atmospheric storm systems such as westerly moving hurricanes at low latitudes and associated tornadoes. The connection is made theoretically with the solar wind that drives the 17 identified LEBs. The ultimate source of driving energy is the result of an

  2. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Phil; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Observations of the change in Earth's magnetic field, the secular variation, provide information on the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for its generation. The very latest high-resolution observations from ESA's Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high-latitude localised in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we explain this feature with a localised, non-axisymmetric, westwards jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km/yr, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. The current accelerating phase may be a part of a longer term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastwards and westwards movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  3. Impact of the Lower Atmosphere on the Ionosphere Response to a Geomagnetic Superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedatella, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) are performed to elucidate the impacts of lower atmosphere forcing on the ionosphere response to a geomagnetic superstorm. In particular, how the ionosphere variability due to the October 2003 Halloween storm would be different if it occurred in January coincident with a major sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) event is investigated. The TIE-GCM simulations reveal that the E x B vertical drift velocity and total electron content (TEC) respond differently to the geomagnetic disturbance when the lower atmosphere forcing is representative of SSW conditions compared to climatological lower atmosphere forcing conditions. Notably, the storm time variations in the E x B vertical drift velocity differ when the effects of the SSW are considered, and this is in part due to effects of the SSW on the equatorial ionosphere being potentially misinterpreted as being of geomagnetic origin. Differences in the TEC response to the geomagnetic storm can be up to 100% ( 30 TECU) of the storm induced TEC change, and the temporal variability of the TEC during the storm recovery phase is considerably different if SSW effects are considered. The results demonstrate that even during periods of extreme geomagnetic forcing it is important to consider the effects of lower atmosphere forcing on the ionosphere variability.

  4. Computerized ionospheric tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austen, J.R.; Raymund, T.D.; Klobuchar, J.A.; Stalker, J.; Liu, C.H.

    1990-05-03

    In this paper the background of computerized tomography (CT) and its application to the ionosphere is reviewed. CT techniques, using only total electron content (TEC) data, can be used to reconstruct a two-dimensional image of the electron density in the ionosphere. The limitations of this technique are discussed and examples showing the limitations and capabilities are presented. Simulation results for two applications are presented: imaging the high latitude trough, and the correction of tracking radar range rate errors. Some possible extensions of the technique are presented.

  5. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  6. Response of ionospheric electric fields to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Mishra

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The STARE system (Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment provides estimates of electron drift velocities, and hence also of the electric field in the high-latitude E-region ionosphere between 65 and 70 degrees latitude. The occurrence of drift velocities larger than about 400 m/s (equivalent to an electric field of 20 mV/m have been correlated with the magnitude of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF components Bz and By at all local times. Observation days have been considered during which both southward (Bz<0 and northward (Bz>0 IMF occurred. The occurrence of electric fields larger than 20 mV/m increases with increases in Bz magnitudes when Bz<0. It is found that the effects of southward IMF continue for some time following the northward turnings of the IMF. In order to eliminate such residual effects for Bz<0, we have, in the second part of the study, considered those days which were characterized by a pure northward IMF. The occurrence is considerably lower during times when Bz>0, than during those when Bz is negative. These results are related to the expansion and contraction of the auroral oval. The different percentage occurrences of large electric field for By>0 and By<0 components of the IMF during times when Bz>0, clearly display a dawn-dusk asymmetry of plasma flow in the ionosphere. The effects of the time-varying solar-wind speed, density, IMF fluctuations, and magnetospheric substorms on the occurrence of auroral-backscatter observations are also discussed.

  7. Interplanetary phenomenon, geomagnetic and ionospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of the D(foF2) plots appear to show that the storm event is characterized by (i) the occurrence of positive ionospheric storm at the high latitudes and mid latitude stations of Khabarovsk, Yamagawa and Okinawa stations before the beginning of the storm event (ii) Presence of strong negative phase at Manila, ...

  8. Geophysical properties of the ionospheric irregularities responsible for radio scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclure, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of F-region ionospheric irregularities are described based on in-situ measurements of the actual waveforms of ion concentration. The spectral properties of the irregularities are discussed. In high, middle and low latitudes most of the irregularities observed fall into a single 'noiselike' category having power spectra which can be approximated by f to the negative n-th power and S to the n-th power, where S is the irregularity scale size and n is approximately 2. Thus the spectral components have a maximum gradient which is almost independent of their size. Other categories of irregularities are also observed occasionally.

  9. Energy sources of the high latitude upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrodynamic (Joule) dissipation and plasma wave heating are reviewed as sources of energy for the upper atmosphere at high latitudes. Electrodynamic heating in the thermosphere is described by a generalized energy balance equation taking into account a variety of inelastic processes and energy losses, and the use of height-integrated values of the Joule heating rate to estimate the importance of electrodynamic heating at high latitudes is discussed. Observations of electrons between 95 and 115 km altitude that are up to 1000 K hotter than the neutral atmosphere is presented as evidence for atmospheric heating due to unstable plasma waves arising from the Farley-Buneman modified two-stream instability.

  10. Ionospheric response to X-class solar flares in the ascending half of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A03307. Zhang D H, Mo X H, Cai L, Zhang W, Feng M, Hao Y. Q and Xiao Z 2011 Impact factor for the ionospheric total electron content response to solar flare irradiation;. J. Geophys. Res. 116 A04311. MS received 21 December 2015; revised 22 May 2016; accepted 24 May 2016. Corresponding editor: K Krishnamoorthy.

  11. GPS TEC, scintillation and cycle slips observed at high latitudes during solar minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude irregularities can impair the operation of GPS-based devices by causing fluctuations of GPS signal amplitude and phase, also known as scintillation. Severe scintillation events lead to losses of phase lock, which result in cycle slips. We have used data from the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN to measure amplitude and phase scintillation from L1 GPS signals and total electron content (TEC from L1 and L2 GPS signals to study the relative role that various high-latitude irregularity generation mechanisms have in producing scintillation. In the first year of operation during the current solar minimum the amplitude scintillation has remained very low but events of strong phase scintillation have been observed. We have found, as expected, that auroral arc and substorm intensifications as well as cusp region dynamics are strong sources of phase scintillation and potential cycle slips. In addition, we have found clear seasonal and universal time dependencies of TEC and phase scintillation over the polar cap region. A comparison with radio instruments from the Canadian GeoSpace Monitoring (CGSM network strongly suggests that the polar cap scintillation and TEC variations are associated with polar cap patches which we therefore infer to be main contributors to scintillation-causing irregularities in the polar cap.

  12. The potential for regime shifts in high latitude terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. S.; Goetz, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate constrains the extent of the two major terrestrial biomes at high latitudes: boreal forests and arctic tundra. Model simulations provide considerable evidence that physical and biogeochemical feedbacks from these regions to the climate system act to maintain a status quo of climate and biome distribution. Ongoing anthropogenically driven changes in climate are particularly pronounced in high latitude regions, and empirical evidence for their influence on tundra and boreal ecosystems is mounting. Global vegetation models project changes to accelerate in coming decades, culminating in profound shifts in high latitude biomes by the end of this century. Regime shifts are surprisingly large changes in a system that occur when a it moves between alternative stable states ('attractors'), without the equivalent large shift of an external driver. In association with climate change, regime shifts in ecosystems could theoretically generate significant modifications to ecosystem-climate feedbacks, in the Arctic for example through the respiration or combustion of large amounts of soil carbon. Here we review evidence for historical regime shifts in terrestrial ecosystems at high latitudes, including shifts in species dominance and distribution. We describe ongoing changes in characteristics of these ecosystems, including vegetation productivity, composition, and the fire regime, and discuss whether they can be indicators of impeding regime shifts. Finally, we discuss the potential of exploiting regime shifts in tundra and boreal systems for climate change mitigation or resource management by forcing ecosystems to shift towards a more desirable stable state.

  13. Late-season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... The influence of late-season nitrogen (N) applications on the fruiting pattern of strawberry runner plants of 'Camarosa' was determined over three growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in high- latitude nurseries in northern California and fruit production trials were established in southern.

  14. Ionospheric annual anomaly—New insights to the physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Gowtam, V.; Tulasi Ram, S.

    2017-08-01

    The ionospheric annual anomaly or nonseasonal anomaly of the ionosphere is characterized by globally increased ionization in December solstice than in June solstice. Though this phenomenon was reported several decades ago, the causal mechanisms have not been fully understood till today. In this paper, the F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2) data from Formosa satellite 3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate-radio occultation observations during the low solar activity year 2009 were systematically analyzed to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for annual anomaly and its local time, latitudinal, and longitudinal variability. It is found that the annual anomaly is primarily dominant at Southern Hemisphere at all local times, with significant enhancements at equatorial ionization anomaly crest latitudes during noon to afternoon hours and at high latitudes during nighttimes. The annual anomaly in Northern Hemisphere occurs with relatively smaller magnitudes and confined only to morning to early afternoon hours (08-14 LT). This study brings out the important roles of effective neutral winds due to the geomagnetic field configuration and the offset between geomagnetic equator and subsolar point for the enhanced plasma density in the Southern Hemisphere during December that majorly contributes to the ionospheric annual anomaly. These results provide new insights to the responsible mechanisms behind the ionospheric annual anomaly and its local time latitudinal, and longitudinal variation

  15. Geomagnetic and ionospheric response to the interplanetary shock on January 24, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Sakharov, Ya. A.; Lorentzen, D. L.; Samsonov, S. N.

    2017-08-01

    We have examined multi-instrument observations of the magnetospheric and ionospheric response to the interplanetary shock on January 24, 2012. Apart from various instruments, such as ground and space magnetometers, photometers, and riometers used earlier for a study of possible response to a shock, we have additionally examined variations of the ionospheric total electron content as determined from the global navigation satellite system receivers. Worldwide ground magnetometer arrays detected shock-induced sudden commencement (SC) with preliminary and main impulses throughout the dayside sector. A magnetic field compression was found to propagate through the magnetosphere with velocity less than the local Alfven velocity. Though the preliminary pulse was evident on the ground, its signature was not observed by the THEMIS and GOES satellites in the magnetosphere. The SC was accompanied by a burst of cosmic noise absorption recorded along a latitudinal network of riometers in the morning and evening sectors. The SC also caused an impulsive enhancement of dayside auroral emissions (shock aurora) as observed by the hyperspectral all-sky imager NORUSCA II at Barentsburg and the meridian scanning photometer at Longyearbyen (both at Svalbard). The VHF EISCAT radar (Tromsø, Norway) observed a SC-associated increase in electron density in the lower ionosphere (100-180 km). The system for monitoring geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power lines at the Kola Peninsula recorded a burst of GIC during the SC. A ≤10% positive pulse of the ionospheric total electron content caused by the SC in the dusk sector was found. On the basis of the multi-instrument information, a validated theory of the magnetosphere-ionosphere response to IP shock may be constructed.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. The ionospheric response to flux transfer events: the first few minutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We utilise high-time resolution measurements from the PACE HF radar at Halley, Antarctica to explore the evolution of the ionospheric response during the first few minutes after enhanced reconnection occurs at the magnetopause. We show that the plasma velocity increases associated with flux transfer events (FTEs occur first ~100–200 km equatorward of the region to which magnetosheath (cusp precipitation maps to the ionosphere. We suggest that these velocity variations start near the ionospheric footprint of the boundary between open and closed magnetic field lines. We show that these velocity variations have rise times ~100 s and fall times of ~10 s. When these velocity transients reach the latitude of the cusp precipitation, sometimes the equatorward boundary of the precipitation begins to move equatorward, the expected and previously reported ionospheric signature of enhanced reconnection. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the velocity variations. It involves the rapid outflow of magnetospheric electrons into the magnetosheath along the most recently reconnected field lines. Several predictions are made arising from the proposed explanation which could be tested with ground-based and space-based observations.

  17. Ionospheric response to the partial solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, according to the observations at Nizhni Novgorod and Murmansk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikovich, V. V.; Vyakhirev, V. D.; Kalinina, E. E.; Tereshchenko, V. D.; Chernyakov, S. M.; Tereshchenko, V. A.

    2008-02-01

    The results of observations of the solar eclipse ionospheric effects on March 29, 2006, are presented. The observations were conducted using the partial reflection method near Nizhni Novgorod and the vertical sounding method at the automatic ionospheric station near Murmansk. It has been obtained that the electron density at altitudes of 77 and 91 km decreases by a factor of more than 4; in this case the response of the ionosphere at an altitude of 91 km lags behind the eclipse maximum phase on the Earth by approximately 20 min. It has been established that the eclipse in the E and F1 regions of the polar ionosphere causes a change in the electron density by 15-20%. The delay time of this effect varies from 12 to 24 min depending on the altitude. It has been registered that the reflection virtual altitude at altitudes of the ionospheric F region increases in Murmansk and Nizhni Novgorod.

  18. High-latitude poynting flux from combined Iridium and SuperDARN data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Waters

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned currents convey stress between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the associated low altitude magnetic and electric fields reflect the flow of electromagnetic energy to the polar ionosphere. We introduce a new technique to measure the global distribution of high latitude Poynting flux, S||, by combining electric field estimates from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN with magnetic perturbations derived using magnetometer data from the Iridium satellite constellation. Spherical harmonic methods are used to merge the data sets and calculate S|| for any magnetic local time (MLT from the pole to 60° magnetic latitude (MLAT. The effective spatial resolutions are 2° MLAT, 2h MLT, and the time resolution is about one hour due to the telemetry rate of the Iridium magnetometer data. The technique allows for the assessment of high-latitude net S|| and its spatial distribution on one hour time scales with two key advantages: (1 it yields the net S|| including the contribution of neutral winds; and (2 the results are obtained without recourse to estimates of ionosphere conductivity. We present two examples, 23 November 1999, 14:00-15:00 UT, and 11 March 2000, 16:00-17:00 UT, to test the accuracy of the technique and to illustrate the distributions of S|| that it gives. Comparisons with in-situ S|| estimates from DMSP satellites show agreement to a few mW/m2 and in the locations of S|| enhancements to within the technique's resolution. The total electromagnetic energy flux was 50GW for these events. At auroral latitudes, S|| tends to maximize in the morning and afternoon in regions less than 5° in MLAT by two hours in MLT having S||=10 to 20mW/m2 and total power up to 10GW. The power poleward of the Region 1 currents is about one

  19. High-latitude poynting flux from combined Iridium and SuperDARN data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Waters

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned currents convey stress between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and the associated low altitude magnetic and electric fields reflect the flow of electromagnetic energy to the polar ionosphere. We introduce a new technique to measure the global distribution of high latitude Poynting flux, S||, by combining electric field estimates from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN with magnetic perturbations derived using magnetometer data from the Iridium satellite constellation. Spherical harmonic methods are used to merge the data sets and calculate S|| for any magnetic local time (MLT from the pole to 60° magnetic latitude (MLAT. The effective spatial resolutions are 2° MLAT, 2h MLT, and the time resolution is about one hour due to the telemetry rate of the Iridium magnetometer data. The technique allows for the assessment of high-latitude net S|| and its spatial distribution on one hour time scales with two key advantages: (1 it yields the net S|| including the contribution of neutral winds; and (2 the results are obtained without recourse to estimates of ionosphere conductivity. We present two examples, 23 November 1999, 14:00-15:00 UT, and 11 March 2000, 16:00-17:00 UT, to test the accuracy of the technique and to illustrate the distributions of S|| that it gives. Comparisons with in-situ S|| estimates from DMSP satellites show agreement to a few mW/m2 and in the locations of S|| enhancements to within the technique's resolution. The total electromagnetic energy flux was 50GW for these events. At auroral latitudes, S|| tends to maximize in the morning and afternoon in regions less than 5° in MLAT by two hours in MLT having S||=10 to 20mW/m2 and total power up to 10GW. The power poleward of the Region 1 currents is about one-third of the total power, indicating significant energy flux over the polar cap.

  20. DAASM Project-High Latitude Aircraft HF Propagation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-19

    äystemsrESSA eters of High Frequency 5ky-V Tech. HepoH EHL UO-m-Vb. Bibl. K.. et al(1970) Digital Interpreting Goniometrie Ionospheric Sounder. AFCRL...described in detail. It was found that the frequency-averaging technique provided a very efficient and reliable means of cross-spectral estimation, and... reliable method of mode identification. 7. Elkins, T..I. (19731 An Empirical Model of the Polar Ionosphere. Survey in Geophysics, No. 26T

  1. Summertime low-ozone episodes at northern high latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Orsolini, Y. J.; Eskes, H.; Hansen, G.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Kylling, A.; Kyrö, E.; Notholt, Justus; Van der A, R.; von der Gathen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A pool of low-ozone air resides in the Arctic stratosphere in summer. Its formation and maintenance arise from a combination of chemical ozone-destruction and transport processes. The summertime ozone destruction is induced by gas-phase chemistry dominated by nitrogen and hydrogen catalytic cycles, which are efficient due to long summertime insolation at high latitudes. It is shown that, during events referred to as low-ozone episodes (LOEs), column ozone can locally decrease to values compar...

  2. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

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    F. Becker-Guedes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm began with storm sudden commencement (SSC at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November. In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs, carried out from Palmas (PAL; 10.2° S, 48.2° W; dip latitude 5.5° S; a near equatorial station and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W; dip latitude 17.6° S; station located under the crest of equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil. In addition, total electron content (TEC measurements from several GPS receiving stations in the Brazilian sector during this storm are presented. The simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations carried out at SJC and PAL, and TEC observations on 3 consecutive days viz., 19 November (quiet, 20 November (disturbed and 21 November (recovery phase are presented. Salient features from the ionospheric observations in the Brazilian sector during the superstorm are discussed. The difference in the observed ionospheric response at the two stations (PAL and SJC is considerable. This is not surprising given that PAL is close to the magnetic equator and SJC is near the crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA. It should be pointed out that soon after the SSC (about 4 h later, the F-region critical frequency (foF2, the F-region peak height (hpF2, and variations of virtual heights at different frequencies (iso-frequency plots all show wavelike oscillations of the F-region during daytime at both the ionospheric sounding stations. Unusual rapid uplifting of F-region at PAL was observed during both the main and recovery phases of the storm.

  3. Comparison of the response of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) in the high-latitude regions of the North Atlantic during the warm periods of the 1920s-1960s and the 1990s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Ken

    2009-10-01

    Concern about future anthropogenic warming has lead to demands for information on what might happen to fish and fisheries under various climate-change scenarios. One suggestion has been to use past events as a proxy for what will happen in the future. In this paper a comparison between the responses of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) to two major warm periods in the North Atlantic during the 20th century is carried out to determine how reliable the past might be as a predictor of the future. The first warm period began during the 1920s, remained relatively warm through the 1960s, and was limited primarily to the northern regions (>60°N). The second warm period, which again covered the northern regions but also extended farther south (30°N), began in the 1990s and has continued into the present century. During the earlier warm period, the most northern of the cod stocks (West Greenland, Icelandic, and Northeast Arctic cod in the Barents Sea) increased in abundance, individual growth was high, recruitment was strong, and their distribution spread northward. Available plankton data suggest that these cod responses were driven by bottom-up processes. Fishing pressure increased during this period of high cod abundance and the northern cod stocks began to decline, as early as the 1950s in the Barents Sea but during the 1960s elsewhere. Individual growth declined as temperatures cooled and the cod distributions retracted southward. During the warming in the 1990s, the spawning stock biomass of cod in the Barents Sea again increased, recruitment rose, and the stock spread northward, but the individual growth did not improve significantly. Cod off West Greenland also have shown signs of improving recruitment and increasing biomass, albeit they are still very low in comparison to the earlier warming period. The abundance of Icelandic cod, on the other hand, has remained low through the recent warm period and spawning stock biomass and total biomass are at levels near the

  4. Response of ionospheric electric fields to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field

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    S. P. Mishra

    Full Text Available The STARE system (Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment provides estimates of electron drift velocities, and hence also of the electric field in the high-latitude E-region ionosphere between 65 and 70 degrees latitude. The occurrence of drift velocities larger than about 400 m/s (equivalent to an electric field of 20 mV/m have been correlated with the magnitude of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF components Bz and By at all local times. Observation days have been considered during which both southward (Bz<0 and northward (Bz>0 IMF occurred. The occurrence of electric fields larger than 20 mV/m increases with increases in Bz magnitudes when Bz<0. It is found that the effects of southward IMF continue for some time following the northward turnings of the IMF. In order to eliminate such residual effects for Bz<0, we have, in the second part of the study, considered those days which were characterized by a pure northward IMF. The occurrence is considerably lower during times when Bz>0, than during those when Bz is negative. These results are related to the expansion and contraction of the auroral oval. The different percentage occurrences of large electric field for By>0 and By<0 components of the IMF during times when Bz>0, clearly display a dawn-dusk asymmetry of plasma flow in the ionosphere. The effects of the time-varying solar-wind speed, density, IMF fluctuations, and magnetospheric substorms on the occurrence of auroral-backscatter observations are also discussed.

  5. Ionospheric response to magnetar flare: signature of SGR J1550-5418 on coherent ionospheric Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrous, Ayman

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents observational evidence of frequent ionospheric perturbations caused by the magnetar flare of the source SGR J1550-5418, which took place on 22 January 2009. These ionospheric perturbations are observed in the relative change of the total electron content (ΔTEC/Δt) measurements from the coherent ionospheric Doppler radar (CIDR). The CIDR system makes high-precision measurements of the total electron content (TEC) change along ray-paths from ground receivers to low Earth-orbiting (LEO) beacon spacecraft. These measurements can be integrated along the orbital track of the beacon satellite to construct the relative spatial, not temporal, TEC profiles that are useful for determining the large-scale plasma distribution. The observed spatial TEC changes reveal many interesting features of the magnetar signatures in the ionosphere. The onset phase of the magnetar flare was during the CIDR's nighttime satellite passage. The nighttime small-scale perturbations detected by CIDR, with ΔTEC/Δt ≥ 0.05 TECU s-1, over the eastern Mediterranean on 22 January 2009 were synchronized with the onset phase of the magnetar flare and consistent with the emission of hundreds of bursts detected from the source. The maximum daytime large-scale perturbation measured by CIDR over northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean was detected after ˜ 6 h from the main phase of the magnetar flare, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1. These ionospheric perturbations resembled an unusual poleward traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) caused by the extraterrestrial source. The TID's estimated virtual velocity is 385.8 m s-1, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1.

  6. A multi-diagnostic approach to understanding high-latitude plasma transport during the Halloween 2003 storm

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    P. Yin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the Halloween 2003 storm event, significant electron density enhancements at elevated F-layer altitudes were recorded by the EISCAT and ESR radars in northern Europe between 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 30 October. At the same time, a sequence of optical images from Qaanaaq in northern Greenland captured a series of eastward-propagating polar cap patches. In this paper, an advanced 4-D tomographic method based on the assimilation of global GPS data, coupled to a predictive Kalman filtering technique, has been used to reveal the linkage between these ionospheric structures. The combination of the various data sources has clearly established the time history of this extreme event, in which high-density plasma was uplifted in the dayside ionosphere and convected anti-sunward across the polar cap to European high latitudes at an elevated F-layer. Using this multi instrument approach, we can differentiate between those density structures observed at the ESR which occurred as a result of cross-polar transport and those more likely to have been produced by in-situ soft particle precipitation, a distinction which is supported by the ESR and EISCAT data. The multi-diagnostic approach reported here has the potential significantly to extend our current understanding of high latitude plasma transport and the origin of electron density enhancements.

  7. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  8. Impacts of high-latitude volcanic eruptions on ENSO and AMOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S R; Chafik, Leon; Caballero, Rodrigo; Battisti, David S

    2015-11-10

    Large volcanic eruptions can have major impacts on global climate, affecting both atmospheric and ocean circulation through changes in atmospheric chemical composition and optical properties. The residence time of volcanic aerosol from strong eruptions is roughly 2-3 y. Attention has consequently focused on their short-term impacts, whereas the long-term, ocean-mediated response has not been well studied. Most studies have focused on tropical eruptions; high-latitude eruptions have drawn less attention because their impacts are thought to be merely hemispheric rather than global. No study to date has investigated the long-term effects of high-latitude eruptions. Here, we use a climate model to show that large summer high-latitude eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere cause strong hemispheric cooling, which could induce an El Niño-like anomaly, in the equatorial Pacific during the first 8-9 mo after the start of the eruption. The hemispherically asymmetric cooling shifts the Intertropical Convergence Zone southward, triggering a weakening of the trade winds over the western and central equatorial Pacific that favors the development of an El Niño-like anomaly. In the model used here, the specified high-latitude eruption also leads to a strengthening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in the first 25 y after the eruption, followed by a weakening lasting at least 35 y. The long-lived changes in the AMOC strength also alter the variability of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  9. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability at high latitudes – Part 1: Influence of the annular modes

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    C. E. Sioris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and monthly zonal medians of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS are calculated for both Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE instruments for the northern and southern high-latitude regions (60–90° N and 60–90° S. Chosen for the purpose of observing high-latitude processes, the ACE orbit provides sampling of both regions in 8 of 12 months of the year, with coverage in all seasons. The ACE water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS are currently the only satellite instruments that can probe from the lower stratosphere down to the mid-troposphere to study the vertical profile of the response of UTLS water vapour to the annular modes. The Arctic oscillation (AO, also known as the northern annular mode (NAM, explains 64 % (r = −0.80 of the monthly variability in water vapour at northern high latitudes observed by ACE-MAESTRO between 5 and 7 km using only winter months (January to March, 2004–2013. Using a seasonal time step and all seasons, 45 % of the variability is explained by the AO at 6.5 ± 0.5 km, similar to the 46 % value obtained for southern high latitudes at 7.5 ± 0.5 km explained by the Antarctic oscillation or southern annular mode (SAM. A large negative AO event in March 2013 produced the largest relative water vapour anomaly at 5.5 km (+70 % over the ACE record. A similarly large event in the 2010 boreal winter, which was the largest negative AO event in the record (1950–2015, led to > 50 % increases in water vapour observed by MAESTRO and ACE-FTS at 7.5 km.

  10. Relationships between vegetation dynamics and hydroclimatic drivers in the northern high-latitude uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.; Spence, C.

    2015-12-01

    IPCC projections show that climate warming will be particularly high in northern high-latitude regions, which has profound ecohydrological implications: a small rise of temperature may result in lower water availability in summer due to less rainfall and more evapotranspiration, increase flooding risks by accelerating melting rates in spring, and more rain rather than snow in winter, etc. These impacts will affect vegetation communities by altering timing of the spring "green-up" and fall "senescence". Change in vegetation water use will feedback to atmospheric and hydrological cycles. Here, we report results from the PLATO "Plant-water interlinkages in northern uplands - mediation of climate change?" project where we investigate water uptake by plants and consequent water availability in northern regions along a cross-regional climate gradient to understand future responses to change in high-latitude uplands. Six sites in Sweden (Krycklan), Canada (Wolf Creek; Baker Creek; Dorset), Scotland (Girnock) and the USA (Dry Creek) span moisture and energy gradients found at high-latitudes. We are presenting preliminary results of vegetation phenology changes from 2000 to 2014 by analysing remote sensing vegetation indices. The relationship between vegetation phenology and climatic drivers (temperature and precipitation) is also investigated.

  11. Ionospheric data assimilation and forecasting during storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, A.; Matsuo, T.; Anderson, J. L.; Collins, N.; Hoar, T.; Lu, G.; Mitchell, C. N.; Coster, A. J.; Bust, G. S.; Paxton, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    Ionospheric storms can have important effects on radio communications and navigation systems. Storm time ionospheric predictions have the potential to form part of effective mitigation strategies to these problems. Ionospheric storms are caused by strong forcing from the solar wind. Electron density enhancements are driven by penetration electric fields, as well as by thermosphere-ionosphere behavior including Traveling Atmospheric Disturbances and Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances and changes to the neutral composition. This study assesses the effect on 1 h predictions of specifying initial ionospheric and thermospheric conditions using total electron content (TEC) observations under a fixed set of solar and high-latitude drivers. Prediction performance is assessed against TEC observations, incoherent scatter radar, and in situ electron density observations. Corotated TEC data provide a benchmark of forecast accuracy. The primary case study is the storm of 10 September 2005, while the anomalous storm of 21 January 2005 provides a secondary comparison. The study uses an ensemble Kalman filter constructed with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. Maps of preprocessed, verticalized GPS TEC are assimilated, while high-latitude specifications from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics and solar flux observations from the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Experiment are used to drive the model. The filter adjusts ionospheric and thermospheric parameters, making use of time-evolving covariance estimates. The approach is effective in correcting model biases.

  12. Pathways of high-latitude dust in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddock, Matthew C.; Mockford, Tom; Bullard, Joanna E.; Thorsteinsson, Throstur

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of mineral dust from high-latitude sources has remained an under-examined feature of the global dust cycle. Dust events originating at high latitudes can provide inputs of aeolian sediment to regions lying well outside the subtropical dust belt. Constraining the seasonal variability and preferential pathways of dust from high-latitude sources is important for understanding the potential impacts that the dust may have on wider environmental systems, such as nearby marine or cryospheric domains. This study quantifies dust pathways from two areas exhibiting different emission dynamics in the north and south of Iceland, which is a prominent Northern Hemisphere dust source. The analysis uses air parcel trajectory modelling, and for the first time for high-latitude sources, explicitly links all trajectory simulations to time-specific (meteorological) observations of suspended dust. This approach maximises the potential for trajectories to represent dust, and illustrates that trajectory climatologies not limited to dust can grossly overestimate the potential for dust transport. Preferential pathways emerge that demonstrate the role of Iceland in supplying dust to the Northern Atlantic and sub-Arctic oceans. For dust emitted from northern sources, a dominant route exists to the northeast, into the Norwegian, Greenland and Barents Seas, although there is also potential for delivery to the North Atlantic in summer months. From the southern sources, the primary pathway extends into the North Atlantic, with a high density of trajectories extending as far south as 50°N, particularly in spring and summer. Common to both southern and northern sources is a pathway to the west-southwest of Iceland into the Denmark Strait and towards Greenland. For trajectories simulated at ≤500 m, the vertical development of dust plumes from Iceland is limited, likely due to the stable air masses of the region suppressing the potential for vertical motion. Trajectories rarely

  13. Equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric response to the 17-18 March 2015 great storm over Southeast Asia longitude sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunhua; Yang, Guobin; Liu, Jing; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Liu, Tongxin; Lan, Ting; Zhou, Chen; Zhang, Yuannong; Zhao, Zhengyu; Komolmis, Tharadol; Supnithi, Pornchai; Yatini, Clara Y.

    2017-05-01

    This study mainly investigates equatorial and low-latitude ionospheric response to a great geomagnetic storm that occurred on 17 March 2015. We found that there were some interesting ionospheric phenomena, e.g., short-term ionospheric positive effect, daytime spread F, and morning Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the topside ionosphere, emerged at equatorial and low-latitude region along the longitude of about 100°E. Ground-based ionosondes and in situ satellite (Swarm) were utilized to study the possible mechanisms for these ionospheric phenomena. We found that vertical downward transport of plasma or neutral induced by traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) or traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) might make a contribution to the short-term ionospheric positive effect at the main stage of this great storm. Additionally, results suggested that the occurrence of daytime spread F at low latitudes might be due to the diffusion of equatorial ionospheric irregularities in the topside ionosphere along geomagnetic field lines. Moreover, observational evidence shows that TIDs also might be the main driver for morning EIA-like feature recorded by Swarm B satellite in the topside ionosphere. These ionospheric phenomena mentioned above could make us gain a better understanding of ionospheric storm effects at equatorial and low-latitude region.

  14. High-latitude electromagnetic and particle energy flux during an event with sustained strongly northward IMF

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    H. Korth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case study of a prolonged interval of strongly northward orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field on 16 July 2000, 16:00-19:00 UT to characterize the energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere for conditions associated with minimum solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. With reconnection occurring tailward of the cusp under northward IMF conditions, the reconnection dynamo should be separated from the viscous dynamo, presumably driven by the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH instability. Thus, these conditions are also ideal for evaluating the contribution of a viscous interaction to the coupling process. We derive the two-dimensional distribution of the Poynting vector radial component in the northern sunlit polar ionosphere from magnetic field observations by the constellation of Iridium satellites together with drift meter and magnetometer observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F13 and F15 satellites. The electromagnetic energy flux is then compared with the particle energy flux obtained from auroral images taken by the far-ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause to Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft. The electromagnetic energy input to the ionosphere of 51 GW calculated from the Iridium/DMSP observations is eight times larger than the 6 GW due to particle precipitation all poleward of 78° MLAT. This result indicates that the energy transport is significant, particularly as it is concentrated in a small region near the magnetic pole, even under conditions traditionally considered to be quiet and is dominated by the electromagnetic flux. We estimate the contributions of the high and mid-latitude dynamos to both the Birkeland currents and electric potentials finding that high-latitude reconnection accounts for 0.8 MA and 45kV while we attribute <0.2MA and ~5kV to an interaction at lower latitudes having the sense of a viscous interaction. Given that these

  15. Evapotranspiration Cycles in a High Latitude Agroecosystem: Potential Warming Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruairuen, Watcharee

    2015-01-01

    As the acreages of agricultural lands increase, changes in surface energetics and evapotranspiration (ET) rates may arise consequently affecting regional climate regimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate summertime ET dynamics and surface energy processes in a subarctic agricultural farm in Interior Alaska. The study includes micrometeorological and hydrological data. Results covering the period from June to September 2012 and 2013 indicated consistent energy fractions: LE/Rnet (67%), G/Rnet (6%), H/Rnet (27%) where LE is latent heat flux, Rnet is the surface net radiation, G is ground heat flux and H is the sensible heat flux. Additionally actual surface evapotranspiration from potential evaporation was found to be in the range of 59 to 66%. After comparing these rates with those of most prominent high latitude ecosystems it is argued here that if agroecosystem in high latitudes become an emerging feature in the land-use, the regional surface energy balance will significantly shift in comparison to existing Arctic natural ecosystems. PMID:26368123

  16. Stratospheric warming in Southern Hemisphere high latitudes since 1979

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    Y. Hu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we show evidence of significant stratospheric warming over Southern Hemisphere high latitudes and large portions of the Antarctic polar region in winter and spring seasons, with a maximum warming of 7–8°C in September and October, using satellite Microwave Sounding Unit observations for 1979–2006. It is found that this warming is associated with increasing wave activity from the troposphere into the stratosphere, suggesting that the warming is caused by enhanced wave-driven adiabatic heating. We show that the stratospheric warming in Southern Hemisphere high latitudes has close correlations with sea surface temperature (SST increases, and that general circulation model simulations forced with observed time-varying SSTs reproduce similar warming trend patterns in the Antarctic stratosphere. The simulated stratospheric warming is closely related to increasing wave activity in the Southern Hemisphere. These findings suggest that the stratospheric warming is likely induced by SST warming. As SST warming continues as a consequence of greenhouse gas increases due to anthropogenic activity, the stratospheric warming would also continue, which has important implications to the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  17. Doppler Spectral Characteristics of High Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities: Effect on HF Radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    DAOP (V) =50090 E-FDLDING DISTANCE OF ARRL E-FIELD(OEGREES) =5 LATITUDE OF POTENTIAL MAXIMUM(DEGREES) =70 OVAL OFFSET<DEGREES) a S MEASUREMENT LATITUDE...DOPPLER WIDT14 CROSS POLAR CAP POTENTIAL DAOP (V) =50000 E-FOLDING DISTANCE OF RRORAL E-FIELD(DEGAEES) =5 LATITUDE OF PDTENTIAL" MPXIMUM(DEGREES) = 70 OVAL...60 -Al1l - jiU 4,1 8.53 12.5 16.3 26.5s 24,#* * U *m U 10 tm 4- U U7 Ito oU LOCAL TIME DOPPLER VELOCITY DOPPLER WIDTH CROSS POLAR CAP POTENTIAL DAOP

  18. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

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    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Psvs, τ=ταPvlos, τ and δvsvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD turbulence (α=0.25, except close to magnetic dusk where they peaked towards the basic MHD value. For Population A, the scaling exponents were larger than for Population B, having values generally in the range expected for basic MHD and Kolmogorov turbulence (α=0.25–0.33. The α spectra exhibited complicated variations with MLT and τ which must be related to different physical processes exerting more or less influence.

  19. Complexity in the scaling of velocity fluctuations in the high-latitude F-region ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal scaling properties of F-region velocity fluctuations, δvlos, were characterised over 17 octaves of temporal scale from τ=1 s to <1 day using a new data base of 1-s time resolution SuperDARN radar measurements. After quality control, 2.9 (1.9 million fluctuations were recorded during 31.5 (40.4 days of discretionary mode soundings using the Tasmanian (New Zealand radars. If the fluctuations were statistically self-similar, the probability density functions (PDFs of δvlos would collapse onto the same PDF using the scaling Ps (δvs, τ=ταP (δvlos, τ and δvs=δvlosτ−α where α is the scaling exponent. The variations in scaling exponents α and multi-fractal behaviour were estimated using peak scaling and generalised structure function (GSF analyses, and a new method based upon minimising the differences between re-scaled probability density functions (PDFs. The efficiency of this method enabled calculation of "α spectra", the temporal spectra of scaling exponents from τ=1 s to ~2048 s. The large number of samples enabled calculation of α spectra for data separated into 2-h bins of MLT as well as two main physical regimes: Population A echoes with Doppler spectral width <75 m s−1 concentrated on closed field lines, and Population B echoes with spectral width >150 m s−1 concentrated on open field lines. For all data there was a scaling break at τ~10 s and the similarity of the fluctuations beneath this scale may be related to the large spatial averaging (~100 km×45 km employed by SuperDARN radars. For Tasmania Population B, the velocity fluctuations exhibited approximately mono fractal power law scaling between τ~8 s and 2048 s (34 min, and probably up to several hours. The scaling exponents were generally less than that expected for basic MHD turbulence (α=0.25, except close to magnetic dusk where they peaked towards the basic MHD value. For Population A, the scaling exponents were larger than for Population B, having values generally in the range expected for basic MHD and Kolmogorov turbulence (α=0.25–0.33. The α spectra exhibited complicated variations with MLT and τ which must be related to different physical processes exerting more or less influence.

  20. Complexity in the high latitude HF radar spectral width boundary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN radars are sensitive to the collective Doppler characteristics of decametre-scale irregularities in the high latitude ionosphere. The radars routinely observe a distinct transition from large spectral width (>100 m s−1 located at higher latitudes to low spectral width (<50 m s−1 located at lower latitudes. Because of its equatorward location, the TIGER Tasmanian radar is very sensitive to the detection of the spectral width boundary (SWB in the nightside auroral ionosphere. An analysis of the line-of-sight velocities and 2-D beam-swinging vectors suggests the meso-scale (~100 km convection is more erratic in the high spectral width region, but slower and more homogeneous in the low spectral width region. The radar autocorrelation functions are better modelled using Lorentzian Doppler spectra in the high spectral width region, and Gaussian Doppler spectra in the low spectral width region. However, paradoxically, Gaussian Doppler spectra are associated with the largest spectral widths. Application of the Burg maximum entropy method suggests the occurrence of double-peaked Doppler spectra is greater in the high spectral width region, implying the small-scale (~10 km velocity fluctuations are more intense above the SWB. These observations combined with collective wave scattering theory imply there is a transition from a fast flowing, turbulent plasma with a correlation length of velocity fluctuations less than the scattering wavelength, to a slower moving plasma with a correlation length greater than the scattering wavelength. Peak scaling and structure function analysis of fluctuations in the SWB itself reveals approximately scale-free behaviour across temporal scales of ~10 s to ~34 min. Preliminary scaling exponents for these fluctuations, αGSF=0.18±0.02 and αGSF=0.09±0.01, are even smaller than that expected for MHD turbulence.

  1. Interhemispheric comparison of GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes during the magnetic-cloud-induced geomagnetic storm of 5–7 April 2010

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    P. Prikryl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors (GISTMs are used in a comparative scintillation study focusing on quasi-conjugate pairs of GPS receivers in the Arctic and Antarctic. Intense GPS phase scintillation and rapid variations in ionospheric total electron content (TEC that can result in cycle slips were observed at high latitudes with dual-frequency GPS receivers during the first significant geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24 on 5–7 April 2010. The impact of a bipolar magnetic cloud of north-south (NS type embedded in high speed solar wind from a coronal hole caused a geomagnetic storm with maximum 3-hourly Kp = 8- and hourly ring current Dst = −73 nT. The interhemispheric comparison of phase scintillation reveals similarities but also asymmetries of the ionospheric response in the northern and southern auroral zones, cusps and polar caps. In the nightside auroral oval and in the cusp/cleft sectors the phase scintillation was observed in both hemispheres at about the same times and was correlated with geomagnetic activity. The scintillation level was very similar in approximately conjugate locations in Qiqiktarjuaq (75.4° N; 23.4° E CGM lat. and lon. and South Pole (74.1° S; 18.9° E, in Longyearbyen (75.3° N; 111.2° E and Zhongshan (74.7° S; 96.7° E, while it was significantly higher in Cambridge Bay (77.0° N; 310.1° E than at Mario Zucchelli (80.0° S; 307.7° E. In the polar cap, when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was strongly northward, the ionization due to energetic particle precipitation was a likely cause of scintillation that was stronger at Concordia (88.8° S; 54.4° E in the dark ionosphere than in the sunlit ionosphere over Eureka (88.1° N; 333.4° E, due to a difference in ionospheric conductivity. When the IMF tilted southward, weak or no significant scintillation was detected in the northern polar cap, while in the southern polar cap rapidly varying TEC and strong phase scintillation

  2. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in the space weather studies. Scintillation is a major problem in navigation application using GPS and in satellite communication at ...

  3. Ionospheric irregularities at Antarctic using GPS measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this work is to study the behaviour of the ionospheric scintillation at high latitude during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions which is one of the most relevant themes in ... Severe amplitude fading and strong scintillation affect the reliability of GPS navigational system and satellite communication.

  4. Numerical study of ionospheric response to perturbations and interaction with spacecraft instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Nadia

    This PhD thesis presents numerical studies of the ionosphere dynamics and of the interaction between ionospheric plasma and spacecraft instruments. The main results of my research are the following: A first study presents a simple model to account for magnetic field perturbations in response to geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes. Following an earthquake, large neutral density and velocity perturbations reach altitudes of 150 -- 350 km, where significant coupling between the neutral atmosphere and the ionosphere occurs. Photoionization and collisional friction between plasma and the neutral exosphere then results in a rapid variation in ionospheric plasma parameters. This in turn leads to the generation of two types of waves: shear Alfven and the compressional modes. Variations in the total electron content (TEC) are also computed for the ion acoustic mode and the compressional mode by considering density perturbations along and transverse to the magnetic field. The second part of my work considers the interaction between ionospheric plasma and spacecraft instruments under different plasma conditions. This is achieved by simulating space plasma interaction with two different particle sensors; namely, DEMETER's Segmented Langmuir probe (SLP) and JOULEII Suprathermal Ion imager (SII). The current characteristics of the SLP are computed with particle in cell (PIC) code, under different plasma conditions. The current collected by each segment varies with the orientation of the plasma flow velocity, the plasma composition and with the orientation of the magnetic field. For validation of the simulations, the computed characteristics are compared with DEMETER in situ measurements. Simulation results are found to be in good agreement with measurements. Finally, the impact of plasma flow on ion velocity distributions in the vicinity of the SII sensor aperture is numerically investigated. It is observed that the plasma flow modifies the electrostatic sheath and affects

  5. Dissipation of four forest-use herbicides at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mike; Cole, Elizabeth C; Tinsley, Ian J

    2008-10-01

    hexazinone. These products dissipate during summer in high latitudes much as they would in temperate climates. Winter changes are small, but are not unlike some changes reported elsewhere under freezing conditions. Unlike many other studies, soil water did not influence dissipation heavily, but the high latitude and semi-arid climate also did not create severely droughty soils. Residues in plants were much higher than those in soils, but denatured the vegetation quickly, leading to unsuitability for forage in any case. Low toxicity of these products and their metabolites combined with consistent dissipation and low mobility suggest that toxic hazard of their use at high latitudes need not be a matter of serious concern to humans, terrestrial wildlife, or aquatic systems. They are safe for use in management and rehabilitation of boreal forests when used properly. Dissipation at rates approaching those in warmer climates offer a hypothesis that microflora native to high latitudes may be adapted to destruction of such molecules at lower temperatures than may be indicated by experiments with microflora adapted to warmer climates. Residues pose no observable risk to wildlife or humans in the area of use when products are applied properly.

  6. Scaling Features of High-Latitude Geomagnetic Field Fluctuations at Swarm Altitude: Impact of IMF Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Consolini, Giuseppe; Tozzi, Roberta; Marcucci, Maria Federica

    2017-10-01

    This paper attempts to explore the statistical scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations at Swarm altitude. Data for this study are low-resolution (1 Hz) magnetic data recorded by the vector field magnetometer on board Swarm A satellite over 1 year (from 15 April 2014 to 15 April 2015). The first- and second-order structure function scaling exponents and the degree of intermittency of the fluctuations of the intensity of the horizontal component of the magnetic field at high northern latitudes have been evaluated for different interplanetary magnetic field orientations in the GSM Y-Z plane and seasons. In the case of the first-order structure function scaling exponent, a comparison between the average spatial distributions of the obtained values and the statistical convection patterns obtained using a Super Dual Auroral Radar Network dynamic model (CS10 model) has been also considered. The obtained results support the idea that the knowledge of the scaling features of the geomagnetic field fluctuations can help in the characterization of the different ionospheric turbulence regimes of the medium crossed by Swarm A satellite. This study shows that different turbulent regimes of the geomagnetic field fluctuations exist in the regions characterized by a double-cell convection pattern and in those regions near the border of the convective structures.

  7. Daylighting in linear atrium buildings at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matusiak, Barbara

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes new criteria for visual comfort based on knowledge of visual perception and a method for estimating the modelling ability of light by using inter-reflection calculations. Simplified calculations are presented for the daylight factor in linear building structures, using the projected solid angle principle, for uniform sky and for CIE overcast sky conditions. The calculations are compared with experimental results. Simple diagrams are created based on calculations of the mean daylight factor in rooms adjacent to a narrow street. These diagrams and presented formulas and tables can be used as a simple design tool. Daylighting strategies for linear atrium buildings at high latitudes are developed and examined. These strategies are divided into three groups: (1) the atrium space and facades as light conductor/reflector, (2) the glass roof as a light conductor, and (3) light reflectors on the neighbouring roof. The atrium space and facade strategies are subdivided into passive and active. The strategies connected to the glazed roof includes different configurations of glazing: horizontal, single pitched, double pitched, and the use of laser cut panels and prismatic panels in the glazed roof. The shapes of reflectors on the neighbouring roof are a flat reflector, a parabolic reflector and a parabolic concentrator. Strategies from all three groups are examined on a physical model of scale 1:20 in the artificial sky of mirror box type. Simulations with artificial sun have also been done. The results from model studies are compared with computer simulations. All the active daylighting systems designed for use in the atrium space or on the atrium facades have a huge potential for use in atrium buildings. From the strategies connected with the glazed roof the negatively sloped glass is found to be the best alternative for glazed roofs at high latitudes. Among the roof reflectors, the flat one performs best. 82 refs., 122 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Ground-based and satellite observations of high-latitude auroral activity in the dusk sector of the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kauristie

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, during 13:30–15:30 UT the MIRACLE all-sky camera at Ny Ålesund observed auroras at high-latitudes (MLAT ~ 76 simultaneously when the Cluster spacecraft were skimming the magnetopause in the same MLT sector (at ~ 16:00–18:00 MLT. The location of the auroras (near the ionospheric convection reversal boundary and the clear correlation between their dynamics and IMF variations suggests their close relationship with R1 currents. Consequently, we can assume that the Cluster spacecraft were making observations in the magnetospheric region associated with the auroras, although exact magnetic conjugacy between the ground-based and satellite observations did not exist. The solar wind variations appeared to control both the behaviour of the auroras and the magnetopause dynamics. Auroral structures were observed at Ny Ålesund especially during periods of negative IMF BZ. In addition, the Cluster spacecraft experienced periodic (T ~ 4 - 6 min encounters between magnetospheric and magnetosheath plasmas. These undulations of the boundary can be interpreted as a consequence of tailward propagating magnetopause surface waves. Simultaneous dusk sector ground-based observations show weak, but discernible magnetic pulsations (Pc 5 and occasionally periodic variations (T ~ 2 - 3 min in the high-latitude auroras. In the dusk sector, Pc 5 activity was stronger and had characteristics that were consistent with a field line resonance type of activity. When IMF BZ stayed positive for a longer period, the auroras were dimmer and the spacecraft stayed at the outer edge of the magnetopause where they observed electromagnetic pulsations with T ~ 1 min. We find these observations interesting especially from the viewpoint of previously presented studies relating poleward-moving high-latitude auroras with pulsation activity and MHD waves propagating at the magnetospheric boundary layers

  9. Unexpected Southern Hemisphere ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm of 15 August 2015

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edemskiy, I.; Laštovička, Jan; Burešová, Dalia; Habarulema, J. B.; Nepomnyashchikh, I.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2018), s. 71-79 ISSN 0992-7689 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ionosphere * ionospheric disturbances * midlatitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2016 https://www.ann-geophys.net/36/71/2018/angeo-36-71-2018.pdf

  10. High-latitude plasma convection during Northward IMF as derived from in-situ magnetospheric Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate statistical, systematic variations of the high-latitude convection cell structure during northward IMF. Using 1-min-averages of Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for six and a half years (February 2001 till July 2007, and mapping the spatially distributed measurements to a common reference plane at ionospheric level in a magnetic latitude/MLT grid, we obtained regular drift patterns according to the various IMF conditions. We focus on the particular conditions during northward IMF, where lobe cells at magnetic latitudes >80° with opposite (sunward convection over the central polar cap are a permanent feature in addition to the main convection cells at lower latitudes. They are due to reconnection processes at the magnetopause boundary poleward of the cusp regions. Mapped EDI data have a particular good coverage within the central part of the polar cap, so that these patterns and their dependence on various solar wind conditions are well verified in a statistical sense. On average, 4-cell convection pattern are shown as regular structures during periods of nearly northward IMF with the tendency of a small shift toward negative clock angles. The positions of these high-latitude convection foci are within 79° to 85° magnetic latitude and 09:00–15:00 MLT. The MLT positions are approximately symmetric ±2 h about 11:30 MLT, i.e. slightly offset from midday toward prenoon hours, while the maximum (minimum potential of the high-latitude cells is at higher magnetic latitudes near their maximum potential difference at ≈−10° to −15° clock angle for the North (South Hemisphere. With increasing clock angle distances from ≈IMFBz+, a gradual transition occurs from the 4-cell pattern via a 3-cell to the common 2-cell convection pattern, in the course of which one of the medium-scale high-latitude dayside cells diminishes and disappears while the

  11. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Affek, Hagit P; Ivany, Linda C; Houben, Alexander J P; Sijp, Willem P; Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark

    2014-05-06

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at similar latitudes, with SSTs above 20 °C in the southwest Pacific contrasting with SSTs between 5 and 15 °C in the South Atlantic. Validation of this zonal temperature difference has been impeded by uncertainties inherent to the individual paleotemperature proxies applied at these sites. Here, we present multiproxy data from Seymour Island, near the Antarctic Peninsula, that provides well-constrained evidence for annual SSTs of 10-17 °C (1σ SD) during the middle and late Eocene. Comparison of the same paleotemperature proxy at Seymour Island and at the East Tasman Plateau indicate the presence of a large and consistent middle-to-late Eocene SST gradient of ∼7 °C between these two sites located at similar paleolatitudes. Intermediate-complexity climate model simulations suggest that enhanced oceanic heat transport in the South Pacific, driven by deep-water formation in the Ross Sea, was largely responsible for the observed SST gradient. These results indicate that very warm SSTs, in excess of 18 °C, did not extend uniformly across the Eocene southern high latitudes, and suggest that thermohaline circulation may partially control the distribution of high-latitude ocean temperatures in greenhouse climates. The pronounced zonal SST heterogeneity evident in the Eocene cautions against inferring past meridional temperature gradients using spatially limited data within given latitudinal bands.

  12. Study of the seasonal ozone variations at European high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R.; Stebel, K.; Hansen, H. G.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Gausa, M.; Kivi, R.; von der Gathen, P.; Orsolini, Y.; Kilifarska, N.

    2011-02-01

    The geographic area at high latitudes beyond the polar circle is characterized with long darkness during the winter (polar night) and with a long summertime insolation (polar day). Consequentially, the polar vortex is formed and the surrounding strong polar jet is characterized by a strong potential vorticity gradient representing a horizontal transport barrier. The ozone dynamics of the lower and middle stratosphere is controlled both by chemical destruction processes and transport processes.To study the seasonal ozone variation at high latitudes, ozone vertical distributions are examined, collected from the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR) (69.3°N, 16.0°E,) station at Andenes and from the stations at Sodankylä (67.4°N, 26.6°E) and at Ny-Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E). The data sets cover the time period from 1994 until 2004. We find a second ozone maximum near 13-15 km, between the tropopause and the absolute ozone maximum near 17-20 km. The maximum is built up by the combination of air mass transport and chemical ozone destruction, mainly caused by the NOx catalytic cycle, which begins after the polar night and intensifies with the increasing day length. Formation of a troposphere inversion layer is observed. The inversion layer is thicker and reaches higher altitudes in winter rather than in summer. However, the temperature inversion during summer is stronger. The formation of an enhanced ozone number density is observed during the spring-summer period. The ozone is accumulated or becomes poor by synoptic weather patterns just above the tropopause from spring to summer. In seasonal average an ozone enhancement above the tropopause is obtained.The stronger temperature inversion during the summer period inhibits the vertical stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The horizontal advection in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is enforced during summer. The combination of these mechanisms generates a layer with a very low

  13. Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B.; Parker, T.; Bonnett, B.; Tytgat, G.; Anderson, K.; Fowler, J.

    2009-04-01

    IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous system recording to local media, capable of lasting two years without service. The system is composed of four new design elements: a heavily insulated station enclosure; a state-of-health (SOH) Iridium modem; a light weight, easily deployed solar panel mount; and a power system that includes power switching between primary (Lithium Thionyl Chloride) and secondary batteries. The station enclosures have proved most critical in keeping our data acquisition systems operating within manufacturer specifications and primary batteries within a 50-70% efficiency range. Enclosures with 2.5cm-thick vacuum panels and 5cm of foam insulation have kept interior enclosure temperatures 25-30°C above background (typically below -50°C). This austral summer we are deploying version three of our enclosures. Significant changes in the design include thicker vacuum panels (5cm), more robust construction, and simplified cable routing. An important aspect of our station design is easy installation and minimal weight. To simplify installation our station enclosures are packed with datalogger, SOH communications and batteries in the lab or base camp, so that access to the internal components is not necessary at the remote site. Bulkhead connectors allow a user to fully interact with the system without ever having to open the enclosure. Solar panel mounts are also fully constructed prior to deployment. Once on site, digging two large holes (one for the enclosure and one for the broadband seismometer) and constructing the site takes roughly 2 hours. A station designed to record continuously for 12-14 months is

  14. The impact of sunlight on high-latitude equivalent currents

    CERN Document Server

    Laundal, K M; Østgaard, N; Reistad, J P; Haaland, S; Snekvik, K; Tenfjord, P; Ohtani, S; Milan, S E

    2016-01-01

    Ground magnetic field measurements can be mathematically related to an overhead ionospheric equivalent current. In this study we look in detail at how the global equivalent current, calculated using more than 30 years of SuperMAG magnetometer data, changes with sunlight conditions. The calculations are done using spherical harmonic analysis in quasi-dipole coordinates, a technique which leads to improved accuracy compared to previous studies. Sorting the data according to the location of the sunlight terminator and orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), we find that the equivalent current resembles ionospheric convection patterns on the sunlit side of the terminator but not on the dark side. On the dark side, with southward IMF, the current is strongly dominated by a dawn cell and the current across the polar cap has a strong dawnward component. The contrast between the sunlit and dark side increases with increasing values of the $\\mathit{F}_{10.7}$ index, showing that increasing solar EUV fl...

  15. On the relationship between the geometrical control of scintillation indices and the data detrending problems observed at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Forte

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experimental estimate of radio waves scintillation, caused by plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere, is usually attempted by means of scintillation indices which are essentially standard deviations of stochasticly fluctuating parts of the received radio wave intensity and phase. At high latitudes, provided that the propagation problem may be modelled by means of the weak scattering theory, the typical scintillation indices S4 and ?? depend on a geometrical factor which introduces some amplifications on their values. Scintillation indices S4 and ?? measured at auroral latitudes are estimated by means of different boundary detrending conditions and the geometrical effect on those detrending conditions is investigated. In the case of the polar Low Earth Orbiting (LEO satellite links considered here, high phase with low intensity scintillation events do not seem to be related to geometrical effects only, but rather to misleading data detrending.

  16. Seasonal dynamics of meroplankton in a high-latitude fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Helena Kling; Svensen, Camilla; Reigstad, Marit; Nilssen, Einar Magnus; Pedersen, Torstein

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on the seasonal timing and composition of pelagic larvae of many benthic invertebrates, referred to as meroplankton, is limited for high-latitude fjords and coastal areas. We investigated the seasonal dynamics of meroplankton in the sub-Arctic Porsangerfjord (70°N), Norway, by examining their seasonal changes in relation to temperature, chlorophyll a and salinity. Samples were collected at two stations between February 2013 and August 2014. We identified 41 meroplanktonic taxa belonging to eight phyla. Multivariate analysis indicated different meroplankton compositions in winter, spring, early summer and late summer. More larvae appeared during spring and summer, forming two peaks in meroplankton abundance. The spring peak was dominated by cirripede nauplii, and late summer peak was dominated by bivalve veligers. Moreover, spring meroplankton were the dominant component in the zooplankton community this season. In winter, low abundances and few meroplanktonic taxa were observed. Timing for a majority of meroplankton correlated with primary production and temperature. The presence of meroplankton in the water column through the whole year and at times dominant in the zooplankton community, suggests that they, in addition to being important for benthic recruitment, may play a role in the pelagic ecosystem as grazers on phytoplankton and as prey for other organisms.

  17. Observed currents on the earth's high-latitude magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, J. A.; Adnan, J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of electrical currents of the earth's magnetosphere, principally at high latitudes, as inferred from magnetic vector data acquired by the Hawkeye 1 satellite, is reported. A total of 536 candidate crossings of the magnetopause were examined. A reduced data set of 139 selected cases was analyzed in detail though solar wind dynamic pressure data were available for only 117 of these cases. Inferred values of the lineal current densities on the magnetopause are in the range 5.5 to 157.5 mA/m over a wide range of solar wind dynamic pressure from 1.17 to 16.1 nPa. The apparent normal thickness of the magnetopause current sheet ranges from 30 to 850 km with mean and median values of 185 and 158 km, respectively. It is argued that the radial rate of motion of the magnetopause is of the order of 2 km/s and hence that its true thickness is of similar magnitude. The relationship of these results to models of the geomagnetic field and to other related work is discussed.

  18. Geosynchronous inclined orbits for high-latitude communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Flores, R. M.; Di Carlo, M.; Di Salvo, A.; Cabot, E.

    2017-11-01

    We present and discuss a solution to the growing demand for satellite telecommunication coverage in the high-latitude geographical regions (beyond 55°N), where the signal from geostationary satellites is limited or unavailable. We focus on the dynamical issues associated to the design, the coverage, the maintenance and the disposal of a set of orbits selected for the purpose. Specifically, we identify a group of highly inclined, moderately eccentric geosynchronous orbits derived from the Tundra orbit (geosynchronous, eccentric and critically inclined). Continuous coverage can be guaranteed by a constellation of three satellites in equally spaced planes and suitably phased. By means of a high-precision model of the terrestrial gravity field and the relevant environmental perturbations, we study the evolution of these orbits. The effects of the different perturbations on the ground track (which is more important for coverage than the orbital elements themselves) are isolated and analyzed. The physical model and the numerical setup are optimized with respect to computing time and accuracy. We show that, in order to maintain the ground track unchanged, the key parameters are the orbital period and the argument of perigee. Furthermore, corrections to the right ascension of the ascending node are needed in order to preserve the relative orientation of the orbital planes. A station-keeping strategy that minimizes propellant consumption is then devised, and comparisons are made between the cost of a solution based on impulsive maneuvers and one with continuous thrust. Finally, the issue of end-of-life disposal is discussed.

  19. DISCOVERY OF AN APPARENT HIGH LATITUDE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Neustadt, Jack M. M.; Black, Christine S.; Koeppel, Ari H. D. [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    Deep Hα images of a faint emission complex 4.°0 × 5.°5 in angular extent and located far off the Galactic plane at l = 70.°0, b = −21.°5 reveal numerous thin filaments suggestive of a supernova remnant’s (SNR’s) shock emission. Low dispersion optical spectra covering the wavelength range 4500–7500 Å show only Balmer line emissions for one filament while three others show a Balmer dominated spectrum along with weak [N i] 5198, 5200 Å, [O i] 6300, 6364 Å, [N ii] 6583 Å, [S ii] 6716, 6731 Å, and in one case [O iii] 5007 Å line emission. Many of the brighter Hα filaments are visible in near-UV GALEX images presumably due to C iii] 1909 Å line emission. ROSAT All Sky Survey images of this region show a faint crescent-shaped X-ray emission nebula coincident with the portion of the Hα nebulosity closest to the Galactic plane. The presence of long, thin Balmer dominated emission filaments with associated UV emission and coincident X-ray emission suggests this nebula is a high latitude Galactic SNR despite a lack of known associated nonthermal radio emission. Relative line intensities of the optical lines in some filaments differ from commonly observed [S ii]/Hα ≥ 0.4 radiative shocked filaments and typical Balmer filaments in SNRs. We discuss possible causes for the unusual optical SNR spectra.

  20. Occurrence of polar mesosphere summer echoes at very high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zecha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE have been carried out during the summer periodes 1999–2001 and 2003–2004 at the very high latitude of 78° N using the SOUSY Svalbard Radar (53.5 MHz at Longyearbyen. Although the measurements could not be done continuously in these seasons, PMSE have been detected over more than 6600 h of 9300 h of observation time overall. Using this data base, particular PMSE occurrence characteristics have been determined. PMSE at Svalbard appear from the middle of May to the end of August with an almost permanent total occurrence in June and July. Diurnal variations are observable in the height-depend occurrence rates and in PMSE thickness, they show a maximum around 09:00–10:00 UTC and a minimum around 21:00–22:00 UTC. PMSE occur nearly exclusively between a height of 80 km and 92 km with a maximum near 85 km. However, PMSE appear not simultaneously over the entire height range, the mean vertical PMSE extension is around 4–6 km in June and July. Furthermore, typically PMSE are separated into several layers, and only 30% of all PMSE are single layers. The probability of multiple layers is greater in June and July than at the beginning and the end of the PMSE season and shows a marked 5-day-variation. The same variation is noticeable in the seasonal dependence of the PMSE occurrence and the PMSE thickness. We finally discuss potential geophysical processes to explain our observational results.

  1. Investigation of ionospheric disturbances and associated diagnostic techniques. Final report, 1 January 1992-31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, L.M.

    1995-12-12

    The objectives of this research and development program were to conduct simulation modeling of the generation and propagation of atmospheric acoustic signals associated with surface and subsurface ground disturbances; to construct an experimental measurement system for exploratory research studies of acoustic generated ionospheric disturbances; to model high power radio wave propagation through the ionosphere, including nonlinear wave plasma interaction effects; and to assist in the assessment of diagnostic systems for observation of ionospheric modification experiments using existing and planned high latitude high power RF transmitting facilities. A computer simulation of ionospheric response to ground launched acoustic pulses was constructed and results compared to observational data associated with HF and incoherent scatter radar measurements of ionospheric effects produced by earthquakes and ground level explosions. These results were then utilized to help define the design, construct and test for an HF Doppler radar system. In addition, an assessment was conducted of ionospheric diagnostic instruments proposed for the Air Force/Navy High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP).

  2. O+ and H+ ion heat fluxes at high altitudes and high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Barghouthi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher order moments, e.g., perpendicular and parallel heat fluxes, are related to non-Maxwellian plasma distributions. Such distributions are common when the plasma environment is not collision dominated. In the polar wind and auroral regions, the ion outflow is collisionless at altitudes above about 1.2 RE geocentric. In these regions wave–particle interaction is the primary acceleration mechanism of outflowing ionospheric origin ions. We present the altitude profiles of actual and "thermalized" heat fluxes for major ion species in the collisionless region by using the Barghouthi model. By comparing the actual and "thermalized" heat fluxes, we can see whether the heat flux corresponds to a small perturbation of an approximately bi-Maxwellian distribution (actual heat flux is small compared to "thermalized" heat flux, or whether it represents a significant deviation (actual heat flux equal or larger than "thermalized" heat flux. The model takes into account ion heating due to wave–particle interactions as well as the effects of gravity, ambipolar electric field, and divergence of geomagnetic field lines. In the discussion of the ion heat fluxes, we find that (1 the role of the ions located in the energetic tail of the ion velocity distribution function is very significant and has to be taken into consideration when modeling the ion heat flux at high altitudes and high latitudes; (2 at times the parallel and perpendicular heat fluxes have different signs at the same altitude. This indicates that the parallel and perpendicular parts of the ion energy are being transported in opposite directions. This behavior is the result of many competing processes; (3 we identify altitude regions where the actual heat flux is small as compared to the "thermalized" heat flux. In such regions we expect transport equation solutions based on perturbations of bi-Maxwellian distributions to be applicable. This is true for large altitude intervals for protons

  3. Ionospheric forecasts for the European region for space weather applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagouri Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in the implementation and validation of the Solar Wind driven autoregression model for Ionospheric short-term Forecast (SWIF that is running in the European Digital upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS to release ionospheric forecasting products for the European region. The upgraded implementation plan expands SWIF’s capabilities in the high latitude ionosphere while the extensive validation tests in the two solar cycles 23 and 24 allow the comprehensive analysis of the model’s performance in all terms. Focusing on disturbed conditions, the results demonstrate that SWIF’s alert detection algorithm forecasts the occurrence of ionospheric storm time disturbances with probability of detection up to 98% under intense geomagnetic storm conditions and up to 63% when storms of moderate intensity are also considered. The forecasts show relative improvement over climatology of about 30% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 40% in middle-to-high latitudes. This indicates that SWIF is able to capture on average more than one third (35% of the storm-associated ionospheric disturbances. Regarding the accuracy, the averaged mean relative error during storm conditions usually ranges around 20% in middle-to-low and high latitudes and 24% in the middle-to-high latitudes. Our analysis shows clearly that SWIF alert criteria were designed to effectively anticipate the ionospheric storm time effects that occurred under specific interplanetary conditions, e.g., cloud Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs and/or associated sheaths. The results provide valuable input in advancing our ability in predicting the space weather effects in the ionosphere for future developments, and further work is proposed to enhance the model forecasting efficiency to support operational applications.

  4. Modelling turbulent energy dissipation in the high-latitude mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C. M.; Brekke, A.; Martynenko, O. V.; Namgaladze, A. A.

    1998-02-01

    The global numerical model of the Earth's thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere constructed at the Kaliningrad Observatory of IZMIRAN and Polar Geophysical Institute in Murmansk, (Namgaladze et al., 1991), hereafter referred to as PGI97, is being extended to encompass modelling of the mesosphere. Here we report the first predictions of turbulent intensities in the height regime 80 to 90 km. Recently, Hall (1997) reported estimates of the turbulent energy dissipation rate, ɛ, using the EISCAT VHF radar located in Northern Norway (69°N, 19°E), which has, in turn, been compared to in situ measurements. Thus initial testing of PGI97 has concentrated on the same region. The agreements between PGI97 and EISCAT results for summer and winter solstice mesospheres are good. The general seasonal variation has been investigated, again showing good agreement with the EISCAT results. However, when examining the average energy dissipation in the 80-90 km height regime, the model shows less variability than the observations.

  5. Choice of optimum heights for registration of ionospheric response onto earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Valerii; Gotur, Ivan; Kuleshov, Yurii; Cherny, Sergei

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the dependence of ionospheric disturbances on height we used model calculations, and the data of seismic and ionospheric observations during the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. High-altitude dependences of "portraits" of ionospheric disturbances are calculated for a case of influence of a seismic P-wave onto the ionosphere. We compared the "portraits" of ionospheric disturbances with the "portraits" of the seismic recording. The correlation coefficient of the recordings for the height of 100 km was about 0.81, for 130 km - 0.85, for 160 km - 0.77, for 180 km - 0.76, for 200 km - 0.7, for 230 km -0.54 and for 250 km - 0.41. At the same time the maximum of F2-layer was at the height about 250 km. Thus, the height of a maximum of F2-layer was not optimum for registration of ionospheric disturbances due to the earthquake. It was preferable to carry out measurements of the ionospheric disturbances at the heights below 200 km. The profile of amplitude of the ionospheric disturbance had no sharply expressed maximum at the height of a maximum of F2-layer. Therefore it is problematic to use the approach of the thin layer for interpretation of TEC disturbances.

  6. Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Pressure Pulses Under Northward IMF Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Liou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancements of aurora and auroral electrojets in response to sudden compression of the magnetosphere by shocks/pressure pulses are well known and have been attributed by some to compression-enhanced magnetic field reconnection. To examine such a view, we analyze a fortuitous event that is comprised of a series of pressure pulses (< 20 min on November 8, 2000. These pressure pulses were preceded by a large, northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF that lasted more than 15 hours such that effects from reconnection can be minimized. Auroral images acquired by ultraviolet imager on board the Polar satellite clearly show intensifications of the aurora that occurred first near local noon and progressively extended from dayside to nightside. The area-integrated global auroral power reached ~30 gigawatts (GW. It is also found that the global auroral power is well correlated with the solar wind dynamic pressure (correlation coefficient r ~0.90, rather than the change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. In-situ measurements of particle data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellite indicate that the magnetospheric source for the pressure-enhanced auroras is most likely the central plasma sheet. Other ionospheric parameters such as the auroral electrojet (AE index, magnetic storm index (Sym-H, and the cross polarcap potential drop also show a one-to-one correspondence to the pressure pulses. In one instance the auroral electrojets AE index reached more than 200 nT, the cross polar-cap potential drop (ÎŚpc inferred from the SuperDARN radar network ionospheric plasma convection increased to ~60 kV. The observed increases in the auroral emissions, AE, and polar cap potential were not associated with substorms. Our result strongly suggests that solar wind pressure pulses are an important source of geomagnetic activity during northward IMF periods.

  7. Multi-Instrument Observations of Geomagnetic Storms in the Arctic Ionosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga

    from the solar corona on 16 February and the second one on 18 February. We focus on effects of such solar-originated geomagnetic disturbances on the high latitude ionosphere because our present understanding of the fundamental ionospheric processes – particularly during perturbed times – in this region...

  8. High Resolution Mapping of Peatland Hydroperiod at a High-Latitude Swedish Mire

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Torbick; Andreas Persson; David Olefeldt; Steve Frolking; William Salas; Stephen Hagen; Patrick Crill; Changsheng Li

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring high latitude wetlands is required to understand feedbacks between terrestrial carbon pools and climate change. Hydrological variability is a key factor driving biogeochemical processes in these ecosystems and effective assessment tools are critical for accurate characterization of surface hydrology, soil moisture, and water table fluctuations. Operational satellite platforms provide opportunities to systematically monitor hydrological variability in high latitude wetlands. The obj...

  9. Novel Solar Sail Mission Concepts for High-Latitude Earth and Lunar Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Macdonald, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of solar sail periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system for ob-servation of the high-latitudes of the Earth and Moon. At the Earth, the high-latitudes will be crucial in answering questions concerning global climate change, monitoring space weather events and ensuring

  10. High latitude hydrological changes during the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Srinath; Pagani, Mark; Huber, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy

    2014-10-01

    -enriched signals at the base of the event, including (1) intense local drying and cooling leading to evaporative 2H-enrichment; (2) changes in frequency/intensity of storm events and its impact on high latitude amount effects; and (3) changes in low-latitude temperatures. Evidence for hydrological shifts at the base of both hyperthermals suggests that hydrological change or the factors promoting hydrological change played a role in triggering the release of greenhouse gases. Generation of similar high-resolution isotopic- and temperature records at other latitudes is crucial for understanding the causal links between temperature and hydrological changes and may help constrain the source and mechanism of carbon release that triggered the early Eocene hyperthermals.

  11. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

  12. Ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and field-aligned currents

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, D

    2014-01-01

    It is presented in this paper a review of one of several interactions between the magnetosphere and the ionosphere through the field-aligned currents (FACs). Some characteristics and physical implications of the currents flowing in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field at high latitudes are discussed. The behavior of this system as an electric circuit is explained, where momentum and energy are transferred via Poynting flux from the magnetosphere into the ionosphere. É apresentada ne...

  13. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  14. A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magnetic reconnection: II. Measuring expansions in the ionospheric flow response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Morley

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model embodying the concepts of the Cowley-Lockwood (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992, 1997 paradigm has been used to produce a simple Cowley-Lockwood type expanding flow pattern and to calculate the resulting change in ion temperature. Cross-correlation, fixed threshold analysis and threshold relative to peak are used to determine the phase speed of the change in convection pattern, in response to a change in applied reconnection. Each of these methods fails to fully recover the expansion of the onset of the convection response that is inherent in the simulations. The results of this study indicate that any expansion of the convection pattern will be best observed in time-series data using a threshold which is a fixed fraction of the peak response. We show that these methods used to determine the expansion velocity can be used to discriminate between the two main models for the convection response to a change in reconnection. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions – Ionosphere (Plasma convection; Modeling and forecasting

  15. A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magnetic reconnection: II. Measuring expansions in the ionospheric flow response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Morley

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model embodying the concepts of the Cowley-Lockwood (Cowley and Lockwood, 1992, 1997 paradigm has been used to produce a simple Cowley-Lockwood type expanding flow pattern and to calculate the resulting change in ion temperature. Cross-correlation, fixed threshold analysis and threshold relative to peak are used to determine the phase speed of the change in convection pattern, in response to a change in applied reconnection. Each of these methods fails to fully recover the expansion of the onset of the convection response that is inherent in the simulations. The results of this study indicate that any expansion of the convection pattern will be best observed in time-series data using a threshold which is a fixed fraction of the peak response. We show that these methods used to determine the expansion velocity can be used to discriminate between the two main models for the convection response to a change in reconnection.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions – Ionosphere (Plasma convection; Modeling and forecasting

  16. Investigation of ionospheric irregularities by radio holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, E. D.; Popov, A. A.; Tereshchenko, A. D.; Khudukon, B. Z.

    Methodological aspects of the design of a radio-holography experiment for the investigation of ionospheric irregularities are considered on the basis of a theoretical examination of the formation of a diffraction field by two coherent satellite signals. The equipment needed to implement such an experiment is described, and results of first observations performed at high latitudes (in the Murmansk region) on February 8, 1978 are examined.

  17. Genome wide transcriptional profiling of acclimation to photoperiod in high-latitude accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska-Sabat, Anna Monika; Winge, Per; Fjellheim, Siri; Dørum, Guro; Bones, Atle Magnar; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2012-04-01

    Three Arabidopsis thaliana accessions originating from the northernmost boundary of the species distribution in Norway (59-68°N) were used to study global wide transcriptional responses to 16 and 24 h photoperiods during flower initiation. Significant analysis of microarrays (SAM), analyses of statistically overrepresented gene ontologies (GOstat) and gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) were used to identify candidate genes and genetic pathways underlying phenotypic adaptations of accessions to different photoperiods. Statistical analyses identified 732 and 258 differentially expressed genes between accessions in 16 and 24 h photoperiod, respectively. Among significantly expressed genes, ethylene mediated signaling pathway was significantly overrepresented in 16 h photoperiod, while genes involved in response to auxin stimulus were found to be significantly overrepresented in 24 h photoperiod. Several gene sets were found to be differentially expressed among accessions, e.g. cold acclimation, dehydration response, phytochrome signaling, vernalization response and circadian clock regulated flowering time genes. These results revealed several candidate genes and pathways likely involved in transcriptional control of photoperiodic response. In particular, ethylene and auxin signaling pathway may represent candidate genes contributing to local adaptation of high-latitude accessions of A. thaliana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The November 1993 ionospheric storm: comparison of observed and modeled response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Phil G.; Wilkinson, Phil J.; Miller, Kent L.

    1997-01-01

    A major magnetic storm occurred near midnight on November 3, 1993 when Kp reached 7 and the magnetic activity remained high for two days. The ionospheric response was recorded by a network of ionosondes in the Australian region. Most stations recorded a positive phase (increase) in N_mF_2 on November 4 which was well produced by the Field Line Interhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model despite a large relative increase in the molecular neutral densities. There was a negative phase (decrease) on November 5 at the higher mid-latitude stations but not at the low latitude stations. The negative phase was not well reproduced by the model. The storm generated large winds blowing from the pole to the equator for two days causing the measured h_mF_2 to exceed the quiet time values by 50-100 km. The quiet-time winds show a pronounced semidiurnal tide at all latitudes with a phase shift of about 1 hour for every 15 degrees increase in latitude.

  19. Ionospheric Responses to the July 15 - 16, 2000 Magnetic Storm around Geographic Longitude 121E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jung Chuo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents observed behavior of ionospheric responses using vertical total electron contents (VTEC and NmF2. The data were collected from global positioning system (GPS networks and ionosondes around the geographic longitude of 121°E from mid- to low-latitudes for the severe magnetic storm on 15 July 2000. The results show that the severe magnetic storm caused significant density depletion and a G-condition occurrence in the western Pacific region on 15 - 16 July 2000. The G-condition is observed on the ionograms at Chung-Li station around 2330 UT on July 15. Furthermore, the variation of the F-peak height (HmF2 at Cebu indicates that a zonal electric field produced an upward drift and enhanced the fountain effect from 1000 UT on July 15. The observation of a G-condition indicates that a storm-induced neutral-wind circulation was the main cause of compositional change; i.e., an increase in the N2/O ratio and its associated loss coefficients that produced a negative storm phase along the chain of geographic longitude 121°E.

  20. Unexpected Southern Hemisphere ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm of 15 August 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edemskiy, Ilya; Lastovicka, Jan; Buresova, Dalia; Bosco Habarulema, John; Nepomnyashchikh, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are the most pronounced phenomenon of space weather. When studying ionospheric response to a storm of 15 August 2015, an unexpected phenomenon was observed at higher middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. This phenomenon was a localized total electron content (TEC) enhancement (LTE) in the form of two separated plumes, which peaked southward of South Africa. The plumes were first observed at 05:00 UT near the southwestern coast of Australia. The southern plume was associated with local time slightly after noontime (1-2 h after local noon). The plumes moved with the Sun. They peaked near 13:00 UT southward of South Africa. The southern plume kept constant geomagnetic latitude (63-64° S); it persisted for about 10 h, whereas the northern plume persisted for about 2 h more. Both plumes disappeared over the South Atlantic Ocean. No similar LTE event was observed during the prolonged solar activity minimum period of 2006-2009. In 2012-2016 we detected altogether 26 LTEs and all of them were associated with the southward excursion of Bz. The negative Bz excursion is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the LTE occurrence as during some geomagnetic storms associated with negative Bz excursions the LTE events did not appear.

  1. Ionospheric Response to the Total Solar Eclipse of 22 July 2009 as Deduced from VLBI and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Shu, F. C.; Zheng, W. M.; Kondo, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Sekido, M.

    2010-01-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred over China at latitudes of about 30 N on the morning of 22 July 2009, providing a unique opportunity to investigate the influence of the sun on the earth's upper ionosphere. GPS observations from Shanghai GPS Local Network and VLBI observations from stations Shanghai, Urumqi, and Kashima were used to observe the response of TEC to the total solar eclipse. From the GPS data reduction, the sudden decrease of TEC at the time of the eclipse, amounting to 2.8 TECU, and gradual increase of TEC after the eclipse were found by analyzing the diurnal variations. More distinctly, the variations of TEC were studied along individual satellite passes. The delay in reaching the minimum level of TEC with the maximum phase of eclipse was 5-10 min. Besides, we also compared the ionospheric activity derived from different VLBI stations with the GPS results and found a strong correlation between them.

  2. Dayside Global Ionospheric Response to the Major Interplanetary Events of October 29-30, 2003 ''Halloween Storms''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Iijima, B. A.; Komjathy, A.; Saito, A.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Kozyra, J. U.; Skoug, R.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate extreme ionospheric response to the large interplanetary electric fields during the "Halloween" storms that occurred on October 29 and 30, 2003. Within a few (2 - 5) hours of the time when the enhanced interplanetary electric field impinged on the magnetopause, dayside total electron content increases of approx.40% and approx.250% are observed for the October 29 and 30 events, respectively. During the Oct 30 event, approx.900% increases in electron content above the CHAMP satellite (approx.400 km altitude) were observed at mid-latitudes (+/-30 degrees geomagnetic). The geomagnetic storm-time phenomenon of prompt penetration electric fields is a possible contributing cause of these electron content increases, producing dayside ionospheric uplift combined with equatorial plasma diffusion along magnetic field lines to higher latitudes, creating a "daytime super-fountain" effect.

  3. PROBLEM ANALYSIS USING NAVIGATION SYSTEMS OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES AT HIGH LATITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korevanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of operation of navigation systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in the high latitudes, considered the requirements of navigation and security drones impact of the environment on the UAV navigation equipment.

  4. CO J = 3 -> 2 observations of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dishoeck, van E.F.; Phillips, T.G.; Black, J.H.; Gredel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were carried out on the CO J = 3-2 emission line at 345 GHz from a number of translucent and high-latitude molecular clouds, as well as on the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines of both the (C-12)O and (C-13)O. It is shown that the physical conditions in the high-latitude clouds are very similar

  5. Dependence of Arctic climate on the latitudinal position of stationary waves and to high-latitudes surface warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yechul; Kang, Sarah M.; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies suggest large uncertainties in the stationary wave response under global warming. Here, we investigate how the Arctic climate responds to changes in the latitudinal position of stationary waves, and to high-latitudes surface warming that mimics the effect of Arctic sea ice loss under global warming. To generate stationary waves in an atmospheric model coupled to slab ocean, a series of experiments is performed where the thermal forcing with a zonal wavenumber-2 (with zero zonal-mean) is prescribed at the surface at different latitude bands in the Northern Hemisphere. When the stationary waves are generated in the subtropics, the cooling response dominates over the warming response in the lower troposphere due to cloud radiative effects. Then, the low-level baroclinicity is reduced in the subtropics, which gives rise to a poleward shift of the eddy driven jet, thereby inducing substantial cooling in the northern high latitudes. As the stationary waves are progressively generated at higher latitudes, the zonal-mean climate state gradually becomes more similar to the integration with no stationary waves. These differences in the mean climate affect the Arctic climate response to high-latitudes surface warming. Additional surface heating over the Arctic is imposed to the reference climates in which the stationary waves are located at different latitude bands. When the stationary waves are positioned at lower latitudes, the eddy driven jet is located at higher latitude, closer to the prescribed Arctic heating. As baroclinicity is more effectively perturbed, the jet shifts more equatorward that accompanies a larger reduction in the poleward eddy transport of heat and momentum. A stronger eddy-induced descending motion creates greater warming over the Arctic. Our study calls for a more accurate simulation of the present-day stationary wave pattern to enhance the predictability of the Arctic warming response in a changing climate.

  6. Can evolutionary constraints explain the rarity of nitrogen-fixing trees in high-latitude forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, Duncan N L; Crews, Timothy E

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1195 I. 1195 II. 1196 III. 1196 IV. 1200 1200 References 1200 SUMMARY: The rarity of symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees in temperate and boreal ('high-latitude') forests is curious. One explanation - the evolutionary constraints hypothesis - posits that high-latitude N-fixing trees are rare because few have evolved. Here, we consider traits necessary for high-latitude N-fixing trees. We then use recent developments in trait evolution to estimate that > 2000 and > 500 species could have evolved from low-latitude N-fixing trees and high-latitude N-fixing herbs, respectively. Evolution of N-fixing from nonfixing trees is an unlikely source of diversity. Dispersal limitation seems unlikely to limit high-latitude N-fixer diversity. The greater number of N-fixing species predicted to evolve than currently inhabit high-latitude forests suggests a greater role for ecological than evolutionary constraints. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Synergies between climate and management for Atlantic cod fisheries at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd; Bogstad, Bjarte; Devine, Jennifer A; Gjøsæter, Harald; Howell, Daniel; Ingvaldsen, Randi B; Nash, Richard D M; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil

    2014-03-04

    The widespread depletion of commercially exploited marine living resources is often seen as a general failure of management and results in criticism of contemporary management procedures. When populations show dramatic and positive changes in population size, this invariably leads to questions about whether favorable climatic conditions or good management (or both) were responsible. The Barents Sea cod (Gadus morhua) stock has recently increased markedly and the spawning stock biomass is now at an unprecedented high. We identify the crucial social and environmental factors that made this unique growth possible. The relationship between vital rates of Barents Sea cod stock productivity (recruitment, growth, and mortality) and environment is investigated, followed by simulations of population size under different management scenarios. We show that the recent sustained reduction in fishing mortality, facilitated by the implementation of a "harvest control rule," was essential to the increase in population size. Simulations show that a drastic reduction in fishing mortality has resulted in a doubling of the total population biomass compared with that expected under the former management regime. However, management alone was not solely responsible. We document that prevailing climate, operating through several mechanistic links, positively reinforced management actions. Heightened temperature resulted in an increase in the extent of the suitable feeding area for Barents Sea cod, likely offering a release from density-dependent effects (for example, food competition and cannibalism) through prolonged overlap with prey and improved adult stock productivity. Management and climate may thus interact to give a positive outlook for exploited high-latitude marine resources.

  8. Ground-based observations of the auroral zone and polar cap ionospheric responses to dayside transient reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Davies

    Full Text Available Observations from the EISCAT VHF incoherent scatter radar system in northern Norway, during a run of the common programme CP-4, reveal a series of poleward-propagating F-region electron density enhancements in the pre-noon sector on 23 November 1999. These plasma density features, which are observed under conditions of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field, exhibit a recurrence rate of under 10 min and appear to emanate from the vicinity of the open/closed field-line boundary from where they travel into the polar cap; this is suggestive of their being an ionospheric response to transient reconnection at the day-side magnetopause (flux transfer events. Simultaneous with the density structures detected by the VHF radar, poleward-moving radar auroral forms (PMRAFs are observed by the Finland HF coherent scatter radar. It is thought that PM-RAFs, which are commonly observed near local noon by HF radars, are also related to flux transfer events, although the specific mechanism for the generation of the field-aligned irregularities within such features is not well understood. The HF observations suggest, that for much of their existence, the PMRAFs trace fossil signatures of transient reconnection rather than revealing the footprint of active reconnection itself; this is evidenced not least by the fact that the PMRAFs become narrower in spectral width as they evolve away from the region of more classical, broad cusp scatter in which they originate. Interpretation of the HF observations with reference to the plasma parameters diagnosed by the incoherent scatter radar suggests that as the PMRAFs migrate away from the reconnection site and across the polar cap, entrained in the ambient antisunward flow, the irregularities therein are generated by the presence of gradients in the electron density, with these gradients having been formed through structuring of the ionosphere in the cusp region in response to transient reconnection

  9. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  10. Ionospheric foF2 morphology and response of F2 layer height over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    after sunset. Around local noon, the F2 ionosphere had reached a dynamic stability with respect to losses by recombination, and production by solar radiation. A second peak (the post-noon ..... of positive and negative changes at the dawn and dusk terminal ... ity effect when F2 layer is pushed down to lower heights where ...

  11. BVOC ecosystem flux measurements at a high latitude wetland site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Holst

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present summertime concentrations and fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs measured at a sub-arctic wetland in northern Sweden using a disjunct eddy-covariance (DEC technique based on a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. The vegetation at the site was dominated by Sphagnum, Carex and extit{Eriophorum} spp. The measurements reported here cover a period of 50 days (1 August to 19 September 2006, approximately one half of the growing season at the site, and allowed to investigate the effect of day-to-day variation in weather as well as of vegetation senescence on daily BVOC fluxes, and on their temperature and light responses. The sensitivity drift of the DEC system was assessed by comparing H3O+-ion cluster formed with water molecules (H3O+(H2O at m37 with water vapour concentration measurements made using an adjacent humidity sensor, and the applicability of the DEC method was analysed by a comparison of sensible heat fluxes for high frequency and DEC data obtained from the sonic anemometer. These analyses showed no significant PTR-MS sensor drift over a period of several weeks and only a small flux-loss due to high-frequency spectrum omissions. This loss was within the range expected from other studies and the theoretical considerations.

    Standardised (20 °C and 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR summer isoprene emission rates found in this study of 329 μg C m−2 (ground area h−1 were comparable with findings from more southern boreal forests, and fen-like ecosystems. On a diel scale, measured fluxes indicated a stronger temperature dependence than emissions from temperate or (subtropical ecosystems. For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ecosystem methanol fluxes from a sub-arctic ecosystem. Maximum daytime emission fluxes were around 270 μg m−2 h−1

  12. Importance of post-shock streams and sheath region as drivers of intense magnetospheric storms and high-latitude activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. J. Huttunen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere can be very different depending on the type of solar wind driver. We have determined the solar wind causes for intense magnetic storms (Dst<-100nT over a 6-year period from the beginning of 1997 to the end of 2002, using observations by the WIND and ACE spacecraft. We have taken into consideration whether the storm was caused by the sheath region or by the following interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME. We also divided ICMEs into those having a magnetic cloud structure and those without such a structure. We found that post-shock streams and sheath regions caused the largest fraction of intense magnetic storms. We present four periods of magnetospheric activity in more detail. One of the events was caused by a magnetic cloud (10-11 August 2000 and the rest (13-14 July 2000, 8-9 June 2000 and 17-18 April 2001 by sheath regions and post-shock streams. We have used several magnetic indices to monitor the low- and high-latitude magnetospheric response to these different solar wind structures. Two of the events are interesting examples where at first strong high-latitude activity took place and the low-latitude response followed several hours later. These events demonstrate that low- and high-latitude activity do not always occur concurrently and the level of activity may be very different. According to the examples shown the evolution of the pressure-corrected Dst index was more difficult to model for a sheath region or a post-shock stream driven storm than for a storm caused by a magnetic cloud.

  13. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    Observations of the change in Earth’s magnetic field--the secular variation--provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field’s generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency’s Swarm satellite mission show intense field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, non-axisymmetric, westward jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000-2016 to about 40 km yr-1, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. We suggest that the current accelerating phase may be part of a longer-term fluctuation of the jet causing both eastward and westward movement of magnetic features over historical periods, and may contribute to recent changes in torsional-wave activity and the rotation direction of the inner core.

  14. An accelerating high-latitude jet in Earth’s core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Livermore, Philip; Hollerbach, Rainer; Finlay, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the change in Earth’s magnetic field—the secular variation—provide information about the motion of liquid metal within the core that is responsible for the magnetic field’s generation. High-resolution observations from the European Space Agency’s Swarm satellite mission show intense...... field change at high latitude, localized in a distinctive circular daisy-chain configuration centred on the north geographic pole. Here we show that this feature can be explained by a localized, non-axisymmetric, westward jet of 420 km width on the tangent cylinder, the cylinder of fluid within the core...... that is aligned with the rotation axis and tangent to the solid inner core. We find that the jet has increased in magnitude by a factor of three over the period 2000–2016 to about 40 km yr−1, and is now much stronger than typical large-scale flows inferred for the core. We suggest that the current accelerating...

  15. Lake trout otolith chronologies as multidecadal indicators of high-latitude freshwater ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, B.A.; Von Biela, V.R.; Zimmerman, C.E.; Brown, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are among the most vulnerable to long-term climate change, yet continuous, multidecadal indicators by which to gauge effects on biology are scarce, especially in freshwater environments. To address this issue, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques were applied to growth-increment widths in otoliths from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Chandler Lake system, Alaska (68.23°N, 152.70°W). All otoliths were collected in 1987 and exhibited highly synchronous patterns in growth-increment width. Increments were dated, the widths were measured, and age-related growth declines were removed using standard dendrochronology techniques. The detrended time series were averaged to generate an annually resolved chronology, which continuously spanned 1964–1984. The chronology positively and linearly correlated with August air temperature over the 22-year interval (p metabolic rate or lake productivity. Given the broad distribution of lake trout within North America, this study suggests that otolith chronologies could be used to examine responses between freshwater ecosystems and environmental variability across a range of temporal and spatial scales.

  16. Response of the Lower Ionosphere to the Partial Solar Eclipses of August 1, 2008 and March 20, 2015 Based on Observations of Radio-Wave Scattering by the Ionospheric Plasma Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet'eva, N. V.; Bubukina, V. N.; Vyakhirev, V. D.; Kalinina, E. E.; Komrakov, G. P.

    2017-03-01

    The results of observations of the ionospheric effects of the partial solar eclipses on August 1, 2008 and March 20, 2015 are presented. The observations were performed by the partial-reflection technique during scattering of radio waves by natural irregularities in the D region and the method of resonant scattering of radio waves by artificial periodic irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. A three- to fivefold reduction of the electron density in the D region was obtained by the partialreflection technique. Ionospheric response at altitudes above 88 km is delayed by 20-25 min relative to the time of the maximum eclipse phase, while in the bottom D region the time delay is a few minutes. Variations in the characteristics of the signals scattered by artificial periodic irregularities, as well as velocities of the vertical motion of the plasma in the lower ionosphere during the solar eclipse were studied. An increase in the scattered-signal amplitude during an eclipse in the E region by 30-40 dB was recorded, stratification of the D region was observed, and the appearance of signals scattered at the mesopause altitudes was detected.

  17. High-latitude ocean ventilation and its role in Earth's climate transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveira Garabato, Alberto C; MacGilchrist, Graeme A; Brown, Peter J; Evans, D Gwyn; Meijers, Andrew J S; Zika, Jan D

    2017-09-13

    The processes regulating ocean ventilation at high latitudes are re-examined based on a range of observations spanning all scales of ocean circulation, from the centimetre scales of turbulence to the basin scales of gyres. It is argued that high-latitude ocean ventilation is controlled by mechanisms that differ in fundamental ways from those that set the overturning circulation. This is contrary to the assumption of broad equivalence between the two that is commonly adopted in interpreting the role of the high-latitude oceans in Earth's climate transitions. Illustrations of how recognizing this distinction may change our view of the ocean's role in the climate system are offered.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. High-latitude ocean ventilation and its role in Earth's climate transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Brown, Peter J.; Evans, D. Gwyn; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Zika, Jan D.

    2017-08-01

    The processes regulating ocean ventilation at high latitudes are re-examined based on a range of observations spanning all scales of ocean circulation, from the centimetre scales of turbulence to the basin scales of gyres. It is argued that high-latitude ocean ventilation is controlled by mechanisms that differ in fundamental ways from those that set the overturning circulation. This is contrary to the assumption of broad equivalence between the two that is commonly adopted in interpreting the role of the high-latitude oceans in Earth's climate transitions. Illustrations of how recognizing this distinction may change our view of the ocean's role in the climate system are offered. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  19. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times.

  20. Longitudinal effects of ionospheric responses to substorms at middle and lower latitudes: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Pi

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available An ionospheric model is used to simulate total electron content (TEC disturbance events observed at middle and lower latitude sites near 75°W and 7°E longitudes. Within this longitudinal range, daytime TEC disturbances show patterns that are correlated with substrom activity seen in both auroral electrojet and ring current behavior. In modeling studies of the observed ionospheric effects, both electric field and neutral wind perturbations are examined as possible mechanisms. The morphological features of the required electric field perturbations near drawn and dusk are compared with those at other times to examine the local time characteristics of magnetospheric influence. Large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs, an alternative candidate for the disturbance source, are also characterized and compared with known thermospheric behavior.

  1. The ionospheric response in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 20 November 2003

    OpenAIRE

    F. Becker-Guedes; Y. Sahai; P. R. Fagundes; E. S. Espinoza; V. G. Pillat; W. L. C. Lima; Su. Basu; Sa. Basu; Y. Otsuka; K. Shiokawa; E. M. MacKenzie; X. Pi; J. A. Bittencourt

    2007-01-01

    A very intense geomagnetic storm (superstorm) began with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 08:03 UT on 20 November 2003, as a result of the coronal mass ejection (CME) by sunspot 484 hurled into space on 18 November 2003. The geomagnetic storm attained |Dst|max=472 nT at 20:00 UT (20 November). In this paper we present the simultaneous ionospheric sounding observations, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosondes (CADIs), ca...

  2. Ionospheric response to X-class solar flares in the ascending half of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of 11 X-class solar flares that occurred during the ascending half of the present subdued solar cycle 24 from 2009 to 2013 on the ionosphere over the low- and mid-latitude station, Dibrugarh (27.5◦N, 95◦E; magnetic latitude 17.6◦N), are examined. Total electron content (TEC) data derived from Global Positioning System ...

  3. Letter to the editor: The ionospheric response during an interval of Pc5 ULF wave activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary analysis of Pc5, ULF wave activity observed with the IMAGE magnetometer array and the EISCAT UHF radar in the post midnight sector indicates that such waves can be caused by the modulation of the ionospheric conductivity as well as the wave electric field. An observed Pc5 pulsation is divided into three separate intervals based upon the EISCAT data. In the first and third, the Pc5 waves are observed only in the measured electron density between 90 and 112 km and maxima in the electron density at these altitudes are attributed to pulsed precipitation of electrons with energies up to 40 keV which result in the height integrated Hall conductivity being pulsed between 10 and 50 S. In the second interval, the Pc5 wave is observed in the F-region ion temperature, electron density and electron temperature but not in the D and E region electron densities. The analysis suggests that the wave during this interval is a coupled Alfven and compressional mode.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction; MHD waves and instabilities

  4. Analysis framework for systematically studying ionospheric response to impulsive events from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Robert A.; Lay, Erin H.; Junor, William

    2017-09-01

    Impulsive phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere produce acoustic and gravity waves which perturb the ionosphere. Such perturbations are often measured using total electron content fluctuations (TEC), derived from ground-based Global Positioning System data. Using TEC data from the Japanese GEONET ground network after the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, we demonstrate capabilities of a new framework of methodologies for analyzing ionospheric perturbations. The framework consists of several new techniques: calculating velocity along a single direction to reduce error due to anisotropic propagation, producing normalized bidirectional band-pass spectra that preserve relative timing between various frequencies and allowing a more systematic determination of broadband pulses, and utilizing a wavelet-based technique that considers instantaneous wave phase changes, rather than best fit time differences, to evaluate wave characteristics (speed, direction, and wavelength) within spectral ranges of interest. Using these techniques together decreases subjectivity and reduces errors in attributing fluctuations to given sources. In validating this framework using the Tōhoku case, we consistently identify three kinds of waves: a broad-band pulse (speed: >2000 m/s, max range: >1400 km) arriving in the ionosphere 10-15 min after the quake, acoustic waves following the pulse (period: 3-5 min, speed: 700-1000 m/s, max range: 1400 km) propagating away from the epicenter, consistent with theory and demonstrated in previous studies. This framework also can be applied to other impulsive events in the atmosphere that are more difficult to detect and attribute to sources.

  5. Sources and Characteristics of Medium Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by High Frequency Radars in the North American Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Gerrard, A. J.; Miller, E. S.; West, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like ionospheric perturbations routinely observed by high-frequency radars. We focus on a class of MSTIDs observed during the winter daytime at high latitudes and midlatitudes. The source of these MSTIDs remains uncertain, with the two primary candidates being space weather and lower atmospheric processes. We surveyed observations from four high-latitude and six midlatitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars in the North American sector from November to May 2012 to 2015. The MSTIDs observed have horizontal wavelengths between 150 and 650 km and horizontal velocities between 75 and 325 m/s. In local fall and winter seasons the majority of MSTIDs propagated equatorward, with bearings ranging from 125° to 225° geographic azimuth. No clear correlation with space weather activity as parameterized by AE and SYM-H could be identified. Rather, MSTID observations were found to have a strong correlation with polar vortex dynamics on two timescales. First, a seasonal timescale follows the annual development and decay of the polar vortex. Second, a shorter 2-4 week timescale again corresponds to synoptic polar vortex variability, including stratospheric warmings. Additionally, statistical analysis shows that MSTIDs are more likely during periods of strong polar vortex. Direct comparison of the MSTID observations with stratospheric zonal winds suggests that a wind filtering mechanism may be responsible for the strong correlation. Collectively, these observations suggest that polar atmospheric processes, rather than space weather activity, are primarily responsible for controlling the occurrence of high-latitude and midlatitude winter daytime MSTIDs.

  6. Ionospheric convection response to changes of interplanetary magnetic field B-z component during strong B-y component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...... pattern) is located in the prenoon sector for northward B-z and in the postnoon sector for southward B-z. It is found that the cell focus shifts from the prenoon sector to the postnoon sector following a southward BL turning and vice versa for a northward B-z turning. However, the motion of the convection...

  7. Self-focused radio frequency L wave pumping of localized upper hybrid oscillations in high-latitude ionospheric plasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyser, T. B; Nordblad, E

    2009-01-01

    .... Nonlinearly guided L-wave pumping of long predicted localized upper hybrid oscillations offers a unified understanding of a range of experimental results, including strong self-focusing for pump...

  8. Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field and substorm activity: a case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and substorm activity are examined, for an interval observed by the Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment (PACE radar system between ~1600 and ~2100 MLT on 4 March 1992. Representations of the ionospheric convection pattern associated with different orientations and magnitudes of the IMF and nightside driven enhancements of the auroral electrojet are employed to illustrate a possible explanation for the contrast in convection flow response observed in radar data at nominally conjugate points. Ion drift measurements from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP confirm these ionospheric convection flows to be representative for the prevailing IMF orientation and magnitude. The location of the fields of view of the PACE radars with respect to these patterns suggest that the radar backscatter observed in each hemisphere is critically influenced by the position of the ionospheric convection reversal boundary (CRB within the radar field of view and the influence it has on the generation of the irregularities required as scattering targets by high-frequency coherent radar systems. The position of the CRB in each hemisphere is strongly controlled by the relative magnitudes of the IMF Bz and By components, and hence so is the interhemispheric contrast in the radar observations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Auroral phenomena · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Storms and substorms

  9. Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to changes in the interplanetary magnetic field and substorm activity: a case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available Interhemispheric contrasts in the ionospheric convection response to variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF and substorm activity are examined, for an interval observed by the Polar Anglo-American Conjugate Experiment (PACE radar system between ~1600 and ~2100 MLT on 4 March 1992. Representations of the ionospheric convection pattern associated with different orientations and magnitudes of the IMF and nightside driven enhancements of the auroral electrojet are employed to illustrate a possible explanation for the contrast in convection flow response observed in radar data at nominally conjugate points. Ion drift measurements from the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP confirm these ionospheric convection flows to be representative for the prevailing IMF orientation and magnitude. The location of the fields of view of the PACE radars with respect to these patterns suggest that the radar backscatter observed in each hemisphere is critically influenced by the position of the ionospheric convection reversal boundary (CRB within the radar field of view and the influence it has on the generation of the irregularities required as scattering targets by high-frequency coherent radar systems. The position of the CRB in each hemisphere is strongly controlled by the relative magnitudes of the IMF Bz and By components, and hence so is the interhemispheric contrast in the radar observations.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Auroral phenomena · Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions · Storms and substorms

  10. Climate links and recent extremes in antarctic sea ice, high-latitude cyclones, Southern Annular Mode and ENSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes; Simmonds, Ian [The University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Rashid, Harun A. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology), Private Bag 1, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    In this article, we study the climate link between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the southern sea-ice extent (SIE), and discuss the possible role of stationary waves and synoptic eddies in establishing this link. In doing so, we have used a combination of techniques involving spatial correlations of SIE, eddy streamfunction and wind anomalies, and statistics of high-latitude cyclone strength. It is suggested that stationary waves may be amplified by eddy anomalies associated with high latitude cyclones, resulting in more sea ice when the SAM is in its positive phase for most, but not all, longitudes. A similar association is observed during ENSO (La Nina years). Although this synergy in the SAM/ENSO response may partially reflect preferential areas for wave amplification around Antarctica, the short extent of the climate records does not allow for a definite causality connection to be established with SIE. Stronger polar cyclones are observed over the areas where the stationary waves are amplified. These deeper cyclones will break up and export ice equatorward more efficiently, but the near-coastal regions are cold enough to allow for a rapid re-freeze of the resulting ice break-up. We speculate that if global warming continues this same effect could help reverse the current (positive) Antarctic SIE trends once the ice gets thinner, similarly to what has been observed in the Northern Hemisphere. (orig.)

  11. Joule heating hot spot at high latitudes in the afternoon sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L.; Aikio, A. T.; Milan, S. E.

    2016-07-01

    The afternoon Joule heating hot spot has been studied statistically by using the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) measurements at 75.4° Corrected Geomagnetic latitude (CGMLAT) and the OMNI solar wind data base. For a small subset of events, the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) field-aligned current distributions have been available. The main results are as follows. Afternoon Joule heating hot spots are associated with high values of ionospheric electric fields and slightly enhanced Pedersen conductances. The Joule heating hot spot values are larger in summer than in winter, which can be explained by the higher Pedersen conductances during summer than winter. The afternoon Joule heating hot spots are located close to the reversals of the large-scale field-aligned current systems. The most common location is close to the Region 1/Region 2 boundary and those events are associated with sunward convecting F region plasma. In a few cases, the hot spots take place close to the Region 1/Region 0 boundary and then the ionospheric plasma is convecting antisunward. The hot spots may occur both during slow (450 km/s) speed solar wind conditions. During slow-speed solar wind events, the dominant interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction is southward, which is the general requirement for the low-latitude magnetic merging at the dayside magnetopause. During high-speed solar wind, also northward IMF conditions appear, but those are associated with large values of the IMF |By| component, making again the dayside magnetopause merging possible. Finally, the measured afternoon hot spot Joule heating rates are not a linear function of the solar wind energy coupling function.

  12. Baseline assessment of high-latitude coral reef fish communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is a region where detailed coral reef fish research has been relatively limited. This study constitutes an assessment of the fish communities of seven southern African high-latitude coral reefs. The aim was to provide ichthyological baseline data consisting of species abundance and diversity, ...

  13. Adaptation of Circadian Neuronal Network to Photoperiod in High-Latitude European Drosophilids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegazzi, Pamela; Dalla Benetta, Elena; Beauchamp, Marta; Schlichting, Matthias; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2017-03-20

    The genus Drosophila contains over 2,000 species that, stemming from a common ancestor in the Old World Tropics, populate today very different environments [1, 2] (reviewed in [3]). We found significant differences in the activity pattern of Drosophila species belonging to the holarctic virilis group, i.e., D. ezoana and D. littoralis, collected in Northern Europe, compared to that of the cosmopolitan D. melanogaster, collected close to the equator. These behavioral differences might have been of adaptive significance for colonizing high-latitude habitats and hence adjust to long photoperiods. Most interestingly, the flies' locomotor activity correlates with the neurochemistry of their circadian clock network, which differs between low and high latitude for the expression pattern of the blue light photopigment cryptochrome (CRY) and the neuropeptide Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) [4-6]. In D. melanogaster, CRY and PDF are known to modulate the timing of activity and to maintain robust rhythmicity under constant conditions [7-11]. We could partly simulate the rhythmic behavior of the high-latitude virilis group species by mimicking their CRY/PDF expression patterns in a laboratory strain of D. melanogaster. We therefore suggest that these alterations in the CRY/PDF clock neurochemistry might have allowed the virilis group species to colonize high-latitude environments. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Pronounced zonal heterogeneity in Eocene southern high-latitude sea surface temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, P.M.J.; Affek, H.P.; Ivany, L.C.; Houben, A.J.P.; Sijp, W.P.; Sluijs, A.; Schouten, S.; Pagani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate studies suggest that increased global warmth during the Eocene epoch was greatly amplified at high latitudes, a state that climate models cannot fully reproduce. However, proxy estimates of Eocene near-Antarctic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) have produced widely divergent results at

  15. Environmental and physical controls on northern high latitude methane fluxes across permafrost zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Olefeldt; M.R. Turetsky; P.M. Crill; A.D. McGuire

    2013-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from the northern high-latitude region represent potentially significant biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system. We compiled a database of growing-season CH4 emissions from terrestrial ecosystems located across permafrost zones, including 303 sites described in 65 studies. Data on...

  16. Population dynamic of high latitude copepods - with emphasis on Metridia longa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellerup, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    High latitude ecosystems are shaped by seasonality in light, ranging from complete darkness in winter to midnight sun in summer, influencing both temperature and primary production. Copepods are important grazers on phytoplankton in marine systems and occupy a central role in the marine food-web...

  17. Morphology and phenomenology of the high-latitude E and F regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Results obtained at high latitude observatories on the behavior of E and F region ionization are presented including a bibliography. Behavior of E and F region ionization during day and night for quiet and disturbed conditions in the auroral and polar regions is described. Daily, seasonal and sunspot variations are also outlined.

  18. Landscape influences on climate-related lake shrinkage at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David

    2013-01-01

    Climate-related declines in lake area have been identified across circumpolar regions and have been characterized by substantial spatial heterogeneity. An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying lake area trends is necessary to predict where change is most likely to occur and to identify implications for high latitude reservoirs of carbon. Here, using a population of ca. 2300 lakes with statistically significant increasing and decreasing lake area trends spanning longitudinal and latitudinal gradients of ca. 1000 km in Alaska, we present evidence for a mechanism of lake area decline that involves the loss of surface water to groundwater systems. We show that lakes with significant declines in lake area were more likely to be located: (1) in burned areas; (2) on coarser, well-drained soils; and (3) farther from rivers compared to lakes that were increasing. These results indicate that postfire processes such as permafrost degradation, which also results from a warming climate, may promote lake drainage, particularly in coarse-textured soils and farther from rivers where overland flooding is less likely and downslope flow paths and negative hydraulic gradients between surface water and groundwater systems are more common. Movement of surface water to groundwater systems may lead to a deepening of subsurface flow paths and longer hydraulic residence time which has been linked to increased soil respiration and CO2 release to the atmosphere. By quantifying relationships between statewide coarse resolution maps of landscape characteristics and spatially heterogeneous responses of lakes to environmental change, we provide a means to identify at-risk lakes and landscapes and plan for a changing climate.

  19. Ozone trends at northern mid- and high latitudes – a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. P. Harris

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The EU CANDIDOZ project investigated the chemical and dynamical influences on decadal ozone trends focusing on the Northern Hemisphere. High quality long-term ozone data sets, satellite-based as well as ground-based, and the long-term meteorological reanalyses from ECMWF and NCEP are used together with advanced multiple regression models and atmospheric models to assess the relative roles of chemistry and transport in stratospheric ozone changes. This overall synthesis of the individual analyses in CANDIDOZ shows clearly one common feature in the NH mid latitudes and in the Arctic: an almost monotonic negative trend from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s followed by an increase. In most trend studies, the Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC which peaked in 1997 as a consequence of the Montreal Protocol was observed to describe ozone loss better than a simple linear trend. Furthermore, all individual analyses point to changes in dynamical drivers, such as the residual circulation (responsible for the meridional transport of ozone into middle and high latitudes playing a key role in the observed turnaround. The changes in ozone transport are associated with variations in polar chemical ozone loss via heterogeneous ozone chemistry on PSCs (polar stratospheric clouds. Synoptic scale processes as represented by the new equivalent latitude proxy, by conventional tropopause altitude or by 250 hPa geopotential height have also been successfully linked to the recent ozone increases in the lowermost stratosphere. These show significant regional variation with a large impact over Europe and seem to be linked to changes in tropospheric climate patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. Some influence in recent ozone increases was also attributed to the rise in solar cycle number 23. Changes from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s were found in a number of characteristics of the Arctic vortex. However, only one trend was found when more recent

  20. Comparative study on the ionospheric response to minor and major sudden stratospheric events in the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir; Vieira, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Total electron Content (TEC), derivate from GPS, becomes one of the most powerful techniques to study the space-time ionospheric (F-region) electrodynamics, during the quiet and disturbed periods. The number of GPS stations in Brazil increased significantly during the last few years; currently more than 100 GPS stations are in operation over the Brazilian region. The GPS-TEC values are derived using the differential delay technique from the dual frequency measurements at L1 and L2 frequencies over the considered locations at equatorial and low latitudes. The present study investigates the ionospheric total electron content (GPS-TEC) response in the Southern Hemisphere equatorial and low latitudes, due to major and minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events, which took place during 2009 and 2012. During both the SSW events, the TEC values are depleted to the order of 20-30% all over the Brazil from equator to beyond Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) regions. In addition, the EIA were suppressed during the SSW events for several days. However, the TEC depletion and EIA suppression lasted for a longer period during SSW-2012 when compared with the SSW-2009; despite the SSW-2012 is considerd as a minor event.

  1. Ionospheric convection during the magnetic storm of 20-21 March 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the response of high-latitude ionospheric convection during the magnetic storm of March 20-21 1990. IMP-8 measurements of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, ionospheric convection flow measurements from the Wick and Goose Bay coherent radars, EISCAT, Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom incoherent radars and three digisondes at Millstone Hill, Goose Bay and Qaanaaq are presented. Two intervals of particular interest have been identified. The first starts with a storm sudden commencement at 2243 UT on March 20 and includes the ionospheric activity in the following 7 h. The response time of the ionospheric convection to the southward turning of the IMF in the dusk to midnight local times is found to be approximately half that measured in a similar study at comparable local times during more normal solar wind conditions. Furthermore, this response time is the same as those previously measured on the dayside. An investigation of the expansion of the polar cap during a substorm growth phase based on Faraday's law suggests that the expansion of the polar cap was nonuniform. A subsequent reconfiguration of the nightside convection pattern was also observed, although it was not possible to distinguish between effects due to possible changes in By and effects due to substorm activity. The second interval, 1200-2100 UT 21 March 1990, included a southward turning of the IMF which resulted in the Bz component becoming -10 nT. The response time on the dayside to this change in the IMF at the magnetopause was approximately 15 min to 30 min which is a factor of ~2 greater than those previously measured at higher latitudes. A movement of the nightside flow reversal, possibly driven by current systems associated with the substorm expansion phases, was observed, implying that the nightside convection pattern can be dominated by substorm activity.

  2. Ionospheric convection during the magnetic storm of 20-21 March 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    Full Text Available We report on the response of high-latitude ionospheric convection during the magnetic storm of March 20-21 1990. IMP-8 measurements of solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, ionospheric convection flow measurements from the Wick and Goose Bay coherent radars, EISCAT, Millstone Hill and Sondrestrom incoherent radars and three digisondes at Millstone Hill, Goose Bay and Qaanaaq are presented. Two intervals of particular interest have been identified. The first starts with a storm sudden commencement at 2243 UT on March 20 and includes the ionospheric activity in the following 7 h. The response time of the ionospheric convection to the southward turning of the IMF in the dusk to midnight local times is found to be approximately half that measured in a similar study at comparable local times during more normal solar wind conditions. Furthermore, this response time is the same as those previously measured on the dayside. An investigation of the expansion of the polar cap during a substorm growth phase based on Faraday's law suggests that the expansion of the polar cap was nonuniform. A subsequent reconfiguration of the nightside convection pattern was also observed, although it was not possible to distinguish between effects due to possible changes in By and effects due to substorm activity. The second interval, 1200-2100 UT 21 March 1990, included a southward turning of the IMF which resulted in the Bz component becoming -10 nT. The response time on the dayside to this change in the IMF at the magnetopause was approximately 15 min to 30 min which is a factor of ~2 greater than those previously measured at higher latitudes. A movement of the nightside flow reversal, possibly driven by current systems associated with the substorm expansion phases, was observed, implying that the nightside convection pattern can be dominated by substorm activity.

  3. Information Theory Approach to Evaluate the Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemala, G. K.; R, S.; Bhaskara, V.; Ramesh, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of space weather and understanding onset o geomagnetic storms is increasing day by day as the space missions increase. It is known from the ground-based and space-borne observations that a geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind and/or solar eruptions. Geomagnetic storms are more disruptive now than in the past because of our greater dependence on technical systems that can be affected by electric currents and energetic particles high in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is known that number of phenomena occurs during the space weather events; and there are many un-solved questions like solar wind coupling with magnetosphere and ionosphere, relationship between geomagnetic storms & sub-storms etc. To evaluate contribution of various interplanetary parameters that have major role in the geomagnetic storm/geomagnetic variations, the information theory approach is used. In information theory, the measure of uncertainty or randomness of a signal can be quantified by using Shannon entropy or entropy for short. And Transfer entropy is capable of quantifying the directional flow of information between two signals. Thus the Transfer entropy is capable of distinguishing effectively driving and responding signals. In this study, we use Transfer entropy function on Solar wind parameters and ground magnetic data to derive the drivers and relations between them, and also study their contributed effect on ionospheric TEC. In this presentation, we will evaluate and present the results obtained, and discuss about the driving forces on the geomagnetic field disturbances.

  4. Ionospheric response to the phenomena occurring below and above it: a summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K.; Sharma, P.K. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Manav Rachna College of Engineering, Faridabad (India)]. E-mail: dkphdes@rediffmail.com; Chand, R.; Rai, J. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2009-01-15

    Some of well known F{sub 2} layer anomalies might have their origin in lower atmosphere and some have extra terrestrial sources. It has been suggested that the phenomena occurring below the ionosphere such as thunderstorms, lightning/sprites, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes and above the phenomena like corona mass ejection, solar flares and extra terrestrial events may produce F{sub 2} layer signatures. In the present paper we have tried to summarize the effect of some phenomena occurring below the ionosphere like thunderstorms, lightning/sprites and seismic activity and the phenomena such as solar flares which occur above the ionosphere, on the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures. The paper also discusses possibilities. The ionospheric electron and ion temperatures were measured by the RrPAa payload aboard the Iindian SRrOSS-C2 satellite. The normal day's ion and electron temperatures have been compared to the temperatures recorded during the disturbed day. The satellite data corresponding to the disturbance period were analyzed in such way that the other possible effects were eliminated. The data used are from the period 1995-1998 in the altitude range 430-630 km over the Iindian region. The data of thunderstorms activity have been obtained from IMimD, Pune and details of seismic events during this period downloaded from the USGS website and existing literature. The data of solar flares have been obtained from NGDC, Boulder, Colorado, USA. [Spanish] Algunas de las anomalias bien conocidas de la capa F{sub 2} pueden tener su origen en la atmosfera baja y otras pueden tener fuentes extra terrestres. Se ha sugerido que los fenomenos que ocurren bajo la ionosfera, tales como truenos, relampagos/duendes, erupciones volcanicas y temblores, y los que ocurren arriba, como eyecciones masivas de la corona solar, erupciones solares y otros eventos extra terrestres, pueden producir efectos especificos en la capa F{sub 2}. En este trabajo hemos tratado de

  5. The response of ionospheric convection in the polar cap to substorm activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    Full Text Available We report multi-instrument observations during an isolated substorm on 17 October 1989. The EISCAT radar operated in the SP-UK-POLI mode measuring ionospheric convection at latitudes 71°λ-78°λ. SAMNET and the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross provide information on the timing of substorm expansion phase onset and subsequent intensifications, as well as the location of the field aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the substorm current wedge. IMP-8 magnetic field data are also included. Evidence of a substorm growth phase is provided by the equatorward motion of a flow reversal boundary across the EISCAT radar field of view at 2130 MLT, following a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. We infer that the polar cap expanded as a result of the addition of open magnetic flux to the tail lobes during this interval. The flow reversal boundary, which is a lower limit to the polar cap boundary, reached an invariant latitude equatorward of 71°λ by the time of the expansion phase onset. A westward electrojet, centred at 65.4°λ, occurred at the onset of the expansion phase. This electrojet subsequently moved poleward to a maximum of 68.1°λ at 2000 UT and also widened. During the expansion phase, there is evidence of bursts of plasma flow which are spatially localised at longitudes within the substorm current wedge and which occurred well poleward of the westward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm onset region in the ionosphere, defined by the westward electrojet, mapped to a part of the tail radially earthward of the boundary between open and closed magnetic flux, the "distant" neutral line. Thus the substorm was not initiated at the distant neutral line, although there is evidence that it remained active during the expansion phase. It is not obvious whether the electrojet mapped to a near-Earth neutral line, but at its most poleward, the expanded electrojet does not reach the estimated latitude of the polar cap

  6. SAMI3_ICON: Model of the Ionosphere/Plasmasphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J. D.; Maute, A.; Crowley, G.

    2017-10-01

    The NRL ionosphere/plasmasphere model SAMI3 has been modified to support the NASA ICON mission. Specifically, SAMI3_ICON has been modified to import the thermospheric composition, temperature, and winds from TIEGCM-ICON and the high-latitude potential from AMIE data. The codes will be run on a daily basis during the ICON mission to provide ionosphere and thermosphere properties to the science community. SAMI3_ICON will provide ionospheric and plasmaspheric parameters such as the electron and ion densities, temperatures, and velocities, as well as the total electron content (TEC), peak ionospheric electron density (NmF2) and height of the F layer at NmF2 (hmF2).

  7. Strong signatures of high-latitude blocks and subtropical ridges in winter PM10 over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Perez, Jose M.; Ordóñez, Carlos; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses the impact of high-latitude blocks and subtropical ridges on daily PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 μm) observations obtained from the European Environment Agency's air quality database (AirBase) for the winter period of 2000-2010. The response of the pollutant concentrations to the location of blocks and ridges with centres in two main longitudinal sectors (Atlantic, ATL, 30°-0° W; European, EUR, 0°-30° E) is examined. In particular, EUR blocking is associated with a collapse of the boundary layer as well as reduced wind speeds and precipitation occurrence, yielding large positive anomalies which average 12 μg m-3 over the whole continent. Conversely, the enhanced zonal flow around 50°-60° N and the increased occurrence of precipitation over northern-central Europe on days with ATL ridges favour the ventilation of the boundary layer and the impact of washout processes, reducing PM10 concentrations on average by around 8 μg m-3. The presence of EUR blocks is also concurrent with an increased probability of exceeding the air quality target (50 μg m-3 for 24-h averaged PM10) and the local 90th percentiles for this pollutant at many sites in central Europe, while the opposite effect is found for ridges. In addition, the effect of synoptic persistence on the PM10 concentrations is stronger for EUR blocks than for ATL ridges. This could benefit the predictability of PM10 extremes over wide areas of the region. Finally, we have found that the combined or isolated effect of both synoptic patterns can partly control the interannual variability of winter mean PM10 at many sites of north-western and central Europe, with coefficients of determination (R2) exceeding 0.80 for southern Germany. These results indicate that the response of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations to large-scale circulation patterns is stronger than previously reported for Europe and other mid-latitude regions.

  8. Anomalies in the Ionosphere around the Southern faults of Haiti near the 2010 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, P.; Daniell, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades, research on earthquake prediction has resulted in the recognition that there may exist many earthquake precursors in the lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere. The ionosphere is naturally perturbed by solar and geomagnetic disturbances and it is difficult to extract the variations connected with earthquakes particularly for the equatorial and high latitude ionosphere. Several researchers have contending theories on the mechanisms associated with pre-earthquake signals. The basic premise is that a thin layer of particles created before earthquakes due to ions originating from the earth's crust travel to the earth's surface and begin radiating from the earth's surface due to strong electric fields Namgaladze et al., [2009]. The ions can then travel from above earth's surface to the ionosphere where they can create ionospheric disturbances. When solar and geomagnetic disturbances can be ruled out, the effects of pre-seismic activities in the ionosphere can be assessed using fluctuations in the ionospheric electron density in the vicinity of fault lines. The Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) is a fast global ionospheric model which produces electron density profiles (EDPs) between 90 and 25000 km altitude, which corresponds to critical altitudes of the ionosphere Daniell et al., [1995]. Since PIM only simulates a statistical mean ionosphere, sudden variations in ionospheric electron density will not be represented in the models, which make PIM ideal for background electron density predictions. The background predictions can then removed from the actual electron density data which could provide means for identifying pre-seismic electron density perturbations.

  9. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  10. MITHRAS: A Program of Simultaneous Radar Observations of the High-Latitude Auroral Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Beaujardi~re, 0., R. Vondrak, and M. Baron, "Radar Observations of * Electric Fields and Currents Associated with Auroral Arcs ," J. Geophys. Res., 82, 5051...and A. R. Hessing, to be submitted to J. Geophys. Res. (1982). "Measures Simultanies des Champs Electriques de l’Ionosphere Aurorale par les Radars...Senior, URSI Symposium, Fairbanks, Alaska, August 1982. "Mesures Simultanges des Champs Electriques de l’Ionosphere Aurorale par lea Radars d’EISCAT et de

  11. Response of the ionospheric electron density to different types of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The electron density data recorded by the Langmuir Probe Instrument (ISL, Instrument Sonde de Langmuir onboard the DEMETER satellite have been collected for nearly 4 yr (during 2006–2009 to perform a statistical analysis. During this time, more than 7000 earthquakes with a magnitude larger than or equal to 5.0 occurred all over the world. For the statistical studies, all these events have been divided into various categories on the basis of the seismic information, including Southern or Northern Hemisphere earthquakes, inland or sea earthquakes, earthquakes at different magnitude levels, earthquakes at different depth levels, isolated events and all events. To distinguish the pre-earthquake anomalies from the possible ionospheric anomalies related to the geomagnetic activity, the data were filtered with the Kp index. The statistical results obviously show that the electron density increases close to the epicentres both in the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere, but the position of the anomaly is slightly shifted to the north in the Northern Hemisphere and to the south in the Southern Hemisphere. The electron density related to both inland and sea earthquakes presents an anomaly approximately close to the epicentres, but the anomaly for sea earthquakes is more significant than for inland earthquakes. The intensity of the anomalies is enhanced when the magnitude increases and is reduced when the depth increases. A similar anomaly can also be seen in the statistical results concerning the isolated earthquakes. All these statistical results can help to better understand the preparation process of the earthquakes and their influence up to the ionospheric levels.

  12. Estimation of surface albedo from NOAA AVHRR data in high latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Vesa; Heikinheimo, Martti

    2011-01-01

    A method for determining the surface albedo from routine daily NOAA AVHRR data is described and tested for applicability under high latitude conditions in a boreal-sub-arctic region. The test period included all received satellite data from April to October 1994, giving a good coverage of various and changing surface conditions. Albedo values obtained initially for each cloud-free pixel and satellite over-pass were averaged over nine-day periods to include a full cycle of measuring geometries...

  13. Vegetation controls on northern high latitude snow-albedo feedback: Observations and CMIP5 model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Loranty, MM; Berner, LT; Goetz, SJ; Jin, Y; Randerson, JT

    2014-01-01

    The snow-masking effect of vegetation exerts strong control on albedo in northern high latitude ecosystems. Large-scale changes in the distribution and stature of vegetation in this region will thus have important feedbacks to climate. The snow-albedo feedback is controlled largely by the contrast between snow-covered and snow-free albedo (Δα), which influences predictions of future warming in coupled climate models, despite being poorly constrained at seasonal and century time scales. Here, ...

  14. Engineering challenges of operating year-round portable seismic stations at high-latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce; Carpenter, Paul; Hebert, Jason; Childs, Dean; Anderson, Kent

    2017-04-01

    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. Here, we describe our latest advancements to mitigate the challenges of high-latitude, year-round station operation. The IRIS PASSCAL program has supported high-latitude deployments since the late 1980s. These early deployments were largely controlled source, summer only experiments. In early 2000 PASSCAL users began proposing year-round deployments of broadband stations in some of the harshest environments on the planet. These early year-round deployments were stand-alone (no telemetry) stations largely designed to operate during summer months and then run as long as possible during the winter with hopes the stations would revive come following summer. In 2006 and in collaboration with UNAVCO, we began developing communications, power systems, and enclosures to extend recording to year-round. Since this initial effort, PASSCAL continued refinement to power systems, enclosure design and manufacturability, and real-time data communications. Several sensor and data logger manufacturers have made advances in cold weather performance and delivered newly designed instruments that have furthered our ability to successfully run portable stations at high-latitude with minimal logistics - reducing size and weight of instruments and infrastructure. All PASSCAL polar engineering work is openly shared through our website: www.passcal.nmt.edu/content/polar

  15. Climate Effects on High Latitude Daphnia via Food Quality and Thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przytulska

    Full Text Available Climate change is proceeding rapidly at high northern latitudes and may have a variety of direct and indirect effects on aquatic food webs. One predicted effect is the potential shift in phytoplankton community structure towards increased cyanobacterial abundance. Given that cyanobacteria are known to be a nutritionally poor food source, we hypothesized that such a shift would reduce the efficiency of feeding and growth of northern zooplankton. To test this hypothesis, we first isolated a clone of Daphnia pulex from a permafrost thaw pond in subarctic Québec, and confirmed that it was triploid but otherwise genetically similar to a diploid, reference clone of the same species isolated from a freshwater pond in southern Québec. We used a controlled flow-through system to investigate the direct effect of temperature and indirect effect of subarctic picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus on threshold food concentrations and growth rate of the high latitude clone. We also compared the direct effect of temperature on both Daphnia clones feeding on eukaryotic picoplankton (Nannochloropsis. The high latitude clone had a significantly lower food threshold for growth than the temperate clone at both 18 and 26°C, implying adaptation to lower food availability even under warmer conditions. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in the picoeukaryote but not the cyanobacterium, confirming the large difference in food quality. The food threshold for growth of the high latitude Daphnia was 3.7 (18°C to 4.2 (26°C times higher when fed Synechococcus versus Nannochloropsis, and there was also a significant negative effect of increased temperature and cyanobacterial food on zooplankton fatty acid content and composition. The combined effect of temperature and food quality on the performance of the high latitude Daphnia was greater than their effects added separately, further indicating the potentially strong indirect effects of climate warming on aquatic food web

  16. The mapping of ionospheric TEC for central Russian and European regions on the base of GPS and GLONASS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Ephishov, Ivan; Krankowski, Andrzej; Radievsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is a key parameter not only for space radio communication but also for addressing the fundamental problems of the ionosphere physics and near Earth space. Currently, the main sources of information on the TEC in the global scale are GNSS signals measurements. The spatial-temporal behavior of the ionosphere can be most effectively analyzed using TEC maps. To date, global IGS global ionospheric maps with a resolution of 2.5 degree in latitude and 5 in longitude and a time resolution of 2 h are most widely used. To study the detailed structure of the ionospheric gradients and rapid process as well as for precise positioning task it is necessary to use more precise regional TEC maps. The Regional TEC maps are currently constructed by different research groups for different regions: USA, Europe, Japan etc. The West Department of IZMIRAN research group is a one in Russia who works on the task of regional ionosphere mapping since 2000. It was developed the methodology for obtaining information on the spatial TEC distribution, TEC maps of the ionosphere on the basis of the algorithm for multi-station processing of GNSS observations. Using a set of algorithms and programs, regional TEC maps with a spatial resolution of 1° and a time resolution up to 15 min can be produced. Here is developed the approach to establish the regular online internet service for regional ionosphere mapping of the Western Russia and Eastern Europe. Nowadays the development of GLONASS navigation system is completely finished and it consists of a constellation of more than 24 satellites. It is good perspective for investigations of the ionosphere structure and dynamics on the base of the simultaneous observations of GPS and GLONASS systems. The GLONASS satellites have the inclination about 64 degrees as against GPS satellites with 56. So the GLONASS provides opportunity to study the high latitude ionosphere. The different scale electron density irregularities

  17. [A stereological analysis of the myocardium in rats adapting to the conditions at high latitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomniashchikh, L M; Lushnikova, E L; Nepomniashchikh, G I

    1993-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative morphologic analysis of myocardium of Wistar rats were carried out when they have been transferred to high latitudes (being in latitude 69 degrees north during 37 days). It was shown, that already in a day after transferring to high latitudes pronounced disorders of lymph and blood circulations developed and heterogeneity of cardiomyocyte lesions was noted. By the end of the experiment atrophic and necrobiotic cardiomyocytes resorbed by macrophages were registered. In the group of animals, whose were transported in middle latitudes morphologic changes in myocardium gradually increased by the end of the experiment. Stereologic analysis revealed stereotype dynamics of tissue reorganization of myocardium in both animal groups. A key event in tissue reorganization of myocardium was the significant decrease of volume and surface densities of capillaries at 12th day of experiment and as consequence of these changes the volume and surface-to-volume ratios of capillaries to cardiomyocytes were decreased. The decrease of these parameters was more pronounced in animals whose were transported to high latitudes.

  18. Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Soulsby, C.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Karlsson, J.; Serikova, S.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

  19. Latitudinal variation of ionospheric slab thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Jayachandran, B.; Krishnankutty, T. N.

    The ionospheric slab thickness τ, defined as a ratio of the total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density NmF2, is a first order measure of the shape of the electron density profile. In the present study, we use GPS-derived TEC and vertical electron content estimates ITEC from ground-based ionosonde observations together with the corresponding foF2 (F2 layer critical frequency) and hmF2 (F2 layer peak height) at 14 world-wide stations lying at different latitude regions from the geomagnetic equator to north pole. The period of study is during 2001-2002, which is close to the solar maximum phase of the 23rd solar cycle. Hourly values of TEC, ITEC, foF2, hmF2 and τ during the period of study are used to compare τ values from the observation and model predictions using the International Reference Ionosphere extended towards the plasmapause with the plasmasphere option of the Russian standard model of the ionosphere, IRI*. For the three latitudinal zones (high, mid and low latitudes) the IRI* predictions of τ are compared with observed τ values for the bottomside ionosphere (below hmF2), topside ionosphere (between hmF2 and 1000 km), plasmasphere (from 1000 to 20,000 km), and the total height range through the ionosphere and plasmasphere. Significant overestimation of τ has been revealed when using IRI*, particularly for the topside ionosphere at high latitudes. Relation of the topside part of slab thickness with the topside half peak density height above the F2 layer peak provides new characteristic parameter for modeling of the topside shape of electron density profile.

  20. Non-Gaussian Multi-resolution Modeling of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, M.; Paul, D.; Lee, T. C. M.; Matsuo, T.

    2016-12-01

    The most dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere occurs in the Earth's polar atmosphere. Our objective is to model scale-dependent stochastic characteristics of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields that originate from solar wind magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. The Earth's high-latitude ionospheric electric field exhibits considerable variability, with increasing non-Gaussian characteristics at decreasing spatio-temporal scales. Accurately representing the underlying stochastic physical process through random field modeling is crucial not only for scientific understanding of the energy, momentum and mass exchanges between the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, but also for modern technological systems including telecommunication, navigation, positioning and satellite tracking. While a lot of efforts have been made to characterize the large-scale variability of the electric field in the context of Gaussian processes, no attempt has been made so far to model the small-scale non-Gaussian stochastic process observed in the high-latitude ionosphere. We construct a novel random field model using spherical needlets as building blocks. The double localization of spherical needlets in both spatial and frequency domains enables the model to capture the non-Gaussian and multi-resolutional characteristics of the small-scale variability. The estimation procedure is computationally feasible due to the utilization of an adaptive Gibbs sampler. We apply the proposed methodology to the computational simulation output from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) magnetosphere model. Our non-Gaussian multi-resolution model results in characterizing significantly more energy associated with the small-scale ionospheric electric field variability in comparison to Gaussian models. By accurately representing unaccounted-for additional energy and momentum sources to the Earth's upper atmosphere, our novel random field modeling

  1. Sources and characteristics of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by high-frequency radars in the North American sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frissell, N. A.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Greenwald, R. A.; Gerrard, A. J.; Miller, E. S.; West, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are wave-like ionospheric perturbations routinely observed by high-frequency radars. We focus on a class of MSTIDs observed during the winter daytime at high latitudes and midlatitudes. The source of these MSTIDs remains uncertain, with the two primary candidates being space weather and lower atmospheric processes. We surveyed observations from four high-latitude and six midlatitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars in the North American sector from November to May 2012 to 2015. The MSTIDs observed have horizontal wavelengths between ˜150 and 650 km and horizontal velocities between ˜75 and 325 m s-1. In local fall and winter seasons the majority of MSTIDs propagated equatorward, with bearings ranging from ˜125° to 225° geographic azimuth. No clear correlation with space weather activity as parameterized by AE and SYM-H could be identified. Rather, MSTID observations were found to have a strong correlation with polar vortex dynamics on two timescales. First, a seasonal timescale follows the annual development and decay of the polar vortex. Second, a shorter 2-4 week timescale again corresponds to synoptic polar vortex variability, including stratospheric warmings. Additionally, statistical analysis shows that MSTIDs are more likely during periods of strong polar vortex. Direct comparison of the MSTID observations with stratospheric zonal winds suggests that a wind filtering mechanism may be responsible for the strong correlation. Collectively, these observations suggest that polar atmospheric processes, rather than space weather activity, are primarily responsible for controlling the occurrence of high-latitude and midlatitude winter daytime MSTIDs.

  2. Global ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 and their influence on HF radio wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Daria; Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zakharov, Veniamin

    2013-04-01

    geomagnetic storm. A comparison of the ordinary and extraordinary modes of HF radio ray paths in quiet and disturbed conditions has been done. We considered in more detail the features of the radio ray paths in the presence of F3 layer in the equatorial ionosphere, the main ionospheric trough and tongue of ionization at high latitudes. It is shown that the results obtained with use of radio propagation and GSM TIP models adequately describe HF radio ray paths in the Earth's ionosphere and can be used in applications. These investigations were carried out at financial support of Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) - Grant # 12-05-31217 and RAS Program 22.

  3. Midlatitude ionospheric F2-layer response to eruptive solar events-caused geomagnetic disturbances over Hungary during the maximum of the solar cycle 24: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berényi, K. A.; Barta, V.; Kis, Á.

    2018-03-01

    In our study we analyze and compare the response and behavior of the ionospheric F2 and of the sporadic E-layer during three strong (i.e., Dst art digital ionosonde of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Observatory located at midlatitude, Nagycenk, Hungary (IAGA code: NCK, geomagnetic latitude: 46.17° geomagnetic longitude: 98.85°). The local time of the sudden commencement (SC) was used to characterize the type of the ionospheric storm (after Mendillo and Narvaez, 2010). This way two regular positive phase (RPP) ionospheric storms and one no-positive phase (NPP) storm have been analyzed. In all three cases a significant increase in electron density of the foF2 layer can be observed at dawn/early morning (around 6:00 UT, 07:00 LT). Also we can observe the fade-out of the ionospheric layers at night during the geomagnetically disturbed time periods. Our results suggest that the fade-out effect is not connected to the occurrence of the sporadic E-layers.

  4. Estimating the contribution from different ionospheric regions to the TEC response to the solar flares using data from the international GPS network

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    L. A. Leonovich

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for estimating the contribution from different ionospheric regions to the response of total electron content variations to the solar flare, based on data from the international network of two-frequency multichannel receivers of the navigation GPS system. The method uses the effect of partial "shadowing" of the atmosphere by the terrestrial globe. The study of the solar flare influence on the atmosphere uses GPS stations located near the boundary of the shadow on the ground in the nightside hemisphere. The beams between the satellite-borne transmitter and the receiver on the ground for these stations pass partially through the atmosphere lying in the region of total shadow, and partially through the illuminated atmosphere. The analysis of the ionospheric effect of a powerful solar flare of class X5.7/3B that was recorded on 14 July 2000 (10:24 UT, N22 W07 in quiet geomagnetic conditions (Dst = -10 nT has shown that about 75% of the TEC increase corresponds to the ionospheric region lying below 300 km and about 25% to regions lying above 300 km.

    Key words. Ionosphere (solar radiation and cosmic ray effects; instruments and techniques – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (ultraviolet emissions

  5. Estimating the contribution from different ionospheric regions to the TEC response to the solar flares using data from the international GPS network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Leonovich

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for estimating the contribution from different ionospheric regions to the response of total electron content variations to the solar flare, based on data from the international network of two-frequency multichannel receivers of the navigation GPS system. The method uses the effect of partial "shadowing" of the atmosphere by the terrestrial globe. The study of the solar flare influence on the atmosphere uses GPS stations located near the boundary of the shadow on the ground in the nightside hemisphere. The beams between the satellite-borne transmitter and the receiver on the ground for these stations pass partially through the atmosphere lying in the region of total shadow, and partially through the illuminated atmosphere. The analysis of the ionospheric effect of a powerful solar flare of class X5.7/3B that was recorded on 14 July 2000 (10:24 UT, N22 W07 in quiet geomagnetic conditions (Dst = -10 nT has shown that about 75% of the TEC increase corresponds to the ionospheric region lying below 300 km and about 25% to regions lying above 300 km.Key words. Ionosphere (solar radiation and cosmic ray effects; instruments and techniques – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (ultraviolet emissions

  6. IMF dependence of high-latitude thermospheric wind pattern derived from CHAMP cross-track measurements

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    M. Förster

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutral thermospheric wind pattern at high latitudes obtained from cross-track acceleration measurements of the CHAMP satellite above both North and South polar regions are statistically analyzed in their dependence on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF direction in the GSM y-z plane (clock angle. We compare this dependency with magnetospheric convection pattern obtained from the Cluster EDI plasma drift measurements under the same sorting conditions. The IMF-dependency shows some similarity with the corresponding high-latitude plasma convection insofar that the larger-scale convection cells, in particular the round-shaped dusk cell for ByIMF+ (ByIMF− conditions at the Northern (Southern Hemisphere, leave their marks on the dominant general transpolar wind circulation from the dayside to the nightside. The direction of the transpolar circulation is generally deflected toward a duskward flow, in particular in the evening to nighttime sector. The degree of deflection correlates with the IMF clock angle. It is larger for ByIMF+ than for ByIMF− and is systematically larger (~5° and appear less structured at the Southern Hemisphere compared with the Northern. Thermospheric cross-polar wind amplitudes are largest for BzIMF−/ByIMF− conditions at the Northern Hemisphere, but for BzIMF−/ByIMF+ conditions at the Southern because the magnetospheric convection is in favour of largest wind accelerations over the polar cap under these conditions. The overall variance of the thermospheric wind magnitude at Southern high latitudes is larger than for the Northern. This is probably due to a larger "stirring effect" at the Southern Hemisphere because of the larger distance between the geographic and geomagnetic frameworks.

  7. On the solar cycle variation in the barometer coefficients of high latitude neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunose, M.; Ogita, N.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of barometer coefficients of neutron monitors located at high latitudes has been performed by using the results of the spherical harmonic analysis based on the records from around twenty stations for twelve years from January 1966 to December 1977. The average of data at eight stations, where continuous records are available for twelve years, show that the absolute value of barometer coefficient is in positive correlation with the cosmic ray neutron intensity. The variation rate of the barometer coefficient to the cosmic ray neutron intensity is influenced by the changes in the cutoff rigidity and in the primary spectrum.

  8. Initial studies of high latitude magnetic field data during different magnetospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cersosimo, D. O.; Wanliss, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of high-latitude magnetometer data for differing geomagnetic activity. This is achieved by characterizing changes in the nonlinear statistics of the geomagnetic field, by means of the Hurst exponent, measured from a single ground-based magnetometer station. The long-range statistical nature of the geomagnetic field at a local observation site can be described as a multifractional Brownian motion, thus suggesting the statistical structure required of mathematical models of magnetospheric activity. We also find that, in general, the average Hurst exponent for quiet magnetospheric intervals is smaller than that for more active intervals.

  9. Ionospheric response following the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake on 25 April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Ding, Feng; Zhao, Biqiang; Li, Jianyong; Hu, Lianhuan; Wan, Weixing; Ning, Baiqi

    2017-06-01

    A detailed observation of the coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs) after the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake has been carried out using total electron content (TEC) data from 333 GPS stations. This inland earthquake occurred on 25 April 2015, at a depth of 15 km. Following the quake at 6:11 UT, groups of CIDs were observed from 06:18 to 07:00 UT. The CIDs we observed could be classified into three groups: CIDs related to gravity waves (GWs), CIDs related to acoustic waves (AWs), and CIDs related to seismic Rayleigh surface waves. The GW-related CIDs traveled at a velocity of 500 m/s. They were mainly observed to the south and north of the epicenter, within 600 km of the event, with a maximum amplitude of 0.18 total electron content unit (TECU; 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2). The AW-related CIDs traveled at a velocity of 700-1400 m/s. They could be observed for 1000 km in all directions from the epicenter, with an amplitude of 0.3 TECU. The CIDs related to Rayleigh waves could be observed only to the east of the epicenter, at a maximum distance of 1800 km. They had an apparent velocity of 2.0-2.3 km/s. Through comparing the seismogram data from Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology to the TEC data, we found that the azimuthal characteristics of the ground vibrations agree with the directivity of the CIDs related to Rayleigh surface waves.

  10. A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magnetic reconnection: III. Quasi-instantaneous convection responses in the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm

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    S. K. Morley

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a numerical implementation of the cowlock92 model of flow excitation in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI system, we show that both an expanding (on a ~12-min timescale and a quasi-instantaneous response in ionospheric convection to the onset of magnetopause reconnection can be accommodated by the Cowley-Lockwood conceptual framework. This model has a key feature of time dependence, necessarily considering the history of the coupled MI system. We show that a residual flow, driven by prior magnetopause reconnection, can produce a quasi-instantaneous global ionospheric convection response; perturbations from an equilibrium state may also be present from tail reconnection, which will superpose constructively to give a similar effect. On the other hand, when the MI system is relatively free of pre-existing flow, we can most clearly see the expanding nature of the response. As the open-closed field line boundary will frequently be in motion from such prior reconnection (both at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet, it is expected that there will usually be some level of combined response to dayside reconnection.

  11. A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magnetic reconnection: III. Quasi-instantaneous convection responses in the Cowley-Lockwood paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S. K.; Lockwood, M.

    2006-05-01

    Using a numerical implementation of the cowlock92 model of flow excitation in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) system, we show that both an expanding (on a ~12-min timescale) and a quasi-instantaneous response in ionospheric convection to the onset of magnetopause reconnection can be accommodated by the Cowley-Lockwood conceptual framework. This model has a key feature of time dependence, necessarily considering the history of the coupled MI system. We show that a residual flow, driven by prior magnetopause reconnection, can produce a quasi-instantaneous global ionospheric convection response; perturbations from an equilibrium state may also be present from tail reconnection, which will superpose constructively to give a similar effect. On the other hand, when the MI system is relatively free of pre-existing flow, we can most clearly see the expanding nature of the response. As the open-closed field line boundary will frequently be in motion from such prior reconnection (both at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet), it is expected that there will usually be some level of combined response to dayside reconnection.

  12. Radar observations of ionospheric irregularities at Syowa Station, Antarctica: a brief overview

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    T. Ogawa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We briefly overview the radar observations that have been made for 30 years at Syowa Station, Antarctica for studying small-scale electron-density irregularities in the southern high-latitude E- and F-region ionosphere. Some observational results (i.e., long-term variations of radio aurora, Doppler spectra with narrow spectral widths and low Doppler velocities, and simultaneous observations of radar and optical auroras from VHF radars capable of detecting 1.3- to 3-m scale irregularities are presented. A new 50-MHz radar system equipped with phased-antenna arrays began operation in February 1995 to observe two-dimensional behaviours of E-region irregularities. An HF radar experiment also began in February 1995 to explore decameter-scale E- and F-region irregularities in the auroral zone and polar cap. These two radars will contribute to a better understanding of the ionospheric irregularities and ionospheric physics at southern high latitudes.

  13. North-South Asymmetries in Earth's Magnetic Field. Effects on High-Latitude Geospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Cnossen, I.; Milan, S. E.; Haaland, S. E.; Coxon, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Förster, M.; Reistad, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    The solar-wind magnetosphere interaction primarily occurs at altitudes where the dipole component of Earth's magnetic field is dominating. The disturbances that are created in this interaction propagate along magnetic field lines and interact with the ionosphere-thermosphere system. At ionospheric altitudes, the Earth's field deviates significantly from a dipole. North-South asymmetries in the magnetic field imply that the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (M-I-T) coupling is different in the two hemispheres. In this paper we review the primary differences in the magnetic field at polar latitudes, and the consequences that these have for the M-I-T coupling. We focus on two interhemispheric differences which are thought to have the strongest effects: 1) A difference in the offset between magnetic and geographic poles in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and 2) differences in the magnetic field strength at magnetically conjugate regions. These asymmetries lead to differences in plasma convection, neutral winds, total electron content, ion outflow, ionospheric currents and auroral precipitation.

  14. Detection of Wetland Dynamics with Envisat ASAR in Support of Methane Modelling in High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Sabel, D.; Schlaffer, S.; Naeimi, V.; Wagner, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland dynamics play an important role for methane release in high latitudes. Inundation as well as changes in surface wetness at local to regional scale can be detected using especially SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data. Acquisitions available from ENVISAT ASAR are assessed for their potential for regular wetland monitoring at high latitudes within the ESA STSE project ’ALANIS - Methane’. Open water surfaces larger than approximately two ha can be identified using a simple threshold-based classification applied to the normalized ENVISAT ASAR wide swath (WS) data. Specular reflection from calm water surfaces which results in low backscatter enables a straight forward identification of inundation in areas with limited vegetation coverage. Open peatland can also be identified with SAR due to their higher moisture content and thus higher backscatter. Both backscatter mechanisms are exploited for intra-seasonal wetland monitoring in Northern Eurasia for ALANIS Methane. Inter-annual variations of inundation are also derived at selected sites in boreal/arctic environment as part of the ESA DUE Permafrost project. This paper especially discusses limitations due to sampling frequency and the potential for improvements of regional scale wetland detection approaches.

  15. Vegetation controls on northern high latitude snow-albedo feedback: observations and CMIP5 model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranty, Michael M; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-02-01

    The snow-masking effect of vegetation exerts strong control on albedo in northern high latitude ecosystems. Large-scale changes in the distribution and stature of vegetation in this region will thus have important feedbacks to climate. The snow-albedo feedback is controlled largely by the contrast between snow-covered and snow-free albedo (Δα), which influences predictions of future warming in coupled climate models, despite being poorly constrained at seasonal and century time scales. Here, we compare satellite observations and coupled climate model representations of albedo and tree cover for the boreal and Arctic region. Our analyses reveal consistent declines in albedo with increasing tree cover, occurring south of latitudinal tree line, that are poorly represented in coupled climate models. Observed relationships between albedo and tree cover differ substantially between snow-covered and snow-free periods, and among plant functional type. Tree cover in models varies widely but surprisingly does not correlate well with model albedo. Furthermore, our results demonstrate a relationship between tree cover and snow-albedo feedback that may be used to accurately constrain high latitude albedo feedbacks in coupled climate models under current and future vegetation distributions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Parallel Gene Expression Differences between Low and High Latitude Populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Wit, Janneke; Svetec, Nicolas; Begun, David J

    2015-05-01

    Gene expression variation within species is relatively common, however, the role of natural selection in the maintenance of this variation is poorly understood. Here we investigate low and high latitude populations of Drosophila melanogaster and its sister species, D. simulans, to determine whether the two species show similar patterns of population differentiation, consistent with a role for spatially varying selection in maintaining gene expression variation. We compared at two temperatures the whole male transcriptome of D. melanogaster and D. simulans sampled from Panama City (Panama) and Maine (USA). We observed a significant excess of genes exhibiting differential expression in both species, consistent with parallel adaptation to heterogeneous environments. Moreover, the majority of genes showing parallel expression differentiation showed the same direction of differential expression in the two species and the magnitudes of expression differences between high and low latitude populations were correlated across species, further bolstering the conclusion that parallelism for expression phenotypes results from spatially varying selection. However, the species also exhibited important differences in expression phenotypes. For example, the genomic extent of genotype × environment interaction was much more common in D. melanogaster. Highly differentiated SNPs between low and high latitudes were enriched in the 3' UTRs and CDS of the geographically differently expressed genes in both species, consistent with an important role for cis-acting variants in driving local adaptation for expression-related phenotypes.

  17. Tropical seaways played a more important role than high latitude seaways in Cenozoic cooling

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    Z. Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the Early Eocene climatic optimum (EECO, ~55–50 Ma, climate deteriorated and gradually changed the earth from a greenhouse into an icehouse, with major cooling events at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary (∼34 Ma and the Middle Miocene (∼15 Ma. It is believed that the opening of the Drake Passage had a marked impact on the cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Based on an Early Eocene simulation, we study the sensitivity of climate and ocean circulation to tectonic events such as the closing of the West Siberian Seaway, the deepening of the Arctic-Atlantic Seaway, the opening of the Drake Passage, and the constriction of the Tethys and Central American seaways. The opening of the Drake Passage, together with the closing of the West Siberian Seaway and the deepening of the Arctic-Atlantic Seaway, weakened the Southern Ocean Deep Water (SODW dominated ocean circulation and led to a weak cooling at high latitudes, thus contributing to the observed Early Cenozoic cooling. However, the later constriction of the Tethys and Central American Seaways is shown to give a strong cooling at southern high latitudes. This cooling was related to the transition of ocean circulation from a SODW-dominated mode to the modern-like ocean circulation dominated by North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW.

  18. High Resolution Mapping of Peatland Hydroperiod at a High-Latitude Swedish Mire

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    Nathan Torbick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring high latitude wetlands is required to understand feedbacks between terrestrial carbon pools and climate change. Hydrological variability is a key factor driving biogeochemical processes in these ecosystems and effective assessment tools are critical for accurate characterization of surface hydrology, soil moisture, and water table fluctuations. Operational satellite platforms provide opportunities to systematically monitor hydrological variability in high latitude wetlands. The objective of this research application was to integrate high temporal frequency Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR and high spatial resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR observations to assess hydroperiod at a mire in northern Sweden. Geostatistical and polarimetric (PLR techniques were applied to determine spatial structure of the wetland and imagery at respective scales (0.5 m to 25 m. Variogram, spatial regression, and decomposition approaches characterized the sensitivity of the two platforms (SAR and LiDAR to wetland hydrogeomorphology, scattering mechanisms, and data interrelationships. A Classification and Regression Tree (CART, based on random forest, fused multi-mode (fine-beam single, dual, quad pol Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR and LiDAR-derived elevation to effectively map hydroperiod attributes at the Swedish mire across an aggregated warm season (May–September, 2006–2010. Image derived estimates of water and peat moisture were sensitive (R2 = 0.86 to field measurements of water table depth (cm. Peat areas that are underlain by permafrost were observed as areas with fluctuating soil moisture and water table changes.

  19. Mudstone sedimentation at high latitudes: Ice as a transport medium for mud and supplier of nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquaker, J.H.S.; Keller, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Controls on mudstone deposition at high latitudes are poorly known relative to low latitudes. In recent sediments deposited in these environments, ice significantly influences sediment transport and primary productivity. The products of ice transport are relatively well known in glacimarine settings, but are less well known from below melting sea ice. This latter setting is significant as today it is associated with high primary organic productivity. The aim of this study is to assess how sea ice might have controlled lithofacies variability and organic-matter distribution and preservation in an ancient marine, siliciclastic mudstone-dominated succession deposited at high latitudes. Combined sedimentary logging, optical and electron optical (back-scatte red electron imagery), geochemical, and isotopic methods were used to determine sample variability in forty-five samples collected from the Lower Cretaceous succession in the Mikkelsen Bay State #1 borehole (North Slope, Alaska). The succession overall fines upward and contains muddy sandstones and sand- and silt-bearing, clay-rich mudstones towards its base in contrast to clay-rich and clay-dominated mudstones towards its top. Some of the mudstone units exhibit thin (Copyright ?? 2005, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  20. Modelling ionospheric scintillation under the crest of the equatorial anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsi, L.; Wernik, A. W.; Materassi, M.; Spogli, L.

    2017-10-01

    WAM is realized making use of the plasma density data collected via the retarding potential analyser on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft, capable to model the scintillation climatology over the northern hemisphere high latitude ionosphere. More recently, WAM has been tuned to model the ionospheric scintillations also over the equatorial latitudes. The effort has been done to support the CIGALA (Concept for Ionospheric Scintillation Mitigation for Professional GNSS in Latin America) project in the assessment of the scintillations climatology over Latin America. The concept of the new release of WAM is the same already adopted for the high latitudes: the in situ measurements, supplemented with an ionospheric model and with the irregularity anisotropy model, are treated to describe the morphology of scintillation, provided a suitable propagation model is used. Significant differences have been included in the low latitudes release to account for the anisotropy of the irregularities and for strong scattering regime. The paper describes the new WAM formulation and presents comparisons of the model predictions with the actual measurements collected in Brazil.

  1. The distribution and biogeochemical importance of high-latitude dust in the Arctic and Southern Ocean-Antarctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that around 5% of global dust emissions come from sources in the high latitudes (≥50°N and ≥40°S). A substantial proportion of this dust remains within the high latitudes and is deposited in marine and terrestrial environments. Stable air masses and limited atmospheric convection associated with cold climates reduce vertical mixing of dust plumes and can restrict the altitudes at which the deposition of dust originating from high latitudes can take place. Within local high-latitude systems, dust transport pathways facilitate links between different landscape components contributing nutrients and sediments. Dust deposition to the polar areas may also be a critical source of sediments and nutrients that trigger and maintain phytoplankton blooms.

  2. Increased Ocean Heat Convergence Into the High Latitudes With CO2 Doubling Enhances Polar-Amplified Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. A.; Rasch, P. J.; Rose, B. E. J.

    2017-10-01

    We isolate the role of the ocean in polar climate change by directly evaluating how changes in ocean dynamics with quasi-equilibrium CO2 doubling impact high-latitude climate. With CO2 doubling, the ocean heat flux convergence (OHFC) shifts poleward in winter in both hemispheres. Imposing this pattern of perturbed OHFC in a global climate model results in a poleward shift in ocean-to-atmosphere turbulent heat fluxes (both sensible and latent) and sea ice retreat; the high latitudes warm, while the midlatitudes cool, thereby amplifying polar warming. Furthermore, midlatitude cooling is propagated to the polar midtroposphere on isentropic surfaces, augmenting the (positive) lapse rate feedback at high latitudes. These results highlight the key role played by the partitioning of meridional energy transport changes between the atmosphere and ocean in high-latitude climate change.

  3. Contributions of Icelandic and other high-latitude sources to mineral dust in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot Zwaaftink, Christine; Grythe, Henrik; Arnalds, Olafur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Skov, Henrik; Jóhannsson, Thorsteinn; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Impurities in the Arctic atmosphere and cryosphere, such as mineral dust, can strongly affect the atmospheric radiation- and surface energy balance. Mineral dust can be transported into the Arctic from remote regions, but is also generated at high latitudes, for instance Iceland. With the dust mobilization scheme FLEXDUST and the Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model FLEXPART we investigate sources of mineral dust at northern high latitudes. FLEXDUST simulations over three years indicate that about 3% of global dust emission originate from northern high-latitude (>60°N) dust sources. About 10% thereof comes from Iceland. Due to limited up-lifting of this dust and relatively small transport distances, dust from nothern high-latitude sources contributes strongly to dust deposition ( 90%) and dust surface concentrations ( 85%) in the Arctic, according to our simulations. With increasing altitude, remote sources become more important for dust concentrations, thus influencing total atmospheric dust load rather than surface concentrations and contributing to dust deposition at higher altitude locations. Total atmospheric dust loads in the Arctic are strongly influenced by Asian ( 38%) and African ( 32%) dust. Only at higher altitudes, such as on the Greenland Ice Sheet, larger fractions of deposited dust originate from remote sources. At lower altitudes, deposited dust appears to originate mostly from northern high-latitude sources. Dust mobilization from these sources is, however, rarely studied in detail. With some adaptations to FLEXDUST, we study dust emission, transport and deposition of Icelandic dust at high resolution for one year. We used a high-resolution map of soil types in Iceland and threshold friction velocity in dust sources was based on previous observations. Snow cover and precipitation were included as factors limiting dust mobilization. In a one-year high-resolution simulation for 2012, driven with hourly meteorological data from the European

  4. Ionospheric effects of magnetic storm observed by means of oblique sounding of artificial ionospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradov, G. G.; Vertogradov, V. G.; Ponyatov, A. A.

    Results of experimental studies of the influence of the artificial ionospheric turbulence (AIT) on HF propagation are presented. Ionospheric modification and the creation of a scatterer was produced by powerful radio emission of the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod region). For diagnostics of the AIT were used the Russian chirp sounders network and HF Doppler radar. The reception of scattered signals was carried out in the Rostov-Don on the oblique V-type antenna oriented to the SURA heating facility. It is investigated ionospheric effects of magnetic storm during August 17-22, 2003 accompanied a period of the experiment. It is shown that ionospheric effects of the magnetic storm observed by means of Doppler frequency shift (DFS) measurements signals scattered from artificial small-scale field-aligned irregularities correlate well with the behavior of the southward component Bz of the interplanetary magnetic field and with variations in the geomagnetic field near the Earth surface. It has been found that at heights of the mid-latitude ionospheric F region under undisturbed conditions the electric field and the drift velocity of irregularities correspond to the typical values about 1 mV m-1 and 20 m s-1, respectively. During magnetic storm these values increase up to values of about 8.6 mV m-1 and 186 m s-1, which better correspond to the values typical for the high-latitude ionosphere. It is found that in the magnetically-disturbed period sporadically appearing trains with quasi-periodical modulation of DFS for the scattered signal with a period of ˜ 40-60 s and amplitude reaching 2 Hz were observed. The relation of the quasi-periodical oscillations of the DFS for the scattered signal to the presence of magnetohydrodynamics waves excited during a magnetic storm is considered. It is concluded that use HF Doppler radar for AIT sounding is of interest for diagnostics of wave processes in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The conditions of formation of the HF

  5. Water vapour variability in the high-latitude upper troposphere – Part 2: Impact of volcanic eruptions

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    C. E. Sioris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of volcanic eruptions on water vapour in the high-latitude upper troposphere is studied using deseasonalized time series based on observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. The two eruptions with the greatest impact on the high-latitude upper troposphere during the time frame of this satellite-based remote sensing mission are chosen. The Puyehue–Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption in June 2011 was the most explosive in the past 24 years and is shown to be able to account for the observed (50 ± 12 % increase in water vapour in the southern high-latitude upper troposphere in July 2011 after a minor adjustment for the simultaneous influence of the Antarctic oscillation. Eyjafjallajökull erupted in the spring of 2010, increasing water vapour in the upper troposphere at northern high latitudes significantly for a period of  ∼  1 month. These findings imply that extratropical volcanic eruptions in windy environments can lead to significant perturbations to high-latitude upper tropospheric humidity mostly due to entrainment of lower tropospheric moisture by wind-blown plumes. The Puyehue–Cordón Caulle eruption must be taken into account to properly determine the magnitude of the trend in southern high-latitude upper tropospheric water vapour over the last decade.

  6. Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Bernert, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24 Within the framework of the UN International Space Weather Initiative, and building upon the achievements of the International Heliophysical Year, the German project SIMONE (Sun Ionosphere MOnitoring NEtwork) operates several SID monitors provided by the University of Stanford. Here we present an overview of sudden ionospheric disturbances recorded since 2006 at the high school Gymnasium Walsrode until to date. The continous measurements allow a detailed comparison of locally measured SIDs with the general trend of solar activity during the current solar maximum. We further show that the measurements reveal specific information on the variable response of the dayside ionosphere to solar flares.

  7. Physical mechanisms responsible for forming the 4-peak longitudinal structure of the 135.6 nm ionospheric emission: First results from the Canadian IAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, O. V.; Fomichev, V. I.; Semeniuk, K.; Beagley, S. R.; Ward, W. E.; McConnell, J. C.; Namgaladze, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Canadian Ionosphere and Atmosphere Model (Canadian IAM or C-IAM) is a new project aimed at the development of whole atmosphere modeling capabilities in Canada. The first version of the C-IAM is comprised of the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere (CMAM) and the Murmansk's Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM), currently coupled in a one-way manner. The model extends from the surface to the inner magnetosphere and is able to describe the impact on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere of self-consistently generated lower atmosphere dynamical variability. In the current study, the C-IAM has been used to investigate the physical mechanisms responsible for forming the 4-peak longitudinal structure of the 135.6 nm ionospheric emission observed by the IMAGE satellite over the tropics at 20:00 local time from March 20 to April 20, 2002. To perform this study, the C-IAM has been run for this whole observation period taking into account a realistic day-to-day variation in solar and geomagnetic activity. The 4-peak longitudinal structure produced by the model and averaged over the observation period is in a good agreement with the observations. Analysis of the model results suggests that the main mechanism for generating the longitudinal structure in the ionospheric emission after sunset is a modification of the ionospheric electric field in the E region caused in the course of the daytime by differences in the diurnal evolution of the zonal wind in different longitudinal sectors due to waves penetrating from the lower atmosphere. In agreement with the earlier findings, our study showed that this mechanism is driven mainly by the diurnal eastward propagating tide with zonal number 3. A small contribution to the formation of the 4-peak structure is also provided by longitudinal variations in meridional wind and neutral composition at the F2 layer altitudes. The 4 peaks being clearly visible in the monthly mean result are not, however, present every day. Day-to-day variability of

  8. A synthesis of thermokarst lake water balance in high-latitude regions of North America from isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lauren A.; Wolfe, Brent B.; Turner, Kevin W.; Anderson, Lesleigh; Arp, Christopher D.; Birks, Jean; Bouchard, Frédéric; Edwards, Thomas W.D.; Farquharson, Nicole; Hall, Roland I.; McDonald, Ian; Narancic, Biljana; Ouimet, Chantal; Pienitz, Reinhard; Tondu, Jana; White, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies utilizing remote sensing imagery and other methods have documented that thermokarst lakes are undergoing varied hydrological transitions in response to recent climate changes, from surface area expansion to drainage and evaporative desiccation. Here, we provide a synthesis of hydrological conditions for 376 lakes of mainly thermokarst origin across high-latitude North America. We assemble surface water isotope compositions measured during the past decade at five lake-rich landscapes including Arctic Coastal Plain (Alaska), Yukon Flats (Alaska), Old Crow Flats (Yukon), northwestern Hudson Bay Lowlands (Manitoba), and Nunavik (Quebec). These landscapes represent the broad range of thermokarst environments by spanning gradients in meteorological, permafrost, and vegetation conditions. An isotope framework was established based on flux-weighted long-term averages of meteorological conditions for each lake to quantify water balance metrics. The isotope composition of source water and evaporation-to-inflow ratio for each lake were determined, and the results demonstrated a substantial array of regional and subregional diversity of lake hydrological conditions. Controls on lake water balance and how these vary among the five landscapes and with differing environmental drivers are assessed. Findings reveal that lakes in the Hudson Bay Lowlands are most vulnerable to evaporative desiccation, whereas those in Nunavik are most resilient. However, we also identify the complexity in predicting hydrological responses of these thermokarst landscapes to future climate change.

  9. Model-based optical and radar remote sensing of transport and composition in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Matthew David

    The terrestrial ionosphere is heavily influenced by electrodynamic and inertial coupling with the magnetosphere. This coupling is most apparent at high latitudes where precipitating electrons and electromagnetic disturbances associated with auroras greatly alter temperatures and motions of the ionospheric plasma. Among other effects, auroral electrons are responsible for heating ionospheric electrons and producing ion upflows. Perpendicular electric fields frictionally heat ionospheric ions, resulting in drastic modifications to chemical reaction rates which control F-region ion composition. The lasting effects of upflows and composition on the magnetosphere-ionosphere system are poorly understood due to a sparsity of measurements of these processes. This shortage of measurements is addressed by developing two new remote sensing techniques: one for estimating ion upflows from optical measurements and another for estimating ion composition from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) data. This research develops an underutilized diagnostic for ion upflows: auroral optical emissions. Systematic theoretical modeling efforts demonstrate that emission features with wavelengths of 630.0 nm, 732-733 nm, and 844.6 nm are ideal indicators of upflow. A technique is then developed which uses multi-spectral auroral optical measurements to estimate ion upflow. This technique is applied in two steps: (1) multi-spectral optical data are inverted, using a physics-based kinetic model of electron energy deposition, to estimate electron precipitation; (2) this precipitation is used as input to a ionospheric model to calculate the resulting ion upflow. This technique is applied to near-infrared (700-850 nm wavelength) optical observations from an event occurring on 17 February 2001 at the Sondrestrom research facility. Estimated ion upflow is shown to be accurate through quantitative comparisons with concurrent ISR observations. A method for estimating ion composition from ISR data is also

  10. Design for low angle sunlight in high latitudes techniques to analyse and improve visual comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.M.; Schiller, S. de [Research Centre Habitat and Energy Faculty of Architecture, Design and Urbanism, University of Buneos Aires, Capital Federal (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    This presentation analyses the incidence of low angle sun in high latitudes of Argentina from 45 deg to 55 deg S. taking into account the solar geometry and the relative cloud cover. This low angle sun, desirable for heat gain in cold climates, can cause visual discomfort, especially in buildings such as schools, hospitals, offices with VDU screens and other situations where users have fixed working positions. Three different techniques for evaluating situations of thermal discomfort are compared: physical models with direct observation or video recordings, computer animations, and graphic techniques, taking into account the time, accuracy, and ease of comprehension of the results. The use of these methods for teaching is also considered. (orig.) 5 refs.

  11. Model of Semidiurnal Pseudo Tide in the High-Latitude Upper Mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Mayr, H. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present numerical results for the m = 1 meridional winds of semi diurnal oscillations in the high-latitude upper mesosphere, which are generated in the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) without solar excitations of the tides. Identified with heuristic computer runs, the pseudo tides attain amplitudes that are, at times, as large as the non-migrating tides produced with standard solar forcing. Under the influence of parameterized gravity waves, the nonlinear NSM generates internal oscillations like the quasi-biennial oscillation, that are produced with periods favored by the dynamical properties of the system. The Coriolis force would favor at polar latitudes the excitation of the 12-hour periodicity. This oscillation may help explain the large non-migrating semidiurnal tides that are observed in the region with ground-based and satellite measurements.

  12. Analytic radiative-advective equilibrium as a model for high-latitude climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Timothy W.; Jansen, Malte F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose radiative-advective equilibrium as a basic-state model for the high-latitude atmosphere. Temperature profiles are determined by a competition between stabilization by atmospheric shortwave absorption and advective heat flux convergence, and destabilization by surface shortwave absorption. We derive analytic expressions for temperature profiles, assuming power law atmospheric heating profiles as a function of pressure and two-stream windowed-gray longwave radiative transfer. We discuss example profiles with and without an atmospheric window and show that the sensitivity of surface temperature to forcing depends on the nature of the forcing, with greatest sensitivity to radiative forcing by increased optical thickness and least sensitivity to increased atmospheric heat transport. These differences in sensitivity of surface temperature to forcing can be explained in terms of a forcing-dependent lapse-rate feedback.

  13. Dinosaurs on the North Slope, Alaska: High latitude, latest cretaceous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, E.M.; Clemens, W.A.; Spicer, R.A.; Ager, T.A.; Carter, L.D.; Sliter, W.V.

    1987-01-01

    Abundant skeletal remains demonstrate that lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, tyrannosaurid, and troodontid dinosaurs lived on the Alaskan North Slope during late Campanian-early Maestrichtian time (about 66 to 76 million years ago) in a deltaic environment dominated by herbaceous vegetation. The high ground terrestrial plant community was a mild- to cold-temperate forest composed of coniferous and broad leaf trees. The high paleolatitude (about 70?? to 85?? North) implies extreme seasonal variation in solar insolation, temperature, and herbivore food supply. Great distances of migration to contemporaneous evergreen floras and the presence of both juvenile and adult hadrosaurs suggest that they remained at high latitudes year-round. This challenges the hypothesis that short-term periods of darkness and temperature decrease resulting from a bolide impact caused dinosaurian extinction.

  14. Generation of the lower-thermospheric vertical wind estimated with the EISCAT KST radar at high latitudes during periods of moderate geomagnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower-thermospheric winds at high latitudes during moderately-disturbed geomagnetic conditions were studied using data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Kiruna-Sodankylä-Tromsø (KST ultrahigh frequency (UHF radar system on 9–10 September 2004. The antenna-beam configuration was newly designed to minimize the estimated measurement error of the vertical neutral-wind speed in the lower thermosphere. This method was also available to estimate the meridional and zonal components. The vertical neutral-wind speed at 109 km, 114 km, and 120 km heights showed large upward motions in excess of 30 m s−1 in association with an ionospheric heating event. Large downward speeds in excess of −30 m s−1 were also observed before and after the heating event. The meridional neutral-wind speed suddenly changed its direction from equatorward to poleward when the heating event began, and then returned equatorward coinciding with a decrease in the heating event. The magnetometer data from northern Scandinavia suggested that the center of the heated region was located about 80 km equatorward of Tromsø. The pressure gradient caused the lower-thermospheric wind to accelerate obliquely upward over Tromsø in the poleward direction. Acceleration of the neutral wind flowing on a vertically tilted isobar produced vertical wind speeds larger by more than two orders of magnitude than previously predicted, but still an order of magnitude smaller than observed speeds.

  15. Generation of the lower-thermospheric vertical wind estimated with the EISCAT KST radar at high latitudes during periods of moderate geomagnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Oyama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower-thermospheric winds at high latitudes during moderately-disturbed geomagnetic conditions were studied using data obtained with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT Kiruna-Sodankylä-Tromsø (KST ultrahigh frequency (UHF radar system on 9–10 September 2004. The antenna-beam configuration was newly designed to minimize the estimated measurement error of the vertical neutral-wind speed in the lower thermosphere. This method was also available to estimate the meridional and zonal components. The vertical neutral-wind speed at 109 km, 114 km, and 120 km heights showed large upward motions in excess of 30 m s−1 in association with an ionospheric heating event. Large downward speeds in excess of −30 m s−1 were also observed before and after the heating event. The meridional neutral-wind speed suddenly changed its direction from equatorward to poleward when the heating event began, and then returned equatorward coinciding with a decrease in the heating event. The magnetometer data from northern Scandinavia suggested that the center of the heated region was located about 80 km equatorward of Tromsø. The pressure gradient caused the lower-thermospheric wind to accelerate obliquely upward over Tromsø in the poleward direction. Acceleration of the neutral wind flowing on a vertically tilted isobar produced vertical wind speeds larger by more than two orders of magnitude than previously predicted, but still an order of magnitude smaller than observed speeds.

  16. Statistical study of high-latitude plasma flow during magnetospheric substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Provan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised the near-global imaging capabilities of the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN radars, to perform a statistical superposed epoch analysis of high-latitude plasma flows during magnetospheric substorms. The study involved 67 substorms, identified using the IMAGE FUV space-borne auroral imager. A substorm co-ordinate system was developed, centred on the magnetic local time and magnetic latitude of substorm onset determined from the auroral images. The plasma flow vectors from all 67 intervals were combined, creating global statistical plasma flow patterns and backscatter occurrence statistics during the substorm growth and expansion phases. The commencement of the substorm growth phase was clearly observed in the radar data 18-20min before substorm onset, with an increase in the anti-sunward component of the plasma velocity flowing across dawn sector of the polar cap and a peak in the dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage. Nightside backscatter moved to lower latitudes as the growth phase progressed. At substorm onset a flow suppression region was observed on the nightside, with fast flows surrounding the suppressed flow region. The dawn-to-dusk transpolar voltage increased from ~40kV just before substorm onset to ~75kV 12min after onset. The low-latitude return flow started to increase at substorm onset and continued to increase until 8min after onset. The velocity flowing across the polar-cap peaked 12-14min after onset. This increase in the flux of the polar cap and the excitation of large-scale plasma flow occurred even though the IMF Bz component was increasing (becoming less negative during most of this time. This study is the first to statistically prove that nightside reconnection creates magnetic flux and excites high-latitude plasma flow in a similar way to dayside reconnection and that dayside and nightside reconnection, are two separate time-dependent processes.

  17. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land

  18. A high-latitude coral community with an uncertain future: Stetson Bank, northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBose, J. L.; Nuttall, M. F.; Hickerson, E. L.; Schmahl, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    Limited data exist that detail trends in benthic community composition of high-latitude coral communities. As anthropogenic stressors are projected to increase in number and intensity, long-term monitoring datasets are essential to understanding community stability and ecosystem resilience. In 1993, a long-term monitoring program was initiated at Stetson Bank, in the Gulf of Mexico. Over the course of this monitoring, a major shift in community structure occurred, in which the coral-sponge community was replaced by an algal-dominated community. During the initial years of this study, the coral community at Stetson Bank was relatively stable. Beginning in the late 1990s, sponge cover began a steady decline from over 30 % to less than 25 %. Then, in 2005, the benthic community underwent a further significant change when living coral cover declined from 30 % to less than 8 % and sponges declined to less than 20 % benthic cover. This abrupt shift corresponded with a Caribbean-wide bleaching event in 2005 that caused major mortality of Stetson Bank corals. Previous bleaching events at Stetson Bank did not result in wide-scale coral mortality. Several environmental parameters may have contributed to the rapid decline in this benthic community. We suggest that the combined effects of coastal runoff and elevated temperatures contributed to the observed shift. We present an analysis of 15 years of monitoring data spanning from 1993 to 2008; this dataset provides both a biological baseline and a multiyear trend analysis of the community structure for a high-latitude coral-sponge community in the face of changing climatic conditions.

  19. Holocene temperature evolution in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes - Model-data comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yurui; Renssen, Hans; Seppä, Heikki; Valdes, Paul J.

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneous Holocene climate evolutions in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes are primarily determined by orbital-scale insolation variations and melting ice sheets. Previous inter-model comparisons have revealed that multi-simulation consistencies vary spatially. We, therefore, compared multiple model results with proxy-based reconstructions in Fennoscandia, Greenland, north Canada, Alaska and Siberia. Our model-data comparisons reveal that data and models generally agree in Fennoscandia, Greenland and Canada, with the early-Holocene warming and subsequent gradual decrease to 0 ka BP (hereinafter referred as ka). In Fennoscandia, simulations and pollen data suggest a 2 °C warming by 8 ka, but this is less expressed in chironomid data. In Canada, a strong early-Holocene warming is suggested by both the simulations and pollen results. In Greenland, the magnitude of early-Holocene warming ranges from 6 °C in simulations to 8 °C in δ18O-based temperatures. Simulated and reconstructed temperatures are mismatched in Alaska. Pollen data suggest strong early-Holocene warming, while the simulations indicate constant Holocene cooling, and chironomid data show a stable trend. Meanwhile, a high frequency of Alaskan peatland initiation before 9 ka can reflect a either high temperature, high soil moisture or large seasonality. In high-latitude Siberia, although simulations and proxy data depict high Holocene temperatures, these signals are noisy owing to a large spread in the simulations and between pollen and chironomid results. On the whole, the Holocene climate evolutions in most regions (Fennoscandia, Greenland and Canada) are well established and understood, but important questions regarding the Holocene temperature trend and mechanisms remain for Alaska and Siberia.

  20. Calcium isotopic composition of high-latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST history in climate-sensitive regions (e.g. tropical and polar oceans became a challenging task in palaeoceanographic research. Biogenic shell carbonate SST proxies successfully developed for tropical regions often fail in cool water environments. Their major regional shortcomings and the cryptic diversity now found within the major high latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. highlight an urgent need to explore complementary SST proxies for these cool-water regions. Here we incorporate the genetic component into a calibration study of a new SST proxy for the high latitudes. We found that the calcium isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca of calcite from genotyped net catches and core-top samples of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. is related to temperature and unaffected by genetic variations. The temperature sensitivity has been found to be 0.17 (±0.02‰ per 1°C, highlighting its potential for downcore applications in open marine cool-water environments. Our results further indicate that in extreme polar environments, below a critical threshold temperature of 2.0 (±0.5°C associated with salinities below 33.0 (±0.5‰, a prominent shift in biomineralization affects the δ44/40Ca of genotyped and core-top N. pachyderma (sin., becoming insensitive to temperature. These findings highlight the need of more systematic calibration studies on single planktonic foraminiferal species in order to unravel species-specific factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of Ca isotope fractionation and to validate the proxies' applicability.

  1. GNSS monitoring of the ionosphere for Space Weather services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, A.; Sieradzki, R.; Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, I. V.

    2012-04-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) Ionosphere Working Group routinely provides the users global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of vertical total electron content (vTEC). The IGS GIMs are provided with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees x 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively. The current temporal resolution is 2 hours, however, 1-hour maps are delivered as a pilot project. There are three types IGS GIMs: the final, rapid and predicted. The latencies of the IGS ionospheric final and rapid products are 10 days and 1 day, respectively. The predicted GIMs are generated for 1 and 2 days in advance. There are four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) that provide ionosphere maps computed with independent methodologies using GNSS data. These maps are uploaded to the IGS Ionosphere Combination and Validation Center at the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland) that produces the IGS official ionospheric products, which are published online via ftp and www. On the other hand, the increasing number of permanently tracking GNSS stations near the North Geomagnetic Pole allow for using satellite observations to detect the ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes with even higher spatial resolution. In the space weather service developed at GRL/UWM, the data from the Arctic stations belonging to IGS/EPN/POLENET networks were used to study TEC fluctuations and scintillations. Since the beginning of 2011, a near real-time service presenting the conditions in the ionosphere have been operational at GRL/UWM www site. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min is used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. The service provides 2-hour maps of the TEC variability. In addition, for each day the daily map of the ionospheric fluctuations as a function geomagnetic local time is also created. This presentation shows the architecture, algorithms, performance and future developments of the IGS GIMs and this new space

  2. Ionospheric response to the 2006 sudden stratospheric warming event over the equatorial and low latitudes in the Brazilian sector using GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R.; Batista, I. S.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; de Abreu, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the response of the ionospheric F-region using GPS-TEC measurements at equatorial and low latitude regions over the Brazilian sector during an sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event in the year 2006. In this work, we present vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase fluctuations derived from GPS network in Brazil. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed to check the periodicities of the ∆VTEC during the SSW event. The results show a strong decrease in VTEC and ∆VTEC values in the afternoon over low latitudes from DOY 05-39 (during the SSW event) mainly after the second SSW temperature peak. The ionospheric ∆VTEC pattern over Brazilian sector shows diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations during the 2006 SSW event. In addition, for the first time, variations in ∆VTEC (low latitude stations) with periods of about 02-08 day have been reported during an SSW event. Using GPS stations located in the Brazilian sector, it is reported for the first time that equatorial ionospheric irregularities were not suppressed by the SSW event.

  3. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Changed Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low- Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    The IMAGE mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  4. Ionosphere and its Influence on Radio Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Communications. R S Dabas is at the Radio. Science Division of. National Physical. Laboratory, New Delhi and is responsible for characterization of ionospheric media for radio communication applications. His main area of research is the study of equatorial and low latitude ionosphere. i.e. its properties and dynamics.

  5. Climatology of GPS phase scintillation at northern high latitudes for the period from 2008 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Global positioning system scintillation and total electron content (TEC data have been collected by ten specialized GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors (GISTMs of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN. The phase scintillation index σΦ is obtained from the phase of the L1 signal sampled at 50 Hz. Maps of phase scintillation occurrence as a function of the altitude-adjusted corrected geomagnetic (AACGM latitude and magnetic local time (MLT are computed for the period from 2008 to 2013. Enhanced phase scintillation is collocated with regions that are known as ionospheric signatures of the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere. The phase scintillation mainly occurs on the dayside in the cusp where ionospheric irregularities convect at high speed, in the nightside auroral oval where energetic particle precipitation causes field-aligned irregularities with steep electron density gradients and in the polar cap where electron density patches that are formed from a tongue of ionization. Dependences of scintillation occurrence on season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientation are investigated. The auroral phase scintillation shows semiannual variation with equinoctial maxima known to be associated with auroras, while in the cusp and polar cap the scintillation occurrence is highest in the autumn and winter months and lowest in summer. With rising solar and geomagnetic activity from the solar minimum to solar maximum, yearly maps of mean phase scintillation occurrence show gradual increase and expansion of enhanced scintillation regions both poleward and equatorward from the statistical auroral oval. The dependence of scintillation occurrence on the IMF orientation is dominated by increased scintillation in the cusp, expanded auroral oval and at subauroral latitudes for strongly southward IMF. In the polar cap, the IMF BY polarity controls dawn–dusk asymmetries in

  6. Equatorial and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Response to the Extreme Space Weather Event of March 2015, in the Brazilian Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Cardoso, F. A.; Fejer, B. G.; Kavutarapu, V.; Ribeiro, B. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Fagundes PR, Cardoso FA and Venkatesh KPhysics and Astronomy Laboratory, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil In the present investigation we discuss the results on the response of the ionosphere (F-region) in the Brazilian sector, during extreme space weather event of March 2015. This geomagnetic storm has been considered as one of strongest storms in the solar cycle 24 where, the Dst index reached a minimum of -227 nT at 23:00 UT (17/03/2015) with KP reaching to 8-, and the monthly mean F10.7 solar flux was 125 sfu. This space weather event was studied using a large network of 110 GPS stations. It has been noticed that the Total Electron Content (TEC) was severely disturbed during the geomagnetic storm main and recovery phases. A wavelike oscillation with three peaks is observed from equator to low latitudes during the storm main phase on 17th and 18th March, 2015. Using a latitudinal chain of 8 GPS stations from equatorial region to low latitudes the storm time behavior of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) is investigated. It was noticed that the wavelike oscillation peak latitudinal extent decreases from the beginning of main phase to the recovery phase. The first maximum extends beyond from 2oS to 20oS, the second one from 8oS to 18oS and the third one from 13oS to 17oS. In addition, a strong negative phase in TEC variations is observed during the recovery phase on March 18, 2015. This negative phase is found to be stronger at low-latitude compared to the equatorial region. An anomalous behavior of EIA caused by the wavelike oscillations is observed during the main phase on March 17, 2015. Also, due to the strong negative phase in TEC resulted in strong EIA suppression on March 18, 2015.

  7. High-time resolution conjugate SuperDARN radar observations of the dayside convection response to changes in IMF By

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chisham

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available We present data from conjugate SuperDARN radars describing the high-latitude ionosphere's response to changes in the direction of IMF By during a period of steady IMF Bz southward and Bx positive. During this interval, the radars were operating in a special mode which gave high-time resolution data (30 s sampling period on three adjacent beams with a full scan every 3 min. The location of the radars around magnetic local noon at the time of the event allowed detailed observations of the variations in the ionospheric convection patterns close to the cusp region as IMF By varied. A significant time delay was observed in the ionospheric response to the IMF By changes between the two hemispheres. This is explained as being partially a consequence of the location of the dominant merging region on the magnetopause, which is ~8-12RE closer to the northern ionosphere than to the southern ionosphere (along the magnetic field line due to the dipole tilt of the magnetosphere and the orientation of the IMF. This interpretation supports the anti-parallel merging hypothesis and highlights the importance of the IMF Bx component in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.Key words: Ionosphere (plasma convection - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; solar wind - magnetosphere interactions

  8. Estimation of energy budget of ionosphere-thermosphere system during two CIR-HSS events: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhoglyadova Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the energy budget of the ionosphere-thermosphere (IT system during two High-Speed Streams (HSSs on 22–31 January, 2007 (in the descending phase of solar cycle 23 and 25 April–2 May, 2011 (in the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 to understand typical features, similarities, and differences in magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (IT coupling during HSS geomagnetic activity. We focus on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (by using coupling functions and energy partitioning within the IT system during these intervals. The Joule heating is estimated empirically. Hemispheric power is estimated based on satellite measurements. We utilize observations from TIMED/SABER (Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry to estimate nitric oxide (NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 cooling emission fluxes. We perform a detailed modeling study of these two similar HSS events with the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM and different external driving inputs to understand the IT response and to address how well the model reproduces the energy transport. GITM is run in a mode with forecastable inputs. It is shown that the model captures the main features of the energy coupling, but underestimates NO cooling and auroral heating in high latitudes. Lower thermospheric forcing at 100 km altitude is important for correct energy balance of the IT system. We discuss challenges for a physics-based general forecasting approach in modeling the energy budget of moderate IT storms caused by HSSs.

  9. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Aladjev

    Full Text Available Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionosphere developed in the Polar Geophysical Institute have been applied for interpretation of the observed tomographic images.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ion chemistry and composition; plasma convection

  10. Theory and observations of cometary ionospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, T. E.

    The basic physical and chemical processes responsible for the makeup of cometary ionospheres are discussed in the framework of relevant in situ measurements on the Halley and Giacobini-Zinner comets, as well as recent theoretical models of cometary ionospheres. Special attention is given to physical processes responsible for the formation of the contact surface (CS), which is that surface where the magnetic field becomes zero or extremely small and which separates the field-free ionosphere and the magnetized plasma on the outside. Results of in situ observations indicate that the plasma just outside the CS is just as ionospheric in nature as the 'classical' ionospheric plasma residing within this surface. An expression for the magnetic field in this region is derived.

  11. Spatial Relationships of Auroral Particle Acceleration Relative to High Latitude Plasma Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    This final report describes the activities under NASA contract to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. It covers the period from 10-1-94 to 12-31-97. The objective of this investigation is to identify and characterize the spatial relationships of auroral particle acceleration features relative to the characteristic transition features in the surrounding polar ionospheric plasmas. Due to the reduced funding level approved for this contract, the original scope of the proposed work was readjusted with the focus placed on examining spatial relationships with respect to particle structures.

  12. Coverage, diversity, and functionality of a high-latitude coral community (Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Denis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seawater temperature is the main factor restricting shallow-water zooxanthellate coral reefs to low latitudes. As temperatures increase, coral species and perhaps reefs may move into higher-latitude waters, increasing the chances of coral reef ecosystems surviving despite global warming. However, there is a growing need to understand the structure of these high-latitude coral communities in order to analyze their future dynamics and to detect any potential changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The high-latitude (32.75°N community surveyed was located at Tatsukushi, Shikoku Island, Japan. Coral cover was 60±2% and was composed of 73 scleractinian species partitioned into 7 functional groups. Although only 6% of species belonged to the 'plate-like' functional group, it was the major contributor to species coverage. This was explained by the dominance of plate-like species such as Acropora hyacinthus and A. solitaryensis. Comparison with historical data suggests a relatively recent colonization/development of A. hyacinthus in this region and a potential increase in coral diversity over the last century. Low coverage of macroalgae (2% of the benthic cover contrasted with the low abundance of herbivorous fishes, but may be reasonably explained by the high density of sea urchins (12.9±3.3 individuals m⁻². CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The structure and composition of this benthic community are relatively remarkable for a site where winter temperature can durably fall below the accepted limit for coral reef development. Despite limited functionalities and functional redundancy, the current benthic structure might provide a base upon which a reef could eventually develop, as characterized by opportunistic and pioneer frame-building species. In addition to increasing seawater temperatures, on-going management actions and sea urchin density might also explain the observed state of this community. A focus on such 'marginal' communities

  13. Study of the Nortern polar ionosphere by all-sky imager, riometer and magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guineva, Veneta; Trondsen, Espen; Marple, Steve; Dahle, Kolbjorn; Stauning, Peter

    The variety of the auroral forms and their behaviour, as a result of the complexity of the processes in the upper atmosphere at high latitudes and the connection between them as well as the large number of influencing factors give a lot of possibilities for new investigations. The opportunity for simultaneous multi-instrument observations by different instruments, as well by sets of instruments of the same kind, nowadays is a precondition for an extensive research of the polar ionosphere phenomena. For this study, simultaneous observations' data of the OI 5577 ´˚ and 6300 ´˚ emissions, the electron precipitation flux and the terrestrial magnetic A A field have been used from the following instruments: the All-Sky Imager (ASI), ALOMAR Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (AIRIS) and the magnetometer, positioned at Andøya Rocket Range (ARR), Andenes (69.3° N, 16.03° E); ASI, 64-beam Imaging Riometer and the magnetometer at the Auroral Observatory, Longyearbyen, Svalbard (78.20° N, 15.83° E); IRIS at Kilpisj¨rvi, Finland (69.05° N, 20.79° E). The fields of view of the instruments cover a large a area of the auroral oval and the polar cap. The distribution and the behaviour of the optical emissions and the absorption features have been analysed. A good correlation between the spatial and temporal evolutions of the optical emissions, the precipitating electron fluxes and the terrestrial magnetic field has been observed. The response of the ionosphere to the solar and geomagnetic activity changes has been studied. Data access has been provided under the Project "ALOMAR eARI" (RITA-CT-2003-506208), Andenes, Norway. This Project received research funding from the European Community's 6th Framework Program.

  14. Effects of Energetic Solar Emissions on the Lower Ionosphere as seen in Ionosonde Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, V.; Satori, G.; Williams, E.

    2016-12-01

    The sudden increase of X-radiation and EUV emission following solar flares causes extra ionization in the sunlit hemisphere in the D- and E-regions of the Earth's ionosphere. In addition, solar flares are also accompanied by energetic particles (protons and electrons) with energies from tens of keV to hundreds of MeV result additional ionization. The impact of two exceptional solar events - the Bastille Day event (July 14, 2000) and the Halloween event (Oct/Nov2003) on the lowest region of the ionosphere (European stations (Juliusruh, 53.6°N, 13.4°E; Chilton, 51.5°N, 359.4°E; Rome, 41.9°N, 12.5°E; SanVito 40.6°N, 17.8°E) during the Halloween event. This ionosonde response increases with increasing latitude. Simultaneously the absence of the foE parameter was observed. The sharply increased values (2-4 MHz) of the fmin parameters and the co-occurring absence of the foE parameters were detected in the case of the Bastille Day event as well, but only at high latitude stations (Loparskaya, 68°N, 33°E; St. Petersburg, 59.9°N, 30.3°E; Juliusruh, 53.6°N, 13.4°E). These results suggest that the latitude-dependent change of the fmin and foE parameters is related to energetic solar particles penetrating to the lower ionosphere.

  15. Worldwide impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings on the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, Larisa; Coster, Anthea; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Phillip; Aponte, Nestor; Harvey, V. Lynn; Pedatella, Nicholas; Maute, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated large variations in the low-latitude ionosphere during strong, persistent meteorological disturbances known as sudden stratospheric warmings. Several possible lower/upper atmosphere coupling mechanisms were identified, including changes in the dynamics of the background neutral atmosphere, modification of solar and lunar tides, and subsequent variations in electric field. We extend these studies using observations by GNSS TEC receivers, by several ionosondes located at low, middle, and high latitudes, and by Jicamarca, Arecibo and Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radars to investigate large-scale ionospheric disturbances for several SSW events. To separate ionospheric anomalies associated with SSW from regular ionospheric behavior, we develop an empirical model of ionospheric parameters (TEC, NmF2) using available long-term data records (10-40 years of data depending on the instrument). The models describe variations in parameters for each longitude/latitude bin (or ionosonde location) as a function of solar activity, geomagnetic activity, day of year, and local time. Ionospheric anomalies are obtained as the difference between the observations and the empirical model. Ionospheric anomalies are observed for both major and minor SSW events, reaching 50-100% variation from expected seasonal behavior for major SSW events and 30-60% variation for minor SSW events. The largest variations in the daytime TEC and NmF2 are observed both in the crests of equatorial ionization anomaly and at 40-60S (geodetic). Recent expansion of GNSS TEC receiver network to high latitudes in the southern hemisphere indicates that SSW anomalies are communicated across the globe and associated with ionospheric disturbances even over Antarctica. Observational studies focused on SSW events present an important opportunity to better understand processes governing the behavior of the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. We use examples of observations from

  16. The use of global ionospheric irregularity models for satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Scintillation data obtained in the VHF region were used by Fremouw to develop a global scintillation model. An attempt has been made in the present study to improve this model in several respects. One of these is to modify the high latitude term in the model to better represent data obtained in the northern high latitude regions. Another improvement is the extention of the frequency region of validity to the L band and microwave regions. This attempt is based on certain theoretical considerations regarding the effects of distribution in irregularity sizes. Recent satellite in situ measurements indicate that the ionospheric irregularity description is functionally different from that assumed in the past. These satellite measurements are used in connection with the theoretical development to improve the model.

  17. Circuit Model Simulations for Ionospheric Plasma Response to High Potential System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang-Jae Rhee

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available When a deployed probe is biased by a high positive potential during a space experiment, the payload is induced to a negative voltage in order to balance the total current in the whole system. The return currents are due to the responding ions and secondary electrons on the payload surface. In order to understand the current collection mechanism, the process was simulated with a combination of resistor, inductor, and capacitor in SPICE program which was equivalent to the background plasma sheath. The simulation results were compared with experimental results from SPEAR-3 (Space Power Experiment Aboard Rocket-3. The return current curve in the simulation was compatible to the experimental result, and the simulation helped to predict the transient plasma response to a high voltage during the plasma sheath formation.

  18. A study of high latitude current systems during quiet geomagnetic conditions using Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, J. R.; Hughes, T. J.; Wilson, M. D.

    Magsat has provided precise vector measurements of the geomagnetic field which have confirmed the large scale Birkeland current pattern observed earlier by higher altitude satellites such as TRIAD, and ISIS 2. In addition to detecting Birkeland currents, Magsat's lower orbit (approximately equalling 300-500 km) permits measurement of both ionospheric currents and crustal magnetic anomalies. The large scale Region 1 and 2 Birkeland currents, which are the dominant feature in the dawn and dusk sectors during moderate magnetic activity, tend to be replaced, during quiet magnetic periods, by structured, small scale current sheets throughout the polar region, and by correspondingly reduced ionospheric electrojets. Several Magsat orbits across the dark, winter polar cap are quantitatively modelled. Total electrojet current intensities ranging from 1.8 x 10 to the 4th A to 1.9 x 10 to the 5th A are inferred along with ratios of zonal to meridional current densities ranging from 0.8 to 1.7. The extension of these modelling procedures to more structured current systems during very quiet magnetic condition is considered, and a method of achieving better separation of crustal anomaly fields from external fields is proposed.

  19. Behavioral and metabolic contributions to thermoregulation in freely swimming leatherback turtles at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James P; James, Michael C; Williard, Amanda S

    2014-07-01

    Leatherback turtles in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean have a broad geographic range that extends from nesting beaches near the equator to seasonal foraging grounds as far north as Canada. The ability of leatherbacks to maintain core body temperature (Tb) higher than that of the surrounding water is thought to be a key element of their biology that permits them to exploit productive waters at high latitudes. We provide the first recordings of Tb from freely swimming leatherbacks at a northern foraging ground, and use these data to assess the importance of behavioral adjustments and metabolic sources of heat for maintenance of the thermal gradient (Tg). The mean Tb for individual leatherbacks ranged from 25.4 ± 1.7 to 27.3 ± 0.3 °C, and Tg ranged from 10.7 ± 2.4 to 12.1 ± 1.7 °C. Variation in mean Tb was best explained by the amount of time that turtles spent in the relatively warm surface waters. A diel trend in Tb was apparent, with daytime cooling suggestive of prey ingestion and night-time warming attributable to endogenous heat production. We estimate that metabolic rates necessary to support the observed Tg are ~3 times higher than resting metabolic rate, and that specific dynamic action is an important source of heat for foraging leatherbacks. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Climatology of semidiurnal lunar and solar tides at middle and high latitudes: Interhemispheric comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, J. Federico; Chau, Jorge L.; Stober, Gunter; Pedatella, Nicholas; Maute, Astrid; Hoffmann, Peter; Janches, Diego; Fritts, David; Murphy, Damian J.

    2017-07-01

    The semidiurnal lunar and solar tides obtained from meteor radar measurements spanning from 2009 to 2013 observed at Davis (69°S) and Rio Grande (54°S) are presented and compared to the Northern Hemisphere ones at Andenes (69°N) and Juliusruh (54°N). Mean tidal differences for both intrahemispheric and interhemispheric scenarios are analyzed. Tidal behavior is also compared against numerical simulations during 2009 and 2013 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) time periods. Possible influences in the Southern Hemisphere from the local stratosphere are also investigated using Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA 2) data sets. The main features of the mean zonal wind are similar in both hemispheres, i.e., stronger amplitudes over midlatitude locations, eastward winds during winter and westward below 90 km with eastward higher up during corresponding summer times. On the other hand, the semidiurnal solar tides observed in the Southern Hemisphere show clear differences when compared to the Northern Hemisphere and between middle- and high-latitude locations at the same hemisphere. These differences are even larger for the semidiurnal lunar tide, which shows stronger amplitudes from October to March and March to October, over Davis and Rio Grande, respectively. Our results indicate that the lunar tides over the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes are more prone to react to the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex influences, in agreement with numerical simulations, particularly for the time of the 2013 SSW.

  1. High-latitude cooling associated with landscape changes from North American boreal forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Rogers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fires in the boreal forests of North America are generally stand-replacing, killing the majority of trees and initiating succession that may last over a century. Functional variation during succession can affect local surface energy budgets and, potentially, regional climate. Burn area across Alaska and Canada has increased in the last few decades and is projected to be substantially higher by the end of the 21st century because of a warmer climate with longer growing seasons. Here we simulated changes in forest composition due to altered burn area using a stochastic model of fire occurrence, historical fire data from national inventories, and succession trajectories derived from remote sensing. When coupled to an Earth system model, younger vegetation from increased burning cooled the high-latitude atmosphere, primarily in the winter and spring, with noticeable feedbacks from the ocean and sea ice. Results from multiple scenarios suggest that a doubling of burn area would cool the surface by 0.23 ± 0.09 °C across boreal North America during winter and spring months (December through May. This could provide a negative feedback to winter warming on the order of 3–5% for a doubling, and 14–23% for a quadrupling, of burn area. Maximum cooling occurs in the areas of greatest burning, and between February and April when albedo changes are largest and solar insolation is moderate. Further work is needed to integrate all the climate drivers from boreal forest fires, including aerosols and greenhouse gasses.

  2. The energy impacts of a new glazing technology at high latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschehoug, O. (Norwegian Inst. of Technology, Trondheim (NO)); Nielsen, A.F. (Norwegian Building Research Inst., Trondheim (NO))

    1991-03-01

    New developments within optical materials now offer promising window options for high latitude buildings. Superinsulated windows can be achieved with multiple glazings with low-emissivity coatings and krypton gas cavity filling; vacuum glazing; and transparent ''invisible'' aerogel cavity insulation. These technologies will potentially give U-values in the range 0.3-0.7 W/m{sup 2}K, while maintaining solar energy and daylight transmissivity comparable to conventional glazing. Also, glazings with variable properties are being developed in laboratories around the world. A research project was started in 1988 to study the energy-saving and economic potential offered by these new glazing technologies when used in Norwegian climates. In the first phase, recently finished and described here, these new types of glazing were studied as substitutes for conventional glazing in four typical situations: a single family one-storey house; an apartment in a multistorey block; a school classroom and an office module. (author).

  3. Epithermal Neutron Evidence for a Diurnal Surface Hydration Process in the Moon's High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T. P.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Parsons, A.; Starr, R. D.; Evans, L. G.; Sanin, A.; Litvak, M.; Livengood, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report evidence from epithermal neutron flux observations that show that the Moon's high latitude surfaces are being actively hydrated, dehydrated and rehydrated in a diurnal cycle. The near-surface hydration is indicated by an enhanced suppression of the lunar epithermal neutron leakage flux on the dayside of the dawn terminator on poleward-facing slopes (PFS). At 0600 to 0800 local-time, hydrogen concentrations within the upper 1 meter of PFS are observed to be maximized relative to equivalent equator-facing slopes (EFS). During the lunar day surface hydrogen concentrations diminish towards dusk and then rebuild overnight. Surface hydration is determined by differential comparison of the averaged EFS to PFS epithermal neutron count rates above +/- 75 deg latitude. At dawn the contrast bias towards PFS is consistent with at least 15 to 25 parts-per-million (ppm) hydrogen that dissipates by dusk. We review several lines of evidence derived from temperature and epithermal neutron data by a correlated analysis of observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) that were mapped as a function of lunar local-time, Lunar Observing Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography and Diviner (DLRE) surface temperature.

  4. Electronic kinetics of molecular nitrogen and molecular oxygen in high-latitude lower thermosphere and mesosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kirillov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total quenching rate coefficients of Herzberg states of molecular oxygen and three triplet states of molecular nitrogen in the collisions with O2 and N2 molecules are calculated on the basis of quantum-chemical approximations. The calculated rate coefficients of electronic quenching of O2* and N2* molecules show a good agreement with available experimental data. An influence of collisional processes on vibrational populations of electronically excited N2 and O2 molecules is studied for the altitudes of high-latitude lower thermosphere and mesosphere during auroral electron precipitation. It is indicated that molecular collisions of metastable nitrogen N2(A3Σu* with O2 molecules are principal mechanism in electronic excitation of both Herzberg states c1Σu&minus, A'3Δu, A3Σu+ and high vibrational levels of singlet states a1Δg and b1Σg+ of molecular oxygen O2 at these altitudes.

  5. Mountain birch – potentially large source of sesquiterpenes into high latitude atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs from mountain birches were measured in Abisko, northern Sweden. Mountain birches make up the majority of the tree biomass in Scandinavian high latitudes, a region subject to significant climate warming. The measurements were carried out in two growing seasons. The emissions of four branches, each from a different individual tree, were measured in June–August 2006 and one of them again in July 2007. The measurements were conducted using a dynamic flow through chamber covered with Teflon film. The studied mountain birches were found to emit substantial amounts of linalool, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene emission was dominated by sabinene. The magnitude and composition of the sesquiterpene emission changed dramatically between the years. For example, the average α-farnesene emission potential in 2006 was almost 2600 ng gdw−1 h−1 (3.5 pmol gdw−1 s−1 while in 2007 α-farnesene was not detected at all. Also the emissions of other sesquiterpenes decreased in 2007 to a fraction of that in 2006. One possible explanation for the change in emissions is the herbivory damage that occurred in the area in 2004. Herbivory is known to enhance the emissions of sesquiterpenes, especially those of α-farnesene, and the effect may last for several years.

  6. Ecological legacies of Indigenous fire management in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, K.; Lertzman, K. P.; Starzomski, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic burning is considered to have little impact on coastal temperate rainforest fire regimes in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of North America, yet few long-term fire histories have been reconstructed in these forests. We use a multidisciplinary approach to reconstruct the ecological impact, scale, and legacies of historic fire regime variability in high-latitude coastal temperate rainforests located in British Columbia, Canada. We map seven centuries of fire activity with fire scars and records of stand establishment, and examine patterns in the distribution and composition of vegetation to assess whether fire was historically used as a tool for resource management. We conduct a paired study of 20 former Indigenous habitation and control sites across a 100 km2 island group to relate historic fire activity with long-term patterns of human land use and contemporary lightning strike densities. Fires were significantly associated with the locations of former Indigenous habitation sites, low and mixed in severity, and likely intentionally used to influence the composition and structure of vegetation, thus increasing the productivity of culturally important plants such as western redcedar, berry-producing shrubs, and bracken fern. Centuries of repeated anthropogenic burning have resulted in a mosaic of vegetation types in different stages of succession. These data are directly relevant to the management of contemporary forests as they do not support the widespread contention that old growth coastal temperate rainforests in this region are pristine landscapes where fire is rare, but more likely the result of long-term human land use practices.

  7. High latitude temperature evolution across the Last Interglacial: a model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Emilie; Stone, Emma; Govin, Aline; Loutre, Marie-France; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Mulitza, Stefan; Otto-Bliesner, Betty; Sime, Louise; Waelbroeck, Claire; Wolff, Eric W.

    2014-05-01

    The Last Interglacial (LIG, 129-116 thousand of years, ka) represents an interesting test bed for climate model feedbacks for warmer-than-present high latitudes. However, mainly because synchronising different paleoclimatic archives from different parts of the world is not trivial, a global picture of LIG temperature changes is difficult to obtain. In the framework of the UK iGlass consortium and the European Past4Future project, we have selected 49 polar ice core and sub-polar marine sediment records and developed a strategy to synchronise them onto the recent AICC2012 ice core chronology. This new synthesis enables us to describe the spatial and temporal climatic patterns over polar ice sheets (surface air temperature) and around the ice margins (sea surface temperatures) at a pluri-centennial to millennial-scale. Major features highlighted are (i) non synchronous maximum temperature change between the two hemispheres with the Southern Ocean and Antarctica records showing an early warming compared to North Atlantic records and (ii) Southern hemisphere records exhibiting warm conditions for a longer time period compared to records from the Northern Hemisphere and smaller temperature amplitude changes. Our compiled records are compared with recent snapshot and transient model experiments performed with three state of the art General Circulation Models (HADCM3, CCSM3, FAMOUS) and an Earth Model of Intermediary Complexity (LOVECLIM). Such an exercise enables us to investigate the climate feedbacks which causes the most apparent model-data differences.

  8. Diffuse galactic gamma rays at intermediate and high latitudes. Pt. 1. Constraints on the ISM properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholis, Ilias; Tavakoli, Maryam; Ullio, Piero [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Evoli, Carmelo [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    We study the high latitude (vertical stroke b vertical stroke >10 ) diffuse {gamma}-ray emission in the Galaxy in light of the recently published data from the Fermi collaboration at energies between 100 MeV and 100 GeV. The unprecedented accuracy in these measurements allows to probe and constrain the properties of sources and propagation of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Galaxy, as well as confirming conventional assumptions made on the interstellar medium (ISM). Using the publicly available DRAGON code, that has been shown to reproduce local measurements of CRs, we study assumptions made in the literature on HI and H2 gas distributions in the ISM, and non spatially uniform models of diffusion in the Galaxy. By performing a combined analysis of CR and {gamma}-ray spectra, we derive constraints on the properties of the ISM gas distribution and the vertical scale height of galactic CR diffusion, which may have implications also on indirect Dark Matter detection. We also discuss some of the possible interpretations of the break at {proportional_to}230 GeV in CR protons and helium spectra, recently observed by PAMELA and their impact on {gamma}-rays. (orig.)

  9. A Pan-Arctic Assessment of High-Latitude Lake Change ~25 Years Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y.; Smith, L. C.; Li, J.; Lyons, E. A.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic and Sub-Arctic regions are the home to the world's largest quantity of terrestrial lakes. These lakes play a preeminent role in the global water cycle and balance, are sensitive to global warming, and are vital for human and animal water supply. However, they are poorly observed, and a uniform lake inventory is unavailable at the pan-Arctic scale. Though there have been studies of Arctic lake dynamics at local scales, the general picture of Arctic lake change stays unclear. A systematic regional-scale assessment of Arctic lake change in the past ~30 years is crucial for us to address "How have Arctic lakes responded to global warming?" The presentation reports a systematic effort of high-latitude (45N and north) lake inventory using recently available high-resolution satellite imagery. Since Arctic lakes are abundant in small-size classes and their seasonality varies from region to region, pan-Arctic lake mapping requires the use of thousands of cloud-free Landsat images acquired in lake-stable seasons. Nearly eight million lakes have been mapped in various landscapes of the pan-Arctic using automated lake identification algorithms with high replicability. Lake-abundant regions are selected using a systematic sampling strategy to detect decadal lake change using the mid-1970s and circa-2000 Landsat imagery. Spatial patterns of the observed lake dynamics are analyzed at regional scales and the relationship between lake abundance and size distribution is investigated.

  10. Saturn's UV aurora: the (high latitude) point of view of Cassini (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.; Gustin, J.; Radioti, A.; Gerard, J. M.; Pryor, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    The high latitude vantage point of Cassini and its short distance to Saturn give rise to a unique opportunity for obtaining exceptional spectral images of the aurorae, along with in situ observations of the associated particles and magnetic field. Cassini's T83 flyby of Titan significantly changed the inclination of the spacecraft's orbit and marked the beginning of the XXM inclined phase 1 which will last until March 16, 2015. We will give an overview of the auroral emissions observed so far with the UVIS camera on board Cassini. In particular we will link the morphology of the aurora with specific magnetospheric processes, such as dayside reconnection and auroral bifurcations, nightside reconnection, hot plasma injections. We will also take advantage of the view from nearly above the poles to describe the overall shape and size of the aurora, which are expected to respond to the solar wind conditions. Moreover, this presentation will focus on small-scale features, which can only be observed by an instrument close enough to the planet. We will also present movies of these observations, allowing us to explore the auroral dynamics at various timescales. This information will be used to identify the various mechanisms at play in Saturn's magnetosphere.

  11. Monitoring ionospheric response to auroral electrojet activity from sub-auroral to equatorial latitudes in the East Asian-Australian longitudinal sector over a solar cycle (1978-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkowicz, L. A.

    1999-07-01

    Large auroral and ionospheric databases, covering a solar cycle (1978-1986), were used to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the auroral electrojet effect (as inferred from the auroral AE-index) on the ionospheric response in both hemispheres from sub-auroral to equatorial latitudes. The study was limited to the East Asian-Australian longitudinal sector where data are available from a chain of nine latitudinally displaced stations. Enhancement in the standard ionospheric parameter, the virtual height of the F-region (Δh'F) recorded by vertical-incidence ionosondes, was used to trace the ionospheric disturbance. Unlike the previous studies of this type, the total magnetic and ionospheric data, in hourly intervals, were used to derive the correlation coefficient r between two intrinsically different parameters: Δh'F and AE-index for the local nighttime (20-06 LT or 10-20 UT). A suitable averaging and smoothing technique was applied to the data to enhance the correlation trend between these parameters. It is evident that the height fluctuations of sub-auroral ionosphere (for stations: Yakutsk in Siberia and Hobart and Canberra in Australia) closely resemble the auroral electrojet surges, inferred from the AE-index over the solar cycle. The linear coefficient r is highly significant, being close to 0.6 for most of the time; during the years of maximum auroral activity (1981-1983) r approached 0.8. The consistently high correlation r, regardless of the season, applies only to the most poleward station used in this study, Yakutsk. The sub-auroral stations (Hobart and Canberra) positioned further equatorwards show a strong decline in the correlation coefficient r during the local summer but have high r during winter and the equinoxes. There is a general decline in r towards lower latitudes, suggesting that the response to auroral substorms is on the whole diminishing with the distance from the auroral source to the equator. There appears to be an anomalous increase in

  12. Ionospheric Digital Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ionosphere is that part of the Earth's atmosphere that results mainly from the photo ionization of the upper atmosphere. Traditionally, the following ionospheric...

  13. Fountain-Like Flow of Heavy Oxygen Ions From the Earth's Ionosphere in Response to Transverse Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra

    1991-01-01

    Normally the gravitationally bound heavy O(+) ions in the Earth's ionosphere are in a diffusive equilibrium. However, when energized to superthermal energies of a few eV transverse to the geomagnetic field, the combined effects of the downward gravitational and the upward electric and mirror forces produce interesting flow patterns in the vertical direction like in a pulsating fountain. This flow pattern is studied by means of a particle-in-cell code.

  14. Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Albihn, Ann; Alexander, Jake; Burgess, Treena; Daehler, Curt; Essl, Franz; Evengard, Birgitta; Greenwood, Greg; Haider, Sylvia; Lenoir, Jonathan; McDougall, K.; Milbau, Ann; Muths, Erin L.; Nunez, Martin; Pellissier, Lois; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rew, Lisa; Robertson, Mark; Sanders, Nathan; Kueffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop ‘Biosecurity in Mountains and Northern Ecosystems: Current Status and Future Challenges’ (Flen, Sweden, 1–3 June 2015). The aims of the workshop were to (1) increase awareness about the growing importance of species expansion—both non-native and native—at high elevation and high latitude with climate change, (2) review existing knowledge about invasion risks in these areas, and (3) encourage more research on how species will move and interact in cold environments, the consequences for biodiversity, and animal and human health and wellbeing. The diversity of potential and actual invaders reported at the workshop and the likely interactions between them create major challenges for managers of cold environments. However, since these cold environments have experienced fewer invasions when compared with many warmer, more populated environments, prevention has a real chance of success, especially if it is coupled with prioritisation schemes for targeting invaders likely to have greatest impact. Communication and co-operation between cold environment regions will facilitate rapid response, and maximise the use of limited research and management resources.

  15. Annotated bibliography on soil erosion and erosion control in subarctic and high-latitude regions of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Slaughter; J.W. Aldrich

    1989-01-01

    This annotated bibliography emphasizes the physical processes of upland soil erosion, prediction of soil erosion and sediment yield, and erosion control. The bibliography is divided into two sections: (1) references specific to Alaska, the Arctic and subarctic, and similar high-latitude settings; and (2) references relevant to understanding erosion, sediment production...

  16. Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Milbau, Ann; Albihn, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key di...

  17. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    thus play an important role in characterizing the carbon cycle and ecosystem processes of high latitude systems.

  18. Theoretical Studies of Low Frequency Instabilities in the Ionosphere. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimant, Y. S.

    2003-08-20

    The objective of the current project is to provide a theoretical basis for better understanding of numerous radar and rocket observations of density irregularities and related effects in the lower equatorial and high-latitude ionospheres. The research focused on: (1) continuing efforts to develop a theory of nonlinear saturation of the Farley-Buneman instability; (2) revision of the kinetic theory of electron-thermal instability at low altitudes; (3) studying the effects of strong anomalous electron heating in the high-latitude electrojet; (4) analytical and numerical studies of the combined Farley-Bunemadion-thermal instabilities in the E-region ionosphere; (5) studying the effect of dust charging in Polar Mesospheric Clouds. Revision of the kinetic theory of electron thermal instability at low altitudes.

  19. Seasonal patterns in the nocturnal distributionand behavior of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri at high latitudes

    KAUST Repository

    Prihartato, Perdana

    2015-02-17

    Acoustic scattering layers (SL) ascribed to pearlside Maurolicus muelleri were studied in Masfjorden, Norway, using upward-looking echo sounders cabled to shore for continuous long-term measurements. The acoustic studies were accompanied by continuous measurements of surface light and supplemented with intermittent field campaigns. From autumn to spring, young M. muelleri formed an SL in the upper ∼75 to 150 m in the daytime, characterized by migration to near-surface water near dusk, subsequent \\'midnight sinking\\', followed by a dawn ascent before a return to the daytime habitat. Light levels were ∼1 order of magnitude lower during the dawn ascent than for ascent in the afternoon, with the latter terminating before fish reached upper layers on ∼1/3 of the nights from late November to mid-April. Adults showed less tendency of migration during autumn and winter, until the SLs of young and adults merged in late spring, and thereafter displayed coherent migration behavior. The midnight sinking became progressively deeper from autumn to winter but was strongly reduced from mid-May when the darkest nocturnal light intensity (PAR) at the surface was above 10-3 μmol m-2 s-1. The pearlside took on schooling in upper waters during the even lighter nights in early June, with minimum light of ∼5 × 10-3 to 10-1 μmol m-2 s-1 at the surface. Nocturnal schooling ceased in early July, and midnight sinking reappeared in mid-August. We suggest that the strong variation in nocturnal light intensity at high latitudes provides changing trade-offs between visual foraging and avoiding predators and hence varying time budgets for feeding in the upper, productive layers.

  20. Dawn song in natural and artificial continuous day: Light pollution affects songbirds at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2017-10-01

    In Focus: Da Silva, A., & Kempenaers, B. (2017). Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 1286-1297. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12739 Satellite images of the world at night show bright dots connected by glowing lines crisscrossing the globe. As these connect-the-dots become brighter and expand into more and more remote regions, much of the flora and fauna of the world are experiencing evolutionarily unprecedented levels of light at night. Light cues are essential to most physiological and behavioural processes, and so the need to measure the effects of light pollution on these processes is critical. In this issue, Da Silva and Kempenaers take on this task using an important reproductive behaviour in songbirds-dawn song. The geographic, temporal and taxonomic breadth of sampling in this study allows for a close examination of a potentially complex interaction between light pollution and natural variation in the behaviour of dawn singing across latitude, season and species. Their extensive dataset highlights complexity in how songbirds respond to light pollution. Although light pollution has a strong effect on the timing of dawn song, not all songbirds respond the same way to light pollution, and the effects of light pollution vary with changes in natural light levels. Early dawn singers show more flexibility in the timing of dawn song across the season and across latitudes than late dawn singers, and also appear less affected by light pollution at high latitudes than are late dawn singers. These findings suggest that not all songbirds are responding to artificial continuous daylight as they do to natural continuous daylight, highlighting the general need to measure the fitness effects of light pollution. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  1. High Latitude Epipelagic and Mesopelagic Scattering Layers—A Reference for Future Arctic Ecosystem Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Knutsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scattering structures, including deep (>200 m scattering layers are common in most oceans, but have not previously been properly documented in the Arctic Ocean. In this work, we combine acoustic data for distribution and abundance estimation of zooplankton and fish with biological sampling from the region west and north of Svalbard, to examine high latitude meso- and epipelagic scattering layers and their biological constituents. Our results show that typically, there was strong patchy scattering in the upper part of the epipelagic zone (<50 m throughout the area. It was mainly dominated by copepods, krill, and amphipods in addition to 0-group fish that were particularly abundant west of the Spitsbergen Archipelago. Off-shelf there was a distinct deep scattering layer (DSL between 250 and 600 m containing a range of larger longer lived organisms (mesopelagic fish and macrozooplankton. In eastern Fram Strait, the DSL also included and was in fact dominated by larger fish close to the shelf/slope break that were associated with Warm Atlantic Water moving north toward the Arctic Ocean, but switched to dominance by species having weaker scattering signatures further offshore. The Weighted Mean Depths of the DSL were deeper (WMD > 440 m in the Arctic habitat north of Svalbard compared to those south in the Fram Strait west of Svalbard (WMD ~400 m. The surface integrated backscatter [Nautical Area-Scattering Coefficient, NASC, sA (m2 nmi−2] was considerably lower in the waters around Svalbard compared to the more southern regions (62–69°N. Also, the integrated DSL nautical area scattering coefficient was a factor of ~6–10 lower around Svalbard compared to the areas in the south-eastern part of the Norwegian Sea ~62°30′N. The documented patterns and structures, particularly the DSL and its constituents, will be key reference points for understanding and quantifying future changes in the pelagic ecosystem at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, Louis; Schleyer, Michael H

    2002-12-01

    Coral bleaching, involving the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the host cells, poses a major threat to coral reefs throughout their distributional range. The role of temperature in coral bleaching has been extensively investigated and is widely accepted. A bleaching event was observed on the marginal high-latitude reefs of South Africa located at Sodwana Bay during the summer months of 2000. This was associated with increased sea temperatures with high seasonal peaks in summer and increased radiation in exceptionally clear water. The bleaching was limited to Two-mile Reef and Nine-mile Reef at Sodwana Bay and affected <12% of the total living cover on Two-mile Reef. Montipora spp., Alveopora spongiosa and Acropora spp. were bleached, as well as some Alcyoniidae (Sinularia dura, Lobophytum depressum, L. patulum). A cyclical increase in sea temperature (with a period of 5-6 years) was recorded during 1998-2000 in addition to the regional temperature increase caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The mean sea temperature increased at a rate of 0.27 deg. C year{sup -1} from May 1994 to April 2000. High maximum temperatures were measured (>29 deg. C). The lowest mean monthly and the mean maximum monthly temperatures at which coral bleaching occurred were 27.5 and 28.8 deg. C, respectively, while the duration for which high temperatures occurred in 2000 was 67 days at {>=}27.5 deg. C (4 days at {>=}28.8 deg. C). Increased water clarity and radiation appeared to be a synergistic cause in the coral bleaching encountered at Sodwana Bay.

  3. Amplified Late Pliocene terrestrial warmth in northern high latitudes from greater radiative forcing and closed Arctic Ocean gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ran; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Fletcher, Tamara L.; Tabor, Clay R.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Brady, Esther C.

    2017-05-01

    Proxy reconstructions of the mid-Piacenzian warm period (mPWP, between 3.264 and 3.025 Ma) suggest terrestrial temperatures were much warmer in the northern high latitudes (55°-90°N, referred to as NHL) than present-day. Climate models participating in the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 1 (PlioMIP1) tend to underestimate this warmth. For instance, the underestimate is ∼10 °C on average across NHL and up to 17 °C in the Canadian Arctic region in the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). Here, we explore potential mPWP climate forcings that might contribute to this mPWP mismatch. We carry out seven experiments to assess terrestrial temperature responses to Pliocene Arctic gateway closure, variations in CO2 level, and orbital forcing at millennial time scale. To better compare the full range of simulated terrestrial temperatures with sparse proxy data, we introduce a pattern recognition technique that simplifies the model surface temperatures to a few representative patterns that can be validate with the limited terrestrial proxy data. The pattern recognition technique reveals two prominent features of simulated Pliocene surface temperature responses. First, distinctive patterns of amplified warming occur in the NHL, which can be explained by lowered surface elevation of Greenland, pattern and amount of Arctic sea ice loss, and changing strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Second, patterns of surface temperature response are similar among experiments with different forcing mechanisms. This similarity is due to strong feedbacks from responses in surface albedo and troposphere water vapor content to sea ice changes, which overwhelm distinctions in forcings from changes in insolation, CO2 forcing, and Arctic gateway closure. By comparing CCSM4 simulations with proxy records, we demonstrate that both model and proxy records show similar patterns of mPWP NHL terrestrial warmth, but the model underestimates the magnitude

  4. Ionospheric Correction Based on Ingestion of Global Ionospheric Maps into the NeQuick 2 Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The global ionospheric maps (GIMs, generated by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE during a period over 13 years, have been adopted as the primary source of data to provide global ionospheric correction for possible single frequency positioning applications. The investigation aims to assess the performance of new NeQuick model, NeQuick 2, in predicting global total electron content (TEC through ingesting the GIMs data from the previous day(s. The results show good performance of the GIMs-driven-NeQuick model with average 86% of vertical TEC error less than 10 TECU, when the global daily effective ionization indices (Az versus modified dip latitude (MODIP are constructed as a second order polynomial. The performance of GIMs-driven-NeQuick model presents variability with solar activity and behaves better during low solar activity years. The accuracy of TEC prediction can be improved further through performing a four-coefficient function expression of Az versus MODIP. As more measurements from earlier days are involved in the Az optimization procedure, the accuracy may decrease. The results also reveal that more efforts are needed to improve the NeQuick 2 model capabilities to represent the ionosphere in the equatorial and high-latitude regions.

  5. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  6. The Geographic Distribution of Boulder Halo Craters at Mid-to-High Latitudes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, L. X.; Fassett, C. I.; Levy, J. S.; King, I. R.; Chaffey, P. M.; Wagoner, C. M.; Hanlon, A. E.; Watters, J. L.; Kreslavsky, M. A.; Holt, J. W.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists for ground ice at mid-to-high latitudes on Mars, including results from neutron spectroscopy [1-3], thermal properties [4-5], geomorphology [e.g., 6-9], and the in situ observations of Mars Phoenix [10]. This ground ice has been hypothesized to be emplaced diffusively and fill pores [11], or to have accumulated by ice and dust deposition that draped or mantled the terrain [7, 12]. These two processes are not mutually exclusive; both potentially have occurred on Mars [5]. One of the landforms found in areas where ground ice is common on Mars are boulder halo craters [e.g., 13-15] (Figure 1), which are topographically muted impact craters that are filled by ice-rich regolith. They are outlined by boulders that trace a circular outline of the original crater rim. Boulder halos generally have distinctly higher boulder densities than the surrounding background plains and have few boulders in their interiors. The mechanism of boulder halo crater formation is somewhat uncertain. Our working model is that an impact event occurs with sufficient size to excavate to a depth greater than the boulder-poor, ice-rich soils. Excavated boulders are deposited around the crater's rim and in its proximal ejecta. Quite rapidly [14], the crater becomes infilled by icy soil. Rather than being buried, boulders in the halo remain at the surface, perhaps be-cause they 'float' relative to finer-grained materials [14, 16]. Regardless of the details of this process, the life-time of boulders at the surface is much greater than the timescale needed to remove most of the craters' topography. Physical weathering of rocks must be greatly out-paced by crater infilling (the opposite of what is typical, e.g., on the Moon [17]). The rapidity of this infilling is easiest to understand if icy mantling material is deposited and accumulates, rather than simply being added by pore filling of soils. If this model is correct, boulder halos only form when they excavate rock

  7. Effects of diffuse radiation on carbon and water fluxes of a high latitude temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Ibrom, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Garcia, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystem carbon and water fluxes are controlled by the interplay of biophysical factors such as solar radiation, temperature and soil moisture. In high latitudes, cloudy days are prevalent with a low amount of solar radiation and a higher proportion of diffuse radiation. For instance, in Denmark 90% of all days are non-clear (fraction of direct radiation temperate deciduous forest using long term eddy covariance observations. Eddy covariance records (Gross Primary Productivity: GPP; Evapotranspiration: ET) from 2002 to 2012, field data, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and sap flow data during the period of 2009-2011 at Sorø, a Danish beech forest flux site, were used for analysis. A Cloudiness Index (CI), which is based on actual and potential shortwave incoming radiation and can indicate the proportion of diffuse radiation, was used. First, multiple regression based path analysis was applied to daily and monthly observations to partition direct and indirect effects from CI to GPP and ET. Results indicate diffuse radiation increases the light use efficiency (LUE) with CI being as important as other constraints, e.g. air temperature (Tair), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), on regulating LUE. An increase of the CI value of 0.1 can increase maximum LUE by about 0.286 gC•MJ-1. Following PAR and LAI, CI has the third largest effects on GPP. For ET, path analysis showed the impact of CI is limited. Further, the CI constraint was added to two physiologically based models for estimating GPP (LUE, Potter et al., 1993) and ET (Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory, PT-JPL, Fisher et al., 2008) at the daily time scale to assess model improvement. When considering the effect of diffuse radiation by including the CI constraint, the RMSE of the simulated GPP decreases from 2.12 to 1.42 gC•day-1. The performance of PT-JPL improves slightly with RMSE

  8. The dust extinction, polarization and emission in the high-latitude cloud toward HD 210121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aigen; Greenberg, J. Mayo

    1998-11-01

    The interstellar extinction, polarization and emission in the high-latitude cloud toward HD 210121 have been explored in terms of a four-component core-mantle interstellar dust model. We assume that the dust content in this cloud is of Galactic plane origin and has been lifted to its current position either by some sort of (particle) destructive violent energetic expulsion (``Galactic fountain''), or by the relatively gentle ``photolevitation'', or some combination of these two. The polarization curve, peaking at a smaller wavelength than the Galactic average, is well fitted by the core-mantle particles with thinner mantles than for the average interstellar dust as would have resulted from partial erosion of the Galactic plane core-mantle particles. In modeling the extinction curve, an extra component of small silicates resulting from the destruction of the ``laid-bare'' core-mantle particles is added to account for the FUV extinction together with PAH's. The sum of the four dust components (core-mantle, hump, PAH's and small silicates) can be made to closely match the extinction curve which is characterized by an extremely steep FUV rise. The dust IR emission spectrum has also been calculated for radiation fields with various intensity. Comparison of the model calculation with the IRAS data suggests that the radiation field is weaker than the average interstellar radiation field in the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium. For comparison, attempts have also been made to fit the extinction on the basis of the silicate/graphite (+PAH's) model. While the core-mantle model and the silicate/graphite+PAH's model are consistent with the solar abundance constraint, the silicate/graphite model needs an unrealistically high silicon depletion to account for the FUV extinction. If the interstellar medium abundance is only 2/3 of the solar abundance, all models would face the problem of an abundance budget crisis using the standard dust/gas ratio. However, due to the

  9. Characterizing an outperforming pea cultivar for intercropping with oat at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cereal often dominates the grain legume in intercrops, especially when sown in larger amounts. This study assessed yield formation of pea (Pisum sativum L. and oat (Avena sativa L. in an intercropping system in high-latitude conditions. Three pea cultivars (Hulda, Karita and Perttu and one oat cultivar (Roope were grown as sole crops and intercrops with shares of either 7.5% or 15% of oat (as weight of sown seed mixture. Experiments were organized in three (southern, western and northern locations of Finland for three years. Yield and vegetative above-ground biomass, their land equivalent ratio (LER, i.e., the yield in intercrop compared to that of the component yields in pure stands, and a number of yield components were measured prior to harvest at crop-stand and single-plant levels. The share of oat in the intercrop did not have any impact on variation in LERyield. Oat yield and yield components generally benefitted from a pea companion crop. The pea cultivar Perttu was superior in intercrops: it had a LERyield>1 in seven out of eight experiments (mean LERyield=1.06, while Karita had a LERyield>1 in four (mean LERyield=1.00 and Hulda only in one experiment (mean LERyield=0.98. Perttu proved to be a compatible pea companion for a pea-oat intercrop, likely because it was successful in overcompensating for decline in relative yield (RGY of oat in intercrops, contrary to Hulda. However, none of the measured yield components of Perttu were associated with LERyield, suggesting compensation ability between them, while in Karita and Hulda, e.g., higher grain yield and number of grains and pods per square meter were associated with decline in LERyield. It was concluded that the success of Perttu as a companion for oat in intercrops is likely attributable to its flexibility in building yield through a variable combination of yield components rather than being outperformed due to some superior traits. Such flexibility, likely attributable to long

  10. An automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover over high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (glaciers and perennial snowfields) from Landsat TM and ETM+ data across a variety of topography, glacier types, and climatic conditions at high latitudes (above ~65°N). Our approach exploits all available Landsat scenes acquired during the late summer (1 August–15 September) over a multi-year period and employs an automated cloud masking algorithm optimized for snow and ice covered mountainous environments. Pixels from individual Landsat scenes were classified as snow/ice covered or snow/ice free based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), and pixels consistently identified as snow/ice covered over a five-year period were classified as persistent ice and snow cover. The same NDSI and ratio of snow/ice-covered days to total days thresholds applied consistently across eight study regions resulted in persistent ice and snow cover maps that agreed closely in most areas with glacier area mapped for the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI), with a mean accuracy (agreement with the RGI) of 0.96, a mean precision (user’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class) of 0.92, a mean recall (producer’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class) of 0.86, and a mean F-score (a measure that considers both precision and recall) of 0.88. We also compared results from our approach to glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery at four study regions and found similar results. Accuracy was lowest in regions with substantial areas of debris-covered glacier ice, suggesting that manual editing would still be required in these regions to achieve reasonable results. The similarity of our results to those from the RGI as well as glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery suggests it should be possible to apply this approach across large regions to produce updated 30-m resolution maps of persistent ice and snow cover. In the short term, automated PISC maps can be used to rapidly

  11. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch

    2016-11-01

    resolution around 30 m has been shown to be suitable for a range of applications. This implies that the current Landsat-8, as well as Sentinel-2 missions would be adequate as input data. Recent studies have exemplified the value of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR in tundra regions. SAR missions may be therefore of added value for large-scale high latitude land cover mapping.

  12. An Automated Approach for Mapping Persistent Ice and Snow Cover over High Latitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (glaciers and perennial snowfields from Landsat TM and ETM+ data across a variety of topography, glacier types, and climatic conditions at high latitudes (above ~65°N. Our approach exploits all available Landsat scenes acquired during the late summer (1 August–15 September over a multi-year period and employs an automated cloud masking algorithm optimized for snow and ice covered mountainous environments. Pixels from individual Landsat scenes were classified as snow/ice covered or snow/ice free based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI, and pixels consistently identified as snow/ice covered over a five-year period were classified as persistent ice and snow cover. The same NDSI and ratio of snow/ice-covered days to total days thresholds applied consistently across eight study regions resulted in persistent ice and snow cover maps that agreed closely in most areas with glacier area mapped for the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI, with a mean accuracy (agreement with the RGI of 0.96, a mean precision (user’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class of 0.92, a mean recall (producer’s accuracy of the snow/ice cover class of 0.86, and a mean F-score (a measure that considers both precision and recall of 0.88. We also compared results from our approach to glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery at four study regions and found similar results. Accuracy was lowest in regions with substantial areas of debris-covered glacier ice, suggesting that manual editing would still be required in these regions to achieve reasonable results. The similarity of our results to those from the RGI as well as glacier area mapped from high spatial resolution imagery suggests it should be possible to apply this approach across large regions to produce updated 30-m resolution maps of persistent ice and snow cover. In the short term, automated PISC maps can be used to

  13. 30,000-Year Record of Climate From the Galapagos Islands and Links With High Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutavas, A.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.; Sachs, J. P.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2001-12-01

    signals from southern high-latitudes via the Peru-Chile Current and/or intermediate water masses ventilating the equatorial thermocline from the Southern Ocean.

  14. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  15. Monitoring of ionospheric irregularities with multi-GNSS observations: a new ionosphere activity index and product services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningbo; Li, Zishen; Yuan, Yunbin; Yuan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Key words: Ionospheric irregularity, Rate of TEC (ROT), Rate of ROT index (RROT), GPS and GLONASS The ionospheric irregularities have a strong impact on many applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space-based radio systems. The rate of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) change index (ROTI, TECu/min), defined as the standard deviation of rate of TEC change (ROT) within a short time (e.g. 5 minutes), has been developed to describe the ionospheric irregularities and associated scintillations. However, ROT parameter may still contain the trend term of ionospheric TEC in spite of small-scale fluctuations. On the basis of single-differenced ROT (dROT) values, we develop a new ionosphere activity index, rate of ROT change index (RROT, TECu/min), to characterize the irregularity degree of the ionosphere. To illustrate the use of the index, we investigated the consistency between ROTI and RROT indexes, through the analysis of GPS data and S4 observations collected at two high-latitude stations of the northern hemisphere. It is confirmed that the correlation coefficients between RROT and S4 are higher than those between ROTI and S4 for the test period, meaning that the proposed RROT index is applicable to monitor the ionospheric irregularities and associated scintillations. RROT index can be easily calculated from dual-frequency GNSS signals (like GPS L1 and L2 carrier phase measurements). On the basis of GPS and GLONASS data provided by the IGS, ARGN, EPN and USCORS tracking networks (more than 1500 stations per day), absolute ROT (AROT), gradient of TEC index (GOTI), ROTI and RROT maps are generated to reflect the ionospheric irregularity activities. These maps are provided in an IONEX-like format on a global scale with a temporal resolution of 15 minutes and a spatial resolution of 5 and 2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude, respectively, and the maps with high spatial resolution (2x2 degrees) are also generated for European, Australia

  16. Numerical analysis of global ionospheric current system including the effect of equatorial enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsunomura

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A modeling method is proposed to derive a two-dimensional ionospheric layer conductivity, which is appropriate to obtain a realistic solution of the polar-originating ionospheric current system including equatorial enhancement. The model can be obtained by modifying the conventional, thin shell conductivity model. It is shown that the modification for one of the non-diagonal terms (Σθφ in the conductivity tensor near the equatorial region is very important; the term influences the profile of the ionospheric electric field around the equator drastically. The proposed model can reproduce well the results representing the observed electric and magnetic field signatures of geomagnetic sudden commencement. The new model is applied to two factors concerning polar-originating ionospheric current systems. First, the latitudinal profile of the DP2 amplitude in the daytime is examined, changing the canceling rate for the dawn-to-dusk electric field by the region 2 field-aligned current. It is shown that the equatorial enhancement would not appear when the ratio of the total amount of the region 2 field-aligned current to that of region 1 exceeds 0.5. Second, the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic fields in the summer solstice condition of the ionospheric conductivity is examined by calculating the global ionospheric current system covering both hemispheres simultaneously. It is shown that the positive relationship between the magnitudes of high latitude magnetic fields and the conductivity is clearly seen if a voltage generator is given as the source, while the relationship is vague or even reversed for a current generator. The new model, based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, can be applied to further investigations in the quantitative analysis of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling problems.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions

  17. Numerical analysis of global ionospheric current system including the effect of equatorial enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tsunomura

    Full Text Available A modeling method is proposed to derive a two-dimensional ionospheric layer conductivity, which is appropriate to obtain a realistic solution of the polar-originating ionospheric current system including equatorial enhancement. The model can be obtained by modifying the conventional, thin shell conductivity model. It is shown that the modification for one of the non-diagonal terms (Σθφ in the conductivity tensor near the equatorial region is very important; the term influences the profile of the ionospheric electric field around the equator drastically. The proposed model can reproduce well the results representing the observed electric and magnetic field signatures of geomagnetic sudden commencement. The new model is applied to two factors concerning polar-originating ionospheric current systems. First, the latitudinal profile of the DP2 amplitude in the daytime is examined, changing the canceling rate for the dawn-to-dusk electric field by the region 2 field-aligned current. It is shown that the equatorial enhancement would not appear when the ratio of the total amount of the region 2 field-aligned current to that of region 1 exceeds 0.5. Second, the north-south asymmetry of the magnetic fields in the summer solstice condition of the ionospheric conductivity is examined by calculating the global ionospheric current system covering both hemispheres simultaneously. It is shown that the positive relationship between the magnitudes of high latitude magnetic fields and the conductivity is clearly seen if a voltage generator is given as the source, while the relationship is vague or even reversed for a current generator. The new model, based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, can be applied to further investigations in the quantitative analysis of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling problems.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere

  18. Large Scale Ionospheric Response During March 17, 2013 Geomagnetic Storm: Reanalysis Based on Multiple Satellites Observations and TIEGCM Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Wang, W.; Schreiner, W. S.; Kuo, Y. H.; Lei, J.; Liu, J.; Burns, A. G.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Based on slant total electron content (TEC) observations made by ~10 satellites and ~450 ground IGS GNSS stations, we constructed a 4-D ionospheric electron density reanalysis during the March 17, 2013 geomagnetic storm. Four main large-scale ionospheric disturbances are identified from reanalysis: (1) The positive storm during the initial phase; (2) The SED (storm enhanced density) structure in both northern and southern hemisphere; (3) The large positive storm in main phase; (4) The significant negative storm in middle and low latitude during recovery phase. We then run the NCAR-TIEGCM model with Heelis electric potential empirical model as polar input. The TIEGCM can reproduce 3 of 4 large-scale structures (except SED) very well. We then further analyzed the altitudinal variations of these large-scale disturbances and found several interesting things, such as the altitude variation of SED, the rotation of positive/negative storm phase with local time. Those structures could not be identified clearly by traditional used data sources, which either has no gloval coverage or no vertical resolution. The drivers such as neutral wind/density and electric field from TIEGCM simulations are also analyzed to self-consistantly explain the identified disturbance features.

  19. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

  20. Quantifying the trade-off between carbon sequestration and albedo in midlatitude and high-latitude North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykleby, P. M.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.

    2017-03-01

    Afforestation is a viable and widely practiced method of sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. However, because of a change in surface albedo, placement of less reflective forests can cause an increase in net-absorbed radiation and localized surface warming. This effect is enhanced in northern high latitudes where the presence of snow cover exacerbates the albedo difference. Regions where afforestation could provide a climate benefit are determined by comparing net ecosystem production and net radiation differences from afforestation in midlatitude and high latitude of North America. Using the dynamic vegetation model Integrated Biosphere Simulator, agricultural version (Agro-IBIS), we find a boundary through North America where afforestation results in a positive equivalent carbon balance (cooling) to the south, and a negative equivalent carbon balance (warming) to the north. Including the effects of stand age and fraction cover affect whether a site contributes to mitigating global warming.

  1. Climatically induced floristic changes across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the northern high latitudes, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Sweet, A.R.; Cameron, A.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Global temperature decline associated with the Eocene-Oligocene transition resulted in extinctions of plants and animals in both marine and nonmarine environments. The extensive stratigraphic exposures, well-preserved palynological assemblages, and interbedded coal seams of the nonmarine Amphitheatre Formation, Burwash Basin, Yukon Territory, provide a comprehensive record of this transition. The formation spans a paleoclimatically significant interval otherwise poorly represented in high-latitude deposits of the northwestern Cordiller. Palynological data constrained by the chronologic and stratigraphic framework established for the Amphitheatre Formation indicate that the global temperature decline resulted in a shift from warm temperate, angiosperm-dominated to cooler temperate, gymnosperm-dominated (mainly coniferous) forest types. Petrographic compositional changes in the coals document the same plant community changes. The floristic data also indicate that, at high latitudes, there may have been a change to a wetter and less seasonal climate during the overall global cooling trend.

  2. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP): Radar Measurements at High Latitudes and of Freeze/Thaw State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael; Dunbar, Scott; Chen, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for a late 2014 launch date. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band. In order to achieve a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. In this paper, a focus will be places on the radar design and associated data products at high latitudes. The radar will employ synthetic-aperture processing to achieve a "moderate" resolution dual-pol product over a 1000 km swath. Because the radar is operating continuously, very frequent temporal coverage will be achieved at high latitudes. This data will be used, among other things, to produce a surface freeze/thaw state data product.

  3. From the Sun to the Earth: impact of the 27-28 May 2003 solar events on the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanuise

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last week of May 2003, the solar active region AR 10365 produced a large number of flares, several of which were accompanied by Coronal Mass Ejections (CME. Specifically on 27 and 28 May three halo CMEs were observed which had a significant impact on geospace. On 29 May, upon their arrival at the L1 point, in front of the Earth's magnetosphere, two interplanetary shocks and two additional solar wind pressure pulses were recorded by the ACE spacecraft. The interplanetary magnetic field data showed the clear signature of a magnetic cloud passing ACE. In the wake of the successive increases in solar wind pressure, the magnetosphere became strongly compressed and the sub-solar magnetopause moved inside five Earth radii. At low altitudes the increased energy input to the magnetosphere was responsible for a substantial enhancement of Region-1 field-aligned currents. The ionospheric Hall currents also intensified and the entire high-latitude current system moved equatorward by about 10°. Several substorms occurred during this period, some of them - but not all - apparently triggered by the solar wind pressure pulses. The storm's most notable consequences on geospace, including space weather effects, were (1 the expansion of the auroral oval, and aurorae seen at mid latitudes, (2 the significant modification of the total electron content in the sunlight high-latitude ionosphere, (3 the perturbation of radio-wave propagation manifested by HF blackouts and increased GPS signal scintillation, and (4 the heating of the thermosphere, causing increased satellite drag. We discuss the reasons why the May 2003 storm is less intense than the October-November 2003 storms, although several indicators reach similar intensities.

  4. Preseismic ionospheric electron enhancements revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke; Enomoto, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    enhancement of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) immediately before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) has been reported by Heki (2011). Critical responses to it often come in two stages; they first doubt the enhancement itself and attribute it to an artifact. Second (when they accept the enhancement), they doubt the significance of the enhancement among natural variability of space weather origin. For example, Kamogawa and Kakinami (2013) attributed the enhancement to an artifact falsely detected by the combined effect of the highly variable TEC under active geomagnetic condition and the occurrence of a tsunamigenic ionospheric hole. Here we closely examine the time series of vertical TEC before and after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. We first demonstrate that the tsunami did not make an ionospheric hole, and next confirm the reality of the enhancement using data of two other sensors, ionosonde and magnetometers. The amplitude of the preseismic TEC enhancement is within the natural variability, and its snapshot resembles to large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances. However, distinction could be made by examining their propagation properties. Similar TEC anomalies occurred before all the M ≥ 8.5 earthquakes in this century, suggesting their seismic origin.

  5. Solar Data Assimilation Engine for Ionospheric Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; Eccles, J. V.

    2007-12-01

    The Space Weather Modeling System (SWMS) is a Battlespace Environments Institute (BEI) project that couples space environment models together under the Earth System Modeling Framework, while ensuring that the component models are scalable and portable. BEI is sponsored by the High Performance Computing Modernization Office and managed by Air Force Weather Agency and Naval Research Laboratory. The Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv2) solar wind model and the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements (GAIM) model are the first two coupled components in the SWMS. Serving as a data assimilation engine, the HAFv2 model uses solar observations to prepare its initial solar wind conditions. Then, the HAFv2 internal algorithms and the initial conditions determine the present and future states of the solar wind conditions at Earth. The outputs of HAFv2 are provided to GAIM to forecast the time-dependent energy input into the high- latitude ionosphere. This presentation describes how the HAFv2 model is being used as a solar data assimilation engine for producing forecasts of solar wind parameters, that then serve as inputs to drive GAIM and other near-Earth space environment models. The overarching goal is to extend the lead time and skill of forecasts of space weather conditions and their corresponding impacts on operational customers.

  6. Current state and prospects of carbon management in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2010-05-01

    The current state and trajectories of future development of natural landscapes in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia are defined inter alia by (1) current unsatisfactory social and economic situation in boreal Northern Eurasia; (2) the dramatic magnitude of on-going and expected climatic change (warming up to 10-12oC under global warming at 4oC); (3) increasing anthropogenic pressure, particularly in regions of intensive oil and gas exploration and extraction; (4) large areas of sparsely populated and practically unmanaged land; (5) vulnerability of northern ecosystems which historically developed under cold climates and buffering capacity of which is not well known; (6) risk of catastrophic natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks) whose frequency and severity have accelerated during recent decades; and (7) high probability of irreversible changes of vegetation cover. These specifics are overlapped with insufficient governance of natural renewable resources (e.g., forests) and destructed practice of industrial development of new territories (oil and gas extraction and exploration, metallurgy etc.). Based on a full carbon account for terrestrial vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia, we analyze the relative impacts of major drivers on magnitude and uncertainty of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) under current and expected climate and environment. Dynamic trends and interannual variability of NECB are mostly dependent on weather conditions during growth seasons of individual years, regimes of natural disturbances, and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a short term, disturbances and human impacts cause a theoretically 'manageable' part of the full carbon account, which on average is estimated to be of about 20% of annual net primary production. In a long term, thawing of permafrost and change of hydrological regimes of vast territories may result in a catastrophic decline of the forested area and wide distribution of 'green desertification'. The

  7. Mean characteristics of mesosphere winter echoes at mid- and high-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, O.; Zecha, M.; Bremer, J.; Latteck, R.; Singer, W.

    2006-06-01

    VHF radar observations are used to investigate different regions of the Earth's atmosphere. Strong echoes from the mesosphere are mainly observed during summer months at polar latitudes (polar mesosphere summer echoes [PMSE]), and less often at mid-latitudes (mesosphere summer echoes [MSE]). Interestingly, in recent years similar echoes have been observed during winter months ([polar] mesosphere winter echoes (P)MWE). This paper reports on VHF radar measurements between September and April at Andenes (2001 2005) and Kühlungsborn (2003 2005) to determine the mean features of (P)MWE at polar and mid-latitudes. The (P)MWE are a rare phenomenon with mean occurrence rates of about 2.9% in polar and only 0.3% in mid-latitudes, with a maximum occurrence height at 70.5 km for daytime and 77.5 km for nighttime echoes. The diurnal variation is characterised by a maximum near noon and minimum during nighttime. The seasonal variation of (P)MWE is weak with some indication of an increased number of PMWE during mid-winter. The occurrence rate of (P)MWE is positively correlated with the ionisation level of the D region of the ionosphere. Mainly high-energetic proton (and electron) fluxes and enhanced X-ray radiation are important for the existence of (P)MWE. The second factor for the existence of (P)MWE are irregularities of the refraction index of half the radar wavelength (about 3 m for the radars used in this paper). Neutral air turbulence due to breaking gravity waves seems to be an important process. Whether charged aerosol particles or partial reflections of infrasound have additionally to be considered to explain (P)MWE is currently a point of discussion in the literature.

  8. Tidal variations in the high-latitude E- and F-region observed by EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Hocke

    Full Text Available During the MLTCS (Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study campaign the EISCAT UHF radar was continuously operated over 7 days (30 July–5 August 1992 in the CP-1 mode. The long time series obtained of the fundamental ionospheric parameters field-aligned ion velocity (Vi, ion and electron temperature (T and Te, and electron density (Ne are useful in investigating tidal variations in the E- and F-region since the geomagnetic activity was particularly low during the time of measurement. Maximum entropy spectra of the parameters were calculated for the relatively quiet interval from 1 August to 4 August 1992 and indicated dominant variations with harmonics of 24 hours. In the electron density spectrum especially, harmonics up to the sixth order (4-h period are clearly visible. The phase and amplitude height profiles (100–450 km of the diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal variations were determined by Fourier transform for a 24-h data set beginning at 12:00 UT on 3 August 1992 when the contaminating influences of electric fields were negligible. The tidal variations of the ion temperatures are compared with the corresponding variations of the neutral temperature predicted by the MSISE-90 model. A remarkable result is the dominance of terdiurnal temperature oscillations at E-region heights on 3–4 August 1992, while the measured diurnal and semidiurnal variations were negligible. The finding was confirmed by the analysis of further EISCAT data (2–3 August 1989, 2–3 July 1990, 31 March–1 April 1992 which also showed a dominant terdiurnal temperature tide in the E-region. This is different from numerous observations of tides in the E-region at mid-latitudes where the diurnal and especially the semidiurnal temperature oscillations were dominant.

  9. Tidal variations in the high-latitude E- and F-region observed by EISCAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available During the MLTCS (Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere Coupling Study campaign the EISCAT UHF radar was continuously operated over 7 days (30 July–5 August 1992 in the CP-1 mode. The long time series obtained of the fundamental ionospheric parameters field-aligned ion velocity (Vi, ion and electron temperature (T and Te, and electron density (Ne are useful in investigating tidal variations in the E- and F-region since the geomagnetic activity was particularly low during the time of measurement. Maximum entropy spectra of the parameters were calculated for the relatively quiet interval from 1 August to 4 August 1992 and indicated dominant variations with harmonics of 24 hours. In the electron density spectrum especially, harmonics up to the sixth order (4-h period are clearly visible. The phase and amplitude height profiles (100–450 km of the diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal variations were determined by Fourier transform for a 24-h data set beginning at 12:00 UT on 3 August 1992 when the contaminating influences of electric fields were negligible. The tidal variations of the ion temperatures are compared with the corresponding variations of the neutral temperature predicted by the MSISE-90 model. A remarkable result is the dominance of terdiurnal temperature oscillations at E-region heights on 3–4 August 1992, while the measured diurnal and semidiurnal variations were negligible. The finding was confirmed by the analysis of further EISCAT data (2–3 August 1989, 2–3 July 1990, 31 March–1 April 1992 which also showed a dominant terdiurnal temperature tide in the E-region. This is different from numerous observations of tides in the E-region at mid-latitudes where the diurnal and especially the semidiurnal temperature oscillations were dominant.

  10. Pre-noon high-latitude auroral arcs as a manifestation of the interchange instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kozlovsky

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, TV ASC camera in Barentsburg (Svalbard observed pre-noon (at 09:00–10:00 MLT rayed auroral arcs, which occurred at the pole-ward edge of the auroral oval after an IMF transition from By -dominated (By = + 8.8, Bz = + 4.3 to strongly northward dominated (By = + 2.7, Bz = + 8.6. The arcs appeared from the area of enhanced luminosity seen in the western (nightside horizon, and developed to the east, progressing at a velocity of about 1.5 km/s. Simultaneously, the arcs were drifting poleward at a velocity of 300–500 m/s, whose value was equal to the F-region ionospheric plasma drift velocity observed by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ESR. The arc appearance and motion corresponded well to the poleward expansion of the auroral oval following the IMF shift, which was observed by the UVI on board the Polar satellite. The observed auroras were associated with closed LLBL indicated by the particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites showing also several-keV electrons of PS origin. The observations allow us to suggest that the arcs arise due to the interchange instability that starts to develop at the boundary between the magnetospheric plasma and the magnetosheath flux tubes entering the closed magnetosphere due to the reconnection beyond the cusp after the IMF changes. The interchange instability can be suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of the LLBL. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  11. Pre-noon high-latitude auroral arcs as a manifestation of the interchange instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Kozlovsky

    Full Text Available On 7 December 2000, TV ASC camera in Barentsburg (Svalbard observed pre-noon (at 09:00–10:00 MLT rayed auroral arcs, which occurred at the pole-ward edge of the auroral oval after an IMF transition from By -dominated (By = + 8.8, Bz = + 4.3 to strongly northward dominated (By = + 2.7, Bz = + 8.6. The arcs appeared from the area of enhanced luminosity seen in the western (nightside horizon, and developed to the east, progressing at a velocity of about 1.5 km/s. Simultaneously, the arcs were drifting poleward at a velocity of 300–500 m/s, whose value was equal to the F-region ionospheric plasma drift velocity observed by the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ESR. The arc appearance and motion corresponded well to the poleward expansion of the auroral oval following the IMF shift, which was observed by the UVI on board the Polar satellite. The observed auroras were associated with closed LLBL indicated by the particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites showing also several-keV electrons of PS origin. The observations allow us to suggest that the arcs arise due to the interchange instability that starts to develop at the boundary between the magnetospheric plasma and the magnetosheath flux tubes entering the closed magnetosphere due to the reconnection beyond the cusp after the IMF changes. The interchange instability can be suggested as a possible mechanism for the formation of the LLBL. 

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics

  12. Radiotomographic observations of corpuscular ionization in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, E. S.; Kunitsyn, V. E.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Krysanov, B. Yu.; Nazarenko, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    Along with the antisunward cross-polar convection of the ionospheric plasma and the field-aligned electric currents, the corpuscular fluxes play an important role in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Being more tightly coupled with the magnetosphere, the subauroral and auroral ionosphere noticeably differs from the midlatitude ionosphere. It experiences much stronger and faster variations in space and time. The particle fluxes and the electric fields of magnetospheric origin penetrate into the ionosphere and substantially affect the production, loss and transport of charged particles. The rate of ionization in the midlatitude ionosphere is controlled almost solely by the X-ray and UV/EUV solar radiation, whereas in high latitudes the fluxes of particles precipitating from the magnetosphere are significant sources of ionization. Moreover, they are probably the single source during the polar night. Typically, the contribution of the magnetospheric corpuscular fluxes into the ionization is small compared to the contribution of electromagnetic radiation; however, during the geomagnetic storms, it may prove significant, especially if these fluxes are sufficiently strong and act in the nighttime when the solar electromagnetic radiation is absent. The present work is devoted to radio tomographic imaging of the ionospheric effects of particle precipitation using the data from low-orbital navigational satellite systems. The ionospheric radio tomography is actively developed during the past two decades. It provides images of the 2D distribution of electron density in the vertical plane (latitude-altitude cross-sections) (averaged over an interval of 10-15 minutes) for the spatial sector covering several thousand kilometers. The horizontal and vertical resolution of the RT method is 20-30 km and 30-40 km, respectively. In the present work, the particle precipitation events are identified from the particle flux measurements onboard DMSP satellites. We present and discuss

  13. Daytime Ionosphere Retrieval Algorithm for the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew W.; Korpela, Eric J.; Sirk, Martin M.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer Extreme Ultraviolet spectrograph, ICON EUV, will measure altitude profiles of the daytime extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) OII emission near 83.4 and 61.7 nm that are used to determine density profiles and state parameters of the ionosphere. This paper describes the algorithm concept and approach to inverting these measured OII emission profiles to derive the associated O+ density profile from 150-450 km as a proxy for the electron content in the F-region of the ionosphere. The algorithm incorporates a bias evaluation and feedback step, developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory using data from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) missions, that is able to effectively mitigate the effects of systematic instrument calibration errors and inaccuracies in the original photon source within the forward model. Results are presented from end-to-end simulations that convolved simulated airglow profiles with the expected instrument measurement response to produce profiles that were inverted with the algorithm to return data products for comparison to truth. Simulations of measurements over a representative ICON orbit show the algorithm is able to reproduce hmF2 values to better than 5 km accuracy, and NmF2 to better than 12% accuracy over a 12-second integration, and demonstrate that the ICON EUV instrument and daytime ionosphere algorithm can meet the ICON science objectives which require 20 km vertical resolution in hmF2 and 18% precision in NmF2.

  14. Ionospheric research opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickel, Dwight

    1985-05-01

    Ground-based explosions have been exploited successfully in the past as a relatively controlled source for producing ionospheric disturbances. On June 25, the Defense Nuclear Agency will conduct a high explosives test on the northern section of the White Sands Missile Range. Approximately 4,800 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) will be detonated at ground level, producing an acoustic shock wave with a surface pressure change of approximately 20 mbar at a 6 km range. This shock front will have sufficient strength to propagate into the ionosphere with at least a 10% change in the ambient pressure across the disturbance front in the lower F region. Such an ionospheric perturbation will give ionospheric researchers an excellent opportunity to investigate acoustic propagation at ionospheric heights, shock dissipation effect, the ion-neutral coupling process, acoustic-gravity wave (traveling ionospheric disturbance) generation mechanisms, and associated RF phenomena.

  15. Ultralong-range sounding of the ionospheric HF channel using an ionosonde/direction finder with chirp modulation of the signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vertogradov, G.; Uryadov, V. P.; Vertogradova, E. G.; Ponyatov, A. A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of experimental studies of propagation of short radio waves on a long transequatorial path of Laverton (Australia) — Rostov-on-Don, which were obtained with the help of an ionosonde/direction finder with chirp modulation of the signal. It is shown that conditions for propagation of anomalous signals by means of sideband reflection of radio waves from the Himalayan Hills and the Plateau of Iran and also due to scattering of radio waves from the high-latitude ionosphere of the northern hemisphere are realized on the given path. The propagation of radio waves is modeled with allowance for their scattering by anisotropic magnetic field-aligned irregularities of a high-latitude ionosphere, which are located on the northern wall of the main ionospheric trough of the F layer. It is shown that the results of the experiment agree well with the calculated data.

  16. The Pedersen current carried by electrons: a non-linear response of the ionosphere to magnetospheric forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Buchert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations by the EISCAT Svalbard radar show that electron temperatures Te in the cusp electrojet reach up to about 4000 K. The heat is tapped and converted from plasma convection in the near Earth space by a Pedersen current that is carried by electrons due to the presence of irregularities and their demagnetising effect. The heat is transfered to the neutral gas by collisions. In order to enhance Te to such high temperatures the maximally possible dissipation at 50% demagnetisation must nearly be reached. The effective Pedersen conductances are found to be enhanced by up to 60% compared to classical values. Conductivities and conductances respond significantly to variations of the electric field strength E, and "Ohm's law" for the ionosphere becomes non-linear for large E.

  17. Reconnection electric field estimates and dynamics of high-latitude boundaries during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pitkänen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the polar cap and the auroral oval are examined in the evening sector during a substorm period on 25 November 2000 by using measurements of the EISCAT incoherent scatter radars, the north-south chain of the MIRACLE magnetometer network, and the Polar UV Imager.

    The location of the polar cap boundary (PCB is estimated from electron temperature measurements by the mainland low-elevation EISCAT VHF radar and the 42 m antenna of the EISCAT Svalbard radar. A comparison to the poleward auroral emission (PAE boundary by the Polar UV Imager shows that in this event the PAE boundary is typically located 0.7° of magnetic latitude poleward of the PCB by EISCAT. The convection reversal boundary (CRB is determined from the 2-D plasma drift velocity extracted from the dual-beam VHF data. The CRB is located 0.5–1° equatorward of the PCB indicating the existence of viscous-driven antisunward convection on closed field lines.

    East-west equivalent electrojets are calculated from the MIRACLE magnetometer data by the 1-D upward continuation method. In the substorm growth phase, electrojets together with the polar cap boundary move gradually equatorwards. During the substorm expansion phase, the Harang discontinuity (HD region expands to the MLT sector of EISCAT. In the recovery phase the PCB follows the poleward edge of the westward electrojet.

    The local ionospheric reconnection electric field is calculated by using the measured plasma velocities in the vicinity of the polar cap boundary. During the substorm growth phase, values between 0 and 10 mV/m are found. During the late expansion and recovery phase, the reconnection electric field has temporal variations with periods of 7–27 min and values from 0 to 40 mV/m. It is shown quantitatively, for the first time to our knowledge, that intensifications in the local reconnection electric field correlate with appearance of auroral poleward boundary intensifications (PBIs

  18. Visualization of High Latitude Ion Upflow in Support of the Image Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gordon R.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the magnetosphere is a 400 year old science that began with the publication by Gilbert, in 1600, of his hypotheses that the Earth was a giant magnet. Since then we have learned many things about the magnetosphere, particularly in the last 40 years of the space age, but we still have many unanswered questions. In spite of the many thousands of observations of this system we still lack a global understanding of how it works. This is due to its large size and tenuous nature that mean that any measurement made of the fields or particles involved only give one a knowledge of the local conditions at a given time. To gain a global perspective through such observations would require the simultaneous operation of thousands of satellites spread throughout the magnetospheric system in addition to observations made on the ground. Such a program would be impractical at least from financial considerations. What is needed for the advancement of magnetospheric physics is to develop the same capabilities that astrophysicists, solar physicists and meteorologists have been using for years --- the ability to stand back from the object under study and see it in its entirety. The challenge for doing this for the magnetosphere is that the particle densities are very low and the material is, for the most part, not luminous. In the last 25 years several ideas have been proposed that would allow at least the imaging of certain portions of the magnetosphere. These include imaging of the plasmasphere through the resonant scattering of solar 304 A from He+ ions, imaging of various hot plasma populations (i.e. the ring current, plasmasheet, upflowing ionospheric ions, etc.) from the neutral atoms that result when ions of these populations charge exchange with the hydrogen geocorona, and imaging the aurora at various wavelengths in the far ultraviolet. In addition, a novel technique for probing various boundaries in the magnetosphere by bouncing low frequency radio waves off of them

  19. Carbon dioxide in northern high latitude oceans: Anthropogenic increase and air-sea flux variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, Abdirahman M.

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of carbon dioxide in the northern high latitude oceans (northern North Atlantic, Barents Sea, and Arctic Ocean) by studying the anthropogenic change in the oceanic CO2, the inter-annual variability of the air-sea CO2 flux, and the relationship between this variability and changes in other oceanic processes. An introductory chapter and four papers are presented. Descriptions of the seawater carbonate system parameters, air-sea exchange of CO2, and related processes are given in the introduction chapter. The anthropogenic increase in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface water of the Barents Sea is evaluated in paper I. The effect of alternations of the Barents Sea climate between cold and warm modes on the annual cycles of seawater fugacity and air-sea flux of CO2 is investigated in paper II. Oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 associated with the seasonal formation of sea ice in Storfjorden and the implication for the entire Arctic Ocean is studied in paper III. An assessment of the variations of the air-sea flux of CO2 in the northern North Atlantic for 20 winters (1981-2001) is carried out in paper IV. PCO2 in the surface water of the Barents Sea is shown to have increased parallel with the atmospheric pCO2 between 1967 and 2000-2001 (paper I). This was determined by comparing seawater pCO2 from 1967 with that from 2000-2001. The former was estimated from surface seawater temperature (SST) while the latter was computed from data of total dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity. A procedure which accounts for the natural variability was applied and the difference between seawater pC02 of 1967 and that of 2000-2001 is attributed to the uptake of excess CO2. In the Atlantic sector of the Barents Sea, the surface seawater fugacity of CO2 (fCO s''w) is shown to be lower than the atmospheric fCO2 throughout the year, implying that the area is an annual sink of atmospheric CO2 (paper II). Additionally

  20. First observations of electron gyro-harmonic effects under X-mode HF pumping the high latitude ionospheric F-region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kalishin, A. S.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2017-03-01

    We provide the first experimental evidence of the sensitivity of phenomena induced by extraordinary (X-mode) polarized HF high power radio waves to pump frequency stepping across the fifth electron gyro-harmonic (5fce) from below to above. The results were obtained at the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) HF heater facility near Tromsø under effective radiated powers of 456-715 MW, when the HF pump wave was transmitted into the magnetic zenith. We have analyzed the behavior and intensities of various spectral lines in the narrowband stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectra observed far from the heater, HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines (HFPL and HFIL) from EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar spectra, and artificial field-aligned irregularities from CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) observations, depending on the frequency offset of the pump field relative to the 5fce. At pump frequencies below 5fce the narrowband SEE spectra exhibited very intense so-called stimulated ion Bernstein scatter (SIBS), accompanied by other spectral components, associated with stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS), which are greatly suppressed and disappeared in the vicinity of 5fce and did not reappear at fH>5fce. As the pump frequency reached 5fce, the abrupt enhancements of the HFPL and HFIL power, the appearance of cascade lines in the plasma line spectra, and the onset of increasing CUTLASS backscatter power occurred. That is opposite to the ordinary mode (O-mode) effects in the vicinity of 5fce. The X-mode pumping at frequencies below and in the vicinity of the fifth electron gyro-harmonic clearly demonstrated an ascending altitude of generation of induced plasma and ion lines from the initial interaction height, whereas for O-mode heating the region of interaction descended. The observations are consistent with the coexistence of the electron acceleration along and across the geomagnetic field at fH<5fce, while only very strong electron acceleration along the magnetic field was observed at fH≥5fce.

  1. Ranking ICME's efficiency for geomagnetic and ionospheric storms and risk of false alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.

    2017-11-01

    A statistical analysis is undertaken on ICME's efficiency in producing the geomagnetic and ionospheric storms. The mutually-consistent thresholds for the intense, moderate and weak space weather storms and quiet conditions are introduced with an analytical model based on relations between the equatorial Dst index and geomagnetic indices AE, aa, ap, ap(τ) and the ionospheric Vσ indices. The ionosphere variability Vσ index is expressed in terms of the total electron content (TEC) deviation from the -15-day sliding median normalized by the standard deviation for the 15 preceding days. The intensity of global positive ionospheric storm, Vσp, and negative storm, Vσn, is represented by the relative density of anomalous ±Vσ index occurrence derived from the global ionospheric maps GIM-TEC for 1999-2016. An impact of total 421 ICME events for 1999-2016 on the geomagnetic and ionospheric storms expressed by AE, Dst, aa, ap, ap(τ), Vσp, Vσn indices and their superposition is analyzed using ICME catalogue by Richardson and Cane (2010) during 24 h after the ICME start time t0. Hierarchy of efficiency of ICME → storm relation is established. The ICMEs have a higher probability (22-25%) to be followed by the intense ionospheric and auroral electrojet storms at global and high latitudes as compared to the intense storms at middle and low latitudes (18-20%) and to moderate and weak storms at high latitudes (5-17%). At the same time ICMEs are more effective in producing the moderate storms (24-28%) at the middle and low latitudes as compared to the intense and weak storms at these latitudes (13-22%) and to moderate storms at high latitudes (8-17%). The remaining cases when quiet conditions are observed after ICMEs present higher chance for a false alarm. The risk factor for a false alarm can vary from 18% if the superposition of all indices is considered, to 51-64% for individual AE, Vσp and Vσn indices. The analysis indicates that the mutually-consistent thresholds

  2. Toward storm-time ionosphere forecast using GNSS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Charles; Chen, Chia-Hung; Liu, Tiger J. Y.; Chen, Wei-Han

    2016-04-01

    Previous theoretical simulations of the mid- and low-latitude ionospheric responses to space weather events have indicated general features of electron density disturbances. The magnetic storm produced penetration electric field and neutral wind disturbances lead to formation of various storm-time ionospheric electron density structures, such as super plasma fountain, equatorial electron density trough and F3 layer, as well as long-lasting global ionosphere suppression. We attempt to model these storm-related ionospheric electron density structures using the global assimilative ionospheric model that assimilates electron densities taken from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and TEC from ground-based GNSS receivers. Using the ensemble Kalman filter with consideration of ion densities, electric potential, thermospheric neutral wind and compositions as update variables, we study the performance and forecast capability of the assimilative model. The assimilative model could be utilized for ionosphere forecast in near future.

  3. Ionospheric modelling for navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon Angel, M. A.

    Signals transmitted to and from satellites for communication and navigation purposes must pass through the ionosphere Ionospheric irregularities most common at equatorial latitudes although they could occur anywhere can have a major impact on system performance and reliability and commercial navigation service satellite-based providers need to account for their effects For a GNSS single-frequency receiver the Slant Total Electron Content STEC must be known by the user through broadcast corrections In this context there are several sets of broadcast parameters that can be defined to take into account this ionospheric term The chosen model to generate the ionospheric correction coefficients for the present study is the NeQuick model although with a number of adaptations intended to improve effective ionospheric effect modelling performances The aim of this study is to describe a possible adaptation to the NeQuick model for real time purposes and suitable for single frequency users Therefore it will be necessary to determine the performance of this modified NeQuick model in correcting the ionospheric delay In order to generate the ionospheric corrections for single frequency receivers using the NeQuick model a certain approach should be followed to adapt the performance of NeQuick since this model was originally developed to provide TEC using averaged monthly information of the solar activity and not daily one Thus to use NeQuick for real time applications as an ionospheric broadcasted model such as Klobuchar solar daily information at the user point

  4. A review of atmospheric gravity waves and travelling ionospheric disturbances: 1982-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available Recent investigations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID in the Earth's thermosphere and ionosphere are reviewed. In the past decade, the generation of gravity waves at high latitudes and their subsequent propagation to low latitudes have been studied by several global model simulations and coordinated observation campaigns such as the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity-wave Study (WAGS, the results are presented in the first part of the review. The second part describes the progress towards understanding the AGW/TID characteristics. It points to the AGW/TID relationship which has been recently revealed with the aid of model-data comparisons and by the application of new inversion techniques. We describe the morphology and climatology of gravity waves and their ionospheric manifestations, TIDs, from numerous new observations.

  5. ORCHIDEE-MICT (v8.4.1), a land surface model for the high latitudes: model description and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimberteau, Matthieu; Zhu, Dan; Maignan, Fabienne; Huang, Ye; Yue, Chao; Dantec-Nédélec, Sarah; Ottlé, Catherine; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Bastos, Ana; Laurent, Pierre; Goll, Daniel; Bowring, Simon; Chang, Jinfeng; Guenet, Bertrand; Tifafi, Marwa; Peng, Shushi; Krinner, Gerhard; Ducharne, Agnès; Wang, Fuxing; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yilong; Yin, Zun; Lauerwald, Ronny; Joetzjer, Emilie; Qiu, Chunjing; Kim, Hyungjun; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere are a nexus for the interaction between land surface physical properties and their exchange of carbon and energy with the atmosphere. At these latitudes, two carbon pools of planetary significance - those of the permanently frozen soils (permafrost), and of the great expanse of boreal forest - are vulnerable to destabilization in the face of currently observed climatic warming, the speed and intensity of which are expected to increase with time. Improved projections of future Arctic and boreal ecosystem transformation require improved land surface models that integrate processes specific to these cold biomes. To this end, this study lays out relevant new parameterizations in the ORCHIDEE-MICT land surface model. These describe the interactions between soil carbon, soil temperature and hydrology, and their resulting feedbacks on water and CO2 fluxes, in addition to a recently developed fire module. Outputs from ORCHIDEE-MICT, when forced by two climate input datasets, are extensively evaluated against (i) temperature gradients between the atmosphere and deep soils, (ii) the hydrological components comprising the water balance of the largest high-latitude basins, and (iii) CO2 flux and carbon stock observations. The model performance is good with respect to empirical data, despite a simulated excessive plant water stress and a positive land surface temperature bias. In addition, acute model sensitivity to the choice of input forcing data suggests that the calibration of model parameters is strongly forcing-dependent. Overall, we suggest that this new model design is at the forefront of current efforts to reliably estimate future perturbations to the high-latitude terrestrial environment.

  6. Wavelet analysis of the ionospheric response at Mid-latitudes during the april 2000 storm using magnetograms and vTEC from GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we pursue the idea of computing a parameter that allows us to estimate the local ionospheric response to a geospheric event that triggers an ionospheric storm. For that, wavelet technique has been chosen because of its ability to analyze non-stationary signals. The advantage of the time-frequency analysis method called Wavelet Transform resides in providing information not only about the frequencies of the event but also about its location in the time series. Specifically, we compute the Scale Average Wavelet Power (SAWP of two parameters that describe the local geomagnetic field variation at the Earth surface caused by a geospheric storm and ionospheric response to the storm event. In particular, we propose the time delay between the maximum values of SAWP applied to the vTEC (vertical Total Electron Content and the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (H variations as parameters to characterize the local behavior of the ionospheric storm. We applied the parameter to the geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances caused by a coronal mass ejection (CME that took place on April 4, 2000. We used vTEC values computed from GPS observations and H at the surface of the Earth, measured in stations near to each GPS station chosen. The vTEC values used came from the GPS permanent stations belonging to the global IGS (International GNSS Service network. We chose stations located at magnetic mid-latitudes. Moreover, three-longitude bands representing the ionospheric behavior at different local times (LT were studied. Because the April 2000 storm has been extensively studied for many authors, the results are compared with those in the literature and we found a very good agreement as expected.En este trabajo perseguimos la idea de estimar un parámetro que nos permita calcular la respuesta ionosférica local a un evento geosférico desencadenante de una tormenta ionosférica. Para ello, se eligió la aplicación de la técnica ondeleta

  7. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Aladjev, G. A.; Evstafiev, O. V.; Mingalev, V. S.; G. I. Mingaleva; E. D. Tereshchenko; Khudukon, B. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE) in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionospher...

  8. First storm-time plasma velocity estimates from high-resolution ionospheric data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Crowley, Geoff

    2013-11-01

    This paper uses data assimilation to estimate ionospheric state during storm time at subdegree resolution. We use Ionospheric Data Assimilation Four-Dimensional (IDA4D) to resolve the three-dimensional time-varying electron density gradients of the storm-enhanced density poleward plume. By Estimating Model Parameters from Ionospheric Reverse Engineering (EMPIRE), we infer the three-dimensional plasma velocity from the densities. EMPIRE estimates of ExB drift are made by correcting the Weimer 2000 electric potential model. This is the first time electron densities derived from GPS total electron content (TEC) data are being used to estimate field-aligned and field-perpendicular drifts at such high resolution, without reference to direct drift measurements. The time-varying estimated electron densities are used to construct the ionospheric spatial decorrelation in vertical total electron content (TEC) on horizontal scales of less than 100 km. We compare slant TEC (STEC) estimates to actual STEC GPS observations, including independent unassimilated data. The IDA4D density model of the extreme ionospheric storm on 20 November 2003 shows STEC delays of up to 210 TEC units, comparable to the STEC of the GPS ground stations. Horizontal drifts from EMPIRE are predicted to be northwestward within the storm-enhanced density plume and its boundary, turning northeast at high latitudes. These estimates compare favorably to independent Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics-assimilated high-latitude ExB drift estimates. Estimated and measured Defense Meteorological Satellite Program in situ drifts differ by a factor of 2-3 and in some cases have incorrect direction. This indicates that significant density rates of change and more accurate accounting for production and loss may be needed when other processes are not dominant.

  9. Hemispheric Differences in the Response of the Upper Atmosphere to the August 2011 Geomagnetic Storm: A Simulation Study

    CERN Document Server

    Yiğit, Erdal; Moldwin, Mark B; Immel, Thomas J; Ridley, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Using a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic general circulation model, we investigate the response of the thermosphere-ionosphere system to the 5-6 August 2011 major geomagnetic storm. The model is driven by measured storm-time input data of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), solar activity, and auroral activity. Simulations for quiet steady conditions over the same period are performed as well in order to assess the response of the neutral and plasma parameters to the storm. During the storm, the high-latitude mean ion flows are enhanced by up to 150-180%. Largest ion flows are found in the main phase of the storm. Overall, the global mean neutral temperature increases by up to 15%, while the maximum thermal response is higher in the winter Southern Hemisphere at high-latitudes than the summer Northern Hemisphere: 40% vs. 20%increase in high-latitude mean temperature, respectively. The global mean Joule heating increases by more than a factor of three. There are distinct hemispheric differences in the mag...

  10. Investigation of the Ionospheric Fluctuations Caused by Space Weather Effects Using GNSS TEC Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Krankowski, Andrzej; Cherniak, Iurii; Ephishov, Ivan; Zakharenkova, Irina; Yakimova, Galina

    2013-04-01

    It is known that GPS radio signals passing through the ionosphere suffer varying degrees of rapid variations of their amplitude and phase - signal scintillations. The scintillations are caused by the presence of wide range of scale size irregularities in the ionosphere. It is very important to estimate scintillation and phase fluctuation effects on GNSS navigation system (GPS/GLONASS) performance and consequently on the precession of the obtained position. Effects of the ionospheric irregularities on the GPS signals can be evaluated by measurements of the differential phase time rate of dual frequency GPS signals. GPS observations carried out at the Arctic IGS (International GNSS Service) stations were used to study the development of TEC fluctuations in the high latitude ionosphere. Standard GPS measurements with 30s sampling rate allow the detection of middle- and large-scale ionospheric irregularities. For detection of ionospheric fluctuations the rate of TEC (ROT, in the unit of TECU/min) at 1 min interval was used. The temporal occurrence of TEC fluctuations is clearly observed in time variations in the dual frequency carrier phase along satellite passes. As a measure of the fluctuation activity level the Rate of TEC Index (ROTI) based on standard deviation of ROT was also used. ROTI was estimated in 10-minute interval. These techniques and IGS data were used to study the occurrence of TEC fluctuations at the northern latitude ionosphere for selected geomagnetic storms occurred at the end of 23rd and beginning of new 24th solar cycles. Results demonstrate that fluctuation activity of GPS signals in the high latitude ionosphere is depended on geomagnetic conditions. Intensity of fluctuations essentially increases during geomagnetic storms. The strongest TEC fluctuations occurred as short time rate of TEC enhancements of a factor of 2-5 relative to the quiet time. During geomagnetic disturbed conditions strong phase fluctuations can register at latitudes low

  11. A statistical survey of dayside pulsed ionospheric flows as seen by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    Full Text Available Nearly two years of 2-min resolution data and 7- to 21-s resolution data from the CUTLASS Finland HF radar have undergone Fourier analysis in order to study statistically the occurrence rates and repetition frequencies of pulsed ionospheric flows in the noon-sector high-latitude ionosphere. Pulsed ionospheric flow bursts are believed to be the ionospheric footprint of newly reconnected geomagnetic field lines, which occur during episodes of magnetic flux transfer to the terrestrial magnetosphere - flux transfer events or FTEs. The distribution of pulsed ionospheric flows were found to be well grouped in the radar field of view, and to be in the vicinity of the radar signature of the cusp footprint. Two thirds of the pulsed ionospheric flow intervals included in the statistical study occurred when the interplanetary magnetic field had a southward component, supporting the hypothesis that pulsed ionospheric flows are a reconnection-related phenomenon. The occurrence rate of the pulsed ionospheric flow fluctuation period was independent of the radar scan mode. The statistical results obtained from the radar data are compared to occurrence rates and repetition frequencies of FTEs derived from spacecraft data near the magnetopause reconnection region, and to ground-based optical measurements of poleward moving auroral forms. The distributions obtained by the various instruments in different regions of the magnetosphere were remarkably similar. The radar, therefore, appears to give an unbiased sample of magnetopause activity in its routine observations of the cusp footprint.

    Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  12. A statistical survey of dayside pulsed ionospheric flows as seen by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. McWilliams

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Nearly two years of 2-min resolution data and 7- to 21-s resolution data from the CUTLASS Finland HF radar have undergone Fourier analysis in order to study statistically the occurrence rates and repetition frequencies of pulsed ionospheric flows in the noon-sector high-latitude ionosphere. Pulsed ionospheric flow bursts are believed to be the ionospheric footprint of newly reconnected geomagnetic field lines, which occur during episodes of magnetic flux transfer to the terrestrial magnetosphere - flux transfer events or FTEs. The distribution of pulsed ionospheric flows were found to be well grouped in the radar field of view, and to be in the vicinity of the radar signature of the cusp footprint. Two thirds of the pulsed ionospheric flow intervals included in the statistical study occurred when the interplanetary magnetic field had a southward component, supporting the hypothesis that pulsed ionospheric flows are a reconnection-related phenomenon. The occurrence rate of the pulsed ionospheric flow fluctuation period was independent of the radar scan mode. The statistical results obtained from the radar data are compared to occurrence rates and repetition frequencies of FTEs derived from spacecraft data near the magnetopause reconnection region, and to ground-based optical measurements of poleward moving auroral forms. The distributions obtained by the various instruments in different regions of the magnetosphere were remarkably similar. The radar, therefore, appears to give an unbiased sample of magnetopause activity in its routine observations of the cusp footprint.Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  13. An effect of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator on multiband Pc1 pulsations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prikner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On 2 December 1999, the magnetometer stations in northern Finland registered structured Pc1 activity simultaneously in three distinct frequency bands. Using simultaneous EISCAT radar measurements of the high-latitude ionosphere, we have studied the ionospheric resonator properties during this multiband Pc1 event. The frequencies of the three structured Pc1 bands were found to closely correspond to the second, third and fourth harmonic of the calculated fundamental frequency of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR. In addition, those frequencies of the three pearl bands that were closest to the exact IAR harmonics were found to have the strongest intensities. The results demonstrate that the resonator can have an important role on ground-based Pc1 activity over a notably large frequency range, favoring transmission of waves with frequencies close to the resonator's eigenfrequencies. Since the frequencies of all three bands correspond to the maximum rather than the minimum of the transmission coefficient, the traditional bouncing wave packet model needs to be revised.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere magnetosphere interactions; wave propagation

  14. The role of total wind in the vertical dynamics of ions in the E-region at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A seasonally dependent total neutral wind model obtained from experimental data is used to evaluate the diurnal variation of the vertical ion velocity in the E-region at a high-latitude location (Tromsø, for each season, in the presence of an electric field with a typical diurnal variation for quiet auroral days. The diurnal variation and spatial locations of the vertical convergence of ions are analyzed and the effect of the total wind on the occurrence of sporadic E-layers is inferred. The results show that the structure of the wind is an important factor in controlling the vertical velocities of ions, favoring or hindering the sporadic E-layer formation. The ion convergence conditions are improved when the permanent wind is removed, which suggests that sporadic E-layers occur when the mean wind has small values, thus allowing the electric field and/or the semidiurnal tide to control the ion dynamics. We conclude that for quiet days the formation of the sporadic layers is initiated by the electric field, while their evolution and dynamics is controlled by the wind. We also find that the seasonal variation of the Es layers cannot be related to the seasonally dependent wind shear. Although we focus on sporadic E-layers, our results can be used in the analysis of other processes involving the vertical dynamics of ions in the E-region at high latitudes.

  15. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  16. Statistics of high-altitude and high-latitude O+ ion outflows observed by Cluster/CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The persistent outflows of O+ ions observed by the Cluster CIS/CODIF instrument were studied statistically in the high-altitude (from 3 up to 11 RE and high-latitude (from 70 to ~90 deg invariant latitude, ILAT polar region. The principal results are: (1 Outflowing O+ ions with more than 1keV are observed above 10 RE geocentric distance and above 85deg ILAT location; (2 at 6-8 RE geocentric distance, the latitudinal distribution of O+ ion outflow is consistent with velocity filter dispersion from a source equatorward and below the spacecraft (e.g. the cusp/cleft; (3 however, at 8-12 RE geocentric distance the distribution of O+ outflows cannot be explained by velocity filter only. The results suggest that additional energization or acceleration processes for outflowing O+ ions occur at high altitudes and high latitudes in the dayside polar region. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics, Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  17. Analysis of the temporal-spatial distribution of ionosphere scale height based on COSMIC occultation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin-Xin; Lin, Zhan; Jin, Hong-Lin; Chen, Hua-Ran; Jiao, Li-Guo

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the distribution characteristics of scale height at various solar activity levels were statistically analyzed using the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) radio occultation data for 2007-2013. The results show that: (1) in the mid-high latitude region, the daytime (06-17LT) scale height exhibits annual variations in the form of a single peak structure with the crest appearing in summer. At the high latitude region, an annual variation is also observed for nighttime (18-05LT) scale height; (2) changes in the spatial distribution of the scale height occur. The crests are deflected towards the north during daytime (12-14LT) at a geomagnetic longitude of 60°W-180°W, and they are distributed roughly along the geomagnetic equator at 60°W-180°E. In the approximate region of 120°W-150°E and 50°S-80°S, the scale height values are significantly higher than those in other mid-latitude areas. This region enlarges with increased solar activity, and shows an approximately symmetric distribution about 0° geomagnetic longitude. Nighttime (00-02LT) scale height values in the high-latitude region are larger than those in the low-mid latitude region. These results could serve as reference for the study of ionosphere distribution and construction of the corresponding profile model.

  18. Increased Ocean Heat Convergence Into the High Latitudes With CO 2 Doubling Enhances Polar-Amplified Warming: OCEAN HEAT AND POLAR WARMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H. A. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, U.S. DOE Office of Science, Richland WA USA; Rasch, P. J. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, U.S. DOE Office of Science, Richland WA USA; Rose, B. E. J. [Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, State University of New York at Albany, Albany NY USA

    2017-10-18

    We isolate the role of the ocean in polar climate change by directly evaluating how changes in ocean dynamics with quasi-equilibrium CO2-doubling impact high-latitude climate. With CO2-doubling, the ocean heat flux convergence (OHFC) shifts poleward in winter in both hemispheres. Imposing this pattern of perturbed OHFC in a global climate model results in a poleward shift in ocean-to-atmosphere turbulent heat fluxes (both sensible and latent) and sea ice retreat; the high-latitudes warm while the midlatitudes cool, thereby amplifying polar warming. Furthermore, midlatitude cooling is propagated to the polar mid-troposphere on isentropic surfaces, augmenting the (positive) lapse rate feedback at high latitudes. These results highlight the key role played by the partitioning of meridional energy transport changes between the atmosphere and ocean in high-latitude climate change.

  19. Multipoint observation of the response of the magnetosphere and ionosphere related to the sudden impulse event on 19 November 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segarra Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide a complete scope of a magnetic sudden impulse (SI event along its way through interplanetary space and the magnetosphere until its arrival to the ground. In our case, we chose the event of 19th November 2007 because of the availability of enough well-located spacecraft at that moment for our purpose. We have used a 16 spacecraft data set. We calculated the mass flux variation and the change in magnetic field components across the discontinuity. Thus, we identified the solar wind discontinuity as a shock. We also calculated the orientation of the solar wind shock front. Then, we examined the effects of the shock front propagation in detail. With this large data set, we obtained a global view of the travelling wave front and identified the effects of the compressional wave front. Thus, we determined in detail the shock front passing through the different parts of the magnetosphere. We described the compressional effects in the bow shock, the magnetosheath, and the magnetopause and we depicted the propagation inside the inner magnetosphere. Moreover, we used an extensive data set from magnetic observatories on the ground and so we studied the global distribution of the SI waveform. Finally, the comparison of the observational facts with those derived from the theoretical model showed a good consistency. On the basis of the waveforms and polarizations of this SI, we determined the location in latitude where ionospheric currents (ICs changed their sense. And also, we related polarization at ground to polarization measured by GOES spacecraft.

  20. A global scale picture of ionospheric peak electron density changes during geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vickal V.; Parkinson, Murray L.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in ionospheric plasma densities can affect society more than ever because of our increasing reliance on communication, surveillance, navigation, and timing technology. Models struggle to predict changes in ionospheric densities at nearly all temporal and spatial scales, especially during geomagnetic storms. Here we combine a 50 year (1965-2015) geomagnetic disturbance storm time (Dst) index with plasma density measurements from a worldwide network of 132 vertical incidence ionosondes to develop a picture of global scale changes in peak plasma density due to geomagnetic storms. Vertical incidence ionosondes provide measurements of the critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer (foF2), a direct measure of the peak electron density (NmF2) of the ionosphere. By dissecting the NmF2 perturbations with respect to the local time at storm onset, season, and storm intensity, it is found that (i) the storm-associated depletions (negative storm effects) and enhancements (positive storm effects) are driven by different but related physical mechanisms, and (ii) the depletion mechanism tends to dominate over the enhancement mechanism. The negative storm effects, which are detrimental to HF radio links, are found to start immediately after geomagnetic storm onset in the nightside high-latitude ionosphere. The depletions in the dayside high-latitude ionosphere are delayed by a few hours. The equatorward expansion of negative storm effects is found to be regulated by storm intensity (farthest equatorward and deepest during intense storms), season (largest in summer), and time of day (generally deeper on the nightside). In contrast, positive storm effects typically occur on the dayside midlatitude and low-latitude ionospheric regions when the storms are in the main phase, regardless of the season. Closer to the magnetic equator, moderate density enhancements last up to 40 h during the recovery phase of equinox storms, regardless of the local time. Strikingly, high-latitude

  1. Polar conic current sheets as sources and channels of energetic particles in the high-latitude heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malova, Helmi; Kislov, Roman; Zelenyi, Lev; Obridko, Vladimir; Kharshiladze, Alexander; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Sokół, Justyna; Grzedzielski, Stan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Malandraki, Olga

    2017-04-01

    The existence of a large-scale magnetically separated conic region inside the polar coronal hole has been predicted by the Fisk-Parker hybrid heliospheric magnetic field model in the modification of Burger and co-workers (Burger et al., ApJ, 2008). Recently, long-lived conic (or cylindrical) current sheets (CCSs) have been found from Ulysses observations at high heliolatitudes (Khabarova et al., ApJ, 2017). The characteristic scale of these structures is several times lesser than the typical width of coronal holes, and the CCSs can be observed at 2-3 AU for several months. CCS crossings in 1994 and 2007 are characterized by sharp decreases in the solar wind speed and plasma beta typical for predicted profiles of CCSs. In 2007, a CCS was detected directly over the South Pole and strongly highlighted by the interaction with comet McNaught. The finding is confirmed by restorations of solar coronal magnetic field lines that reveal the occurrence of conic-like magnetic separators over the solar poles both in 1994 and 2007. Interplanetary scintillation data analysis also confirms the existence of long-lived low-speed regions surrounded by the typical polar high-speed solar wind in solar minima. The occurrence of long-lived CCSs in the high-latitude solar wind could shed light on how energetic particles reach high latitudes. Energetic particle enhancements up to tens MeV were observed by Ulysses at edges of CCSs both in 1994 and 2007. In 1994 this effect was clearer, probably due to technical reasons. Accelerated particles could be produced either by magnetic reconnection at the edges of a CCS in the solar corona or in the solar wind. We discuss the role of high-latitude CCSs in propagation of energetic particles in the heliosphere and revisit previous studies of energetic particle enhancements at high heliolatitudes. We also suggest that the existence of a CCS can modify the distribution of the solar wind as a function of heliolatitude and consequently impact ionization

  2. Cluster observations of the high-latitude magnetopause and cusp: initial results from the CIS ion instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bosqued

    Full Text Available Launched on an elliptical high inclination orbit (apogee: 19.6 RE since January 2001 the Cluster satellites have been conducting the first detailed three-dimensional studies of the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere, including the exterior cusp, neighbouring boundary layers and magnetopause regions. Cluster satellites carry the CIS ion spectrometers that provide high-precision, 3D distributions of low-energy (<35 keV/e ions every 4 s. This paper presents the first two observations of the cusp and/or magnetopause behaviour made under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions. Flow directions, 3D distribution functions, density profiles and ion composition profiles are analyzed to demonstrate the high variability of high-latitude regions. In the first crossing analyzed (26 January 2001, dusk side, IMF-BZ < 0, multiple, isolated boundary layer, magnetopause and magnetosheath encounters clearly occurred on a quasi-steady basis for ~ 2 hours. CIS ion instruments show systematic accelerated flows in the current layer and adjacent boundary layers on the Earthward side of the magnetopause. Multi-point analysis of the magnetopause, combining magnetic and plasma data from the four Cluster spacecraft, demonstrates that oscillatory outward-inward motions occur with a normal speed of the order of ± 40 km/s; the thickness of the high-latitude current layer is evaluated to be of the order of 900–1000 km. Alfvénic accelerated flows and D-shaped distributions are convincing signatures of a magnetic reconnection occurring equatorward of the Cluster satellites. Moreover, the internal magnetic and plasma structure of a flux transfer event (FTE is analyzed in detail; its size along the magnetopause surface is ~ 12 000 km and it convects with a velocity of ~ 200 km/s. The second event analyzed (2 February 2001 corresponds to the first Cluster pass within the cusp when the IMF-BZ component was northward directed. The analysis of

  3. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  4. GLL RPT IONOSPHERE PROFILES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Galileo Radio Propagation Team Ionosphere Profile data set is small number of electron density profiles derived from radio occultation data collected while...

  5. A numerical model of the ionospheric signatures of time-varying magneticreconnection: I. ionospheric convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical model for predicting the evolution of the pattern of ionospheric convection in response to general time-dependent magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and in the cross-tail current sheet of the geomagnetic tail. The model quantifies the concepts of ionospheric flow excitation by Cowley and Lockwood (1992, assuming a uniform spatial distribution of ionospheric conductivity. The model is demonstrated using an example in which travelling reconnection pulses commence near noon and then move across the dayside magnetopause towards both dawn and dusk. Two such pulses, 8min apart, are used and each causes the reconnection to be active for 1min at every MLT that they pass over. This example demonstrates how the convection response to a given change in the interplanetary magnetic field (via the reconnection rate depends on the previous reconnection history. The causes of this effect are explained. The inherent assumptions and the potential applications of the model are discussed. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; plasma convection – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  6. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  7. High-Latitude Dust Over the North Atlantic: Inputs from Icelandic Proglacial Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Bullard, Joanna E.; Hodgkins, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Mineral aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere-ocean climate system. Research has focused almost exclusively on sources in low-latitude arid regions, but here we show that there are substantial sources in cold, higher latitudes. A 6-year record of measurements made on Heimaey, an island south of Iceland, reveals frequent dust events with concentrations exceeding 20 micrograms per cubic meter. Much of this potentially iron-rich dust is transported southward and deposited in the North Atlantic. Emissions are highest in spring and spatially and temporally associated with active glacial outwash plains; large dust events appear to be associated with glacial outburst floods. In response to global warming, ice retreat on Iceland and in other glacierized areas is likely to increase dust emissions from these regions.

  8. Dayside magnetic ULF power at high latitudes: A possible long-term proxy for the solar wind velocity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    1999-01-01

    from the solar cycle variation of regular geomagnetic activity, measured by indices such as aa and Dst. The spectral band power is generally at minimum just prior to solar maximum and has a strong maximum in the late declining phase associated with high-speed streams from coronal holes. We have......We examine the occurrence of dayside high-latitude magnetic variations with periods between 2 and 10 min statistically using data from around 20 magnetic stations in Greenland, Scandinavia, and Canada, many of which have been in operation for a full solar cycle. We derive time series of the power...... spectral density (psd) in two different frequency bands: 2-4 min period and 5-10 min period. The average psd in these bands maximizes in the early morning sector between auroral and cusp latitudes. The solar cycle variation of the average psd in the two bands during the morning hours is markedly different...

  9. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Radar: Measurements at High Latitudes and of Surface Freeze/Thaw State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael; Dunbar, Scott; Chen, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for a late 2014 launch date. The mission will use both active radar and passive radiometer instruments at L-Band in order to achieve the science objectives of measuring soil moisture and land surface freeze-thaw state. To achieve requirements for a wide swath at sufficiently high resolution for both active and passive channels, an instrument architecture that uses a large rotating reflector is employed. In this paper, focus will be placed on the radar design. The radar will employ synthetic-aperture processing to achieve a "moderate" resolution dual-pol product over a 1000 km swath. Because the radar is operating continuously, very frequent temporal coverage will be achieved at high latitudes. This data will be used to produce a surface freeze/thaw state data product.

  10. Quasi-biennial oscillation modulation of the middle- and high-latitude mesospheric semidiurnal tides during August-September

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Fazlul I.; Chau, Jorge L.; Stober, Gunter; Hoffmann, Peter; Hall, Chris M.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The seasonal and interannual variabilities of mesospheric semidiurnal tides (SDT) are investigated using specular meteor radar-based winds. The horizontal wind observations during 2003 to 2014 from a high-latitude station, Andenes (69°N, 16°E), and during 2008 to 2014 from a midlatitude station, Juliusruh (54°N, 13°E), are used. It has been observed that the amplitudes of mesospheric SDTs are enhanced at both stations during August-September of all the years. These enhancements show a systematic behavior with that of the low-latitude stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), which is characterized based on winds from radiosonde data. The SDT amplitude values during enhancement are below/above mean level for those years in which the QBO wind at 50 hPa is westward/eastward (QBOw/QBOe). The average SDT amplitudes during the August-September enhancement duration are found to vary hand in hand with the low-latitude QBO wind, suggesting QBO modulation of SDT. Stratospheric and lower mesospheric zonal wind perturbations from MERRA reanalysis data show weak local forcing in the Northern Hemisphere and indication of enhanced quasi-stationary planetary waves (SPW) in the Southern Hemisphere. Based on these observations and some earlier results, we hypothesize that the QBOw/QBOe wind damp/enhance the southern hemispheric SPW of wave number 1 (SPW1). This modulated SPW1 then interacts with the northern midlatitude and high-latitude SDTs to imprint the signature of QBO on them.

  11. A search for T Tauri stars in high-latitude molecular clouds. 2: The IRAS Faint Source Survey catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Loris; Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Buchalter, Ari; Beichman, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    We present a catalog of infrared point sources from the IRAS Faint Source Survey at Galactic latitudes the absolute magnitude of b is greater than or equal to 30 deg. The aim of this paper is to provide a list of possible star-forming sites at high Galactic latitudes in order to address the question of whether or not the translucent molecular clouds (which are most easily identified at high latitudes) are capable of star formation. The primary list of sources has 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron fluxes within the range typical of pre-main-sequence or T Tauri stars. A secondary list has the same range of 12, 25, and 60 micron fluxes, but only upper limits at 100 microns. A total of 127 candidates from the first category and 65 candidates from the second category are identified and their positions and infrared spectral characteristics tabulated. Although the colors and fluxes of these sources are typical of T Tauri or pre-main-sequence stars and YSOs, extragalactic sources and planetary nebulae sometimes have similar colors. These lists provide a starting point for optical spectroscopy or other techniques to positively identify these objects. We can determine an upper limit to the star forming efficiency of high-latitude molecular clouds assuming all the candidates in our sample are pre-main sequence stars of one solar mass. The upper limit of a few tenths of 1% is less than the star-forming efficiency of local dark cloud complexes such as the Taurus-Auriga or rho Ophiuchus clouds.

  12. Stable isotope ecology of land snails from a high-latitude site near Fairbanks, interior Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Yurena

    2015-05-01

    Land snails have been investigated isotopically in tropical islands and mid-latitude continental settings, while high-latitude locales, where snails grow only during the summer, have been overlooked. This study presents the first isotopic baseline of live snails from Fairbanks, Alaska (64°51‧N), a proxy calibration necessary prior to paleoenvironmental inferences using fossils. δ13C values of the shell (- 10.4 ± 0.4‰) and the body (- 25.5 ± 1.0‰) indicate that snails consumed fresh and decayed C3-plants and fungi. A flux-balance mixing model suggests that specimens differed in metabolic rates, which may complicate paleovegetation inferences. Shell δ18O values (- 10.8 ± 0.4‰) were 4‰ higher than local summer rain δ18O. If calcification occurred during summer, a flux-balance mixing model suggests that snails grew at temperatures of 13°C, rainwater δ18O values of - 15‰ and relative humidity of 93%. Results from Fairbanks were compared to shells from San Salvador (Bahamas), at 24°51‧N. Average (annual) δ18O values of shells and rainwater samples from The Bahamas were both 10‰ 18O-enriched with respect to seasonal (summer) Alaskan samples. At a coarse latitudinal scale, shell δ18O values overwhelmingly record the signature of the rainfall during snail active periods. While tropical snails record annual average environmental information, high-latitude specimens only trace summer season climatic data.

  13. High latitude regulation of low latitude thermocline ventilation and planktic foraminifer populations across glacial-interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Philip F.; Norris, Richard D.

    2011-11-01

    One of the earliest discoveries in palaeoceanography was the observation in 1935 that the (sub)tropical planktic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii became absent or extremely rare in the Atlantic Ocean during glacials of the late Pleistocene. Yet a mechanistic explanation for G. menardii's extraordinary biogeographic behaviour has eluded palaeoceanographers for 75 years. Here we show that modern G. menardii, along with two other species that also suffer Atlantic population collapses during glacials, track poorly ventilated waters globally in their thermocline habitats. The ventilation states of low latitude thermoclines are 'set', to a first order, by intermediate water masses originating at high latitudes. In the modern Atlantic this control on low latitude thermocline ventilation is exerted by relatively poorly ventilated, southern-sourced Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and sub-Antarctic Mode Water (SAMW). We suggest that the glacial Atlantic foraminifer population collapses were a consequence of a low latitude thermocline that was better ventilated during glacials than it is today, in line with geochemical evidence, and driven primarily by a well-ventilated, northern-sourced intermediate water mass. A ventilation mechanism driving the glacial population collapses is further supported by our new constraints on the precise timing of these species' Atlantic proliferation during the last deglaciation — occurring in parallel with a wholesale, bipolar reorganisation of the Atlantic's thermocline-to-abyssal overturning circulation. Our findings demonstrate that a bipolar seesaw in the formation of high latitude intermediate waters has played an important role in regulating the population dynamics of thermocline-dwelling plankton at lower latitudes.

  14. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high-latitude open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P; Leakey, Raymond J G; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The new IGS ionospheric product - TEC fluctuation maps and their scientific application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krankowski, Andrzej; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2017-04-01

    The GPS signals fading due to presence of the plasma irregularities in the ionosphere can decrease an operational availability of navigation systems. This effect can be estimated by measuring its impact on phase of the received GPS signal. The new IGS ionospheric fluctuation maps product is based on estimates of the TEC rapid changes. For an overall representation of the spatial evolution of the ionospheric irregularities, which caused the GPS signal fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere in middle and high latitudes, a daily map of the ROTI index is produced basing on data derived from a representative set of 700 permanent GPS stations. We use the corrected geomagnetic (CGM) coordinates with DGRF/IGRF models. For daily ROTI maps, we averaged and binned all ROTI values collected during 00-24 UT period of a considered day. The grid size is 8 min MLT by 2° MLAT, with the latter covering 50° - 90°. The averaged ROTI value in each MLAT-MLT bin corresponds to probability of the GPS signals phase fluctuations caused by passing of radio signals through the ionospheric irregularities. The resulted ionospheric fluctuation product is represented in the ASCII IONEX-like data format and can be visualized. This data format is described in details. We demonstrate the IGS ionospheric fluctuation map product performance for scientific research application on set of test-cases (geomagnetic storms occurred in the years 2013-2015) for comparative analysis of the resulted daily ROTI maps for quiet and geomagnetically disturbed periods. The intense phase scintillations depicted in the diurnal ROTI maps can provide an important information about development of the severe storm-induced gradients in the ionospheric plasma density, both caused by auroral particle precipitation and plasma flows. It is possible to conclude that IGS ionospheric fluctuation maps product can be effectively used for monitoring of the plasma irregularities with different origin. The independent ground

  16. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  17. The variability of Joule heating, and its effects on the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A considerable fraction of the solar wind energy that crosses the magnetopause ends up in the high-latitude thermosphere-ionosphere system as a result of Joule heating, the consequences of which are very significant and global in nature. Often Joule heating calculations use hourly averages of the electric field, rather than the time-varying electric field. This leads to an underestimation of the heating. In this paper, we determine the magnitude of the underestimation of Joule heating by analysing electric field data from the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar, situated at the 67° E magnetic latitude. We find that the underestimation, using hourly-averaged electric field values, is normally ~20%, with an upper value of about 65%. We find that these values are insensitive to changes in solar flux, magnetic activity and magnetic local time, implying that the electric field fluctuations are linear related to the amplitude of the electric field. Assuming that these changes are representative of the entire auroral oval, we then use a coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model to calculate the local changes these underestimations in the heating rate cause to the neutral temperature, mean molecular mass and meridional wind. The changes in each parameter are of the order of a few percent but they result in a reduction in the peak F-region concentration of ~20% in the summer hemisphere at high latitudes, and about half of this level in the winter hemisphere. We suggest that these calculations could be used to add corrections to modelled values of Joule heating.Key words. Ionosphere (eletric fields and currents; ionospheric disturbances; polar ionosphere

  18. Magnetospheric convection from Cluster EDI measurements compared with the ground-based ionospheric convection model IZMEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cluster/EDI electron drift observations above the Northern and Southern polar cap areas for more than seven and a half years (2001–2008 have been used to derive a statistical model of the high-latitude electric potential distribution for summer conditions. Based on potential pattern for different orientations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF in the GSM y-z-plane, basic convection pattern (BCP were derived, that represent the main characteristics of the electric potential distribution in dependence on the IMF. The BCPs comprise the IMF-independent potential distribution as well as patterns, which describe the dependence on positive and negative IMFBz and IMFBy variations. The full set of BCPs allows to describe the spatial and temporal variation of the high-latitude electric potential (ionospheric convection for any solar wind IMF condition near the Earth's magnetopause within reasonable ranges. The comparison of the Cluster/EDI model with the IZMEM ionospheric convection model, which was derived from ground-based magnetometer observations, shows a good agreement of the basic patterns and its variation with the IMF. According to the statistical models, there is a two-cell antisunward convection within the polar cap for northward IMFBz+≤2 nT, while for increasing northward IMFBz+ there appears a region of sunward convection within the high-latitude daytime sector, which assumes the form of two additional cells with sunward convection between them for IMFBz+≈4–5 nT. This results in a four-cell convection pattern of the high-latitude convection. In dependence of the ±IMFBy contribution during sufficiently strong northward IMFBz conditions, a transformation to three-cell convection patterns takes place.

  19. Simulated high-latitude soil thermal dynamics during the past four decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S.; Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Gouttevin, I.; McGuire, A.D.; Lawrence, D.; Burke, E.; Chen, X.; Delire, C.; Koven, C.; MacDougall, A.; Rinke, A.; Saito, K.; Zhang, W.; Alkama, R.; Bohn, T. J.; Decharme, B.; Hajima, T.; Ji, D.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Miller, P.A.; Moore, J.C.; Smith, B.; Sueyoshi, T.

    2015-01-01

    Soil temperature (Ts ) change is a key indicator of the dynamics of permafrost. On seasonal and inter-annual time scales, the variability of Ts determines the active layer depth, which regulates hydrological soil properties and biogeochemical processes. On the multi-decadal scale, increasing T 5 s not only drives permafrost thaw/retreat, but can also trigger and accelerate the decomposition of soil organic carbon. The magnitude of permafrost carbon feedbacks is thus closely linked to the rate of change of soil thermal regimes. In this study, we used nine process-based ecosystem models with permafrost processes, all forced by different observation-based climate forcing during the period 1960–2000, to characterize the warming rate of Ts 10 in permafrost regions. There is a large spread of Ts trends at 20 cm depth across the models, with trend values ranging from 0.010 ± 0.003 to 0.031 ± 0.005 ◦C yr−1 . Most models show smaller increase in Ts with increasing depth. Air temperature (Ta ) and longwave downward radiation (LWDR) are the main drivers of Ts trends, but their relative contributions differ 15 amongst the models. Different trends of LWDR used in the forcing of models can explain 61 % of their differences in Ts trends, while trends of Ta only explain 5 % of the differences in Ts trends. Uncertain climate forcing contributes a larger uncertainty in Ts trends (0.021 ± 0.008 ◦C yr−1 , mean ± SD) than the uncertainty of model structure (0.012 ± 0.001 ◦C yr−1 ), diagnosed from the range of response between different mod- 20 els, normalized to the same forcing. In addition, the loss rate of near-surface permafrost area, defined as total area where the maximum seasonal active layer thickness (ALT) is less than 3 m loss rate is found to be significantly correlated with the magnitude of the trends of Ts at 1 m depth across the models (R = −0.85, P = 0.003), but not with the initial total near-surface permafrost area (R = −0.30, P = 0.438). The

  20. Resilience of a High Latitude Red Sea Frining Corals Exposed to Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, M.; Moustafa, M. S.; Moustafa, S.; Moustafa, Z. D.

    2013-05-01

    , while minimum daily means at Ein Sokhna were almost equal to those at Ismailia (200 km north). These trends were opposite to what was expected considering each stations geographical locations. The unexpected temperature trends, the daily/half daily dominant frequencies, and the short distance between the mountain range and Zaki's Reef vs. Hurghada (0.5 vs. 35 km), prompted us to hypothesize that a Foehn wind may be responsible for the high air temperatures observed at Ein Sokhna. We applied NOAA's HYSPLIT model to explore local circulation patterns, which suggest that the high mountain range blocks the year-round trade wind and forces it to climb up the western slope, where it loses moisture and reduces its temperature. As this cool, denser air reaches the mountain top, the air parcel starts rolling down the eastern slopes, which causes air temperature to rise and result in an increase in local air temperatures. These warmer than normal air temperatures measured here may aid in securing these northernmost reefs survival. Further scrutiny of the mechanisms by which area reefs are able to thrive extreme environmental conditions continues to be investigated.

  1. The Effect of Elevated CO2 and Increased Temperature on in Vitro Fertilization Success and Initial Embryonic Development of Single Male:Female Crosses of Broad-Cast Spawning Corals at Mid- and High-Latitude Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global climate change on coral reefs is expected to be most profound at the sea surface, where fertilization and embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals takes place. We examined the effect of increased temperature and elevated CO2 levels on the in vitro fertilization success and initial embryonic development of broadcast-spawning corals using a single male:female cross of three different species from mid- and high-latitude locations: Lyudao, Taiwan (22° N and Kochi, Japan (32° N. Eggs were fertilized under ambient conditions (27 °C and 500 μatm CO2 and under conditions predicted for 2100 (IPCC worst case scenario, 31 °C and 1000 μatm CO2. Fertilization success, abnormal development and early developmental success were determined for each sample. Increased temperature had a more profound influence than elevated CO2. In most cases, near-future warming caused a significant drop in early developmental success as a result of decreased fertilization success and/or increased abnormal development. The embryonic development of the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the high-latitude location was more sensitive to the increased temperature (+4 °C than the male:female cross of A. hyacinthus from the mid-latitude location. The response to the elevated CO2 level was small and highly variable, ranging from positive to negative responses. These results suggest that global warming is a more significant and universal stressor than ocean acidification on the early embryonic development of corals from mid- and high-latitude locations.

  2. An NDVI-Based Vegetation Phenology Is Improved to be More Consistent with Photosynthesis Dynamics through Applying a Light Use Efficiency Model over Boreal High-Latitude Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of high-latitude forests phenology is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle and the response of vegetation to climate change. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI has long been used to study boreal evergreen needleleaf forests (ENF and deciduous broadleaf forests. However, the NDVI-based growing season is generally reported to be longer than that based on gross primary production (GPP, which can be attributed to the difference between greenness and photosynthesis. Instead of introducing environmental factors such as land surface or air temperature like previous studies, this study attempts to make VI-based phenology more consistent with photosynthesis dynamics through applying a light use efficiency model. NDVI (MOD13C2 was used as a proxy for both fractional of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR and light use efficiency at seasonal time scale. Results show that VI-based phenology is improved towards tracking seasonal GPP changes more precisely after applying the light use efficiency model compared to raw NDVI or APAR, especially over ENF.

  3. Ionospheric plasma density structures associated with magnetopause motion: a case study using the Cluster spacecraft and the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pitout

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available On 5 January 2003, the footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, then orbiting in the dayside magnetosphere near the magnetopause, was in the close vicinity of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR in the dayside afternoon sector. This configuration made possible the study of the magnetopause motion and its direct consequences on the ionospheric plasma at high latitude. Cluster observed multiple magnetopause crossings despite its high latitude, while on the ground the magnetic activity was very low, whereas the ionospheric plasma sounded by the ESR exhibited poleward moving plasma density structures. In this paper, we compare the satellite and radar data, in order to show that the plasma density structures are directly related to the magnetopause motion and its associated pulsed ionospheric flow. We propose that the variations in electric field make the convection velocity vary enough to alter the electron population by accelerating the chemistry in the F-region and act as a source of electron depletion. The magnetopause motion is in this case, a source of plasma density structures in the polar dayside ionosphere.

  4. An observing system simulation experiment for FORMOSAT-5/AIP probing topside ionospheric plasma irregularities by using DEMETER/IAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann-Yenq Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ion density probed by IAP (Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma on board the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite is used to find whether the science payload of Advanced Ionospheric Probe (AIP on board FORMOSAT-5 can be employed to observe space weather of ionospheric plasma irregularities. The low-latitude irregularities within ±15° dip latitudes of the DEMETER/IAP ion density are nighttime phenomena, and become prominent in the South America-Central Africa sector almost all year round, especially during May to August. The high-latitude irregularities of the DEMETER/IAP ion density appear around ±65° dip latitude worldwide in both daytime and nighttime, and become very intense in the winter and the equinox month/hemisphere. DEMETER/IAP results show that FORMOSAT-5/AIP can be used to monitor space weather of ionospheric daytime/nighttime plasma irregularities in not only the low- but also high-latitude ionosphere.

  5. Robust detection of ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, T.; Hansen, A.; Blanch, J.; Enge, P.; Mannucci, T.; Pi, X.; Sparks, L.; Iijima, B.; El-Arini, B.; Lejeune, R.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The approach outlined in this paper conservatively bounds the ionospheric errors even for the worst observed ionospheric conditions to date, using data sets taken from the operational receivers in the WAAS reference station network.

  6. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  7. A simulation study with a new residual ionospheric error model for GPS radio occultation climatologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Danzer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model was explored which corrects for higher order ionospheric residuals in Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO data. Recently, the theoretical basis of this new "residual ionospheric error model" has been outlined (Healy and Culverwell, 2015. The method was tested in simulations with a one-dimensional model ionosphere. The proposed new model for computing the residual ionospheric error is the product of two factors, one of which expresses its variation from profile to profile and from time to time in terms of measurable quantities (the L1 and L2 bending angles, while the other describes the weak variation with altitude. A simple integral expression for the residual error (Vorob’ev and Krasil’nikova, 1994 has been shown to be in excellent numerical agreement with the exact value, for a simple Chapman layer ionosphere. In this case, the "altitudinal" element of the residual error varies (decreases by no more than about 25 % between ~10 and ~100 km for physically reasonable Chapman layer parameters. For other simple model ionospheres the integral can be evaluated exactly, and results are in reasonable agreement with those of an equivalent Chapman layer. In this follow-up study the overall objective was to explore the validity of the new residual ionospheric error model for more detailed simulations, based on modeling through a complex three-dimensional ionosphere. The simulation study was set up, simulating day and night GPS RO profiles for the period of a solar cycle with and without an ionosphere. The residual ionospheric error was studied, the new error model was tested, and temporal and spatial variations of the model were investigated. The model performed well in the simulation study, capturing the temporal variability of the ionospheric residual. Although it was not possible, due to high noise of the simulated bending-angle profiles at mid- to high latitudes, to perform a thorough latitudinal

  8. The Global Ionosphere During the April 17 to 20, 2002 Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Beaujardiere, O.; Crowley, G.; Makela, J.; Rich, F.; Retterer, J.; Decker, D.; Burke, W.; Basu, B.; Bullett, T.; Kelley, M.; McNamara, L.; Huang, C.; Valladares, C.; Doherty, P.

    2002-12-01

    The structure of the global ionosphere during the April 17 to 20, 2002 magnetic storm is investigated using a number of simulation techniques. The observations show that the daytime densities were reduced by a factor of 3 for three consecutive days within the continental US. Although they are in the same longitude sector, the East and West coasts of the US show differing patterns. The Northern and Southern hemisphere also behave differently, in spite of the fact that the storm is close to equinox. During most of the storm period, the Equatorial Appleton anomaly is reduced, both in strength and in width. The ionospheric assimilative model called PRISM was used to estimate the profiles of ionospheric density throughout the globe during the April 2002 magnetic storm. The inputs to PRISM are vertical Total Electron Content (TEC), F-region Maximum density and height, as well as DMSP data such as high-latitude particles and auroral boundaries. TIEGCM simulations of the ionosphere for these days were performed. We compare the output from the assimilative model with that from the TIEGCM simulation in order to explain the reasons for the agreements and disagreements between the theoretical simulation model, and the ionospheric assimilation model. To explain the behavior of the Equatorial anomaly, we examine the electrodynamics in the low-latitude region for the event.

  9. Extreme ion heating in the dayside ionosphere in response to the arrival of a coronal mass ejection on 12 March 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fujiwara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of the polar ionosphere with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT ultra high frequency (UHF radar at Tromsø and the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR at Longyearbyen were made during 07:00–12:00 UT on 12 March 2012. During the period, the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft observed changes in the solar wind which were due to the arrival of coronal mass ejection (CME effects associated with the 10 March M8.4 X-ray event. The solar wind showed two-step variations which caused strong ionospheric heating. First, the arrival of shock structures in the solar wind with enhancements of density and velocity, and a negative interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz component caused strong ionospheric heating around Longyearbyen; the ion temperature at about 300 km increased from about 1100 to 3400 K over Longyearbyen while that over Tromsø increased from about 1050 to 1200 K. After the passage of the shock structures, the IMF-Bz component showed positive values and the solar wind speed and density also decreased. The second strong ionospheric heating occurred after the IMF-Bz component showed negative values again; the negative values lasted for more than 1.5 h. This solar wind variation caused stronger heating of the ionosphere in the lower latitudes than higher latitudes, suggesting expansion of the auroral oval/heating region to the lower latitude region. This study shows an example of the CME-induced dayside ionospheric heating: a short-duration and very large rise in the ion temperature which was closely related to the polar cap size and polar cap potential variations as a result of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere.

  10. Spatial structure of summertime ionospheric plasma near magnetic noon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Sims

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from a multi-instrument study of the spatial distribution of the summertime, polar ionospheric electron density under conditions of relatively stable IMF Bz<0. The EISCAT Svalbard radar revealed a region of enhanced densities near magnetic noon that, when comparing radar scans from different local times, appeared to be spatially confined in longitude. This was identified as the tongue-of-ionisation (TOI that comprised photoionisation of sub-auroral origin that is drawn poleward into the polar cap by the anti-sunward flow of the high-latitude convection. The TOI was bounded in longitude by high-latitude troughs; the pre-noon trough on the morning side with a minimum near 78° N and the post-noon trough on the afternoon side with a minimum at 80° N. Complementary measurements by radio tomography, the SuperDARN radars, and a DMSP satellite, together with comparisons with earlier modelling work, provided supporting evidence for the interpretation of the density structuring, and highlighted the role of plasma convection in the formation of summertime plasma distribution. Soft particle precipitation played only a secondary role in the modulation of the large summertime densities entering the polar cap.

  11. Influenza A Viruses and Antibody Response in High-Latitude Urban Wintering Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), Alaska, 2012-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains information regarding the sampling of avian influenza viruses from mallard ducks at locations in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska 2012-2015....

  12. Electrodynamic coupling between ionospheric convection patterns in the northern and southern hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Zakharov

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionospheric electric field is presented. To perform the calculations, a model of the field-aligned current source is proposed. The electric field patterns are calculated consistently both in the northern and southern hemispheres. Effects of season, universal time, solar and geomagnetic activity, the neutral atmosphere winds, and of the IMF sector structure are considered. In particular, dynamics of the parameters of convection cells are investigated that depend on the action of these factors. Comparison of the results with experimental data is carried out.

  13. Farmland shift due to climate warming and impacts on temporal-spatial distributions of water resources in a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Hao, Zengchao; Liu, Hongbin; Shi, Yandan; Hao, Fanghua

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming increases the active accumulated temperature (AAT) of crops and may change crop structures and patterns. Climate warming along with farmland responses has combined consequences for watershed hydrological indicators, which would be expected to exhibit different temporal-spatial patterns. In our study we investigate the combined impacts of increased temperature and shifted farmland on the hydrological features in middle-high latitude agricultural watersheds. The AAT responses in latitudinal and altitudinal directions were revealed by using an agro-climate model under different warming scenarios (△T = 0.1 °C is applied to the interval from 0.7 °C to 1.5 °C). Then, the spatial distributions of dryland shifting to paddy land were determined considering △AAT. For every 1 °C increase in average annual temperature, the boundary for planting paddy fields will shift northward by approximately 160 km and upward in the altitudinal direction by 180 m. Increasing temperature values and the new crop distributions were imported into the SWAT model, which quantified the temporal (monthly and yearly) and spatial changes of runoff and actual evapotranspiration (ET). Annual runoff decreased at a rate of 9.5 mm/°C, and annual ET increased at a rate of 7 mm/°C under climate warming combined with shifted farmlands. Combined impacts increased runoff in February, March and September, and decreased runoff from April to July. ET increased from March to July and decreased in August and September. The comparison of spatial water resource responses indicated that lower altitude and lower latitude areas experienced larger changes in runoff and ET than was the case for higher altitude and higher latitude areas.

  14. G181.1+9.5, a new high-latitude low-surface brightness supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothes, Roland; Reich, Patricia; Foster, Tyler J.; Reich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Context. More than 90% of the known Milky Way supernova remnants (SNRs) are within 5° of the Galactic plane. The discovery of the new high-latitude SNR G181.1+9.5 will give us the opportunity to learn more about the environment and magnetic field at the interface between disk and halo of our Galaxy. Aims: We present the discovery of SNR G181.1+9.5, a new high-latitude SNR, serendipitously discovered in an ongoing survey of the Galactic anti-centre High-Velocity Cloud complex, observed with the DRAO Synthesis Telescope in the 21 cm radio continuum and H i spectral line. Methods: We use radio continuum observations (including the linearly polarized component) at 1420 MHz (observed with the DRAO ST) and 4850 MHz (observed with the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope) to map G181.1+9.5 and determine its nature as a SNR. High-resolution 21 cm H i line observations and H i emission and absorption spectra reveal the physical characteristics of its local interstellar environment. Finally, we estimate the basic physical parameters of G181.1+9.5 using models for highly-evolved SNRs. Results: G181.1+9.5 has a circular shell-like morphology with a radius of about 16 pc at a distance of 1.5 kpc some 250 pc above the mid-plane. The radio observations reveal highly linearly polarized emission with a non-thermal spectrum. Archival ROSAT X-ray data reveal high-energy emission from the interior of G181.1+9.5 indicative of the presence of shock-heated ejecta. The SNR is in the advanced radiative phase of SNR evolution, expanding into the HVC inter-cloud medium with a density of nHI ≈ 1 cm-3. Basic physical attributes of G181.1+9.5 calculated with radiative SNR models show an upper-limit age of 16 000 yr, a swept-up mass of more than 300M⊙, and an ambient density in agreement with that estimated from H i observations. Conclusions: G181.1+9.5 shows all characteristics of a typical mature shell-type SNR, but its observed faintness is unusual and requires further study.

  15. Coordinated in situ and remote sensing measurements of neutral temperature in the high-latitude lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, J.; Delta 2004 Team

    The dissipation of electromagnetic energy originating in the magnetosphere plays an important role in the energy budget controlling the neutral temperature of the high-latitude lower thermosphere The electromagnetic energy transfer rate is described as the sum of the Joule heating rate and the mechanical energy transfer rate and the Joule heating contributes to neutral temperature enhancements These quantities can be estimated by observations using incoherent scatter radars However correspondence of the Joule heating rates to the resulting neutral temperature is presently not well investigated due to the lack of precise measurements of neutral temperature This paper reports on comparison of neutral temperatures observed by a sounding rocket and ground-based Fabry-Perot Interferometers FPIs and quantitative estimation of the Joule heating rate from the European Incoherent Scatter EISCAT radar during the Dynamics and Energetics of the Lower Thermosphere in Aurora DELTA campaign The S-310-35 sounding rocket was launched from Andoya Rocket Range in Norway at 0 33 UT on 13 December 2004 and rotational temperatures of molecular nitrogen at altitudes of 100-140 km were measured by the mathrm N 2 temperature instrument NTV onboard the rocket The observed rotational temperature which is expected to be equal to the kinetic temperature in the lower thermosphere is 70-140 K higher than neutral temperature from the MSIS model above 110 km Neutral temperatures were also observed using the auroral green line at 557 7 nm by the two FPIs at Skibotn and Kiruna

  16. Potential of satellite-based land emissivity estimates for the detection of high-latitude freeze and thaw states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Satya; Norouzi, Hamid; Azarderakhsh, Marzi; Blake, Reginald; Khanbilvardi, Reza

    2017-03-01

    Reliable detection of freeze and thaw (FT) states is crucial for the terrestrial water cycle, biogeochemical transitions, carbon and methane feedback to the atmosphere, and for the surface energy budget and its associated impacts on the global climate system. This paper is novel in that for the first time a unique approach to examine the potential of passive microwave remotely sensed land emissivity and its added values of being free from the atmospheric effects and being sensitive to surface characteristics is being applied to the detection of FT states for latitudes north of 35°N. Since accurate characterizations of the soil state are highly dependent on land cover types, a novel threshold-based approach specific to different land cover types is proposed for daily FT detection from the use of 3 years (August 2012 to July 2015) of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 land emissivity estimates. Ground-based soil temperature observations are used as reference to develop threshold values for FT states. Preliminary evaluation of the proposed approach with independent ground observations over Alaska for the year 2015 shows that the use of land emissivity estimates for high-latitude FT detection is promising.

  17. Shallow food for deep divers: Dynamic foraging behavior of male sperm whales in a high latitude habitat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teloni, Valeria; Johnson, M.P.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2008-01-01

    their foraging behavior and ecology. Here we use acoustic recording tags to study the diving and acoustic behavior of male sperm whales foraging off northern Norway. Sixty-five hours of tag data provide detailed information about the movements and sound repertoire of four male sperm whales performing 83 dives......Groups of female and immature sperm whales live at low latitudes and show a stereotypical diving and foraging behavior with dives lasting about 45 min to depths of between 400 and 1200 m. In comparison, physically mature male sperm whales migrate to high latitudes where little is known about...... and 218 m and the last usual click at depths ranging between 1 and 1114 m. Echolocation buzzes, which are used as an indication of prey capture attempts, were emitted at depths between 17 and 1860 m, during both the descent and ascent phase of deep dives. The foraging behavior varied markedly with depth...

  18. Eocene high-latitude temperature gradients over time and space based on d18O values of fossil shark teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, S. S.; Kim, S.; Colman, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Early-Mid Eocene (56.0-33.9Mya) is characterized by a temperate Antarctic climate and shallower latitudinal temperature gradients than those in present day. The warmer waters off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula provided suitable habitats for taxa (i.e., sharks) that live today at lower latitudes. Stable isotope analysis of Eocene shark teeth provides a proxy to understand high latitude temperature gradients. However, shark ecology, in particular migration and occupation of tidal versus pelagic habitats, must be considered in the interpretation of stable isotope data. In this study, we analyze d18OPO4 values from the enameloid of Striatolamia (synonymized with Carcharias) shark teeth from the La Meseta formation (Seymour Island, Antarctica) to estimate paleotemperature in Early-Mid Eocene Antarctica, and assess the impact of ecology versus environmental signals on d18OPO4 values. We compare the ranges and offsets between our measured shark tooth d18OPO4 and published bivalve d18OCO3 values to test whether shark teeth record signals of migration across latitudinal temperature gradients, or instead reflect seasonal and long-term temporal variation across La Meseta stratigraphic units.

  19. Causes of spring vegetation greenness trends in the northern mid-high latitudes from 1982 to 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jiafu [ORNL; Shi, Xiaoying [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Shilong, Dr. Piao [Peking University; Xuhui, Dr. Wang [Peking University

    2012-01-01

    The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) is applied to explore the spatial temporal patterns of spring (April May) vegetation growth trends over the northern mid high latitudes (NMH) (>25 N) between 1982 and 2004. During the spring season through the 23 yr period, both the satellite-derived and simulated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) anomalies show a statistically significant correlation and an overall greening trend within the study area. Consistently with the observed NDVI temperature relation, the CLM4 NDVI shows a significant positive association with the spring temperature anomaly for the NMH, North America and Eurasia. Large study areas experience temperature discontinuity associated with contrasting NDVI trends. Before and after the turning point (TP) of the temperature trends, climatic variability plays a dominant role, while the other environmental factors exert minor effects on the NDVI tendencies. Simulated vegetation growth is broadly stimulated by the increasing atmospheric CO2. Trends show that nitrogen deposition increases NDVI mostly in southeastern China, and decreases NDVI mainly in western Russia after the temperature TP. Furthermore, land use-induced NDVI trends vary roughly with the respective changes in land management practices (crop areas and forest coverage). Our results highlight how non-climatic factors mitigate or exacerbate the impact of temperature on spring vegetation growth, particularly across regions with intensive human activity.

  20. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm2).

  1. Keeping It Local: Dispersal Limitations of Coral Larvae to the High Latitude Coral Reefs of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Markey

    Full Text Available In 2011 the first recorded bleaching event for the high latitude Houtman Abrolhos Islands (HAI coral communities was documented. This bleaching event highlighted the question of whether a supply of 'heat tolerant' coral recruits from the tropical north would be sufficient to provide a level of resistance for these reefs to future warming events. Using Lagrangian modelling we showed that due to its regional isolation, large-scale larval input from potential tropical northern source populations to the HAI is unlikely, despite the southward flowing Leeuwin current. Successful recruitment to artificial substrates was recorded following the bleaching event. However, this was negligible (0.4 ± 0.1 recruits per tile compared to 2013 post impact recruitment (128.8 ± 15.8 recruits per tile. Our data therefore provides preliminary evidence suggesting that the connectivity of the HAI with coral communities in the north is limited, and population maintenance and recovery is likely driven primarily by self-recruitment. Given the low thermal tolerance of the HAI coral communities, the dominance of Acropora, and the apparent reliance on self-recruitment, an increased frequency of thermally anomalous conditions at the HAI (such as experienced in 2011 has the potential to reduce the long-term stability of the HAI coral populations and species that depend upon them.

  2. Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21–22 January 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sahai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21–22 January 2005. This geomagnetic storm has been considered "anomalous" (minimum Dst reached −105 nT at 07:00 UT on 22 January because the main storm phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs. The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5° N, 67.1° W, Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0° S, 76.8° W, Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9° S, 60.0° W, and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W, Brazil, during 21–22 January (geomagnetically disturbed and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2 and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm sudden commencement (SSC. The observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21–22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 25 January and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5° S, 48.5° W, Brasilia (BRAZ; 15.9° S, 47.9° W, Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 22.3° S, 51.4° W, and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1° S, 51.1° W, Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at the near equatorial station (BELE and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin

  3. Role of the ionosphere for the atmospheric evolution of planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2007-10-01

    We have synthesized current understanding, mainly observations, with regard to ion escape mechanisms to space from the ionosphere and exosphere of Titan and Earth-type planets, with the intent to provide an improved input for models of atmospheric evolution on early Earth and Earth-type planets and exoplanets. We focus on the role of the ionosphere and its non-linear response to solar parameters, all of which have been underestimated in current models of ancient atmospheric escape (4 billion years ago). Factors that have been overlooked include the following: (1) Much larger variation of O(+) outflow than H(+) outflow from the terrestrial ionosphere, depending on solar and geomagnetic activities (an important consideration when attempting to determine the oxidized state of the atmosphere of early Earth); (2) magnetization of the ionopause, which keeps ionospheric ions from escaping and controls many other escape processes; (3) extra ionization by, for example, the critical ionization velocity mechanism, which expands the ionosphere to greater altitudes than current models predict; and (4) the large escape of cold ions from the dense, expanded ionosphere of Titan. Here we offer, as a guideline for quantitative simulations, a qualitative diagnosis of increases or decreases of non-thermal escape related to the ionosphere for magnetized and unmagnetized planets in response to changes in solar parameters (i.e., solar EUV/FUV flux, solar wind dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field).

  4. Ionosphere/Thermosphere Studies Using the GAIM-Physics-Based Data Assimilation Models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Lomidze, L.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the ionosphere/thermosphere system at low and mid latitudes are often limited by our current understanding and specification of solar variability, the coupling processes in the ionosphere-thermosphere system and the coupling between the high and low latitude regions. Furthermore only a limited number of observations are available for a specification of ionosphere/thermosphere dynamics and weather at these latitudes. As shown by meteorologists and oceanographers, the best specification and weather models are physics-based data assimilation models that combine the observational data with our understanding of the physics of the environment. Therefore, we have developed and continue to develop four data assimilation models; two for the ionosphere, one for the high-latitude ionosphere dynamics, and one for the thermosphere. One of these models is the Global Assimilation of Ionospheric Measurements Full-Physics model (GAIM-FP). The model is based on an Ensemble Kalman filter technique and a physics-based model of the ionosphere/plasmasphere (IPM), which covers the altitude range from 90 to 20,000 km, includes six ion species, is based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), and allows for inter-hemisphere flow. The model can assimilate bottom-side Ne profiles from ionosondes, slant TEC from ground-based GPS stations, in situ Ne from the DMSP satellites, occultation data from several satellites, and line-of-sight UV emissions measured by satellites. As an output the assimilation model provides the 3-dimensional density distribution throughout the ionosphere and information about the physical drivers, including the neutral winds, composition and electric fields. For the current study, a multitude of ground- and space-based ionospheric observations were assimilated to specify the 3-dimensional global morphology of the low- and mid-latitude ionosphere/thermosphere and the various driving forces. Examples of the ionosphere morphology obtained from

  5. Kilometer-Spaced GNSS Array for Ionospheric Irregularity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang

    This dissertation presents automated, systematic data collection, processing, and analysis methods for studying the spatial-temporal properties of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) scintillations produced by ionospheric irregularities at high latitudes using a closely spaced multi-receiver array deployed in the northern auroral zone. The main contributions include 1) automated scintillation monitoring, 2) estimation of drift and anisotropy of the irregularities, 3) error analysis of the drift estimates, and 4) multi-instrument study of the ionosphere. A radio wave propagating through the ionosphere, consisting of ionized plasma, may suffer from rapid signal amplitude and/or phase fluctuations known as scintillation. Caused by non-uniform structures in the ionosphere, intense scintillation can lead to GNSS navigation and high-frequency (HF) communication failures. With specialized GNSS receivers, scintillation can be studied to better understand the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric irregularities, which can be parameterized by altitude, drift motion, anisotropy of the shape, horizontal spatial extent and their time evolution. To study the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the sub-kilometer scale sizes that produce L-band scintillations, a closely-spaced GNSS array has been established in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska to investigate high latitude scintillation and irregularities. Routinely collecting low-rate scintillation statistics, the array database also provides 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1/L2C frequency. In this work, a survey of seasonal and hourly dependence of L1 scintillation events over the course of a year is discussed. To efficiently and systematically study scintillation events, an automated low-rate scintillation detection routine is established and performed for each day by screening the phase scintillation index. The spaced-receiver technique is applied to cross

  6. A catalog of ionospheric F region irregularity behavior based on Ogo 6 retarding potential analyzer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclure, J. P.; Hanson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    Review of in situ data obtained with the aid of the retarding potential analyzer on board Ogo 6 which reveal the nature of ionospheric irregularities in the total ion concentration above 400 km. Except for the high-latitude regions, the ionosphere is usually observed to be very smooth in the daytime, but considerable structure is observed at night, particularly near the equator and at Atlantic longitudes. Although most of the irregularities observed appear to be stochastic in nature, many nearly monochromatic waveforms are observed near the equator. The topics discussed include the midlatitude scintillation boundary, large-amplitude equatorial irregularities, the fluctuation spectrum of typical F-region irregularities, the lower edge of the equatorial F region, sinusoidal waveforms, ground glass irregularities, breaking wave irregularities, and regions of smooth and irregular ionization inside the polar cap.

  7. MONITOR Ionospheric Network: two case studies on scintillation and electron content variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Béniguel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ESA MONITOR network is composed of high-frequency-sampling global navigation satellite systems (GNSS receivers deployed mainly at low and high latitudes to study ionosphere variability and jointly with global GNSS data and ionospheric processing software in support of the GNSS and its satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS like the European EGNOS. In a recent phase of the project, the network was merged with the CNES/ASECNA network and new receivers were added to complement the latter in the western African sector. This paper summarizes MONITOR, presenting two case studies on scintillations (using almost 2 years of data measurements. The first case occurred during the major St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm in 2015. The second case study was performed in the last phase of the project, which was supported by ESA EGNOS Project Office, when we paid special attention to extreme events that might degrade the system performance of the European EGNOS.

  8. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spheric winds, solar heating, photoionization, electrical conduc- tivity, and interactions with the magnetic .... GENERAL ARTICLE in satellites to explore the electric field in the neighbourhood of the magnetopause 2. 2 ... that as soon as a space vehicle is sent to the ionosphere, it can dis- turb the neutral atmosphere and the ...

  9. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  10. Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wullschleger, Stan [ORNL

    2012-03-22

    Stan Wullschleger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "Omics in the Arctic: Genome-enabled Contributions to Carbon Cycle Research in High-Latitude Ecosystems" on March 22, 2012 at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting in Walnut Creek, California.

  11. Incorporating diffuse radiation into a light use efficiency and evapotranspiration model: An 11-year study in a high latitude deciduous forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Sheng; Ibrom, Andreas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2018-01-01

    for the fraction of diffuse PAR, into a joint ‘top-down’ model that uses the same set of biophysical constraints to simulate GPP and ET for a high latitude temperate deciduous forest. To quantify the diffuse PAR effects, CI along with other environmental variables derived from an eleven-year eddy covariance data...

  12. Modelling long term impacts of environmental change on mid- and high-latitude European forests and options for adaptive forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pussinen, A.; Nabuurs, G.J.M.M.; Wieggers, H.J.J.; Reinds, G.J.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Kros, J.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Vries, de W.

    2009-01-01

    The process based model SMART–SUMO–WATBAL was applied to 166 intensive monitoring forest plots of mid- and high-latitude Europe to evaluate the effects of expected future changes in carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition on forest growth (net annual

  13. Seasonal dependence of northern high-latitude upper thermospheric winds : A quiet time climatological study based on ground-based and space-based measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhadly, Manbharat; Emmert, John; Drob, Douglas; Conde, Mark; Doornbos, E.N.; Shepherd, Gordon; Makela, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Niciejewski, Rick; Ridley, Aaron J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the large-scale seasonal dependence of geomagnetically quiet time, northern high-latitude F region thermospheric winds by combining extensive observations from eight ground-based (optical remote sensing) and three space-based (optical remote sensing and in situ)

  14. High-latitude volcanic eruptions in the Norwegian Earth System Model: the effect of different initial conditions and of the ensemble size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco S. R. Pausata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large volcanic eruptions have strong impacts on both atmospheric and ocean dynamics that can last for decades. Numerical models have attempted to reproduce the effects of major volcanic eruptions on climate; however, there are remarkable inter-model disagreements related to both short-term dynamical response to volcanic forcing and long-term oceanic evolution. The lack of robust simulated behaviour is related to various aspects from model formulation to simulated background internal variability to the eruption details. Here, we use the Norwegian Earth System Model version 1 to calculate interactively the volcanic aerosol loading resulting from SO2 emissions of the second largest high-latitude volcanic eruption in historical time (the Laki eruption of 1783. We use two different approaches commonly used interchangeably in the literature to generate ensembles. The ensembles start from different background initial states, and we show that the two approaches are not identical on short-time scales (<1 yr in discerning the volcanic effects on climate, depending on the background initial state in which the simulated eruption occurred. Our results also show that volcanic eruptions alter surface climate variability (in general increasing it when aerosols are allowed to realistically interact with circulation: Simulations with fixed volcanic aerosol show no significant change in surface climate variability. Our simulations also highlight that the change in climate variability is not a linear function of the amount of the volcanic aerosol injected. We then provide a tentative estimation of the ensemble size needed to discern a given volcanic signal on surface temperature from the natural internal variability on regional scale: At least 20–25 members are necessary to significantly detect seasonally averaged anomalies of 0.5°C; however, when focusing on North America and in winter, a higher number of ensemble members (35–40 is necessary.

  15. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, Arsène; Peylin, Philippe; Krinner, Gerhard; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna; Bastrikov, Vladislav; Kosykh, Natalya; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina

    2017-12-01

    Simulation of vegetation-climate feedbacks in high latitudes in the ORCHIDEE land surface model was improved by the addition of three new circumpolar plant functional types (PFTs), namely non-vascular plants representing bryophytes and lichens, Arctic shrubs and Arctic C3 grasses. Non-vascular plants are assigned no stomatal conductance, very shallow roots, and can desiccate during dry episodes and become active again during wet periods, which gives them a larger phenological plasticity (i.e. adaptability and resilience to severe climatic constraints) compared to grasses and shrubs. Shrubs have a specific carbon allocation scheme, and differ from trees by their larger survival rates in winter, due to protection by snow. Arctic C3 grasses have the same equations as in the original ORCHIDEE version, but different parameter values, optimised from in situ observations of biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) in Siberia. In situ observations of living biomass and productivity from Siberia were used to calibrate the parameters of the new PFTs using a Bayesian optimisation procedure. With the new PFTs, we obtain a lower NPP by 31 % (from 55° N), as well as a lower roughness length (-41 %), transpiration (-33 %) and a higher winter albedo (by +3.6 %) due to increased snow cover. A simulation of the water balance and runoff and drainage in the high northern latitudes using the new PFTs results in an increase of fresh water discharge in the Arctic ocean by 11 % (+140 km3 yr-1), owing to less evapotranspiration. Future developments should focus on the competition between these three PFTs and boreal tree PFTs, in order to simulate their area changes in response to climate change, and the effect of carbon-nitrogen interactions.

  16. Towards a more detailed representation of high-latitude vegetation in the global land surface model ORCHIDEE (ORC-HL-VEGv1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Druel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of vegetation–climate feedbacks in high latitudes in the ORCHIDEE land surface model was improved by the addition of three new circumpolar plant functional types (PFTs, namely non-vascular plants representing bryophytes and lichens, Arctic shrubs and Arctic C3 grasses. Non-vascular plants are assigned no stomatal conductance, very shallow roots, and can desiccate during dry episodes and become active again during wet periods, which gives them a larger phenological plasticity (i.e. adaptability and resilience to severe climatic constraints compared to grasses and shrubs. Shrubs have a specific carbon allocation scheme, and differ from trees by their larger survival rates in winter, due to protection by snow. Arctic C3 grasses have the same equations as in the original ORCHIDEE version, but different parameter values, optimised from in situ observations of biomass and net primary productivity (NPP in Siberia. In situ observations of living biomass and productivity from Siberia were used to calibrate the parameters of the new PFTs using a Bayesian optimisation procedure. With the new PFTs, we obtain a lower NPP by 31 % (from 55° N, as well as a lower roughness length (−41 %, transpiration (−33 % and a higher winter albedo (by +3.6 % due to increased snow cover. A simulation of the water balance and runoff and drainage in the high northern latitudes using the new PFTs results in an increase of fresh water discharge in the Arctic ocean by 11 % (+140 km3 yr−1, owing to less evapotranspiration. Future developments should focus on the competition between these three PFTs and boreal tree PFTs, in order to simulate their area changes in response to climate change, and the effect of carbon–nitrogen interactions.

  17. Exploring medium gravity icy planetary bodies: an opportunity in the Inner System by landing at Ceres high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, J.; Grasset, O.; Martinot, V.; Tobie, G.

    2009-04-01

    assessment of a mission to Ceres high latitudes. We present here why we think an in-situ mission to the polar areas of Ceres should be of interest in the near future. We dwell on the environmental factors and challenges for a Lander, both as specificities of Ceres and as a consequence of the high latitude targeted. Factors such as day duration, fine regolith, terrain hazards, optical contrasts, thermal gradients, planetary contamination... are reviewed. We then assess how the soft precision landing technologies being developed for other missions would apply in such an environment. We present a preliminary mission analysis and a concept for the Lander, with preliminary evaluation of mass and power resources for a fixed payload or for a mini-rover. The resulting mission design combines technological maturity and a launch mass that is found compatible with the moderate cost of a Soyuz launcher. Finally we conclude that a Ceres Polar Lander mission should be feasible, covered by automatic missions to the Moon in terms of difficulty of landing and by Dawn for the cruise. Lander missions to medium gravity bodies such as Ceres, Enceladus, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Iapetus, Triton… in the [0.01-0.15g] range should be accounted for in the development roadmaps of landing techniques and be considered in their return on investment. The synergies with the soft landing missions to come on Mars and Moon should then make a Ceres lander affordable for the agencies within the end of the next decade and pave the way for in-situ missions to more distant icy bodies.

  18. Geospace system responses to the St. Patrick's Day storms in 2013 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Zhang, Yongliang; Wang, Wenbin; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.

    2017-06-01

    This special collection includes 31 research papers investigating geospace system responses to the geomagnetic storms during the St. Patrick's Days of 17 March 2013 and 2015. It covers observation, data assimilation, and modeling aspects of the storm time phenomena and their associated physical processes. The ionosphere and thermosphere as well as their coupling to the magnetosphere are clearly the main subject areas addressed. This collection provides a comprehensive picture of the geospace response to these two major storms. We provide some highlights of these studies in six specific areas: (1) global and magnetosphere/plasmasphere perspectives, (2) high-latitude responses, (3) subauroral and midlatitude processes, (4) effects of prompt penetration electric fields and disturbance dynamo electric fields, (5) effects of neutral dynamics and perturbation, and (6) storm effects on plasma bubbles and irregularities. We also discuss areas of future challenges and the ways to move forward in advancing our understanding of the geospace storm time behavior and space weather effects.

  19. Behavioral Strategies of Lanternfishes (Family Myctophidae) in a High-Latitude Fjord and the Tropical Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Dypvik, Eivind

    2012-12-01

    The diel vertical migration (DVM) and feeding periodicity of myctophids (lanternfishes) were studied in the high-latitude Masfjorden, Norway, and the tropical Red Sea. In Masfjorden, a bottom-mounted echo sounder permitted continuous studies throughout the year, and revealed a diverse seasonal DVM behavior. During spring and summer, when zooplankton peaks in the epipelagic zone, migrating glacier lanternfish performed normal DVM (NDVM), ascending to the epipelagic zone during night and residing below ~200m during daytime. During autumn and winter, when Calanus overwinters between ~150–300 m, migrating glacier lanternfish mainly performed inverse DVM (IDVM), ascending to feed on Calanus in mid-waters during daytime. Non migrating (NoDVM) individuals were present all year below ~300 m in Masfjorden. In the Red Sea, where zooplankton has an epipelagic distribution, the whole population of skinnycheek lanternfish performed NDVM, feeding in the epipelagic zone at night, while residing at ~500–750 m during daytime. The warm waters of the Red Sea were hypothesized to limit the time individuals can stay in the mesopelagic zone without migrating to feed in the epipelagic layers. The DVM behavior of myctophids largely seemed to relate to the distribution of zooplankton, and it was hypothesized that NDVM will prevail with epipelagic distribution of prey, while IDVM and NoDVM are common in areas where zooplankton migrate seasonally to mesopelagic depths. Potential predators were continuously present, found to apparently attack glacier lanternfish, at mesopelagic depth in Masfjorden. Thus, myctophids are under threat of predation even at mesopelagic depth.