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Sample records for high-intensity training increases

  1. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  2. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2016-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P endurance training.

  3. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training. PMID:26985128

  4. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nummela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7, who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8 who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-weektraining periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-weektraining period HIGH group increased their V0Zmax (P = 0.005 more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039 and high-frequency power (HFP increased (P = 0.003 in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in V0Zmax during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training.

  5. Increased intrinsic stiffness and mineralization in femurs of adult rats after high intensity treadmill running training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Viscor, Ginés; Kristjánsson, Juan C Ríos; Picasso, Emilio; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity plays a tremendous role in determining bone mechanical behavior, which is superimposed to gravidity. Compare the geometric and material responses of the rat femur to a high intensity treadmill running training of a relatively short duration, as assessed by 3-point mechanical test. Mature male rats (180.0 ± 30 g) were assigned (7 rats/group) to no exercise (NE) or treadmill exercise (EX). After a preconditioning period, the running speed was set at 45 cm.seg-1 during 2 wks, frequency 5 d/wk, 2-hour sessions/day. Body weight and weight of the crural quadriceps were registered at euthanasia. The right femur was mechanically tested through 3-point bending. The left femur was ashed to estimate bone mineral content. Geometric and material bone properties were estimated directly or calculated by appropriate equations. 1) Final body weight was 14% reduced in EX rats, while the crural quadriceps was 47% increased. Yield and fracture loads, and structural stiffness were significantly higher in the EX rats, as were the apparent elastic modulus, the bone mineral content and the degree of mineralization. Geometric properties were not affected. High intensity treadmill running training increases bone strength and stiffness by increasing material stiffness and mineralization, without affecting geometric bone parameters.

  6. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Cardiac Output and V˙O2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael A; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi M

    2017-02-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. This study examined changes in V˙O2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. Thirty-nine active men and women (mean age and V˙O2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and V˙O2max = 25.7 ± 4.5 yr and 40.7 ± 5.2 mL·kg·min) were nonexercising controls (CON). The first 10 sessions of HIIT required eight to ten 60 s bouts of cycling at 90%-110% percent peak power output interspersed with 75 s recovery, followed by randomization to one of three regimes (sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume interval training (HIITHI), or periodized interval training (PER) for the subsequent 10 sessions. Before, midway, and at the end of training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which V˙O2max and maximal CO were estimated. Compared with CON, significant (P HIIT + SIT (39.8 ± 7.3 mL·kg·min to 43.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg·min), HIIT + HIITHI (41.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min to 44.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg·min), and HIIT + PER (39.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min to 44.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg·min) occurred which were mediated by significant increases in maximal CO (20.0 ± 3.1 L·min to 21.7 ± 3.2 L·min, P = 0.04). Maximal stroke volume was increased with HIIT (P = 0.04), although there was no change in maximal HR (P = 0.88) or arteriovenous O2 difference (P = 0.36). These CO data are accurate and represent the mean changes from pre- to post-HIIT across all three training groups. Increases in V˙O2max exhibited in response to different HIIT regimes are due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  8. Enjoyment for High-Intensity Interval Exercise Increases during the First Six Weeks of Training: Implications for Promoting Exercise Adherence in Sedentary Adults.

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    Heisz, Jennifer J; Tejada, Mary Grace M; Paolucci, Emily M; Muir, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to show that enjoyment for high-intensity interval exercise increases with chronic training. Prior acute studies typically report high-intensity interval training (HIT) as being more enjoyable than moderate continuous training (MCT) unless the high-intensity intervals are too strenuous or difficult to complete. It follows that exercise competency may be a critical factor contributing to the enjoyment of HIT, and therefore building competency through chronic training may be one way to increase its enjoyment. To test this, we randomly assigned sedentary young adults to six weeks of HIT or MCT, and tracked changes in their enjoyment for the exercise. Enjoyment for HIT increased with training whereas enjoyment for MCT remained constant and lower. Changes in exercise enjoyment were predicted by increases in workload, suggesting that strength adaptions may be important for promoting exercise enjoyment. The results point to HIT as a promising protocol for promoting exercise enjoyment and adherence in sedentary young adults.

  9. Increased Brain Glucose Uptake After 12 Weeks of Aerobic High-Intensity Interval Training in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew M; Lowe, Val J; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can increase brain volume and blood flow, but the impact on brain metabolism is less known. We determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases brain metabolism by measuring brain glucose uptake in younger and older adults. Brain glucose uptake was measured before and after HIIT or a sedentary (SED) control period within a larger exercise study. Study procedures were performed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Participants were younger (18 to 30 years) or older (65 to 80 years) SED adults who were free of major medical conditions. Group sizes were 15 for HIIT (nine younger and six older) and 12 for SED (six younger and six older). Participants completed 12 weeks of HIIT or SED. HIIT was 3 days per week of 4 × 4 minute intervals at over 90% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) with 2 days per week of treadmill walking at 70% VO2peak. Resting brain glucose uptake was measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at baseline and at week 12. Scans were performed at 96 hours after exercise. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Glucose uptake increased significantly in the parietal-temporal and caudate regions after HIIT compared with SED. The gains with HIIT were not observed in all brain regions. VO2peak was increased for all participants after HIIT and did not change with SED. We demonstrate that brain glucose metabolism increased after 12 weeks of HIIT in adults in regions where it is reduced in Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Two weeks of moderate-intensity continuous training, but not high-intensity interval training, increases insulin-stimulated intestinal glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motiani, Kumail K; Savolainen, Anna M; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Toivanen, Jussi; Ishizu, Tamiko; Yli-Karjanmaa, Minna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Parkkola, Riitta; Kapanen, Jukka; Grönroos, Tove J; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Solin, Olof; Savisto, Nina; Ahotupa, Markku; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-05-01

    Similar to muscles, the intestine is also insulin resistant in obese subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Exercise training improves muscle insulin sensitivity, but its effects on intestinal metabolism are not known. We studied the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on intestinal glucose and free fatty acid uptake from circulation in humans. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged, sedentary men were randomized for 2 wk of HIIT or MICT. Intestinal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting free fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured using positron emission tomography and [ 18 F]FDG and [ 18 F]FTHA. In addition, effects of HIIT and MICT on intestinal GLUT2 and CD36 protein expression were studied in rats. Training improved aerobic capacity ( P = 0.001) and whole body insulin sensitivity ( P = 0.04), but not differently between HIIT and MICT. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake increased only after the MICT in the colon (HIIT = 0%; MICT = 37%) ( P = 0.02 for time × training) and tended to increase in the jejunum (HIIT = -4%; MICT = 13%) ( P = 0.08 for time × training). Fasting free fatty acid uptake decreased in the duodenum in both groups (HIIT = -6%; MICT = -48%) ( P = 0.001 time) and tended to decrease in the colon in the MICT group (HIIT = 0%; MICT = -38%) ( P = 0.08 for time × training). In rats, both training groups had higher GLUT2 and CD36 expression compared with control animals. This study shows that already 2 wk of MICT enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, while both training modes reduce fasting free fatty acid uptake in the intestine in healthy, middle-aged men, providing an additional mechanism by which exercise training can improve whole body metabolism. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study where the effects of exercise training on the intestinal substrate uptake have been investigated using the most advanced techniques

  11. High-intensity, unilateral resistance training of a non-paretic muscle group increases active range of motion in a severely paretic upper extremity muscle group after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Urbin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Limited rehabilitation strategies are available for movement restoration when paresis is too severe following stroke. Previous research has shown that high-intensity resistance training of one muscle group enhances strength of the homologous, contralateral muscle group in neurologically-intact adults. How this cross education phenomenon might be exploited to moderate severe weakness in an upper extremity muscle group after stroke is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to examine adaptations in force-generating capacity of severely paretic wrist extensors resulting from high-intensity, dynamic contractions of the non-paretic wrist extensors. A secondary, exploratory aim was to probe neural adaptations in a subset of participants from each sample using a single-pulse, transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol. Separate samples of neurologically-intact controls (n=7 and individuals > 4 months post stroke (n=6 underwent 16 sessions of training. Following training, one-repetition maximum of the untrained wrist extensors in the control group and active range of motion of the untrained, paretic wrist extensors in the stroke group were significantly increased. No changes in corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition or interhemispheric inhibition were observed in control participants. Both stroke participants who underwent TMS testing, however, exhibited increased voluntary muscle activation following the intervention. In addition, motor-evoked potentials that were unobtainable prior to the intervention were readily elicited afterwards in a stroke participant. Results of this study demonstrate that high-intensity resistance training of a non-paretic upper extremity muscle group can enhance voluntary muscle activation and force-generating capacity of a severely paretic muscle group after stroke. There is also preliminary evidence that corticospinal adaptations may accompany these gains.

  12. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    .... Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more...

  13. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  14. Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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    Little, Jonathan P; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Punthakee, Zubin; Jung, Mary E; Gibala, Martin J

    2011-12-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving health and fitness. This form of exercise has not been tested in type 2 diabetes and thus we examined the effects of low-volume HIT on glucose regulation and skeletal muscle metabolic capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (63 ± 8 yr, body mass index 32 ± 6 kg/m(2), Hb(A1C) 6.9 ± 0.7%) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants performed six sessions of HIT (10 × 60-s cycling bouts eliciting ∼90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest) over 2 wk. Before training and from ∼48 to 72 h after the last training bout, glucose regulation was assessed using 24-h continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions. Markers of skeletal muscle metabolic capacity were measured in biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) before and after (72 h) training. Average 24-h blood glucose concentration was reduced after training (7.6 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mmol/l) as was the sum of the 3-h postprandial areas under the glucose curve for breakfast, lunch, and dinner (both P Training increased muscle mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by higher citrate synthase maximal activity (∼20%) and protein content of Complex II 70 kDa subunit (∼37%), Complex III Core 2 protein (∼51%), and Complex IV subunit IV (∼68%, all P training (both P volume HIT can rapidly improve glucose control and induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that are linked to improved metabolic health in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  15. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. Results: UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. Conclusion: This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance. PMID:27114795

  16. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Evidence based exercise: Clinical benefits of high intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    ...: This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Discussion...

  18. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Flueck, Daniela; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2013-01-01

    Six sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIT) are sufficient to improve exercise capacity. The mechanisms explaining such improvements are unclear. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of physiologically relevant adaptations occurring after six...... sessions of HIT to determine the mechanisms explaining improvements in exercise performance. Sixteen untrained (43 +/- 6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) subjects completed six sessions of repeated (8-12) 60 s intervals of high-intensity cycling (100% peak power output elicited during incremental maximal exercise test......) intermixed with 75 s of recovery cycling at a low intensity (30 W) over a 2-wk period. Potential training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle respiratory capacity, mitochondrial content, skeletal muscle oxygenation, cardiac capacity, blood volumes, and peripheral fatigue resistance were all assessed prior...

  19. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G.; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induc...

  20. High Intensity Interval Training Increases Natural Killer Cell Number and Function in Obese Breast Cancer-challenged Mice and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Nicole G; Fan, Isabella Y; Gillen, Jenna B; Chew, Marianne; Marcinko, Katarina; Steinberg, Gregory R; Gibala, Martin J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol. HIIT mice acclimatized to treadmill running were subsequently injected with 5 × 10 5 polyoma middle T (MT) breast cancer cells intravenously. NK cell number and activation were monitored using flow cytometry, and tumor burden or lipid content evaluated from histological lung and liver tissues, respectively. In both mice and humans, circulating NK cell number and activation (CD3-NK1.1+CD27+ and CD3-CD56+, respectively) markedly increased immediately after HIIT. HIIT obese mice had reduced lung tumor burden compared to controls following MT challenge, and had diminished hepatic lipid deposition despite minimal body weight loss. Our findings demonstrate that HIIT can benefit obese individuals by enhancing NK cell number and activity, reducing tumor burden, and enhancing metabolic health.

  1. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

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    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d  = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d  = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d  = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated ( r  = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  3. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in sedentary aging men but not masters' athletes: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Peter; Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in active compared with sedentary aging men. 22 lifetime sedentary (SED; 62 ± 2 years) and 17 masters' athletes (LEX; 60 ± 5 years) were recruited to the study. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, the study required three assessment phases; enrollment (phase A), following preconditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C). Serum IGF-I was determined by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. IGF-I was higher in LEX compared to SED at baseline (p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.91), and phase B (p = 0.083, Cohen's d = 0.59), with only a small difference at C (p = 0.291, Cohen's d = 0.35). SED experienced a small increase in IGF-I following preconditioning from 13.1 ± 4.7 to 14.2 ± 6.0 μg·dl -1 (p = 0.376, Cohen's d = 0.22), followed by a larger increase post-HIIT (16.9 ± 4.4 μg·dl -1 ), which was significantly elevated compared with baseline (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85), and post-preconditioning (p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.51). LEX experienced a trivial changes in IGF-I from A to B (18.2 ± 6.4 to 17.2 ± 3.7 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.538, Cohen's d = 0.19]), and a small change post-HIIT (18.4 ± 4.1 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.283, Cohen's d = 0.31]). Small increases were observed in fat-free mass in both groups following HIIT (p HIIT with preconditioning exercise abrogates the age associated difference in IGF-I between SED and LEX, and induces small improvements in fat-free mass in both SED and LEX.

  4. Review of High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Mizoguchi, Tatsuya; Saeki, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    For the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is required. This involves optimal medical therapy, education on nutrition and exercise therapy, and smoking cessation. Of these, efficient exercise therapy is a key factor. A highly effective training protocol is therefore warranted, which requires a high rate of compliance. Although moderate-intensity continuous training has been the main training regimen recommended in cardiac rehabilitation guidelines, high-intensity interval training has been reported to be more effective in the clinical and experimental setting from the standpoint of peak oxygen uptake and central and peripheral adaptations. In this review, we illustrate the scientific evidence for high-intensity interval training. We then verify this evidence and discuss its significance and the remaining issues.

  5. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  6. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, P B

    2010-10-01

    Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ∼75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  8. High-intensity interval training in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Heje, Karen; Buch, Astrid Emilie

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that high-intensity training (HIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve fitness. HIT has never been explored in neuromuscular diseases, likely because it may seem counterintuitive. A single session of high-intensity exercise has been studied without signs...... fitness (3.3 ml O2/min/kg, CI 1.2-5.5, P training effect on other outcomes. Patients preferred HIT over strength and moderate-intensity aerobic training. It may seem...

  9. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  10. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  11. High-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Nigam, Anil; Gremeaux, Vincent; Meyer, Philippe; Juneau, Martin; Bosquet, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is frequently used in sports training. The effects on cardiorespiratory and muscle systems have led scientists to consider its application in the field of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this review is to report the effects and interest of HIIT in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), as well as in persons with high cardiovascular risk. A non-systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE database using keywords 'exercise', 'high-intensity interval training', 'interval training', 'coronary artery disease', 'coronary heart disease', 'chronic heart failure' and 'metabolic syndrome' was performed. We selected articles concerning basic science research, physiological research, and randomized or non-randomized interventional clinical trials published in English. To summarize, HIIT appears safe and better tolerated by patients than moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). HIIT gives rise to many short- and long-term central and peripheral adaptations in these populations. In stable and selected patients, it induces substantial clinical improvements, superior to those achieved by MICE, including beneficial effects on several important prognostic factors (peak oxygen uptake, ventricular function, endothelial function), as well as improving quality of life. HIIT appears to be a safe and effective alternative for the rehabilitation of patients with CAD and HF. It may also assist in improving adherence to exercise training. Larger randomized interventional studies are now necessary to improve the indications for this therapy in different populations.

  12. The effect of progressive high-intensity inspiratory muscle training and fixed high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Ju-hyeon; Kim, Nan-soo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training on the asymmetry of diaphragm thickness in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-one stroke patients were assigned to one of three groups: progressive load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 8), fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (n = 6), and controls (n = 7). [Methods] The progressive load and fixed load high-intensity inspiratory muscle tra...

  13. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Effects of high-intensity interval training on canoeing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ta; Lee, Mien-Mien; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Chan, Kuei-Hui

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes. The training programme involved training on a canoeing ergometer three times per week for four weeks. HIIT consisted of seven 2 min canoeing bouts at an intensity of 90% VO2peak separated by 1 min of rest. The MICT group was trained at an intensity of 65% VO2peak continuously for 20 min. After four weeks of training, performance in the 200-m distance test and the power at VO2peak significantly improved in the HIIT group; performance in the 500 m and 1000 m distances and CV significantly improved in the MICT group. However, all variables were not significantly different between groups. It is concluded that HIIT for four weeks is an effective training strategy for improvement of short-distance canoeing performance. In contrast, MICT improves middle-distance canoeing performances and aerobic capacity.

  16. Acute growth hormone administration causes exaggerated increases in plasma lactate and glycerol during moderate to high intensity bicycling in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Larsson, Benny; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2002-01-01

    We studied the acute effects of a single, sc GH dose on exercise performance and metabolism during bicycling. Seven highly trained men [age, 26 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM); weight, 77 +/- 3 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 65 +/- 1 ml O(2).min(-1).kg(-1)] performed 90 min of bicycling 4 h after receiving 7.......5 IU (2.5 mg) GH or placebo in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over design trial. A standardized pre-exercise meal was given 2 h before exercise. Blood was sampled at rest and during exercise and analyzed for GH, IGF-I, glucose, lactate, insulin, glycerol, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA...

  17. [High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Aguilera Eguía, Raúl; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Zafra Santos, Edson; Pavéz Von Martens, Gustavo

    2014-06-06

    A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91). In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  18. Alpine Skiing as Winter-Time High-Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas Leonhard; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-09-01

    To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high-intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age, and fitness level in this comparison. Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (V˙O2), energy expenditure (EE), HR, lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4 min of continuous HIT (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5 × 1 min high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1 min active recovery]. During all three exercise modes and irrespective of HIT protocols, sex, age, and fitness, participants were able to reach exercise intensities >90% HRmax and >84% V˙O2max. In all exercise modes 10-min of HITint with a 10-min postexercise O2 consumption phase resulted in greater mean EE per minute compared to 4-min HITc with 10 min postexercise O2 consumption. When applying the same HIT loading and recovery pattern to all three exercise modes, EE during approximately 1:15 h of AS was equivalent to about 1:00 h of either XCS or IC. Across all exercise modes and HIT protocols, high cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses were achieved regardless of age, sex, or fitness. EE during AS can be maximized by choosing the skiing mode "short turn skiing" in combination with an HITint to prolong the duration of continuous high-intensity loading during each descent. Therefore, all exercise modes and both HIT protocols are applicable and feasible in a broad spectrum of healthy subjects.

  19. The Benefits of High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) Fitness Programs for Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K.; Poston, Walker S.C.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-01-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps’ High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) program are increasingly popular among military personnel. This article reviews the practical, health, body composition, and military fitness implications of HIFT exercise programs. We conclude that, given the unique benefits of HIFT, the military should consider evaluating whether these programs should be the standard for military fitness training. PMID:27849484

  20. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Jørgensen, Jørgen R.; Zeeman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. CONCLUSIONS: Although high-intensity training......INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. METHODS: Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month...... rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. RESULTS: At baseline, paretic...

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training Interventions in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddolls, William T B; McNarry, Melitta A; Stratton, Gareth; Winn, Charles O N; Mackintosh, Kelly A

    2017-11-01

    Whilst there is increasing interest in the efficacy of high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents as a time-effective method of eliciting health benefits, there remains little consensus within the literature regarding the most effective means for delivering a high-intensity interval training intervention. Given the global health issues surrounding childhood obesity and associated health implications, the identification of effective intervention strategies is imperative. The aim of this review was to examine high-intensity interval training as a means of influencing key health parameters and to elucidate the most effective high-intensity interval training protocol. Studies were included if they: (1) studied healthy children and/or adolescents (aged 5-18 years); (2) prescribed an intervention that was deemed high intensity; and (3) reported health-related outcome measures. A total of 2092 studies were initially retrieved from four databases. Studies that were deemed to meet the criteria were downloaded in their entirety and independently assessed for relevance by two authors using the pre-determined criteria. From this, 13 studies were deemed suitable. This review found that high-intensity interval training in children and adolescents is a time-effective method of improving cardiovascular disease biomarkers, but evidence regarding other health-related measures is more equivocal. Running-based sessions, at an intensity of >90% heart rate maximum/100-130% maximal aerobic velocity, two to three times a week and with a minimum intervention duration of 7 weeks, elicit the greatest improvements in participant health. While high-intensity interval training improves cardiovascular disease biomarkers, and the evidence supports the effectiveness of running-based sessions, as outlined above, further recommendations as to optimal exercise duration and rest intervals remain ambiguous owing to the paucity of literature and the methodological limitations of

  2. Association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    東, 宏一郎; 大澤, 祐介; 田畑, 尚吾; 堀澤, 栞里; 勝川, 史憲; 石田, 浩之; 小熊, 祐子; 河合, 俊英; 小口, 修司; 太田, 敦美; 菊池, 春人; 村田, 満; 松本, 秀男

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association of serum BDNF concentration with high-intensity interval training, 12 healthy male volunteers, aged 28-48 years, completed 16-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) using ergometer...

  3. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  5. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  6. Decreasing sprint duration from 20 to 10 s during reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) attenuates the increase in maximal aerobic capacity but has no effect on affective and perceptual responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcakan, Gulbin R; Songsorn, Preeyaphorn; Fitzpatrick, Ben L; Yuzbasioglu, Yasin; Brick, Noel E; Metcalfe, Richard S; Vollaard, Niels Bj

    2017-11-24

    Recent studies have demonstrated that modifying the 'classic' 6x30-s 'all-out' sprint interval training (SIT) protocol by incorporating either shorter sprints (6x10-s or 15-s sprints) or fewer sprints (e.g. 2x20-s sprints; reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT)) does not attenuate the training-induced improvements in maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2max). The aim of the present study was to determine whether reducing the sprint duration in the REHIT protocol from 20 s to 10 s per sprint influences acute affective responses and the change in V̇O2max following training. Thirty-six sedentary or recreationally active participants (17 women; mean±SD age: 22±3 y, BMI: 24.5±4.6 kg·m-2, V̇O2max: 37±8 mL·kg-1·min-1) were randomised to a group performing a 'standard' REHIT protocol involving 2x20-s sprints or a group who performed 2x10-s sprints. V̇O2max was determined before and after 6 weeks of 3 weekly training sessions. Acute affective responses and perceived exertion were assessed during training. Greater increases in V̇O2max were observed for the group performing 20-s sprints (2.77±0.75 to 3.04±0.75 L·min-1; +10%) compared to the group performing 10-s sprints (2.58±0.57 vs. 2.67±3.04 L·min-1; +4%; group×time interaction effect: ps to 10 s attenuates improvements in V̇O2max, and does not result in more positive affective responses or lower perceived exertion.

  7. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  9. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each

  10. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. A single bout of high-intensity interval training reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijackers, H.M.M.; Wiegers, E.C.; Graaf, M. van der; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Tack, C.J.J.; de Galan, B.E.

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) gains increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation, whilst preserving cognitive function. We

  12. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  13. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    separated by 25 s of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 min rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT-training in wk-1 was 152±4 m and increased (P... improved by 12.6 and 18.3% post-intervention, respectively, with greater (Ptraining performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability and high intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite......Elite women volleyball players (n=25; age; 19±5 yrs, height; 171±7 cm, weight; 63±10 kg; means±SD) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high intensity training group (HIT; n=13) and a control group (CON; n=12). In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT...

  14. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Hajime; Matsui, Akira; Hada, Tetsuro; Jones, James H

    2013-08-17

    Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (VO2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated VO2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, VO2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting VO2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809±3 m/s) and L (804±9 m/s) higher than C (764±27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness. This finding suggests that young racehorses might be able

  15. Effects of high-intensity physical training on muscle fiber characteristics in poststroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jesper L; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Zeeman, Peter; Bech-Pedersen, Daniel T; Sørensen, Jane; Ara, Ignacio; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-11-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. High-intensity physical training can improve muscle strength and gait speed, but adaptive mechanisms at the muscle cellular level are largely unknown. Outpatients with poststroke hemiparesis participated in a 3-month rehabilitation program combining high-intensity strength and body-weight supported treadmill-training. Biopsies sampled bilaterally from vastus lateralis muscles, before, after, and at 1-year follow-up after intervention, were analyzed for fiber size, type, and capillarization. At baseline, paretic lower limbs had smaller muscle fiber size and lower type I and IIA and higher type IIX percentages than nonparetic lower limbs. Paretic lower limbs had increased type IIA fibers after training. At follow-up, no difference between the lower limbs remained. Although high-intensity training appeared not to induce changes in fiber size or capillarization, increased type IIA fiber percentages may contribute to muscle power and endurance, which is crucial for functional capacity. Muscle Nerve 56: 954-962, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

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    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  17. The influence of low-intensity resistance training versus high-intensity resistance training on left ventricular structure and function of healthy adolescent boys using Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    asghar Kianzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Low-intensity resistance training than high-intensity resistance training in healthy adolescent boys caused some changes in left ventricular structure and function, probably these changes were associated with increased volume and pressure load.

  18. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON...... for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.......). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest...

  19. Effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular risk factors in pre- and postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael Permin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the causal factors have been proposed to be the loss of estrogen and the subsequent alterations of the hormonal milieu. However, which factors that contribute to the deterioration of cardio-metabolic health...... and cardiovascular disease in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, and investigate the effect of high-intensity training. METHODS: A 3-month high-intensity aerobic training intervention, involving healthy, non-obese, late pre- (n=40) and early postmenopausal (n=39) women...... insulin concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test (pCardiovascular risk factors are similar in late pre- and early postmenopausal women, matched by age and body composition, with the exception that postmenopausal women have higher HDL-C and LDL-C levels...

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

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    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  1. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using...... the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity......: A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial...

  2. Effect of endurance and high intensity interval swimming training on cardiac structure and Hand2 expression of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gharaat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.

  3. Effects of high-intensity exercise on leptin and testosterone concentrations in well-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert R; Durand, Robert J; Acevedo, Edmund O; Johnson, Lisa G; Synovitz, Linda B; Kraemer, Ginger R; Gimpel, Terry; Castracane, V Daniel

    2003-08-01

    A number of investigations have examined the effect of exercise on leptin concentrations, because leptin is associated with obesity, satiety, and reproductive function. High-intensity exercise is known to increase testosterone, an inhibitor of leptin. The objective of the study was to determine whether the leptin responses to a progressive, intermittent exercise protocol were related to serum testosterone concentrations. Most previous studies have examined leptin responses to low or moderately high exercise intensities. A second objective was to determine whether leptin responses were different than previous experiments using intermittent moderate and high-intensity exercise. Well-trained runners completed strenuous intermittent exercise consisting of treadmill running at 60, 75, 90, and 100% VO(2 max) and a subsequent resting control trial was also conducted. There were significant increases in mean serum levels of leptin and testosterone with both quickly returning to baseline during recovery, but no relationship between the two hormones was found. After examining individual data for both hormones, it was discovered that subjects could be classified as leptin responders or nonresponders, whereas testosterone increased in all subjects. Responders had elevated serum leptin levels at baseline and exhibited increases after high-intensity exercise, whereas nonresponders did not show changes in leptin during exercise. Data suggest testosterone levels do not acutely affect leptin responses to exercise or 1-h of recovery. Moreover, varied leptin responses to intense exercise in comparable well-trained runners was observed and was associated with baseline leptin concentrations.

  4. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial...... ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left...

  5. Enjoyment of high-intensity interval training in an overweight/obese cohort: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2017-01-01

    Exercise enjoyment has been shown to be important for adherence. Minimal data exist on enjoyment of intense exercise, especially in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate enjoyment levels of overweight and obese subjects undergoing 3 weeks of high-intensity interval training. Forty-two generally healthy overweight and obese men and women (body mass index = 30·8 ± 4·8 kg × m-2 ) volunteered for this study. Exercise enjoyment was quantified using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale before and after each of nine total interval training sessions, over a three-week period. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of each interval and training session. There were no significant differences in enjoyment between training groups (P > 0·05). Exercise enjoyment improved significantly over the three-week training phase (P high to begin training: mean ± SD: 4·2 ± 1·0 out of a 7 point scale. Heart rate and RPE were significantly reduced (P training (day 9). High-intensity interval training may be an enjoyable form of exercise for overweight and obese men and women. Enjoyment levels may continue to increase following initial introduction to this type of training. Due to the small time demand and high enjoyment, interval training may be an effective exercise approach in a sedentary population. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High intensity interval training reduces systemic inflammation in post-PCI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter Scott; Breland, Unni Mathilde; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Larsen, Alf Inge

    2011-12-01

    Increased plasma levels of inflammatory markers and markers of endothelial cell activation have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. Exercise training may lower the risk for coronary heart disease by attenuating inflammation and improving endothelial function. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of regular high-intensity exercise training on a wide range of markers of inflammation and endothelial cell activation. Consecutively, 40 patients were prospectively randomized to a 6 months supervised high-intensity interval training programme or to a control group following successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Blood samples of 36 patients with stable angina, drawn at baseline (before PCI) and at 6 months, were analysed. Late luminal loss was measured at 6 months using quantitative coronary angiography. At 6 months, levels of the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were reduced and levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased in the training group only. The decrease in IL-6 and C-reactive protein levels were significantly correlated with the decrease in luminal loss following PCI. In contrast to these anti-inflammatory effects, training had no effect on markers of platelet-mediated inflammation, and the effect of training on markers on endothelial cell activation were rather complex showing attenuating (von Willebrand factor) and enhancing (E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) effects. Regular exercise training in stable angina patients following PCI may attenuate some, but not all, inflammatory pathways, potentially contributing to the beneficial effects of exercise training on restenosis.

  7. High-intensity interval training is not superior to other forms of endurance training during cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Marcus; Eichinger, Jörg; Egger, Andreas; Droese, Silke; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training has recently emerged as superior to continuous endurance training in cardiac rehabilitation upon other training regimes. Individually tailored continuous endurance training and pyramid training could induce comparable effects on peak work capacity as high intensity interval training. A prospective, randomized study. Effects of the following isocaloric cycle ergometer protocols on peak work capacity have been assessed in patients with coronary artery disease (n = 60) during 6 weeks of outpatient cardiac rehabilitation, i.e. 18 supervised sessions of exercise training: (1) continuous endurance training (n = 20): 33 min at 65-85% peak heart rate; (2) high intensity interval training (n = 20): 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% peak heart rate, each followed by 3 min of active recovery at 60-70% peak heart rate; (3) pyramid training (n = 20): 3 × 8 min of stepwise load increase and subsequent decrease from 65-95-65% peak heart rate, supplemented by 2 min recovery at 60-70% peak heart rate between pyramids. All protocols were preceded by 5 min of warm-up and followed by 5 min cool-down at 60-70% peak heart rate. Attendance during exercise sessions was 99.2%. There were significant increases in peak work capacity of comparable magnitude in all three training groups (begin vs. end: continuous endurance training: 136.0 ± 49.6 W vs. 163.4 ± 60.8 W (21.1 ± 8.5%); high-intensity interval training: 141.0 ± 60.4 W vs. 171.1 ± 69.8 W (22.8 ± 6.6%); pyramid training: 128.7 ± 50.6 W vs. 158.5 ± 57.9 W (24.8 ± 10.8%); within groups all p training protocols assessed in this study all led to significant increases in peak work capacity of comparable magnitude. Our findings suggest that these protocols can be used interchangeably, which will lead to further individualization of exercise prescription and may therefore result in improved adherence to lifelong

  8. Effects of High-Intensity Training on Physiological and Hormonal Adaptions in Well-Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylta, Øystein; Tønnessen, Espen; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hammarström, Daniel; Danielsen, Jørgen; Skovereng, Knut; Rønnestad, Bent R; Seiler, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Investigate development of specific performance adaptions and hormonal responses every fourth week during a 12-wk high-intensity training (HIT) period in groups with different interval-training prescriptions. Sixty-three well-trained cyclists performing a 12-wk intervention consisting of two to three HIT sessions per week in addition to ad libitum low-intensity training. Groups were matched for total training load, but increasing HIT (INC) group (n = 23) performed interval-sessions as 4 × 16 min in weeks 1-4, 4 × 8 min in weeks 5-8, and 4 × 4 min in weeks 9-12. Decreasing HIT (DEC) group (n = 20) performed interval sessions in the opposite order as INC, and mixed HIT (MIX) group (n = 20) performed all interval-sessions in a mixed distribution during 12 wk. Cycling-tests and measures of resting blood hormones were conducted pre, weeks 4, 8, and 12. INC and MIX achieved >70% of total change in workload eliciting 4 mmol·L [la] (Power4mM) and V˙O2peak during weeks 1-4, versus only 34%-38% in DEC. INC induced larger improvement versus DEC during weeks 1-4 in Power4mM (effect size, 0.7) and V˙O2peak (effect size, 0.8). All groups increased similarly in peak power output during weeks 1-4 (64%-89% of total change). All groups' pooled, total and free testosterone and free testosterone/cortisol ratio decreased by 22% ± 15%, 13% ± 23%, and 14% ± 31% (all P MIX, and accompanied by changes in resting blood hormones consistent with increased but compensable stress load. In these well-trained subjects, accumulating 2-3 h·wk performing 4 × 16 min work bouts at best effort induces greater adaptions in Power4mM and V˙O2peak than accumulating ~1 h·wk performing best effort intervals as 4 × 4 min.

  9. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  10. High intensity interval training favourably affects antioxidant and inflammation mRNA expression in early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Briskey, David R; Scanlan, Aaron T; Coombes, Jeff S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-12-01

    Increased levels of oxidative stress and inflammation have been linked to the progression of chronic kidney disease. To reduce oxidative stress and inflammation related to chronic kidney disease, chronic aerobic exercise is often recommended. Data suggests high intensity interval training may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of differing modes of exercise, along with explanations of mechanisms responsible for observed effects, are lacking. This study assessed effects of eight weeks of high intensity interval training (85% VO2max), versus low intensity exercise (45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour, in an animal model of early-stage chronic kidney disease. We examined kidney-specific mRNA expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase 1; Gpx1, superoxide dismutase 1; Sod1, and catalase; Cat) and inflammation (kidney injury molecule 1; Kim1 and tumour necrosis factor receptor super family 1b; Tnfrsf1b), as well as plasma F2-isoprostanes, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Compared to sedentary behaviour, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Sod1 (p=0.01) and Cat (pintensity exercise, high intensity interval training resulted in increased mRNA expression of Cat (phigh intensity interval training was superior to sedentary behaviour and low intensity exercise as high intensity interval training beneficially influenced expression of genes related to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Laine, T; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Nummela, A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict individual adaptation to high-volume or high-intensity endurance training. After the first 8-week preparation period, 37 recreational endurance runners were matched into the high-volume training group (HVT) and high-intensity training group (HIT). During the next 8-week training period, HVT increased their running training volume and HIT increased training intensity. Endurance performance characteristics, heart rate variability (HRV), and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after the training periods. While HIT improved peak treadmill running speed (RSpeak ) 3.1 ± 2.8% (P endurance training in recreational runners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT) on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Katrin; Nedele, Johanna; Thorwesten, Lothar; Klose, Andreas; Lenders, Malte; Krüger, Michael; Brand, Eva; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on miR-126-3p and -5p levels. Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years) were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out), a progressive HIIT (proHIIT) group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out) with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s) and a low-intensity training (LIT) control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running). After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units). Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126. PMID:28611681

  13. Sleep monitoring of a six-day microcycle in strength and high-intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of microcycles in eccentric strength and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on sleep parameters and subjective ratings. Forty-two well-trained athletes (mean age 23.2 ± 2.4 years) were either assigned to the strength (n = 21; mean age 23.6 ± 2.1 years) or HIT (n = 21; mean age 22.8 ± 2.6 years) protocol. Sleep monitoring was conducted with multi-sensor actigraphy (SenseWear Armband™, Bodymedia, Pittsburg, PA, USA) and sleep log for 14 days. After a five-day baseline phase, participants completed either eccentric accented strength or high-intensity interval training for six days, with two training sessions per day. This training phase was divided into two halves (part 1 and 2) for statistical analyses. A three-day post phase concluded the monitoring. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes was applied at baseline, end of part 2, and at the last post-day. Mood ratings were decreased during training, but returned to baseline values afterwards in both groups. Sleep parameters in the strength group remained constant over the entire process. The HIT group showed trends of unfavourable sleep during the training phase (e.g., objective sleep efficiency at part 2: mean = 83.6 ± 7.8%, F3,60 = 2.57, P = 0.06, [Formula: see text] = 0.114) and subjective improvements during the post phase for awakenings (F3,60 = 2.96, P = 0.04, [Formula: see text] = 0.129) and restfulness of sleep (F3,60 = 9.21, P < 0.001, [Formula: see text] = 0.315). Thus, the HIT protocol seems to increase higher recovery demands than strength training, and sufficient sleep time should be emphasised and monitored.

  14. Cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure: effect of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training versus continuous training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssin, Céline; Verkindt, Chantal; Prieur, Fabrice; Benaich, Philippe; Maunier, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training protocol versus continuous training. Randomized controlled trial. Cardiac rehabilitation center. Patients (N=26; mean age ± SD, 54±12y) with chronic heart failure were enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program for 8 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups that performed either interval training (IT) or continuous training (CT). IT consisted of 3 sessions of 12 repetitions of 30 seconds of exercise at very high intensity, followed by 60 seconds of complete rest. The CT group performed CT exercises, which consisted of 45 minutes of aerobic exercise. Parameters of gas exchanges: peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak), first ventilator threshold (VT1), distance at six-minute walk test (6MWT), and level of anxiety and depression were measured. The IT group increased significantly their Vo(2)peak, the duration of the exercise test, the oxygen pulse, oxygen consumption at the VT1, and the distance walked during the 6MWT. The CT group only increased the time at the VT1 and the distance performed at the 6MWT. The improvement in the time at the VT1 was significantly higher for the IT group than for the CT group. This study shows that IT at very high intensity for patients with heart failure appears to be more effective than CT in improving indices of submaximal exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of menopause and high-intensity training on insulin sensitivity and muscle metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Camilla M; Egelund, Jon; Nyberg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    To investigate peripheral insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and evaluate whether exercise training benefits are maintained after menopause. Sedentary, healthy, normal-weight, late premenopausal (n = 21), and early postmenopausal (n...... = 20) women were included in a 3-month high-intensity exercise training intervention. Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, whole body glucose disposal rate (GDR) by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (40 mU/m/min), and femoral muscle glucose....... Training increased lean body mass (estimate [95% confidence interval] 0.5 [0.2-0.9] kg, P ...

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    -duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one......PURPOSE: Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short...... breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. RESULTS: A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise...

  17. Effect of high-intensity training versus moderate training on peak oxygen uptake and chronotropic response in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, C H; Snoer, M; Christensen, S

    2014-01-01

    In heart transplant (HTx) recipients, there has been reluctance to recommend high-intensity interval training (HIIT) due to denervation and chronotropic impairment of the heart. We compared the effects of 12 weeks' HIIT versus continued moderate exercise (CON) on exercise capacity and chronotropic...... effect on oxygen uptake, and led to an unexpected increase in HRpeak accompanied by a faster HRrecovery . This indicates that the benefits of HIIT are partly a result of improved chronotropic response....

  18. Neuromuscular and Cardiovascular Adaptations in Response to High-Intensity Interval Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Ruiz, Rubén; Vera-Ibáñez, Antonio; Colomer-Poveda, David; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2018-01-01

    Romero-Arenas, S, Ruiz, R, Vera-Ibáñez, A, Colomer-Poveda, D, Guadalupe-Grau, A, and Márquez, G. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations in response to high-intensity interval power training. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 130-138, 2018-The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a high-intensity power training (HIPT) program, and to compare the effects of HIPT to traditional power training (TPT) on the aerobic and power performance. For this purpose, 29 healthy men (23.1 ± 2.7 years) were recruited and randomly distributed into 3 different groups. One group performed TPT (n = 10), the second group performed power training organized as a circuit (HIPT; n = 10), and the third group served as control group (CG; n = 9). Training consisted of weightlifting thrice per week for 6 weeks. The TPT subjects performed 3 to 5 sets of each exercises with interset rest of 90 seconds, and HIPT subjects executed the training in a short circuit (15 seconds of rest between exercises). To know the effects in aerobic performance, maximal aerobic speed (MAS) was measured. To identify the effects on power performance, subjects performed a Wingate test, a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, and a power-load curve in bench press. The main results showed that after both power training protocols, subjects increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) the power production during the Wingate Test, the height and power reached during the CMJ test, and the peak power produced during the power-load curve. However, only the HIPT group improved significantly MAS (p ≤ 0.05). There were no changes in any variables in CG. Hence, our results suggest that HIPT may be as effective as TPT for improving power performance in young adults. In addition, only HIPT elicited improvements in MAS.

  19. Aerobic Fitness for Young Athletes: Combining Game-based and High-intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C B; Kinugasa, T; Gill, N; Kilding, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the effect of game-based training (GT) vs. a mix of game-based training and high-intensity interval training (MT) on physical performance characteristics. 26 young athletes (13.9±0.3 years) were assigned to either GT (n=13) or MT (n=13) for 6 weeks. Game-based training consisted of 2×8-11 min 3 vs. 3 'bucketball' SSGs separated by 3 min of passive rest twice per week, while MT consisted of one SSGs session and one high-intensity session of 15 s runs at 90-95% of the speed reached at the end of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (VIFT) interspersed with 15 s passive recovery. Peak oxygen uptake (V˙ O2peak), VIFT, jump height, and speed were assessed pre- and post-training. Following training, V˙ O2peak (5.5±3.3%; ES=large) improved after MT, whereas VIFT improved after MT (6.6±3.2%; ES, large) and GT (4.2±5.5%, ES=small). 5-m sprint improved after GT (ES=small), while 20 m sprint and jump height were unchanged. In conclusion, while MT and GT were both effective at increasing performance parameters, greater effects were seen following MT. Therefore, MT should be considered as the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  1. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Larsson, Tanja Hultengren; Jørgensen, Majke

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON) or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT...

  2. Virtual coaching for the high-intensity training of a powerlifter following coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Adams, Jenny; Qin, Huanying; Bilbrey, Tim; Schussler, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old powerlifter in Tennessee learned about the sport-specific, high-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training available in Dallas, Texas, and contacted the staff by phone. He was recovering from quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and had completed several weeks of traditional cardiac rehabilitation in his hometown, but the exercise program no longer met his needs. He wanted help in returning both to his normal training regimen and to powerlifting competition but was unable to attend the Dallas program in person. An exercise physiologist with the program devised a virtual coaching model in which the patient was sent a wrist blood pressure cuff for self-monitoring and was advised about exercises that would not harm his healing sternum, even as the weight loads were gradually increased. After 17 weeks of symptom-limited, high-intensity training that was complemented by phone and e-mail support, the patient was lifting heavier loads than he had before CABG. At a powerlifting competition 10 months after CABG, he placed first in his age group. This case report exemplifies the need for alternative approaches to the delivery of cardiac rehabilitation services.

  3. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Fat Mass Parameters in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timón, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-11-21

    Childhood and adolescence are key to the development of chronic disease stages, the distribution of fat an important factor in this regard. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects on fat parameters of a high intensity program developed in adolescents during physical education classes. In 2013, 35 school-age children of Cáceres taken part in this study divided into two groups. The high-intensity group performed for 8 weeks, 4-6 sets of 20 seconds at maximal intensity with a ratio effort / recovery of 1: 3 to 1: 1. The other group, developed continuous aerobic exercise during the same time. It conducted an assessment of fat mass before and after the training program. Repeated measures ANOVA test was used to observe that there were no statistically significant differences. Continuous aerobic training group showed statistically significant differences in intra-group analysis in the percentage of fat mass trunk (Pre: 15.66 ± 4.16 vs Post: 16.95 ± 4.03; +1, 29%; p = 0.04) and the percentage of total fat (Pre: 21.58 ± 3.93 / Post: 22.34 ± 3.70; p = 0.05). Statistically significant differences were not found in the analysis between-groups in any of the studied variables. The training program high intensity physical activity at school carried out during physical education classes did not improve fat mass parameters evaluated. However, maintaining these parameters could be a good result during the development of this stage, where an increase of these occurs.

  4. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  5. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Trexler, Eric T.; Wingfield, Hailee; Blue, Malia N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids, and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; Weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg·m2) were randomly assigned to ten 1-minute high-intensity intervals (90%VO2peak, 1min recovery), or five 2-minute high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2peak, 1 min recovery), or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, body composition, and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (p>0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; p=0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 sec; p=0.001); non-significant increase in VO2peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml·kg−1·min−1; p=0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (∆−1.96 ± 0.99kg; p=0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing fat mass and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women. PMID:26934687

  6. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    ... (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period...

  7. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  8. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  9. Changes in fat oxidation in response to various regimes of high intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    Increased whole-body fat oxidation (FOx) has been consistently demonstrated in response to moderate intensity continuous exercise training. Completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and its more intense form, sprint interval training (SIT), has also been reported to increase FOx in different populations. An explanation for this increase in FOx is primarily peripheral adaptations via improvements in mitochondrial content and function. However, studies examining changes in FOx are less common in response to HIIT or SIT than those determining increases in maximal oxygen uptake which is concerning, considering that FOx has been identified as a predictor of weight gain and glycemic control. In this review, we explored physiological and methodological issues underpinning existing literature concerning changes in FOx in response to HIIT and SIT. Our results show that completion of interval training increases FOx in approximately 50% of studies, with the frequency of increased FOx higher in response to studies using HIIT compared to SIT. Significant increases in β-HAD, citrate synthase, fatty acid binding protein, or FAT/CD36 are likely responsible for the greater FOx seen in these studies. We encourage scientists to adopt strict methodological procedures to attenuate day-to-day variability in FOx, which is dramatic, and develop standardized procedures for assessing FOx, which may improve detection of changes in FOx in response to HIIT.

  10. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  11. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers.

  12. Effect of four weeks high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative species produced during exercise can cause damages to some tissues such as kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. It seems that metallothionein plays a protective role against these actions. Objective: To assess the effect of four weeks of high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in healthy male rats. Methods: This experimental study was done on 36 male Wistar rats (2 months of age with an average weight of 180±20 in 2015.The rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (n=12, high intensity interval training (n=12, and aerobic training (n=12 groups. The experimental groups exercised according to the training program 5 days a week for 4 weeks. During this period, the control group did not have any training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate no significant difference among the mean metallothionein in control, aerobic exercise and high intensity interval training groups. However, the amount of myocardial metallothionein increased as a result of high intensity interval training and decreased during aerobic exercise. Conclusion: It seems that the duration and intensity of exercise need to be adjusted in order to obtain better results.

  13. High-intensity aerobic interval training in a patient with stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philippe; Guiraud, Thibaut; Gayda, Mathieu; Juneau, Martin; Bosquet, Laurent; Nigam, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Recently, high-intensity aerobic interval training was shown to be more effective than continuous moderate-intensity exercise for improving maximal aerobic capacity and endurance in patients with coronary heart disease. However, patients with exercise-induced ischemia were not included in those studies. We present the acute cardiopulmonary responses of a 67-yr-old man with stable angina pectoris during a 34-min session of high-intensity aerobic interval training. Exercise was well tolerated with neither significant arrhythmia nor elevation of cardiac troponin-T. We observed a complete disappearance of symptoms and signs of myocardial ischemia after 24 mins of exercise. This observation is similar to the warm-up angina phenomenon, an adaptation to myocardial ischemia that remains poorly understood. We conclude that high-intensity aerobic interval training is a promising mode of training for patients with stable coronary heart disease that should also be investigated further in patients with exercise-induced ischemia.

  14. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish a half-marathonHigh intensity training is favorable to improve VO2 peak.

  15. Acute Responses to Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nigel K; Dulson, Deborah K; Logan, Greig R M; Warbrick, Isaac B; Merien, Fabrice L R; Lubans, David R

    2017-05-01

    Harris, NK, Dulson, DK, Logan, GRM, Warbrick, IB, Merien, FLR, and Lubans, DR. Acute responses to resistance and high-intensity interval training in early adolescents. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1177-1186, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the acute physiological responses within and between resistance training (RT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) matched for time and with comparable effort, in a school setting. Seventeen early adolescents (12.9 ± 0.3 years) performed both RT (2-5 repetitions perceived short of failure at the end of each set) and HIIT (90% of age-predicted maximum heart rate), equated for total work set and recovery period durations comprising of 12 "sets" of 30-second work followed by 30-second recovery (total session time 12 minutes). Variables of interest included oxygen consumption, set and session heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion, and change in salivary cortisol (SC), salivary alpha amylase, and blood lactate (BL) from presession to postsession. Analyses were conducted to determine responses within and between the 2 different protocols. For both RT and HIIT, there were very large increases pretrial to posttrial for SC and BL, and only BL increased greater in HIIT (9.1 ± 2.6 mmol·L) than RT (6.8 ± 3.3 mmol·L). Mean set HR for both RT (170 ± 9.1 b·min) and HIIT (179 ± 5.6 b·min) was at least 85% of HRmax. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 over all 12 sets was greater for HIIT (33.8 ± 5.21 ml·kg·min) than RT (24.9 ± 3.23 ml·kg·min). Brief, repetitive, intermittent forays into high but not supramaximal intensity exercise using RT or HIIT seemed to be a potent physiological stimulus in adolescents.

  16. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Vascular Function in Obese Preadolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuensiri, Napasakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups. Both exercise groups performed exercises on a cycle ergometer three times/week for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, both HIIT and supra-HIIT did not affect body mass, body fat percentage, and waist circumference. Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 peak) increased in both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (p < 0.05). Both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups had higher resting metabolic rate than the control group (p < 0.05). A measure of arterial stiffness, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, and carotid intima-media thickness decreased after 12 weeks of HIIT and supra-HIIT program (all p < 0.05). Flow-mediated dilation, a measure of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased in both HIIT and supra-HIIT groups (all p < 0.05). It is concluded that both HIIT and supra-HIIT have favorable effects on aerobic capacity, metabolic rate, vascular function and structure, and blood lipid profile in obese preadolescent boys. HIIT may be a time efficient and effective exercise for preventing future cardiovascular disease in obese children.

  17. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  18. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Bacon

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT or combined IT and continuous training (CT have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1. This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans <45 yrs old, 2 training duration 6-13 weeks, 3 ≥ 3 days/week, 4 ≥ 10 minutes of high intensity work, 5 ≥ 1:1 work/rest ratio, and 6 results reported as mean ± SD or SE, ranges of change, or individual data. Due to heterogeneity (I(2 value of 70, statistical synthesis of the data used a random effects model. The summary statistic of interest was the change in VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1 was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1 changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  19. Effectiveness of A 16-week High-intensity Cardio-resistance Training (HICRT) Program in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Tina A; Greene, Daniel R; Ward, Nathan J; Reeser, Ginger E; Allen, Courtney M; Baumgartner, Nicholas W; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F; Hillman, Charles H; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a novel, 16-week High-Intensity Cardio-Resistance Training (HICRT) program on measures of aerobic fitness, agility, aerobic power, muscular endurance, lower body explosive power, and self-reported activity level. The intervention group (N=129; 63 f, 24.65±5.55 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.83±9.13. These individuals participated in 26, 70-minute exercise sessions, and 4 fitness testing sessions. Participants were matched with a non-exercise control group, paired by sex, age, and baseline VO2max. Matched controls (N = 129, 63 f, 24.26±5.59 y) had a baseline VO2max of 39.86±8.59 and completed pre- and post-intervention VO2max testing only. The results demonstrate that participants in the fitness intervention group significantly increased their VO2max (2.72±0.31, Mdiff±SE; plong jump (p=0.137). These findings demonstrate the efficacy of a novel, HICRT intervention across multiple dimensions of fitness for young and middle aged adults. HICRT affords flexibility for tailoring to meet desired health and fitness outcomes and makes perceivably daunting high-intensity functional training and multimodal sports training more accessible to general, traditionally non-athletic, populations.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  20. Should high-intensity-aerobic interval training become the clinical standard in heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Lavie, Carl J; Guazzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training in the heart failure (HF) population is supported by an extensive body of literature. The clinically accepted model for exercise prescription is currently moderate-intensity-aerobic continuous training (MI-ACT). Documented benefits from the literature include improvements in various aspects of physiologic function, aerobic exercise capacity and quality of life while the impact on morbidity and mortality is promising but requires further investigation. Recently, however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating high-intensity-aerobic interval training (HI-AIT) can be performed safely with impressive improvements in physiology, functional capacity and quality of life. These initial findings have led some to question the long-standing clinical approach to aerobic exercise training in patients with HF (i.e., MI-ACT), implying it should perhaps be replaced with a HI-AIT model. This is a potentially controversial paradigm shift given the potential increase in adverse event risk associated with exercising at higher intensities, particularly in the HF population where the likelihood of an untoward episode is already at a heightened state relative to the apparently healthy population. The present review therefore addresses key issues related to HI-AIT in the HF population and makes recommendations for future research and current clinical practice.

  1. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Kevin A; John, Casey S; Lawrence, Marcus M; Battista, Rebecca A; Shanely, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2) whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years) performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest) at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. PMID:24520199

  2. Neural adaptations after short-term wingate-based high-intensity interval training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ibañez, Antonio; Colomer-Poveda, David; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Viñuela-García, Manuel; Márquez, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the neural adaptations associated with a low-volume Wingate-based High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). Methods: Fourteen recreationally trained males were divided into an experimental (HIIT) and a control group to determine whether a short-term (4 weeks) Wingate-based HIIT program could alter the Hoffmann (H-) reflex, volitional (V-) wave and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the plantar-flexor muscles, and the peak power achieved during a Wingate test. Results: Absolute and relative peak power increased in the HIIT group (ABS_Ppeak: +14.7%, P=0.001; and REL_Ppeak: +15.0%, P=0.001), but not in the control group (ABS_Ppeak: P=0.466; and REL_Ppeak: P=0.493). However, no significant changes were found in the MVC (P>0.05 for both groups). There was a significant increase in H-reflex size after HIIT (+24.5%, P=0.004), while it remained unchanged in the control group (P=0.134). No significant changes were observed either in the V-wave or in the Vwave/Mwave ratio (P>0.05 for both groups). Conclusion: The Wingate-based training led to an increased peak power together with a higher spinal excitability. However, no changes were found either in the volitional wave or in the MVC, indicating a lack of adaptation in the central motor drive. PMID:29199186

  3. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-01-01

    ENDURANCE ATHLETES INTEGRATE FOUR CONDITIONING CONCEPTS IN THEIR TRAINING PROGRAMS: high-volume training (HVT), "threshold-training" (THR), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL). The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 62.6 ± 7.1 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over 9 weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml·min·kg(-1) or 11.7%, P 0.05). POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  4. Producing High Intense Attosecond Pulse Train by Interaction of Three-Color Pulse and Overdense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.; Mirzanejad, S.

    2017-05-01

    Amplifying the attosecond pulse by the chirp pulse amplification method is impossible. Furthermore, the intensity of attosecond pulse is low in the interaction of laser pulse and underdense plasma. This motivates us to propose using a multi-color pulse to produce the high intense attosecond pulse. In the present study, the relativistic interaction of a three-color linearly-polarized laser-pulse with highly overdense plasma is studied. We show that the combination of {{ω }}1, {{ω }}2 and {{ω }}3 frequencies decreases the instance full width at half maximum reflected attosecond pulse train from the overdense plasma surface. Moreover, we show that the three-color pulse increases the intensity of generated harmonics, which is explained by the relativistic oscillating mirror model. The obtained results demonstrate that if the three-color laser pulse interacts with overdense plasma, it will enhance two orders of magnitude of intensity of ultra short attosecond pulses in comparison with monochromatic pulse.

  5. Is High Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit® Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Heinrich, Katie M.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B.

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated due to concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: 1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands; 2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests; and 3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its’ popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT’s injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as “extreme conditioning programs” by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs’ popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: 1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities; and 2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities PMID:27391615

  6. Is High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)/CrossFit Safe for Military Fitness Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Batchelor, David B

    2016-07-01

    High-intensity functional training (HIFT) is a promising fitness paradigm that gained popularity among military populations. Rather than biasing workouts toward maximizing fitness domains such as aerobic endurance, HIFT workouts are designed to promote general physical preparedness. HIFT programs have proliferated as a result of concerns about the relevance of traditional physical training (PT), which historically focused on aerobic condition via running. Other concerns about traditional PT include: (1) the relevance of service fitness tests given current combat demands, (2) the perception that military PT is geared toward passing service fitness tests, and (3) that training for combat requires more than just aerobic endurance. Despite its' popularity in the military, concerns have been raised about HIFT's injury potential, leading to some approaches being labeled as "extreme conditioning programs" by several military and civilian experts. Given HIFT programs' popularity in the military and concerns about injury, a review of data on HIFT injury potential is needed to inform military policy. The purpose of this review is to: (1) provide an overview of scientific methods used to appropriately compare injury rates among fitness activities and (2) evaluate scientific data regarding HIFT injury risk compared to traditional military PT and other accepted fitness activities. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity, or high volume training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Sperlich, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT), “threshold-training” (THR), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL). The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes, and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 62.6 ± 7.1 mL·min−1·kg−1) were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over 9 weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml·min·kg−1 or 11.7%, P HIIT (+5.6%, P HIIT, with no changes in the other groups. With the exception of slight improvements in work economy in THR, both HVT and THR had no further effects on measured variables of endurance performance (P > 0.05). Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables. PMID:24550842

  8. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  9. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  10. High-intensity training following lung cancer surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, E; Skjønsberg, O H; Holme, I; Nordsletten, L; Borchsenius, F; Anderssen, S A

    2015-03-01

    Many patients with lung cancer are deconditioned with poor physical fitness. Lung resection reduces physical fitness further, impairing the patient's ability to function in daily life. We conducted a single-blind randomised controlled trial of high-intensity endurance and strength training (60 min, three times a week, 20 weeks), starting 5-7 weeks after surgery. The control group received standard postoperative care. The primary outcome was the change in peak oxygen uptake measured directly during walking until exhaustion. Other outcomes included changes in pulmonary function, muscular strength by one-repetition maximum (1RM), total muscle mass measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, daily physical functioning and quality of life (QoL). The intention-to-treat analysis of the 61 randomised patients showed that the exercise group had a greater increase in peak oxygen uptake (3.4 mL/kg/min between-group difference, p=0.002), carbon monoxide transfer factor (Tlco) (5.2% predicted, p=0.007), 1RM leg press (29.5 kg, pmental component summary score was 55.5±5.3 and 46.6±14.0 (p=0.015) in the exercise and control groups, respectively. In patients recently operated for lung cancer, high-intensity endurance and strength training was well tolerated and induced clinically significant improvements in peak oxygen uptake, Tlco, muscular strength, total muscle mass, functional fitness and QoL. This study may provide a basis for exercise therapy after lung cancer surgery. NCT01748981. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Dose-Response of High-Intensity Training (HIT on Atheroprotective miRNA-126 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schmitz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-126 (miR-126 exerts beneficial effects on vascular integrity, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque stability. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the dose-response relationship of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on miR-126-3p and -5p levels.Methods: Sixty-one moderately trained individuals (females = 31 [50.8%]; 22.0 ± 1.84 years were consecutively recruited and allocated into three matched groups using exercise capacity. During a 4-week intervention a HIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out, a progressive HIIT (proHIIT group performed three exercise sessions/week of 4 × 30 s at maximum speed (all-out with one extra session every week (up to 7 × 30 s and a low-intensity training (LIT control group performed three exercise sessions/week for 25 min <75% of maximum heart rate. Exercise miR-126-3p/-5p plasma levels were determined using capillary blood from earlobes.Results: No exercise-induced increase in miR-126 levels was detected at baseline, neither in the LIT (after 25 min low-intensity running nor the HIIT groups (after 4 min of high-intensity running. After the intervention, the LIT group presented an increase in miR-126-3p, while in the HIIT group, miR-126-3p levels were still reduced (all p < 0.05. An increase for both, miR-126-3p and -5p levels (all p < 0.05, pre- vs. during and post-exercise was detected in the proHIIT group. Between group analysis revealed that miR-126-3p levels after LIT and proHIIT increased by 2.12 ± 2.55 and 1.24 ± 2.46 units (all p < 0.01, respectively, compared to HIIT (−1.05 ± 2.6 units.Conclusions: LIT and proHIIT may be performed to increase individual miR-126 levels. HIIT without progression was less effective in increasing miR-126.

  12. In-Season High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Conditioning In High School Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Neal; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2017-01-01

    Soccer is characterized by high aerobic demands interspersed with frequent bursts of anaerobic activity. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered a viable alternative to traditional endurance conditioning and offers the additional time-saving benefits of anaerobic training. We hypothesized that HIIT will compare favorably to traditional (aerobic-based) soccer conditioning over the course of a high school soccer season. Junior varsity soccer players were split into control (CON, n=16) and experimental (HIIT, n=16) groups for the 10-week study. The HIIT group performed 4-6 "all-out" sprints lasting 30s each, with 4.5 minute recovery, 3 times a week. The CON group performed endurance running for the same duration. The groups did not differ in any other aspect of their training. Participants completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (IR1), a 40-yard dash, vertical jump, Illinois agility test, and a sit-and-reach test, in two different testing sessions (pre/post season). Both HIIT and CON groups exhibited significant increase in IR1 test performance with time (741.6±307.6m vs. 1067.6±356.8m, ptraining.

  13. Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, T.P; Baker, M.D; Evans, S-A; Adams, R.A; Cobbold, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which p...

  14. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (pintermittent hypoxic training protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  15. High-intensity stretch-shortening contraction training modifies responsivity of skeletal muscle in old male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Erik P; Naimo, Marshall A; Ensey, James; Baker, Brent A

    2018-02-10

    Utilization of high-intensity resistance training to counter age-related sarcopenia is currently debated because of the potential for maladaptation when training design is inappropriate. Training design is problematic because the influence of various loading variables (e.g. contraction mode, repetition number, and training frequency) is still not well characterized at old age. To address this in a precisely controlled manner, we developed a rodent model of high-intensity training consisting of maximally-activated stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), contractions typical during resistance training. With this model, we determined that at old age, high-repetition SSC training (80 SSCs: 8 sets of 10 repetitions) performed frequently (i.e. 3 days per week) for 4.5 weeks induced strength deficits with no muscle mass gain while decreasing frequency to 2 days per week promoted increases in muscle mass and muscle quality (i.e. performance normalized to muscle mass). This finding confirmed the popular notion that decreasing training frequency has a robust effect with age. Meanwhile, the influence of other loading variables remains contentious. The aim of the present study was to assess muscle adaptation following modulation of contraction mode and repetition number during high-intensity SSC training. Muscles of young (3 month old) and old (30 month old) male rats were exposed to 4.5 weeks of low-repetition static training of 4 (i.e. 4 sets of one repetition) isometric (ISO) contractions 3 days per week or a more moderate-repetition dynamic training of 40 SSCs (i.e. 4 sets of 10 repetitions) 3 days per week. For young rats, performance and muscle mass increased regardless of training protocol. For old rats, no muscle mass adaptation was observed for 4 ISO training while 40 SSC training induced muscle mass gain without improvement in muscle quality, an outcome distinct from modulating training frequency. Muscle mass gain for old rats was accompanied by

  16. The Benefits of High-Intensity Functional Training Fitness Programs for Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Heinrich, Katie M; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2016-11-01

    High intensity functional training (HIFT) programs are designed to address multiple fitness domains, potentially providing improved physical and mental readiness in a changing operational environment. Programs consistent with HIFT principals such as CrossFit, SEALFIT and the US Marine Corps' High Intensity Tactical Training (HITT) are increasingly popular among military personnel. The goal of HIFT programs is to produce high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, endurance and strength that exceed those achieved by following current physical activity recommendations. Given the investment in and popularity of HIFT in the military, it is important to consider the potential impact of this approach to fitness training for the health of military personnel and their risk of training injury. In a previous report in this journal, we addressed the question of whether HIFT was associated with higher injury rates compared to other exercise programs. We argued that concerns about the injury potential of HIFT exercise programs were not supported by the scientific literature to date, although additional research was needed to directly compare injury rates in approaches such as CrossFit to traditional military fitness programs. In this article we will review the scientific data on the practical, health and fitness benefits of HIFT exercise programs for military populations. Practical benefits to HIFT exercise programs include shorter training times and volumes, exercises which simulate combat tasks, lower equipment costs, reduced potential for boredom and adaptation as a result of constant variation, less injury potential compared to high volume endurance training, and scalability to all fitness levels and rehabilitation needs. For instance, HIFT training volumes are typically between 25% to nearly 80% less than traditional military fitness programs without reductions in fitness outcomes. HIFT program also provide an impressive range of health benefits such as the promotion of

  17. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo; Hamilton Roschel; Andreia Rossi Picanço; Danilo Marcelo Leite do Prado; Sandra Mara Ferreira Villares; Ana Lúcia de Sá Pinto; Bruno Gualano

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT]) on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. Methods: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR). The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by ...

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

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    Jorge F. T. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT is emerging as a potential strategy.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation.Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition, 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition, HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition, and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition. They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, were performed.Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids.Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  20. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  1. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) improves physical performance and frailty in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldeen, Kenneth Ladd; Lasky, Ginger; Leiker, Merced Maria; Pang, Manhui; Personius, Kirkwood Ely; Troen, Bruce Robert

    2017-06-17

    Sarcopenia and frailty are highly prevalent in older individuals, increasing the risk of disability and loss of independence. High intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide a robust intervention for both sarcopenia and frailty by achieving both strength and endurance benefits with lower time commitments than other exercise regimens. To better understand the impacts of HIIT during aging, we compared 24-month-old C57BL/6J sedentary mice with those that were administered 10-minute uphill treadmill HIIT sessions three times per week over 16 weeks. Baseline and endpoint assessments included body composition, physical performance, and frailty based upon criteria from the Fried physical frailty scale. HIIT trained mice demonstrated dramatic improvement in grip strength (HIIT 10.9% versus -3.9% in sedentary mice), treadmill endurance (32.6% versus -2.0%), and gait speed (107.0% versus 39.0%). Muscles from HIIT mice also exhibited greater mass, larger fiber size, and an increase in mitochondrial biomass. Furthermore, HIIT exercise showed dramatic reduction in frailty scores in 5 of 6 mice that were frail or pre-frail at baseline, with 4 ultimately becoming non-frail. The uphill treadmill HIIT exercise sessions were well tolerated by aged mice and led to dramatic performance gains, improvement in underlying muscle physiology, and reduction in frailty. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Effects of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on the reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic adult patients: CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo

    2015-08-13

    Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between an excessive production of reactive oxygen species and/or a deficiency in the level of endogenous and exogenous antioxidant defenses. The presence of reactive oxygen species in large concentrations and for long periods is associated with the occurrence of various diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exercise represents an effective means for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and is also able to reduce long-term oxidative stress levels. High-intensity interval training has shown to be an efficient and viable option for type 2 diabetes mellitus control. In turn, high-intensity interval training seems to have positive effects on oxidative stress levels by increasing levels of endogenous antioxidants. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity continuous training to reduce oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to answer the following question: In adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, can the method of high-intensity interval training, compared to moderate intensity continuous training reduce oxidative stress levels? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Continuous training vs Interval training in glycemic control and macro and microvascular reactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes". No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of superoxide dismutase in any of the experimental groups. Only in the interval group a decrease in malondialdehyde regarding control group and baseline (pinterval group there was an increase in glutathione peroxidase compared to the group of continuous aerobic training and baseline (pinterval training group. Despite the fact that both training groups show improvements over markers of lipid profile and fitness, high intensity interval training has shown to be more effective in the

  3. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

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    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  4. Intermittent and continuous high-intensity exercise training induce similar acute but different chronic muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Andrew J R; Percival, Michael E; Tricarico, Steven; Little, Jonathan P; Cermak, Naomi; Gillen, Jenna B; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed in an 'all-out' manner (e.g. repeated Wingate tests) is a time-efficient strategy to induce skeletal muscle remodelling towards a more oxidative phenotype. A fundamental question that remains unclear, however, is whether the intermittent or 'pulsed' nature of the stimulus is critical to the adaptive response. In study 1, we examined whether the activation of signalling cascades linked to mitochondrial biogenesis was dependent on the manner in which an acute high-intensity exercise stimulus was applied. Subjects performed either four 30 s Wingate tests interspersed with 4 min of rest (INT) or a bout of continuous exercise (CONT) that was matched for total work (67 ± 7 kJ) and which required ∼4 min to complete as fast as possible. Both protocols elicited similar increases in markers of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, as well as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) mRNA expression (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). In study 2, we determined whether 6 weeks of the CONT protocol (3 days per week) would increase skeletal muscle mitochondrial content to a similar extent to what we have previously reported after 6 weeks of INT. Despite similar acute signalling responses to the CONT and INT protocols, training with CONT did not increase the maximal activity or protein content of a range of mitochondrial markers. However, peak oxygen uptake was higher after CONT training (from 45.7 ± 5.4 to 48.3 ± 6.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.05) and 250 kJ time trial performance was improved (from 26:32 ± 4:48 to 23:55 ± 4:16 min:s; P < 0.001) in our recreationally active participants. We conclude that the intermittent nature of the stimulus is important for maximizing skeletal muscle adaptations to low-volume, all-out HIIT. Despite the lack of skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations

  5. High-intensity Fitness Training Among a National Sample of Male Career Firefighters

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    Sara A. Jahnke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3% of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98. Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55 to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT] on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. METHODS: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR. The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0% and the relative VO(2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6% were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4% and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4% were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5% and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0% were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%, but not in the ET group (1.2%. A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%. The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. CONCLUSION: HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.

  7. Similar Health Benefits of Endurance and High-Intensity Interval Training in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte de Araujo, Ana Carolina; Roschel, Hamilton; Picanço, Andreia Rossi; do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Villares, Sandra Mara Ferreira; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT]) on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. Methods Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR). The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ∼70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. Results Both the absolute (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0%) and the relative VO2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6%) were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4%) and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4%) were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5%) and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0%) were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%), but not in the ET group (1.2%). A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%). The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. Conclusion HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth. PMID:22880097

  8. Differential Motor Unit Changes after Endurance or High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Falla, Deborah; Negro, Francesco; Mayer, Frank; Farina, Dario

    2017-06-01

    Using a novel technique of high-density surface EMG decomposition and motor unit (MU) tracking, we compared changes in the properties of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis MU after endurance (END) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen men were assigned to the END or the HIIT group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions for 14 d. Each session consisted of 8-12 × 60-s intervals at 100% peak power output separated by 75 s of recovery (HIIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at ~65% V˙O2peak (END). Pre- and postintervention, participants performed 1) incremental cycling to determine V˙O2peak and peak power output and 2) maximal, submaximal (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]), and sustained (until task failure at 30% MVC) isometric knee extensions while high-density surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. EMG signals were decomposed (submaximal contractions) into individual MU by convolutive blind source separation. Finally, MU were tracked across sessions by semiblind source separation. After training, END and HIIT improved V˙O2peak similarly (by 5.0% and 6.7%, respectively). The HIIT group showed enhanced maximal knee extension torque by ~7% (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by an increase in discharge rate for high-threshold MU (≥50% knee extension MVC) (P 0.05). HIIT and END induce different adjustments in MU discharge rate despite similar improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Moreover, the changes induced by HIIT are specific for high-threshold MU. For the first time, we show that HIIT and END induce specific neuromuscular adaptations, possibly related to differences in exercise load intensity and training volume.

  9. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte de Araujo, Ana Carolina; Roschel, Hamilton; Picanço, Andreia Rossi; do Prado, Danilo Marcelo Leite; Villares, Sandra Mara Ferreira; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Gualano, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT]) on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR). The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0%) and the relative VO(2) peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6%) were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4%) and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4%) were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5%) and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0%) were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%), but not in the ET group (1.2%). A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%). The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.

  10. Acute and delayed effects of high intensity interval resistance training organization on cortisol and testosterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Izzicupo, Pascal; Tacconi, Laura; Di Santo, Serena; Leogrande, Marina; Bucci, Ines; Ripari, Patrizio; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-03-01

    The use of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is widely diffused as strategy to enhance aerobic fitness and body composition. In order to offer a more complete training, resistance exercises have been added to HIIT (HIIRT). Aims of our study were to characterize both heart rate and hormonal responses elicited by three different protocols of HIIRT having the same exercises, the same load and number of repetitions for each exercise. Eight healthy trained men (28.61±3.51 years) performed three different workouts: exercise order, recovery and speed of execution were differently organized according to workout. Salivary samples were collected before and after each workout, at 11:00 p.m. and at 7:00 a.m. of the following day. Salive was also collected during a non-training day. Before and after the workout, plasma lactate was measured while a beat-to-beat heart rate recording was executed during each workout. Cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) were measured in salivary samples. Workouts elicited the same heart rate response while random organization seems to elicit the highest lactate, C and T increases. Also when we studied the effects of workouts on prolonged hormones production we observed that workout organization influenced post-exercise hormonal production until the following morning modifying their physiological trend. Even if exercises, load and number of repetitions were maintained fixed, exercise order, structured recovery and speed of execution determined different acute and prolonged effects. The knowledge of these responses is very important because may positively or negatively influence performance and health.

  11. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

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    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure: effect of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training versus continuous training

    OpenAIRE

    Freyssin, Céline; Prieur, Fabrice; Verkindt, Chantal; Benaich, Philippe; Maunier, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training protocol versus continuous training. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Cardiac rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=26; mean age ± SD, 54±12y) with chronic heart failure were enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program for 8 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups that performed either interval training (IT) or continuous training (CT). ...

  13. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (PHIIT group compared to HICR group. A greater improvement of aerobic capacity was observed in HIIT group (8.8%) compared to the HICR group (1.7%). In relation to physical fitness, the HIIT group improved in the vertical jump while the HICR group did not change. Both the HIIT and HICR groups showed greater improvements in T-test and sit-ups during the intervention period. This study shows the effectiveness of eleven sessions of HIIT in producing significant improvements in anaerobic capacity relevant to successful Taekwondo competition performance in collegiate Taekwondo athletes. This could inform the future planning of Taekwondo athletes' pre-competition training, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  14. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  15. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 as a high intensity training tool: aerobic and anaerobic responses.

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    Delahunt, Eamonn; Callan, Louise; Donohoe, Jessica; Melican, Ruth; Holden, Sinéad

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) as a high intensity training tool for sedentary university female students. Baseline measures were recorded for body fat percentage, Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) peak power and mean power, and Yo-Yo IR1 performance. Subjects were matched in pairs for body fat percentage and then randomly allocated to the intervention group (INT) (n=12) or control group (CON) (n=13). The INT undertook a 6-week training programme twice a week using the Yo-Yo IR1. The CON undertook no training. The INT increased their Yo-Yo IR1 performance (230±38m baseline vs 403±152m post-training), WAnT peak power (970±176 Watts baseline vs 1148±159 Watts post-training), and WAnT mean power (399±55 Watts baseline vs 439±53 Watts post-training) (p0.05). The results of this study show that a 6-week high intensity intermittent training programme using the Yo-Yo IR1 as a training intervention increases both aerobic and anaerobic capacity in a sedentary female population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of training status on high-intensity intermittent performance in response to β-alanine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2014-05-01

    Recent investigations have suggested that highly trained athletes may be less responsive to the ergogenic effects of β-alanine (BA) supplementation than recreationally active individuals due to their elevated muscle buffering capacity. We investigated whether training status influences the effect of BA on repeated Wingate performance. Forty young males were divided into two groups according to their training status (trained: T, and non-trained: NT cyclists) and were randomly allocated to BA and a dextrose-based placebo (PL) groups, providing four experimental conditions: NTPL, NTBA, TPL, TBA. BA (6.4 g day(-1)) or PL was ingested for 4 weeks, with participants completing four 30-s lower-body Wingate bouts, separated by 3 min, before and after supplementation. Total work done was significantly increased following supplementation in both NTBA (p = 0.03) and TBA (p = 0.002), and it was significantly reduced in NTPL (p = 0.03) with no difference for TPL (p = 0.73). BA supplementation increased mean power output (MPO) in bout 4 for the NTBA group (p = 0.0004) and in bouts 1, 2 and 4 for the TBA group (p ≤ 0.05). No differences were observed in MPO for NTPL and TPL. BA supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting the efficacy of BA as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise regardless of the training status of the individual.

  17. High-Intensity Small-Sided Games versus Repeated Sprint Training in Junior Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniseler Niyazi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity small-sided games training (SSGT versus repeated-sprint training (RST on repeated-sprint ability (RSA, soccer specific endurance performance and short passing ability among junior soccer players. The junior soccer players were recruited from of a professional team (age 16.9 ± 1.1 years. The tests included the repeated-shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSAT, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 and Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT. Nineteen participants were randomly assigned to either the small-sided games training (SSGTG (n = 10 or repeated-sprint training group (RSTG (n = 9. Small-sided games or repeated-sprint training were added to the regular training sessions for two days of the regular practice week. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to examine differences in groups and training effects. A time x training group effect was found in the improvement of short-passing ability for the smallsided games training group which showed significantly better scores than the repeated-sprint training group (p ≤ 0.05. Both groups showed similar improvements in RSAdecrement (p < 0.05. Only the repeated-sprint training group improved in the Yo-Yo IR1 (p < 0.05. This study clearly shows that high-intensity small-sided games training can be used as an effective training mode to enhance both repeated sprint ability and short-passing ability.

  18. Fiber type specific response of skeletal muscle satellite cells to high-intensity resistance training in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2015-01-01

    weekly. SC and myonuclear number were determined by immunohistochemistry of vastus lateralis muscle biopsy cross-sections. Knee extension torque was tested in a dynamometer. Results. During training SCs/type I fibers increased by 15%, whereas SCs/type II fibers remained unchanged. Myonuclear content...... of type II, but not type I, fibers increased with training. Before the control period, the SC content of type II fibers was lower than type I fibers, whereas contents were comparable when normalized to fiber area. Torque increased after training. Discussion. Increased myonuclear content of type II muscle......Introduction. The aim was to investigate the effect of high-intensity resistance training on satellite cell (SC) and myonuclear number in the muscle of patients undergoing dialysis. Methods. Patients (n=21) underwent a 16-week control period, followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice...

  19. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh; Shahin Riyahi Malayeri; Saeid Babaei

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the contr...

  20. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas; Raúl Aguilera Eguía; Cristian Cofre Bolados; Edson Zafra Santos; Gustavo Pavéz Von Martens

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxyg...

  2. Effect of high-intensity interval training on progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytrøen, Kari; Rustad, Lene Annette; Erikstad, Ingrid; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Lekva, Tove; Gude, Einar; Wilhelmsen, Nils; Hervold, Anders; Aakhus, Svend; Gullestad, Lars; Arora, Satish

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a progressive form of atherosclerosis occurring in heart transplant (HTx) recipients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Given the atheroprotective effect of exercise on traditional atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would reduce the progression of CAV among HTx recipients. Forty-three cardiac allograft recipients (mean ± SD age 51 ± 16 years; 67% men; time post-HTx 4.0 ± 2.2 years), all clinically stable and >18 years old, were randomized to either a HIIT group or control group (standard care) for 1 year. The effect of training on CAV progression was assessed by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). IVUS analysis revealed a significantly smaller mean increase [95% CI] in atheroma volume (PAV) of 0.9% [95% CI -;0.3% to 1.9%] in the HIIT group as compared with the control group, 2.5% [1.6% to 3.5%] (p = 0.021). Similarly, the mean increase in total atheroma volume (TAV) was 0.3 [0.0 to 0.6] mm(3)/mm in the HIT group vs 1.1 [0.6 to 1.7] mm(3)/mm in the control group (p = 0.020), and mean increase in maximal intimal thickness (MIT) was 0.02-0.01 to 0.04] mm in the HIIT group vs 0.05 [0.03 to 0.08] mm in the control group (p = 0.054). Qualitative plaque progression (virtual histology parameters) and inflammatory activity (biomarkers) were similar between the 2 groups during the study period. HIIT among maintenance HTx recipients resulted in a significantly impaired rate of CAV progression. Future larger studies should address whether exercise rehabilitation strategies should be included in CAV management protocols. © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sarir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C, supplementation (S, HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002. Also, serum TNF-a concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001 in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-a when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05. However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-a (P = 0.31 and IL-6 (P = 0.52 concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  4. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  5. Low-volume, high-intensity interval training in patients with CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Dubberley, Jonathan B; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-08-01

    Isocaloric interval exercise training programs have been shown to elicit improvements in numerous physiological indices in patients with CAD. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is effective in healthy populations; however, its effectiveness in cardiac rehabilitation has not been established. This study compared the effects of 12-wk of HIT and higher-volume moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) in patients with CAD. Twenty-two patients with documented CAD were randomized into HIT (n = 11) or END (n = 11) based on pretraining FMD. Both groups attended two supervised sessions per week for 12 wk. END performed 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 58% peak power output (PPO), whereas HIT performed ten 1-min intervals at 89% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO per session. Relative FMD was increased posttraining (END, 4.4% ± 2.6% vs 5.9% ± 3.6%; HIT, 4.6% ± 3.6% vs 6.1% ± 3.4%, P ≤ 0.001 pre- vs posttraining) with no differences between groups. A training effect was also observed for relative VO2 peak (END, 18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.3 ± 6.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); HIT, 19.8 ± 3.7 vs 24.5 ± 4.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), P cardiac rehabilitation. HIT elicited similar improvements in fitness and FMD as END, despite differences in exercise duration and intensity.

  6. Low-volume high-intensity interval training rapidly improves cardiopulmonary function in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonizakis, Markos; Moss, James; Gilbert, Stephen; Broom, David; Foster, Jeff; Tew, Garry A

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the effects of a 2-week program of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) with the effects of higher-volume moderate-intensity continuous training (CT) on cardiopulmonary and vascular functions in postmenopausal women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to undertake six HIT (n = 12) or CT (n = 10) sessions for 2 weeks. HIT sessions consisted of ten 1-minute intervals of cycling exercise at 100% of peak power output separated by 1 minute of active recovery. CT sessions involved 40 minutes of continuous cycling at 65% of peak power output. Variables assessed at baseline and 2 weeks included cardiopulmonary function (ventilatory threshold, peak oxygen uptake), macrovascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery), and microvascular function (reactive hyperemia and local thermal hyperemia of forearm skin). Eighteen participants completed the study (HIT, 11; CT, 7). Adherence to the exercise programs was excellent, with 107 of 108 sessions completed. Despite substantially lower total time commitment (∼2.5 vs. ∼5 h) and training volume (558 vs. 1,237 kJ) for HIT versus CT, increases from baseline in peak oxygen uptake achieved significance (P = 0.01) for the HIT group only (Δ = 2.2 mL kg min; P for interaction = 0.688). Improvements in exercise test duration were observed in both groups (HIT, 13%; CT, 5%; P for interaction = 0.194). There were no significant changes in macrovascular or microvascular function in either group. The findings suggest that low-volume HIT is feasible and can lead to rapid improvements in cardiopulmonary function in postmenopausal women.

  7. Alterations in Aerobic Exercise Performance and Gait Economy Following High-Intensity Dynamic Stepping Training in Persons With Subacute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Abigail L; Connolly, Mark; Holleran, Carey L; Hennessy, Patrick W; Woodward, Jane; Arena, Ross A; Roth, Elliot J; Hornby, T George

    2016-10-01

    in walking function. Providing high-intensity training to improve locomotor and aerobic exercise performance may increase the efficiency of rehabilitation sessions.Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A142).

  8. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K

    2018-01-15

    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of motor proficiency and adiponectin in adolescent students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder after high-intensity intermittent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Farnaz; Farahani, Abolfazl; Safakish, Sepide; Ramezankhani, Azam; Dehghan, Firouzeh

    2018-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition with frequent comorbidities such as obesity, troubled relationships, low self-esteem, and difficulty in motor proficiency. This study aims to elucidate the effect of high-intensity intermittent training on motor proficiency, adiponectin, and insulin resistance in adolescent students with ADHD disorder. Fifty adolescent students of both genders with ADHD diagnosis participated and assigned into four experimental groups (each group with 15 girls and 10 boys students; two experimental and two control groups). High-intensity intermittent training was performed continuously 3 times a week for 6 weeks in experimental groups. Serum adiponectin level significantly increased in the experimental groups of both genders after 6 weeks intermittent training while insulin resistance levels were markedly decreased. Furthermore, motor proficiency score were significantly improved in the experimental groups of both genders. In addition gender had no significant impact on adiponectin, insulin resistance and motor proficiency rating. The findings of this study suggest that high intensity intermittent training improved physiological systems in ADHD population that leads to reduce risk factors for future development of comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot study

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  12. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  13. High-Intensity Small-Sided Games versus Repeated Sprint Training in Junior Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniseler, Niyazi; Şahan, Çağatay; Özcan, Ilker; Dinler, Kıvanç

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity small-sided games training (SSGT) versus repeated-sprint training (RST) on repeated-sprint ability (RSA), soccer specific endurance performance and short passing ability among junior soccer players. The junior soccer players were recruited from of a professional team (age 16.9 ± 1.1 years). The tests included the repeated-shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSAT), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT). Nineteen participants were randomly assigned to either the small-sided games training (SSGTG) (n = 10) or repeated-sprint training group (RSTG) (n = 9). Small-sided games or repeated-sprint training were added to the regular training sessions for two days of the regular practice week. The Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to examine differences in groups and training effects. A time x training group effect was found in the improvement of short-passing ability for the smallsided games training group which showed significantly better scores than the repeated-sprint training group (p ≤ 0.05). Both groups showed similar improvements in RSAdecrement (p games training can be used as an effective training mode to enhance both repeated sprint ability and short-passing ability.

  14. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...

  15. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which......Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...

  16. High-intensity interval training improves insulin sensitivity in older individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, D; Lund, M T; Scheuer, C M

    2017-01-01

    alternative to regular endurance exercise, and the aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic benefit of HIIT in older subjects. METHODS: Twenty-two sedentary male (n = 11) and female (n = 11) subjects aged 63 ± 1 years performed HIIT training three times/week for 6 weeks on a bicycle ergometer. Each......AIM: Metabolic health may deteriorate with age as a result of altered body composition and decreased physical activity. Endurance exercise is known to counter these changes delaying or even preventing onset of metabolic diseases. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient...

  17. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  18. Training response to high-intensity interval training in a 42-year-old man with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Christopher R; Daniels, Jonathan A; Caruso, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    To review the outcome of 12 weeks of periodized, high-intensity interval training (HIT) in a man with chronic traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A 42-year-old man (180 cm tall, 68.4 kg and 32.0% Fat) with a C8/T1 motor complete SCI took part in 12 weeks of 3 days per week arm crank ergometry (ACE) interval training. Training consisted of a combination of HIT that included three times 5  min at ∼70% Peak Power (WPeak) and 5  min recovery (HIT5); four times 2.5  min at ∼85% WPeak and 5  min recovery (HIT2.5); ten times 1  min at ∼110% WPeak and 2  min recovery (HIT1). Heart rate (HR) zones were set as training efficacy. Thirty-six sessions that included 8 HIT5, 10 HIT2.5, and 5 HIT1 sessions were completed. WPeak and VO2 Peak improved about 45% and 52%, respectively, by week 6, without further improvement at week 12, HR TRIMP scores and power in training sessions trended upward over the 12-week program. Twelve weeks of HIT resulted in a large increase in peak aerobic power, as well as submaximal endurance performance in our participant. The early plateau in maximal testing supports the use of submaximal training assessment important in the long-term training monitoring for SCI.

  19. The Effects of Sport-Specific Drills Training or High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz, David; Sarabia, Jose Manuel; Moya, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of combining high-intensity training (HIT) and sport-specific drill training (MT) versus sportspecific drill training alone (DT) on fitness performance characteristics in young tennis players. Twenty young tennis players (14.8 ± 0.1 y) were assigned to either DT (n = 10) or MT (n = 10) for 8 wk. Tennis drills consisted of two 16- to 22-min on-court exercise sessions separated by 3 min of passive rest, while MT consisted of 1 sport-specific DT session and 1 HIT session, using 16-22 min of runs at intensities (90-95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) separated by 3 min of passive rest. Pre- and posttests included peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), VIFT, speed (20 m, with 5- and 10-m splits), 505 Agility Test, and countermovement jump (CMJ). There were significant improvements after the training period in VO2peak (DT 2.4%, ES = moderate; MT 4.2%, ES = large) and VIFT (DT 2.2%, ES = small; MT 6.3%, ES = large) for both DT and MT, with no differences between training protocols. Results also showed a large increase in the 505 Agility Test after MT, while no changes were reported in the other tests (sprint and CMJ), either for MT or DT. Even though both training programs resulted in significant improvements in aerobic performance, a mixed program combining tennis drills and runs based on the VIFT led to greater gains and should be considered the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  20. Effect of Schisandrae on stress system of soldiers undergone high-intensity military training

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    Nan XIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the changes in basic serum levels of hypothalamus-pituitrin-adrenal (HPA axis, hypothalamus-pituitrin-gonad (HPG axis and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in repeated acute stress caused by one-week intensive training, and study the effects of oral administration of Schisandrae, salidroside and Schisandrae compound on the contents of those stress hormones and cytokines mentioned above. Methods One hundred and twenty healthy soldiers chosen from junior infantry combat troops who had never received long-term amphibious training were randomly divided into four groups (30 each: group A (Schisandrae compound group, group B (Schisandrae group, group C (salidroside group and group D (control group. Each and every soldier of all the groups underwent high-intensity composite military training, 8 hours per day, for a week. Venous blood sampling was collected at 7:00-8:00 a.m. before and after the training, respectively. Levels of cortisol (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, testosterone (T, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in different groups were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The changes in the levels of all the above mentioned hormones and cytokines in every group were observed and compared. Results In group D, as compared with the pre-stress levels, no marked difference was found in the levels of serum CORT and ACTH (P>0.05, but the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group C, the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group A, the serum levels of CORT, ACTH, T, IL-1 and IL-6 significantly decreased, while that of IL-2 significantly increased (P<0.01. As compared with group D, the level of ACTH in group A and group B, the level of IL-2 in group C significantly decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions  Schisandrae and Schisandrae compound have a marked and lasting inhibitory effect on the activation of HPA axis and the elevation of serum CORT levels induced by stress, while the similar

  1. High intensity interval training does not impair strength gains in response to resistance training in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Filho, Suedi Gonçalves Cardoso; La Scala Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez; Steele, James; Fisher, James; Carneiro, Juliana Alves; Campos, Mário Hebling

    2017-06-01

    To compare the increases in upper- and lower-body muscle strength in premenopausal women performing resistance training (RT) alone or alongside concurrent high-intensity interval training (CT). Sixteen women (26-40 years) were randomly assigned into two groups that performed either RT or CT. Both groups performed the same RT program; however, CT performed additional high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a bicycle ergometer before RT. The study lasted 8 weeks and the participants were tested for ten repetition maximum (10RM) load in elbow flexion (barbell biceps curl) and knee extension exercises pre- and post-intervention. RT was performed with 10-12 repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum in the first four weeks and then progressed to 8-10. During CT, HIIT was performed before RT with six 1-min bouts at 7-8 of perceived subjective exertion (RPE) and then progressed to eight bouts at 9-10 RPE. Analysis of variance revealed significant increases in upper and lower body strength for both the RT and CT groups. Biceps barbell curl 10RM load increased from 12.9 ± 3.2 kg to 14 ± 1.5 kg in CT (p < 0.05) and from 13 ± 1.8 kg to 15.9 ± 2.5 kg in RT (p < 0.05), with no significant between-groups differences. Knee extension 10RM increase from 31.9 ± 11.6 kg to 37.5 ± 8.5 kg for CT (p < 0.05) and from 30.6 ± 8.6 kg to 41.2 ± 7.4 kg for RT (p < 0.05). In conclusion, performing HIIT on a cycle ergometer before resistance training does not seem to impair muscle strength increases in the knee extensors or elbow flexors of pre-menopausal women. This information should be considered when prescribing exercise sessions, since both activities may be combined without negative effects in muscle strength.

  2. Can harms associated with high-intensity drinking be reduced by increasing the price of alcohol?

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    Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the price of alcohol is consistently shown to reduce the average level of consumption. However, the evidence for the effect of increasing the price on high-intensity drinking is both limited and equivocal. The aim of this analysis is to estimate the effect of changes in price on patterns of consumption. Self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and demographic data were obtained from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, conducted in 2001, 2004 and 2007. A pooled three-stage least-squares estimator was used to simultaneously model the impact of the price on the frequency (measured in days) of consuming no, low, moderate and high quantities of alcohol. A 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a statistically significant increase of 6.41 days per year on which no alcohol is consumed (P ≤ 0.049), and a statistically significant decrease of 7.30 days on which 1-4 standard drinks are consumed (P ≤ 0.021). There was no statistically significant change for high or moderate-intensity drinking. For Australia, and countries with a similar pattern of predominant high-intensity drinking, taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol and are very efficient at decreasing harms associated with reduced average consumption may be relatively inefficient at decreasing alcohol harms associated with high-intensity drinking. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Load-controlled moderate and high-intensity resistance training programs provoke similar strength gains in young women.

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    Alegre, Luis M; Aguado, Xavier; Rojas-Martín, Diego; Martín-García, María; Ara, Ignacio; Csapo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While current exercise guidelines recommend progressive, high-intensity resistance training (RT) to promote muscle hypertrophy and strength gains, controversy exists regarding the efficacy of lighter-load RT. We compared 2 work-matched RT interventions that differed in training intensity. Fifteen women underwent 10 weeks of unilateral knee extensor RT. One leg was trained at increasing intensity (intensity leg, InL, 50-80% 1-repetition maximum [1-RM]), and training progression in the contralateral leg (volume leg, VoL, 50% 1-RM) was based on increasing training volumes. Quadriceps muscle size (ultrasound, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and strength (isokinetic dynamometry) were assessed on 4 occasions. Both training programs induced significant, yet comparable increases in muscle size (InL: +4.6-12%, VoL: +3.1-11%) and strength (InL: +10-16%, VoL: +10-14%). Training at lower than commonly suggested intensities may be an equally effective alternative form of RT. Factors other than training intensity, such as the total mechanical work during training, may strongly affect the training response. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Effect of high-intensity interval training on the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in type-2 diabetic adult patients].

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    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo; Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2015-03-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable chronic diseases in the world. Its prevalence in Chile is significant, and complications associated with this disease involve great costs, which is why prevention and treatment of this condition are essential. Physical exercise is an effective means for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The emergence of new forms of physical training, such as "high intensity interval training", presents novel therapeutic alternatives for patients and health care professionals. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high intensity interval training in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and answer the following question: In subjects with type 2 diabetes, can the method of high intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity exercise decrease glycosylated hemoglobin? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes". We found no significant differences in the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin between groups of high intensity interval training and moderate-intensity exercise upon completion of the study (p>0.05). In adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high intensity interval training does not significantly improve glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Despite this, the high intensity interval training method shows as much improvement in body composition and physical condition as the moderate intensity exercise program.

  5. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects.

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    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. The study included 24 male subjects aged 21-26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health.

  6. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

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    Kuno Hottenrott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17 or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17 for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min-1.kg-1], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h-1] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min-1.kg-1], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h-1] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01. Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.36. Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63. Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners

  7. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

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    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  8. Effects of 12 weeks high-intensity & reduced-volume training in elite athletes.

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    Anders Kilen

    Full Text Available It was investigated if high-intensity interval training (HIT at the expense of total training volume improves performance, maximal oxygen uptake and swimming economy. 41 elite swimmers were randomly allocated to a control (CON or HIT group. For 12 weeks both groups trained ∼12 h per week. HIT comprised ∼5 h vs. 1 h and total distance was ∼17 km vs. 35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10×10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 minutes of rest. Performance of 100 m all-out freestyle and 200 m freestyle was similar before and after the intervention in both HIT (60.4±4.0 vs. 60.3±4.0 s; n = 13 and 133.2±6.4 vs. 132.6±7.7 s; n = 14 and CON (60.2±3.7 vs. 60.6±3.8 s; n = 15 and 133.5±7.0 vs. 133.3±7.6 s; n = 15. Maximal oxygen uptake during swimming was similar before and after the intervention in both the HIT (4.0±0.9 vs. 3.8±1.0 l O2×min-1; n = 14 and CON (3.8±0.7 vs. 3.8±0.7 l O2×min-1; n = 11 group. Oxygen uptake determined at fixed submaximal speed was not significantly affected in either group by the intervention. Body fat % tended to increase (P = 0.09 in the HIT group (15.4±1.6% vs. 16.3±1.6%; P = 0.09; n = 16 and increased (P<0.05 in the CON group (13.9±1.5% vs. 14.9±1.5%; n = 17. A distance reduction of 50% and a more than doubled HIT amount for 12 weeks did neither improve nor compromise performance or physiological capacity in elite swimmers.

  9. High-intensity interval training combined with resistance training improves physiological capacities, strength and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenker, Pierre; Favret, Fabrice; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Muff, Guillaume; DE Seze, Jérôme; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2017-07-05

    Numerous studies have shown that mild-to-moderate intensity or resistance exercise training improves physical capacities such as, peak oxygen consumption, maximal tolerated power and strength in multiple sclerosis patients. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of high intensity interval training associated to with resistance training. Only few studies have analysed difference between men and women before and after combined training. Moreover, the evaluation of exercise between ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients without disability (EDSS 0- 3) and patients with disabilities (EDSS 3.5-5) was not largely published. The main objective of our study was to determine if high intensity interval training combined with resistance training improved aerobic and strength capacities as well as quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients and if gender and disabilities play a role in these changes. This study was an open-label uncontrolled study. The study was performed outside from conventional care facilities and including homebased training. 26 multiple sclerosis patients have completed the program (19 women/7men, Age 44.6+7.9years, Expanded Disability Status Score 2 (0-5)). We conducted a 12-week programme of high intensity interval training combined with resistance training at body weight. Peak oxygen consumption, maximal tolerated power, lactates, isokinetic strength of quadriceps and hamstrings (at 90°/sec, 180°/sec and 240°/sec) and quality of life were evaluated before and after the programme. Peak oxygen consumption and maximum tolerated power improved by 13.5% and 9.4%, respectively. Isokinetic muscle strength increased in both quadriceps and hamstrings at each speed, with a rebalancing of strength between the two legs in quadriceps. Quality of life was also enhanced in three domains. Women showed better improvements than men in VO2peak, maximal tolerated power, lactates at the end of test, and heart rate peak, strength in both quadriceps and

  10. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

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    Megan M. Thompson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness.

  11. [Effects of high-intensity interval training and nutritional education in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiamarchi, Pedro; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Patricio; Morales, Sylvana; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Bresciani, Guilherme; Álvarez, Cristian

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiometabolic markers, but its effects on the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well known. To determine the effects of a 12-week HIIT exercise program on cardiometabolic and quality of life variables of T2D patients. Nine T2D women were assigned to a HIIT + nutritional education (GE) and 10, to a nutritional education alone group (GC). At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometric and body composition parameters using bio-impedance were assessed, and a blood sample was obtained to measure serum lipid levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire adapted for the Chilean population. There were no significant changes on the lipid profile variables in the GE group, although HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the GC group. Total fat mass was decreased in the GE group from 43.5 ± 1.5 to 41.9 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased in the GE group. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in total fat mass and that of glycated hemoglobin. There were significant increases in quality of life parameters; physical function, physical role, pain, general health, vitality, emotional role, mental health, and social function in the GE but not in the GC group. A 12-week program of HIIT plus nutritional education improves cardiometabolic and quality of life parameters on type 2 diabetics.

  12. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  13. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H M

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk(-1)): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

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    Grete Flemmen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with substance use disorder (SUD suffer a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and other lifestyle diseases compared to the general population. High intensity training has been shown to effectively reduce this risk, and therefore we aimed to examine the feasibility and effect of such training in SUD patients in clinical treatment in the present study. 17 males and 7 females (32 ± 8 yr in treatment were randomized to either a training group (TG, treadmill interval training in 4 × 4 minutes at 90–95% of maximal heart rate, 3 days a week for 8 weeks, or a conventional rehabilitation control group (CG. Baseline values for both groups combined at inclusion were 44 ± 8 (males and 34 ± 9 (females mL · min−1 · kg−1, respectively. 9/12 and 7/12 patients completed the TG and CG, respectively. Only the TG significantly improved (15 ± 7% their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, from 42.3 ± 7.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at pretest to 48.7 ± 9.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at posttest. No between-group differences were observed in work economy, and level of insomnia (ISI or anxiety and depression (HAD, but a significant within-group improvement in depression was apparent for the TG. High intensity training was feasible for SUD patients in treatment. This training form should be implemented as a part of the rehabilitation since it, in contrast to the conventional treatment, represents a risk reduction for cardiovascular disease and premature death.

  15. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men.

  16. Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Secomb, Josh L; Parsonage, Joanna R; Lundgren, Lina E; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-09-01

    Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Parsonage, JR, Lundgren, LE, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Five weeks of sprint and high-intensity interval training improves paddling performance in adolescent surfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2446-2452, 2016-The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 10 seconds) and high-intensity interval training (HIT; 30 seconds) on surfing athletes paddling performance (400-m time trial and repeat-sprint paddle performance). Twenty-four competitive adolescent surfers (19 male, 5 female; age = 14.4 ± 1.3 years, mass: 50.1 ± 10.7 kg, and stature: 159.9 ± 10.3 cm) were assigned to perform either 5 weeks of SIT and HIT. Participants completed a repeated-sprint paddle ability test (RSPT, 15-m surfboard sprint paddle initiated every 40 seconds × 10 bouts) and 400-m endurance surfboard paddle time trial before and after training. High-intensity interval training decreased the total time to complete the 400 m by 15.8 ± 16.1 seconds (p = 0.03), and SIT decreased the total time to complete the RSPT by 6.5 ± 4.3 seconds (p = 0.02). Fatigue index during the RSPT (first-slowest effort) was lower after HIT and SIT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in performance changes in the 400 m (total time) and RSPT (total time, fastest 15 m time, and peak velocity) between HIT and SIT. Our study indicates that HIT and SIT may be implemented to the training program of surfers to improve aerobic and repeat-sprint paddle ability, both of which are identified as key aspects of the sport. In addition, these findings indicate that 400-m paddle and RSPT can discriminate between aerobic and anaerobic training adaptations, with aerobic gains likely from HIT and anaerobic gains from SIT.

  17. Concomitant application of sprint and high-intensity interval training on maximal oxygen uptake and work output in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebisz, Paulina; Hebisz, Rafał; Zatoń, Marek; Ochmann, Bartosz; Mielnik, Natalia

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of two different training modalities on maximal oxygen uptake and work output. Participants included 26 well-trained mountain bike cyclists were divided into two groups. The first group trained using a conventional endurance protocol at steady-state (moderate) intensity and variable-intensity (high-moderate-low) free of maximal efforts. The second group combined endurance training with a sprint and high-intensity interval training protocol, which, respectively, were based on 30 s maximal repetitions and 4 min high intensity repetitions. Training duration was 8 weeks. A graded exercise test was administered pre- and post-training. Work output, oxygen uptake, minute pulmonary ventilation, heart rate and stroke volume were determined during the test. While work output significantly increased post-training in both groups (P interval training group showed a greater magnitude of change (from 284.4 ± 91.9 to 314.2 ± 95.1 kJ) than the endurance training group (from 271.8 ± 73.3 to 283.4 ± 72.3 kJ). Significant increases in maximal oxygen uptake (from 57.9 ± 6.8 to 66.6 ± 5.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), maximal pulmonary ventilation and stroke volume were observed only in the interval training group. An exercise protocol involving endurance and sprint and high-intensity interval training was found to induce positive effects on maximal oxygen uptake in a group of well-trained cyclists with several years athletic experience.

  18. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-02-28

    Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT ( P =0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P =0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P =0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake ( P =0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P =0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. URL: http

  19. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (p<0.001), tension (p<0.05), fatigue (p<0.01) and a decreased vigor (p<0.001). Both HIIT and SSG sessions induced similar physiological responses, in contrast, HIIT produced a mood disturbance while SSG ensured mood balance. Practitioners could choose between these two exercises according to the objective of their training, keeping in mind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  20. Concurrent Training in Rugby Sevens: Effects of High-Intensity Interval Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robineau, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Bigard, Xavier; Babault, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players. Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period. From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; -0.54 ± 0.35, moderate). The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.

  1. Effects of 5 weeks of high-intensity interval training vs. volume training in 14-year-old soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; De Marées, Markus; Koehler, Karsten; Linville, John; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2011-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) in junior and adult soccer has been shown to improve oxygen uptake (VO₂) and enhance soccer performance. The main purpose of this study was to examine the short term effects of a 5-week HIIT vs. high-volume training (HVT) program in 14-year-old soccer players regarding the effects on VO₂max and 1,000-m time (T₁₀₀₀) and on sprinting and jumping performance. In a 5-week period, 19 male soccer players with a mean (SD) age of 13.5 ± 0.4 years performed HIIT at close to ~90% of maximal heart rate. The HVT intensity was set at 60-75% of maximal heart rate. VO₂max increased significantly (7.0%) from pre to post in HIIT but not after HVT. T₁₀₀₀ decreased significantly after HIIT (~-10 vs. ~-5 seconds in HVT). Sprint performance increased significantly in both groups from pre to posttesting without any changes in jumping performance.

  2. High-intensity training reduces intermittent hypoxia-induced ER stress and myocardial infarct size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdier, Guillaume; Flore, Patrice; Sanchez, Hervé; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Belaidi, Elise; Arnaud, Claire

    2016-01-15

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is described as the major detrimental factor leading to cardiovascular morbimortality in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OSA patients exhibit increased infarct size after a myocardial event, and previous animal studies have shown that chronic IH could be the main mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. High-intensity training (HIT) exerts beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, we hypothesized that HIT could prevent IH-induced ER stress and the increase in infarct size. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 21 days of IH (21-5% fraction of inspired O2, 60-s cycle, 8 h/day) or normoxia. After 1 wk of IH alone, rats were submitted daily to both IH and HIT (2 × 24 min, 15-30m/min). Rat hearts were either rapidly frozen to evaluate ER stress by Western blot analysis or submitted to an ischemia-reperfusion protocol ex vivo (30 min of global ischemia/120 min of reperfusion). IH induced cardiac proapoptotic ER stress, characterized by increased expression of glucose-regulated protein kinase 78, phosphorylated protein kinase-like ER kinase, activating transcription factor 4, and C/EBP homologous protein. IH-induced myocardial apoptosis was confirmed by increased expression of cleaved caspase-3. These IH-associated proapoptotic alterations were associated with a significant increase in infarct size (35.4 ± 3.2% vs. 22.7 ± 1.7% of ventricles in IH + sedenary and normoxia + sedentary groups, respectively, P < 0.05). HIT prevented both the IH-induced proapoptotic ER stress and increased myocardial infarct size (28.8 ± 3.9% and 21.0 ± 5.1% in IH + HIT and normoxia + HIT groups, respectively, P = 0.28). In conclusion, these findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damages in OSA patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cottrell Greg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function, but it is unknown whether HIT has the capacity to improve insulin action and hence glycemic control. Methods Sixteen young men (age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI: 23.7 ± 3.1 kg·m-2; VO2peak: 48 ± 9 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed 2 weeks of supervised HIT comprising of a total of 15 min of exercise (6 sessions; 4–6 × 30-s cycle sprints per session. Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial, and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT were determined before and after training. Results Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose, insulin and NEFA concentration-time curves were all reduced (12%, 37%, 26% respectively, all P -1, P = 0.058. Insulin sensitivity, as measured by the Cederholm index, was improved by 23% (P Conclusion The efficacy of a high intensity exercise protocol, involving only ~250 kcal of work each week, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise regimes.

  4. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Avazpor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects: 1. HIIT (type 1 including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2 including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1 was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2 was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1 and (type 2 had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin among HIIT (type 1, HIIT (type 2 and control.

  5. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno Hottenrott; Sebastian Ludyga; Stephan Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention...

  6. Increased high-intensity activity in elite Australian football finals matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Australian football (AF) is a highly intermittent sport, requiring athletes to accelerate hundreds of times with repeated bouts of high-intensity running (HIR). Players aim to be in peak physical condition for finals, with anecdotal evidence of increased speed and pressure of these games. However, no data exists on the running demands of finals games, and therefore the aim of this study was to compare the running demands of finals to regular season games with matched players and opponents. Player movement was recorded by GPS at 5 Hz and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for total distance, high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m·s-1) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m·s-2). All data was compared for regular season and finals games and the magnitude of effects was analyzed with the effect size (ES) statistic and expressed with confidence intervals. Each of the total distance (11%; ES: 0.78 ± 0.30), high-intensity running distance (9%; ES: 0.29 ± 0.25) and number of maximal accelerations (97%; ES: 1.30 ± 0.20) increased in finals games. The largest percentage increases in maximal accelerations occurred from a commencement velocity of between 3-4 (47%; ES: 0.56 ± 0.21) and 4-5 m·s-1 (51%; ES: 0.72 ± 0.26), and with <19 s between accelerations (53%; ES: 0.63 ± 0.27). Elite AF players nearly double the number of maximal accelerations in finals compared with regular season games. This large increase is superimposed on requirements to cover a greater total distance and spend more time at high velocity during finals games. Players can be effectively conditioned to cope with these increased demands, even during a long competitive season.

  7. The Effect of Age on the V˙O2max Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Helgerud, Jan; Sæbø, Mona; Støa, Eva Maria; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Unhjem, Runar J; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is documented to yield effective improvements in the cardiovascular system and be an excellent strategy for healthy aging. However, it is not determined how age may affect the training response of key components of aerobic endurance. We recruited 72 males (mean ± SD, weight = 84.9 ± 12.9 kg, height = 180.4 ± 5.8 cm) and 22 females (weight = 76.0 ± 17.2 kg, height = 171.2 ± 6.7 cm) from 20 to 70+ yr with a training status typical for their age group and divided them into six decade cohorts. The participants followed supervised training with a targeted intensity of 90%-95% of maximal HR (HRmax) three times a week for 8 wk. After HIIT, all age groups increased (P training status (r = 0.66, P training-induced decrease in the younger cohorts. In healthy individuals with an aerobic capacity typical for what is observed in the population, the training response is likely not affected by age in a short-term training intervention but may rather be affected by the initial training status. These findings imply that individuals across age all have a great potential for cardiovascular improvements, and that HIIT may be used as an excellent strategy for healthy aging.

  8. High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Batterham, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    ... question. Rather, the effectiveness of this form of exercise is at stake. In this paper we debate the issues concerning the likely success or failure of high-intensity interval training interventions for population-level health promotion...

  9. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Training on Appetite Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron Y; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2015-11-01

    An acute bout of high-intensity intermittent exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake at the postexercise meal. The present study examined the effects of 12 wk of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIIT) compared with moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) on appetite regulation. Thirty overweight inactive men (body mass index, 27.2 ± 1.3 kg·m(-2); V˙O2peak, 35.3 ± 5.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomized to either HIIT or MICT (involving 12 wk of training, three sessions per week) or a control group (CON) (n = 10 per group). Ad libitum energy intake from a laboratory test meal was assessed after both a low-energy (847 kJ) and a high-energy preload (2438 kJ) before and after the intervention. Perceived appetite and appetite-related blood variables were also measured. There was no significant effect of the intervention period on energy intake at the test meal after the two different preloads (P ≥ 0.05). However, the 95% confidence interval indicated a clinically meaningful decrease in energy intake after the high-energy preload compared with the low-energy preload in response to HIIT (516 ± 395 kJ decrease), but not for MICT or CON, suggesting improved appetite regulation. This was not associated with alterations in the perception of appetite or the circulating concentration of a number of appetite-related peptides or metabolites, although insulin sensitivity was enhanced with HIIT only (P = 0.003). HIIT seems to benefit appetite regulation in overweight men. The mechanisms for this remain to be elucidated.

  10. Benefits of High-Intensity Exercise Training to Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeselt, Tobias; Nell, Christoph; Lütteken, Lea; Kehr, Katharina; Koepke, Janine; Apelt, Sandra; Veith, Martina; Beutel, Björn; Spielmanns, Marc; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus F; Kenn, Klaus; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Alter, Peter; Koczulla, A Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Various exercise training programs are used for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of different severity. To investigate the impact of individualized high-intensity training on exercise capacity with COPD. A total of 49 patients agreed to participate. Of these, 31 were assigned to the training group and 18 served as controls. The training group exercised twice a week for 90 min with consecutively increasing loads. At the time of enrollment (T0), as well as after 3 (T1) and 6 (T2) months, a 6-min walk test (6-MWT) was performed and data on health-related quality of life, femoral muscle thickness, and various serum markers were obtained. The training group improved in their 6-MWT results (T0 = 407 ± 152 m vs. T1 = 459 ± 127 m, p = 0.002, vs. T2 = 483.2 ± 130.1 m, p = 0.004), in their cross-sectional area of the musculus rectus femoris (T0 = 6.2 ± 1.2 cm2 vs. T1 = 6.9 ± 1.2 cm2, p = 0.003, vs. 7.5 ± 1.6 cm2, p = 0.002), and in their St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (T0 = 43.3 ± 18.0 vs. T1 = 36.0 ± 18.4, p = 0.001, vs. T2 = 34.7 ± 18. 0, p = 0.004). Serum levels of myostatin, irisin, resistin, and α-Klotho did not change significantly within the training period. Of note, the exercise group showed an inverse relationship between serum levels of resistin and those of α-Klotho after 6 months (r = -0.608, p = 0.021). COPD patients undergoing an individualized, structured, high-intensity training program improved their exercise capacity, gained muscle mass, and improved their quality of life. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouerghi N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nejmeddine Ouerghi,1,2 Marwa Khammassi,1 Sami Boukorraa,1 Moncef Feki,2 Naziha Kaabachi,2 Anissa Bouassida,1,3 1Research Unit, Sportive Performance and Physical Rehabilitation, High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Kef, Tunisia, 2Laboratory of Biochemistry, Rabta Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, El Manar University, Tunis, 3Physiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Ibn el Jazzar, Sousse, Tunisia Background: Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. Methods: The study included 24 male subjects aged 21–26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8 comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8 comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Results: Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05], but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05. During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein

  12. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... and SSG, respectively, while GLUT-4 protein expression increased (P training improved muscle oxidative capacity and exercise performance more pronouncedly...... than small-sided game training, but comparable responses were in muscle ion transporters and antioxidative capacity in well-trained male soccer players....

  13. Impact of high-intensity concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in persons with multiple sclerosis - pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keytsman, Charly; Hansen, Dominique; Wens, Inez; O Eijnde, Bert

    2017-10-27

    High-intensity concurrent training positively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Because this was never investigated in multiple sclerosis, the present pilot study explored the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Before and after 12 weeks of high-intense concurrent training (interval and strength training, 5 sessions per 2 weeks, n = 16) body composition, resting blood pressure and heart rate, 2-h oral glucose tolerance (insulin sensitivity, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood glucose and insulin concentrations), blood lipids (high- and low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels) and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Twelve weeks of high-intense concurrent training significantly improved resting heart rate (-6%), 2-h blood glucose concentrations (-13%) and insulin sensitivity (-24%). Blood pressure, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein did not seem to be affected. Under the conditions of this pilot study, 12 weeks of concurrent high-intense interval and strength training improved resting heart rate, 2-h glucose and insulin sensitivity in multiple sclerosis but did not affect blood C-reactive protein levels, blood pressure, body composition and blood lipid profiles. Further, larger and controlled research investigating the effects of high-intense concurrent training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis is warranted. Implications for rehabilitation High-intensity concurrent training improves cardiovascular fitness. This pilot study explores the impact of this training on cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis. Despite the lack of a control group, high-intense concurrent training does not seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors in multiple sclerosis.

  14. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (ptraining*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Comparison of high-intensity vs. high-volume resistance training on the BDNF response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, David D; Hoffman, Jay R; Mangine, Gerald T; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Beyer, Kyle S; Wang, Ran; La Monica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-07-01

    This study compared the acute and chronic response of circulating plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to high-intensity low-volume (HI) and low-intensity high volume (HV) resistance training. Twenty experienced resistance-trained men (23.5 ± 2.6 y, 1.79 ± 0.05 m, 75.7 ± 13.8 kg) volunteered for this study. Before the resistance training program (PRE), participants performed an acute bout of exercise using either the HI [3-5 reps; 90% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] or HV (10-12 reps; 70% 1RM) training paradigm. The acute exercise protocol was repeated after 7 wk of training (POST). Blood samples were obtained at rest (BL), immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), and 60 min (60P) post exercise at PRE and POST. A three-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to analyze acute changes in BDNF concentrations during HI and HV resistance exercise and the effect of 7 wk of training. No training × time × group interaction in BDNF was noted (P = 0.994). Significant main effects for training (P = 0.050) and time (P training interaction (P = 0.342), training (P = 0.105), or group (P = 0.238) effect were noted in the BDNF area under the curve response. Results indicate that BDNF concentrations are increased after an acute bout of resistance exercise, regardless of training paradigm, and are further increased during a 7-wk training program in experienced lifters. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. High intensity training may reverse the fiber type specific decline in myogenic stem cells in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean eFarup

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is associated with loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The myogenic stem cells (satellite cells – SCs are instrumental to accretion of myonuclei, but remain to be investigated in MS. The present study aimed to compare the SC and myonuclei content between MS patients (n=23 and age matched healthy controls (HC, n=18. Furthermore, the effects of 12 weeks of high intensity training on SC and myonuclei content were explored in MS. Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. Vastus Lateralis at baseline (MS+HC and following 12 weeks of training (MS only. Frozen biopsies were sectioned followed by immunohistochemical analysis for fiber type specific SCs (Pax7+, myonuclei (MN and central nuclei content and fiber cross-sectional area (fCSA using ATPase histochemistry. At baseline the SCs per fiber was lower in type II compared to type I fiber in both MS (119%, p<0.01 and HC (69%, p<0.05, whereas the SCs per fCSA was lower in type II fibers compared to type I only in MS (72%, p<0.05. No differences were observed in MN or central nuclei between MS and HC. Following training the type II fiber SCs per fiber and fCSA in MS patients increased by 165% (p<0.05 and 135% (p<0.05, respectively. Furthermore, the type II fiber MN content increased by 35% (p<0.05 following training. In conclusion, the SC content is lower in type II compared to type I fibers in both MS and HC. Furthermore, high intensity training was observed to selectively increase the SC and myonuclei content in type II fibers in MS patients.

  17. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  18. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training as a Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, C; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Martinez-Salazar, C; Mancilla, R; Flores-Opazo, M; Cano-Montoya, J; Ciolac, E G

    2016-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the effects of low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiometabolic risk and exercise capacity in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sedentary overweight/obese T2DM women (age=44.5±1.8 years; BMI=30.5±0.6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to a tri-weekly running-based HIT program (n=13) or non-exercise control follow-up (CON; n=10). Glycemic control, lipid and blood pressure levels, endurance performance, and anthropometry were measured before and after the follow-up (16 weeks) in both groups. Medication intake was also assessed throughout the follow-up. Improvements (Pvolume HIT may be a time-efficient intervention to treat T2DM women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K.; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m−2) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in V·O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min−1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min−1 (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C ( p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C ( p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group

  1. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Hatle

    Full Text Available The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively.Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF or three weeks (high frequency, HF followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was evaluated before training, at the 9(th and 17(th session and four days after the final 24(th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training.The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126, whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035. The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026 twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001 above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609.Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  2. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review was to gather current knowledge on the effects of high-intensity training versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on endothelial function in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients. A systematic review was performed in PubMed database, Embase and Cochrane libraries and on PEDro using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Studies were restricted to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular patients, and healthy subjects as general reference. Interventions comprised of high-intensity training alone, high-intensity training compared to moderate-intensity continuous exercise, or no training, with endothelial function as outcome measure. Endothelial function was measured either physiologically by flow-mediated dilatation and/or by systemic biomarkers. Data were analyzed descriptively due to non-comparability for a meta-analysis to be performed. A total of 20 studies were included in the review. Although there was great heterogenecity in design, population and exercise protocols, all studies found high-intensity training to be safe. High-intensity training was equal to moderate-intensity continuous exercise through improvement in endothelial function in 15 of the 20 selected studies, as measured by flow-mediated dilatation, nitric oxide bioavailability and circulating biomarkers. Only a few studies examined high-intensity training in cerebrovascular patients, none with endothelial function as outcome. High-intensity training is promising as a time-efficient exercise strategy in cardiovascular rehabilitation, but data on endothelial effects in cerebrovascular rehabilitation are warranted. Agreement on a more uniform exercise protocol is

  3. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... analysed for metabolic enzyme activity and muscle protein expression. Moreover, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) was performed. RESULTS: Muscle CS maximal activity increased (P ...% in SET and SSG, respectively, while GLUT-4 protein expression increased (P training improved muscle oxidative capacity and exercise performance more...

  4. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak )]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT...... of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  5. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P training periods (P training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  6. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...... sessions (8-12 x 60 s at incremental test peak power; 271 ± 52 W) over a 2-week period. Before and after the HIT-period, V̇O2 kinetics was modelled during moderate intensity cycling (110 ± 19 W). Mitochondrial function was assessed with high-resolution respirometry (HRR) and maximal activities of oxidative...... not increase in response to training. Both before and after the HIT-period fast V̇O2 kinetics (low τ values) was associated with large values for ETFP, electron transport system capacity (ETS) and electron flow specific to complex II (CIIP) (P

  7. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  8. High-intensity interval training in patients with coronary heart disease: Prescription models and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paula A B; Boidin, Maxime; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Gayda, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as an alternative and/or complementary exercise modality to continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET) in CHD patients. However, the literature contains descriptions of many HIIT protocols with different stage durations, nature of recovery and intensities. In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of validated HIIT protocols in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and how to prescribe and use them during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. We also compare the superior and/or equivalent short- and long-term effects of HIIT versus CAET on aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, and quality of life; their efficiency, safety, and tolerance; and exercise adherence. Short interval HIIT was found beneficial for CHD patients with lower aerobic fitness and would ideally be used in initiation and improvement stages. Medium and/or long interval HIIT protocols may be beneficial for CHD patients with higher aerobic fitness, and would be ideally used in the improvement and maintenance stages because of their high physiological stimulus. Finally, we propose progressive individualized models of HIIT programs (phase II to III) for patients with CHD and how to ideally use them according to the clinical status of patients and phase of the cardiac rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    to HI20 (7.85±0.82 L; P=0.008) and MOD6 (7.90±0.74 L; P=0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity......PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables and the VO2 response. METHODS: Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2-max: 72.4±8.0·mL/min/kg, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO): 432±31 W......; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  10. [The effect of 24 weeks of moderate-to-high intensity strength training on the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà Serrabou, Marta; López del Amo, José Luis; Valero, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Strength programs have been seen to be useful in minimizing the effects of sarcopenia, although intervention protocols may vary in their content and characteristics. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of a particular strength protocol for the elderly. A total of 35 individuals took part in the study, with 18 in the exercise group (4 men and 14 women), and 17 in the control group (4 men and 13 women). The average age was 73. The exercise group carried out a strength training program at moderate to high intensity over 24 weeks. Strength was evaluated using the chair stand test, 2-minute step and 2 vertical jumps-squat jump (SJ), and countermovement jump (CMJ). Falls in both groups were also compared before and after the intervention, as well as their relationship with the chair stand variable. A tendency towards improvement was observed in all tests, with the exception of CMJ; while the control group showed a tendency in the opposite direction. Contrast between the two groups at the end of the intervention was notable in all the tests. An inverse relationship between the chair stand strength variable and the number of falls was evident. According to the results achieved, the training was perceived to exercise a positive influence on both the strength of the elderly people and a reduction of the number of falls. The gap between the two groups widened towards the end of the intervention. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    performance in trained young men. Method Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg−1 · min−1; means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion.......Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test...

  12. Feasibility and effects of a combined adjuvant high-intensity interval/strength training in breast cancer patients: a single-center pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian Viktor Waldemar; Laszlo, Roman; Otto, Stephanie; Prokopchuk, Dmytro; Schumann, Uwe; Ebner, Florian; Huober, Jens; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2017-03-21

    To evaluate feasibility of an exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity interval endurance and strength training in breast cancer patients. Twenty-six women with nonmetastatic breast cancer were consecutively assigned to the exercise intervention- (n= 15, mean age 51.9 ± 9.8 years) and the control group (n = 11, mean age 56.9 ± 7.0 years). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing that included lactate sampling, one-repetition maximum tests and a HADS-D questionnaire were used to monitor patients both before and after a supervised six weeks period of either combined high-intensity interval endurance and strength training (intervention group, twice a week) or leisure training (control group). Contrarily to the control group, endurance (mean change of VO2, peak 12.0 ± 13.0%) and strength performance (mean change of cumulative load 25.9 ± 11.2%) and quality of life increased in the intervention group. No training-related adverse events were observed. Our guided exercise intervention could be used effectively for initiation and improvement of performance capacity and quality of life in breast cancer patients in a relatively short time. This might be especially attractive during medical treatment. Long-term effects have to be evaluated in randomized controlled studies also with a longer follow-up. Implications for Rehabilitation High-intensity interval training allows improvement of aerobic capacity within a comparable short time. Standard leisure training in breast cancer patients is rather suitable for the maintenance of performance capacity and quality of life. Guided high-intensity interval training combined with strength training can be used effectively for the improvement of endurance and strength capacity and also quality of life. After exclusion of contraindications, guided adjuvant high-intensity interval training combined with strength training can be safely used in breast cancer patients.

  13. Chronic β2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise-induced bronchoconstri...

  14. High-intensity training vs. traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE:: to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and evaluate potential benefits with reference to common interventions; i.e. prolonged exercise and strength training. METHODS:: 36 untrained men were divided into groups...... that completed 12 weeks of intense interval running (INT; total training time 40 min a week), prolonged running ( approximately 150 min/week), strength training ( approximately 150 min/week) or continued their habitual life-style without participation in physical training. RESULTS:: The improvement...... in cardiorespiratory fitness was superior in INT (14+/-2% increase in VO2max) compared to the other two exercise interventions (7+/-2% and 3+/-2% increases). The blood glucose concentration 2 hours following oral ingestion of 75 g of glucose was lowered to a similar extent following training in the INT (from 6...

  15. Differential control of respiratory frequency and tidal volume during high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolò, Andrea; Marcora, Samuele M; Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? By manipulating recovery intensity and exercise duration during high-intensity interval training (HIIT), we tested the hypothesis that fast inputs contribute more than metabolic stimuli to respiratory frequency (fR ) regulation. What is the main finding and its importance? Respiratory frequency, but not tidal volume, responded rapidly and in proportion to changes in workload during HIIT, and was dissociated from some markers of metabolic stimuli in response to both experimental manipulations, suggesting that fast inputs contribute more than metabolic stimuli to fR regulation. Differentiating between fR and tidal volume may help to unravel the mechanisms underlying exercise hyperpnoea. Given that respiratory frequency (fR ) has been proposed as a good marker of physical effort, furthering the understanding of how fR is regulated during exercise is of great importance. We manipulated recovery intensity and exercise duration during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to test the hypothesis that fast inputs (including central command) contribute more than metabolic stimuli to fR regulation. Seven male cyclists performed an incremental test, a 10 and a 20 min continuous time trial (TT) as preliminary tests. Subsequently, recovery intensity and exercise duration were manipulated during HIIT (30 s work and 30 s active recovery) by performing four 10 min and one 20 min trial (recovery intensities of 85, 70, 55 and 30% of the 10 min TT mean workload; and 85% of the 20 min TT mean workload). The work intensity of the HIIT sessions was self-paced by participants to achieve the best performance possible. When manipulating recovery intensity, fR , but not tidal volume (VT ), showed a fast response to the alternation of the work and recovery phases, proportional to the extent of workload variations. No association between fR and gas exchange responses was observed. When manipulating exercise duration, fR and rating of

  16. High-intensity Interval Training Frequency: Cardiometabolic Effects and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, Pinelopi S; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Terzis, Gerasimos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2018-02-02

    The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) frequency on cardiometabolic health and quality of life were examined in 35 healthy inactive adults (age: 31.7±2.6 yrs, VO 2 peak: 32.7±7.4 ml·: kg -1 ·: min -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and two training groups, which performed 10×60-s cycling at ~83% of peak power, two (HIIT-2) or three times per week (HIIT-3) for eight weeks. Compared with CON, both training regimes resulted in similar improvements in VO 2 peak (HIIT-2: 10.8%, p=0.048, HIIT-3: 13.6%, p=0.017), waist circumference (HIIT-2: -1.4 cm, p=0.048, HIIT-3: -2.4 cm, p=0.028), thigh cross-sectional area (HIIT-2: 11.4 cm 2 , p=0.001, HIIT-3: 9.3 cm 2 , p=0.001) and the physical health component of quality of life (HIIT-2: 8.4, p=0.001, HIIT-3: 12.2, p=0.001). However, HIIT-3 conferred additional health-related benefits by reducing total body and trunk fat percentage (pHIIT only twice per week is effective in promoting cardiometabolic health-related adaptations and quality of life in inactive adults. However, higher HIIT frequency is required for an effect on fat deposits, cholesterol and mental component of well-being. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effects of high intensity training by heart rate or power in recreational cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Plasschaert, Jeff; Kisaalita, Nkaku R

    2011-01-01

    Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR) monitors and powermeters (PM). Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT), lactate threshold (LT) power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max) in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13) completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1) interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs) showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16) = 28., p training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices. Key pointsInterval training improves performance for recreational cyclists as measure by changes in lactate threshold watts and 20km time trial timeNo evidence of superiority of either heart monitor training and power meter trainingLow cost heart rate monitors are equally capable as training devices.

  18. A Practical Model of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training Induces Performance and Metabolic Adaptations That Resemble ‘All-Out’ Sprint Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ˟ 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ˟ 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05) following training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05), but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min) significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key points Given the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations. The results demonstrate that a

  19. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble 'all-out' sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mahdi; Farzad, Babak; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts ˟ 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts ˟ 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery) and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax) and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p training were found in VO2max (9.6%), power at VO2max (12.8%), Tmax (48.4%), peak power output (10.3%) and mean power output (17.1%). In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%), power at VO2max (16.1%), Tmax (54.2%), peak power output (7.4%; p training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions. Key pointsGiven the markedly lower training volume in the training groups, our results suggest that intense interval training is indeed a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid metabolic and performance adaptations.The results demonstrate that a practical low-volume HIT program is effective for improving metabolic and performance adaptations that resemble many of the same performance gains occurred in all-out SIT protocol.

  20. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, D; Morgan, G

    2010-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure?

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    Bruno R R Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the psychological responses to continuous (CT and high-intensity interval training (HIT sessions. METHODS: Fifteen men attended one CT session and one HIT session. During the first visit, the maximum heart rate, VO2Peak and respiratory compensation point (RCP were determined through a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HIT stimulus intensity corresponded to 100% of VO2Peak, and the average intensity of both sessions was maintained at 15% below the RCP. The order of the sessions was randomized. Psychological and physiological variables were recorded before, during and after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the average percentages of VO2 during the two exercise sessions (HIT: 73.3% vs. CT: 71.8%; p = 0.779. Lower responses on the feeling scale (p≤0.01 and higher responses on the felt arousal scale (p≤0.001 and the rating of perceived exertion were obtained during the HIT session. Despite the more negative feeling scale responses observed during HIT and a greater feeling of fatigue (measured by Profile of Mood States afterwards (p<0.01, the physical activity enjoyment scale was not significantly different between the two conditions (p = 0.779. CONCLUSION: Despite the same average intensity for both conditions, similar psychological responses under HIT and CT conditions were not observed, suggesting that the higher dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIT negatively influenced the feeling scale responses.

  2. Effects of inspiratory muscle training upon recovery time during high intensity, repetitive sprint activity.

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    Romer, L M; McConnell, A K; Jones, D A

    2002-07-01

    The present study examined the influence of specific inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon recovery time during repetitive sprint activity, as well as the physiological and perceptual responses to fixed intensity shuttle running. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 24 male repetitive sprint athletes were assigned randomly to either an IMT (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12) group. The self-selected recovery time during a repetitive sprint test and the physiological response to submaximal endurance exercise were determined. Following completion of baseline and pre-intervention measures, the IMT group performed 30 inspiratory efforts twice daily against a resistance equivalent to 50 % maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) for 6 wk. The placebo group performed 60 breaths once daily, for 6 wk, at a resistance equivalent to 15 % MIP, a load known to elicit negligible changes in respiratory muscle function. The IMT group improved total recovery time during the repetitive sprint test by 6.2 +/- 1.1 % (mean +/- SEM) above the changes noted for the placebo group (p = 0.006). Blood lactate and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise were also significantly attenuated following IMT (p lactate and perceptual responses to submaximal endurance exercise. In addition, the present study provides new evidence that IMT improves recovery time during high intensity, intermittent exercise in repetitive sprint athletes.

  3. Effects of autonomous motivational priming on motivation and affective responses towards high-intensity interval training.

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    Brown, Denver M Y; Teseo, Amanda J; Bray, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the effect of autonomous motivational priming on motivation, attitudes and intentions towards high-intensity interval training (HIT). Participants (N = 42) performed a graded exercise test to determine their peak aerobic power (WPEAK). At a subsequent testing session, participants were randomised to complete either an autonomous or neutral motivational priming task followed by a 10 × 1 HIT exercise protocol, alternating 1-min bouts of hard (70% WPEAK) and light (12.5% WPEAK) exercises for 20 min. Participants primed with autonomous motivation reported greater enjoyment, P = .009, ηp(2) = .16, and perceived competence, P = .005, ηp(2) = .18, post-exercise compared to those in the neutral priming condition. Participants in the autonomous motivational priming condition also reported more positive attitudes, P = .014, ηp(2) = .14, towards HIT; however, there was no difference between the conditions for task motivation during HIT or intentions, P = .53, ηp(2) = .01, to engage in HIT. These findings highlight autonomous motivational priming as a method of enhancing affective and motivational experiences regarding HIT.

  4. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

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    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  5. Preseason Training: The Effects of a 17-Day High-Intensity Shock Microcycle in Elite Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, David Sanz-Rivas, Jose Manuel Sarabia, Manuel Moya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preseasons in tennis are normally reduced to 5 to 7 weeks duration, and coaches should use an integrated approach to conditioning and skill-based work. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of adding a high-intensity training (HIT shock microcycle to the normal training content in several physical performance indicators in the preseason training of high-level male tennis players. Over 17 days, 12 male tennis players performed 13 HIT sessions in addition to their usual training. Physical performance tests (30:15 intermittent fitness test [VIFT], 20 m sprint, countermovement jump [CMJ], repeated sprint ability [RSA] were conducted before (pre-test and 5 days after the intervention (post-test. After the shock microcycle, results showed a significant increase in the VIFT (p < 0.001; Large ES and a significant decrease in the mean RSA time (RSAm (p = 0.002; Small ES, while there were no significant changes in the other parameters analysed (e.g., 20 m, CMJ, best RSA time [RSAb]; percentage of decrement in the RSA [%Dec]. Moreover, the training load (TL during tennis sessions was significantly higher (p < 0.01; Large ES than the TL during the integrated sessions, except during the first training session. A 17-day shock microcycle (i.e., 13 HIT sessions in addition to the regular tennis training significantly improved parameters that can impact physical performance in tennis. Moreover, additional sessions, including running exercises based on the 30:15ITF and on-court specific exercises, were characterised by significantly lower TL than tennis-training sessions.

  6. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

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    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  7. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HR peak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HR peak . Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  8. High-intensity intermittent exercise training with chlorella intake accelerates exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Uchida, Masataka; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic chlorella intake alone or in combination with high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the four groups: sedentary control, chlorella intake (0.5% chlorella powder in normal feed), HIIE training, and combination of HIIE training and chlorella intake for 6 wk ( n = 10 each group). HIIE training comprised 14 repeats of a 20-s swimming session with a 10-s pause between sessions, while bearing a weight equivalent to 16% of body weight, 4 days/week. Exercise performance was tested after the interventions by measuring the maximal number of HIIE sessions that could be completed. Chlorella intake and HIIE training significantly increased the maximal number of HIIE sessions and enhanced the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1, MCT4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α concomitantly with the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome- c oxidase (COX) in the red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the combination further augmented the increased exercise performance and the enhanced expressions and activities. By contrast, in the white region of the muscle, MCT1 expression and LDH, CS, and COX activities did not change. These results showed that compared with only chlorella intake and only HIIE training, chlorella intake combined with HIIE training has a more pronounced effect on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, in particular, lactate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  10. A Single Bout of High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Motor Skill Retention in Individuals With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepveu, Jean-Francois; Thiel, Alexander; Tang, Ada; Fung, Joyce; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Boyd, Lara A; Roig, Marc

    2017-08-01

    One bout of high-intensity cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor skill promotes changes in the neuroplasticity of the motor cortex and facilitates motor learning in nondisabled individuals. To determine if a bout of exercise performed at high intensity is sufficient to induce neuroplastic changes and improve motor skill retention in patients with chronic stroke. Twenty-two patients with different levels of motor impairment were recruited. On the first session, the effects of a maximal graded exercise test on corticospinal and intracortical excitability were assessed from the affected and unaffected primary motor cortex representational area of a hand muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation. On the second session, participants were randomly assigned to an exercise or a nonexercise control group. Immediately after practicing a motor task, the exercise group performed 15 minutes of high-intensity interval training while the control group rested. Twenty-four hours after motor practice all participants completed a test of the motor task to assess skill retention. The graded exercise test reduced interhemispheric imbalances in GABAA-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition but changes in other markers of excitability were not statistically significant. The group that performed high-intensity interval training showed a better retention of the motor skill. The performance of a maximal graded exercise test triggers only modest neuroplastic changes in patients with chronic stroke. However, a single bout of high-intensity interval training performed immediately after motor practice improves skill retention, which could potentially accelerate motor recovery in these individuals.

  11. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Intensity Strength Training Improves Function of Chronically Painful Muscles: Case-Control and RCT Studies

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    Lars L. Andersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Methods. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n=42 and healthy controls (CON, n=20 participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n=18, general fitness training (GFT, n=16, or a reference group without physical training (REF, n=8. Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Results. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Conclusion. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle.

  13. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles: case-control and RCT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H; Suetta, Charlotte; Søgaard, Karen; Saltin, Bengt; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the trapezius muscle than healthy controls. High-intensity strength training effectively improves strength capacity during repetitive MVC of the painful trapezius muscle.

  14. Adding high-intensity interval training to conventional training modalities: optimizing health-related outcomes during chemotherapy for breast cancer: the OptiTrain randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Jervaeus, Anna; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Margolin, Sara; Browall, Maria; Rundqvist, Helene; Wengström, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    Exercise training is an effective and safe way to counteract cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). High-intensity interval training has proven beneficial for the health of clinical populations. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), and moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) to usual care (UC) in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was CRF and the secondary endpoints were HRQoL and cancer treatment-related symptoms. Two hundred and forty women planned to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to supervised RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Questionnaires included Piper Fatigue Scale, EORTC-QLQ-C30, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The RT-HIIT group was superior to UC for CRF: total CRF (p = 0.02), behavior/daily life (p = 0.01), and sensory/physical (p = 0.03) CRF. Role functioning significantly improved while cognitive functioning was unchanged for RT-HIIT compared to declines shown in the UC group (p = 0.04). AT-HIIT significantly improved emotional functioning versus UC (p = 0.01) and was superior to UC for pain symptoms (p = 0.03). RT-HIIT reported a reduced symptom burden, while AT-HIIT remained stable compared to deteriorations shown by UC (p HIIT was superior to UC for total symptoms (p HIIT was effective in preventing increases in CRF and in reducing symptom burden for patients during chemotherapy for breast cancer. These findings add to a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of structured exercise prescriptions, including HIIT, as a vital component of cancer rehabilitation. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02522260.

  15. Reduced leptin level is independently of fat mass changes and hunger scores from high-intensity intermittent plus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Gonçalves Panissa, Valéria L; Mello Antunes, Barbara; Poleto de Oliveira, Flaviane; Bernardes Malta, Raoni; Santos Caldeira, Renan; Zapaterra Campos, Eduardo; Duarte Pimentel, Gustavo; Franchini, Emerson; Santos Lira, Fábio

    2017-05-09

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) plus strength training on body composition, hormone related to energetic balance (leptin), and hunger scores in physically active non-obese men. Sixteen men were allocated in two different groups, training group (n=10) performed a combined HIIT (5 km, 1 min of effort interspersed by 1 min of rest in passive recovery) followed by strength exercise session (three sets, with load of 8-12 repetition maximum) twice a week, during 8 weeks, while control group (n=6) did not suffer any intervention. Hunger scores, leptin concentrations and body composition were assessed. Body composition, fasting leptin and hunger score were compared through two-way analysis (group and period) with repeated measures in the second factor while leptin and hunger scores in exercise session pre- and post-8weeks through two-way analysis (period and time of measurement) with repeated measures in the second factor. The fasting leptin decreased pre- to post-8week in training group (7.7 ± 4.9 to 2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p = 0.012). For leptin response to exercise session there was main effect of training period, with higher values pre- (6.5 ± 3.9 ng/ml) than post-training (2.6 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.001). For hunger scores there was effect of time of measurement (p <0.001), decreasing after breakfast and increasing over the experiment. Combined HIIT plus strength training were able to promote alterations in a hormone related to energy balance independent of body composition and hunger index alterations in physically active non-obese men.

  16. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT ( p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO 2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON ( p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO 2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able

  17. High-intensity interval training and calorie restriction promote remodeling of glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel A H; Halbrooks, Jacob E; Watkins, Emily E; Fisher, Gordon; Hunter, Gary R; Nagy, Tim R; Plaisance, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 wk, followed by randomization to one of four groups (n = 8/group) for an additional 15 wk: 1) CON (remain on HFD), 2) CR (25% lower energy intake), 3) CR + HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12.5% CR and 12.5% EE through HIIT), and 4) CR + MIT (25% energy deficit created by 12.5% CR and 12.5% EE through MIT). Markers of adipose thermogenesis (Ucp1, Prdm16, Dio2, and Fgf21) were unchanged in either exercise group in inguinal or epididymal WAT, whereas CR + HIIT decreased Ucp1 expression in retroperitoneal WAT and brown adipose tissue. HIIT rescued CR-mediated reductions in lean body mass (LBM) and resting energy expenditure (REE), and both were associated with improvements in glucose/insulin tolerance. Improvements in glucose metabolism in the CR + HIIT group appear to be linked to a molecular signature that enhances glucose and lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Exercise performed at either moderate or high intensity does not increase markers of adipose thermogenesis when performed in the presence of CR but remodels skeletal muscle metabolic and thermogenic capacity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Batterham, Alan M

    2015-07-18

    The efficacy of high-intensity interval training for a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic health outcomes is not in question. Rather, the effectiveness of this form of exercise is at stake. In this paper we debate the issues concerning the likely success or failure of high-intensity interval training interventions for population-level health promotion. Biddle maintains that high-intensity interval training cannot be a viable public health strategy as it will not be adopted or maintained by many people. This conclusion is based on an analysis of perceptions of competence, the psychologically aversive nature of high-intensity exercise, the affective component of attitudes, the less conscious elements of motivated behaviour that reflect our likes and dislikes, and analysis using the RE-AIM framework. Batterham argues that this appraisal is based on a constrained and outmoded definition of high-intensity interval training and that truly practical and scalable protocols have been - and continue to be - developed. He contends that the purported displeasure associated with this type of exercise has been overstated. Biddle suggests that the way forward is to help the least active become more active rather than the already active to do more. Batterham claims that traditional physical activity promotion has been a spectacular failure. He proposes that, within an evolutionary health promotion framework, high-intensity interval training could be a successful population strategy for producing rapid physiological adaptations benefiting public health, independent of changes in total physical activity energy expenditure. Biddle recommends that we focus our attention elsewhere if we want population-level gains in physical activity impacting public health. His conclusion is based on his belief that high-intensity interval training interventions will have limited reach, effectiveness, and adoption, and poor implementation and maintenance. In contrast, Batterham maintains that there

  19. Effect of high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular function, VO2max, and muscular force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Allen, Ryan P; Roberson, Daniel W; Jurancich, Matt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiovascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular force. Active, young (age and body fat = 25.3 ± 4.5 years and 14.3 ± 6.4%) men and women (N = 20) of a similar age, physical activity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) completed 6 sessions of HIIT consisting of repeated Wingate tests over a 2- to 3-week period. Subjects completed 4 Wingate tests on days 1 and 2, 5 on days 3 and 4, and 6 on days 5 and 6. A control group of 9 men and women (age and body fat = 22.8 ± 2.8 years and 15.2 ± 6.9%) completed all testing but did not perform HIIT. Changes in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), VO2max, body composition, oxygen (O2) pulse, peak, mean, and minimum power output, fatigue index, and voluntary force production of the knee flexors and extensors were examined pretraining and posttraining. Results showed significant (p VO2max, O2 pulse, and Wingate-derived power output with HIIT. The magnitude of improvement in VO2max was related to baseline VO2max (r = -0.44, p = 0.05) and fatigue index (r = 0.50, p 0.05) in resting BP, HR, or force production was revealed. Data show that HIIT significantly enhanced VO2max and O2 pulse and power output in active men and women.

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  1. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  3. THE EFFECTS OF A SHORT TERM HIGH-INTENSITY CIRCUIT TRAINING EXERCISE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Takakura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity is one non-communicable disease threatening to become the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Japan is no exception especially in the younger population. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity circuit exercise training (HICET in university students. The second purpose is to examine the factors influencing exercise adherence. Methods: This study was a home based experimental study with 65 healthy participants from the Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, Japan. An independent variable was the 7-minute HICET and a dependent variable was the physical fitness test (PFT results. All participants were instructed to perform once daily a cycle of HICET, 2-3 times a week non-consecutively for 8 weeks. Pre and post PFT scores for men and women were compared for the effectiveness of the program. A brief survey was conducted 8 weeks after the completion of the study. Results: Both groups showed improvement in sit-up, push-up, and 5-minute run after the 8 week HICET. The changes between pre and post scores were significant in all but the 5-minute run for women. Discontinuation rate 8 weeks after the study was higher in women than in men, but not statistically significant with no dropouts during intervention. Discussion: An 8 week home based HICET significantly improved strength for both genders and endurance for men of the university students when measured by PFT. The exercise barriers should be assessed and adapted to fit individual needs to improve adherence rate.

  4. Modulation of inflammatory response arising from high-intensity intermittent and concurrent strength training in physically active males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; de Oliveira, Flaviane Poleto; Peres, Fernando Pierin; Rosa-Neto, José Cesar; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Lira, Fabio Santos

    2017-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (i) the extent of an acute session of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) followed by a concurrent strength session (Conc) on the increase of systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and (ii) whether eight weeks of high intensity interval training plus concurrent strength training alters the acute inflammatory response and immune status. Ten recreationally active males (aged 26.9±4.3years) performed two experimental exercise sessions interspersed by eight weeks of HIIT plus concurrent strength training. The experimental exercise session was composed of a 5-km run on a treadmill (1:1 at 100% of maximal aerobic speed (MAS)), and after 10min of passive recovery, back squat exercises were performed (80% 1RM, four sets until exhaustion). Serum samples were collected after fasting, pre-HIIE, post-HIIE, Pre-Conc, Post-Conc, and 30 and 60min post-exercise session. The comparison between both concurrent exercise sessions was performed using repeated measure ANOVA, with the Bonferroni Post-hoc when necessary. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) presented a moment effect (F=6.72; p<0.05), with Post-Conc significantly higher than pre-HIIE, Post-HIIE, and 60min, only a tendency was found between pre-HIIE and post-HIIE (difference=-5.99; p=0.09). MCP-1 and IL-1ra did not present effects for condition, moment, or interaction. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) presented both moment and interaction effects (F=5.31 and 2.50; p=0.005 and 0.036). Pre-Conc and Post-Conc were significantly higher than Pre-HIIE. The interaction between before and after eight weeks of concurrent training probably occurred at Post-Conc (11.42±3.09pgmL -1 and 8.88±1.29pgmL -1 ). In addition, maintenance of immune function was observed. Therefore, HIIE and concurrent strength exercise lead to an increase in cytokines response, but eight weeks of training program promoted anti-inflammatory response after an acute session of concurrent exercise. Copyright © 2016

  5. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2017-01-01

    analysed for metabolic enzyme activity and muscle protein expression. Moreover, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) was performed. RESULTS: Muscle CS maximal activity increased (P ... and SSG, respectively, while GLUT-4 protein expression increased (P Yo-Yo IR2 performance than SSG. CONCLUSION: Speed endurance training improved muscle oxidative capacity and exercise performance more pronouncedly...

  6. High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT) influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Neri, Marco; Bianco, Antonino; Palma, Antonio; Grimaldi, Keith

    2012-11-24

    The benefits of exercise are well established but one major barrier for many is time. It has been proposed that short period resistance training (RT) could play a role in weight control by increasing resting energy expenditure (REE) but the effects of different kinds of RT has not been widely reported. We tested the acute effects of high-intensity interval resistance training (HIRT) vs. traditional resistance training (TT) on REE and respiratory ratio (RR) at 22 hours post-exercise. In two separate sessions, seventeen trained males carried out HIRT and TT protocols. The HIRT technique consists of: 6 repetitions, 20 seconds rest, 2/3 repetitions, 20 secs rest, 2/3 repetitions with 2'30″ rest between sets, three exercises for a total of 7 sets. TT consisted of eight exercises of 4 sets of 8-12 repetitions with one/two minutes rest with a total amount of 32 sets. We measured basal REE and RR (TT0 and HIRT0) and 22 hours after the training session (TT22 and HIRT22). HIRT showed a greater significant increase (p < 0.001) in REE at 22 hours compared to TT (HIRT22 2362 ± 118 Kcal/d vs TT22 1999 ± 88 Kcal/d). RR at HIRT22 was significantly lower (0.798 ± 0.010) compared to both HIRT0 (0.827 ± 0.006) and TT22 (0.822 ± 0.008). Our data suggest that shorter HIRT sessions may increase REE after exercise to a greater extent than TT and may reduce RR hence improving fat oxidation. The shorter exercise time commitment may help to reduce one major barrier to exercise.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training (HIRT influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paoli Antonio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of exercise are well established but one major barrier for many is time. It has been proposed that short period resistance training (RT could play a role in weight control by increasing resting energy expenditure (REE but the effects of different kinds of RT has not been widely reported. Methods We tested the acute effects of high-intensity interval resistance training (HIRT vs. traditional resistance training (TT on REE and respiratory ratio (RR at 22 hours post-exercise. In two separate sessions, seventeen trained males carried out HIRT and TT protocols. The HIRT technique consists of: 6 repetitions, 20 seconds rest, 2/3 repetitions, 20 secs rest, 2/3 repetitions with 2′30″ rest between sets, three exercises for a total of 7 sets. TT consisted of eight exercises of 4 sets of 8–12 repetitions with one/two minutes rest with a total amount of 32 sets. We measured basal REE and RR (TT0 and HIRT0 and 22 hours after the training session (TT22 and HIRT22. Results HIRT showed a greater significant increase (p 22 2362 ± 118 Kcal/d vs TT22 1999 ± 88 Kcal/d. RR at HIRT22 was significantly lower (0.798 ± 0.010 compared to both HIRT0 (0.827 ± 0.006 and TT22 (0.822 ± 0.008. Conclusions Our data suggest that shorter HIRT sessions may increase REE after exercise to a greater extent than TT and may reduce RR hence improving fat oxidation. The shorter exercise time commitment may help to reduce one major barrier to exercise.

  8. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Andrew P; Carter, Rickey E; Ogle, Eric A; Joyner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT) or combined IT and continuous training (CT) have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1). This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1)≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women) from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1) (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1)) was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1)) changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  9. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  10. Effects of a high-intensity task-oriented training on gait performance early after stroke: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outermans, J.C.; van Peppen, R.P.; Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Kwakkel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and the effects on gait of a high intensity task-oriented training, incorporating a high cardiovascular workload and large number of repetitions, in patients with subacute stroke, when compared to a low intensity physiotherapy-programme. Design and subjects:

  11. Interleukin-6 and vitamin D status during high-intensity resistance training in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to investigate IL-6 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) associations with muscle size and muscle function in dialysis patients. Methods. Patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of high-intensity resistance training thrice weekly....

  12. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher intensity.

  13. The relationship between cardiac autonomic function and maximal oxygen uptake response to high-intensity intermittent-exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutcher, Stephen H; Park, Young; Dunn, Sarah Louise; Boutcher, Yati N

    2013-01-01

    Major individual differences in the maximal oxygen uptake response to aerobic training have been documented. Vagal influence on the heart has been shown to contribute to changes in aerobic fitness. Whether vagal influence on the heart also predicts maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training, however, is undetermined. Thus, the relationship between baseline vagal activity and the maximal oxygen uptake response to interval-sprinting training was examined. Exercisers (n = 16) exercised three times a week for 12 weeks, whereas controls did no exercise (n = 16). Interval-sprinting consisted of 20 min of intermittent sprinting on a cycle ergometer (8 s sprint, 12 s recovery). Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed using open-circuit spirometry. Vagal influence was assessed through frequency analysis of heart rate variability. Participants were aged 22 ± 4.5 years and had a body mass of 72.7 ± 18.9 kg, a body mass index of 26.9 ± 3.9 kg · m(-2), and a maximal oxygen uptake of 28 ± 7.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1). Overall increase in maximal oxygen uptake after the training programme, despite being anaerobic in nature, was 19 ± 1.2%. Change in maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with initial baseline heart rate variability high-frequency power in normalised units (r = 0.58; P training response after 12 weeks of high-intensity intermittent-exercise. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between the aerobic training response and resting heart rate variability need to be established before practical implications can be identified.

  14. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  15. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval training on physical capacities and substrate oxidation rate in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Tringali, G; Caccavale, M; De Micheli, R; Abbruzzese, L; Sartorio, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O2max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O2max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37.5 kg m-2) participated in this study. Before starting (week 0, W0) and at the end of the weight-management program (week 3, W3), body composition was assessed by an impedancemeter; basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rate were measured during exercise and post-exercise recovery by indirect calorimetry. At W3, body mass (BM) and fat mass (FM) decreased significantly in all groups, the decreases being significantly greater in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups (BM: -8.4 ± 1.5 vs -6.3 ± 1.9 vs -4.9 ± 1.3 kg and FM: -4.2 ± 1.9 vs -2.8 ± 1.2 vs -2.3 ± 1.4 kg, p post-exercise recovery. A 3-week weight-management program induced a greater decrease in BM and FM in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups, and greater increase in V'O2peak and fat oxidation rate in the HI and HIIT than in the LI subgroup.

  17. Effectiveness of two weeks of high-intensity interval training on performance and hormone status in adolescent triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Mei-Chich; Astorino, Todd A; Liu, Ta-Wei; Chang, Wen-Dien

    2017-04-01

    Weekly training volumes for triathlete are typically higher and may cause fatigue and musculoskeletal injury risk. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a potent time-efficient strategy to induce adaptations normally associated with traditional endurance training. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two weeks of in-season HIT on exercise capacity and hormonal responses in young triathletes. Twelve adolescent triathletes performed 18 sessions of HIT over 2 weeks including swim, cycle, and run events. The 6-day training blocks were separated by 1 day of recovery. Pre- and post-training, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and exercise performance were assessed, and blood samples were obtained to detect changes in hormone and metabolite levels. VO2peak was significantly higher (P=0.02) post-training (56.4±8.1 mL·min-1·kg-1) versus pre-training (55.1±7.5 mL·min-1·kg-1). Mean power and total work during 6×10 s repeated-sprint tests significantly increased (P=0.03) after HIT. Additionally, 750 m swim time (pre- vs. post: 689.7±102.5 s vs. 662.0±75 s, P=0.01) and 20 km cycling time (pre- vs. post: 1856.6±274.8 s vs. 1705.4±266.8 s, P=0.02) were significantly lower post-training compared to pre-training, but there was no significant difference in 5 km run time after HIT (pre- vs. post: 1315.8±81.3 s vs. 1292.0±112.9 s, P=0.31). In contrast to pre-training, ammonia concentration was significantly increased (Ptraining. These findings suggest that two weeks of HIT using HRpeak as a monitor of physiological intensity improved VO2peak, sprint performance, and triathlon-specific performance in adolescent triathletes and attenuated levels of muscle damage.

  18. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceição, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 ± 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 ± 16.52 kg; height, 163 ± 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 × 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 × 30 and 3 × 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ∼54%, p strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly.

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-10-01

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute effects of high-intensity intermittent training on kinematics and foot strike patterns in endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, P Á; García Pinillos, F; Bujalance-Moreno, P; Soto-Hermoso, V M

    2017-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT. High levels of exhaustion were reached by the athletes during HIIT (HRpeak: 174.30 bpm; RPE: 17.23). There was a significant increase of HRpeak and RPE during HIIT; nevertheless, time for each run remained unchanged. A within-protocol paired t-test (first vs. last run) revealed no significant changes (P ≥ 0.05) in kinematics variables and FSP variables during HIIT. There were no substantial changes on kinematics and FSP characteristics in endurance runners after fatigue induced by a HIIT. Only the minimum ankle alignment showed a significant change. The author suggests that these results might be due to both the high athletic level of participants and their experience in HIIT.

  1. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S; Rossi, Fabrício E; Cholewa, Jason M; Campos, Eduardo Z; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO 2max ) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO 2max ). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L -1 , p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p < 0.001). Both exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p < 0.005), but higher values were observed in the High-Intensity exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p < 0.05). In conclusion, over the same distance, Moderate-Intensity and High-Intensity exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO 2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses.

  2. New treatment of cellulite with infrared-LED illumination applied during high-intensity treadmill training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Fernanda Rossi; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2011-08-01

    Phototherapy improves cellular activation which is an important factor for the treatment of cellulite. The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate the effects of a new (noninvasive and nonpharmacological) clinical procedure to improve body aesthetics: infrared-LED (850 nm) plus treadmill training. Twenty women (25-55 years old) participated in this study. They were separated in two groups: the control group, which carried out only the treadmill training (n = 10), and the LED group, with phototherapy during the treadmill training (n = 10). The training was performed for 45 minutes twice a week over 3 months at intensities between 85% and 90% maximal heart rate (HR(max)). The irradiation parameters were 39 mW/cm(2) and a fluence of 106 J/cm(2). The treatment was evaluated by interpreting body composition parameters, photographs and thermography. This was primarily a treatment for cellulite with a reduction of saddlebag and thigh circumference. At the same time, the treadmill training prevented an increase of body fat, as well as the loss of lean mass. Moreover, thermal images of the temperature modification of the thighs are presented. These positive effects can result in a further improvement of body aesthetics using infrared-LED together with treadmill training.

  3. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    ... ) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; W PEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output...

  4. Highly favorable physiological responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training during chemotherapy: the OptiTrain breast cancer trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Olofsson, Emil; Norrbom, Jessica; Bergh, Jonas; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-01-18

    Advanced therapeutic strategies are often accompanied by significant adverse effects, which warrant equally progressive countermeasures. Physical exercise has proven an effective intervention to improve physical function and reduce fatigue in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in this population are not well established although HIIT has proven effective in other clinical populations. The aim of the OptiTrain trial was to examine the effects of concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) or concurrent moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT), to usual care (UC) on pain sensitivity and physiological outcomes in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy. Two hundred and forty women were randomized to 16 weeks of RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, body mass, hemoglobin levels, and pressure-pain threshold. Pre- to post-intervention, RT-HIIT (ES = 0.41) and AT-HIIT (ES = 0.42) prevented the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness found with UC. Handgrip strength (surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.41, RT-HIIT vs. ES = 0.28; non-surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.35, RT-HIIT vs. ES = 0.22) and lower-limb muscle strength (RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.66, RT-HIIT vs. ES = 0.23) were significantly improved in the RT-HIIT. Increases in body mass were smaller in RT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) and AT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) versus UC. RT-HIIT reported higher pressure-pain thresholds than UC (trapezius: ES = 0.46, gluteus: ES = 0.53) and AT-HIIT (trapezius: ES = 0.30). Sixteen weeks of RT-HIIT significantly improved muscle strength and reduced pain sensitivity. Both exercise programs were well tolerated and were equally efficient in preventing increases in body mass and in preventing declines in cardiorespiratory fitness. These results highlight the importance of implementing a combination of resistance and high-intensity

  5. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING BY HEART RATE OR POWER IN RECREATIONAL CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Robinson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in interval training for cyclists have led to the development of both heart rate (HR monitors and powermeters (PM. Despite the growing popularity of PM use, the superiority of PM-based training has not been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of HR-based versus PM-based interval training on 20 km time trial (20km TT, lactate threshold (LT power, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2max in recreational cyclists. Participants (n =20; M age=33.9, SD =13 completed a baseline 20km TT to establish their VO2max and LT and were then randomly assigned to either HR-determined or PM-determined training sessions. Over a period of up to 5 weeks participants completed 7.2 (± 1.1 interval training sessions at their specific LT for their respective interval training method. Repeated measures analyses of variances (ANOVAs showed that both HR-based and PM-based training groups significantly improved their LT power (F(1,16 = 28., p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.63 and 20km TT time (F(1,16 = 4.92, p = 0.04, eta2 = 0.24 at posttest, showing a 17 watt increase (9.8% and a near 3-and-a-half minute improvement (7.8% in 20km TT completion time. There were no significant group (HR vs. PM x time (baseline vs. posttest interactions for 20km TT completion time, LT power, or VO2max ratings. Our results coincide with the literature supporting the effectiveness of interval training for endurance athletes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that there is no empirical evidence for the superiority of any single type of device in the implementation of interval training. This study indicates that there are no noticeable advantages to using PM to increase performance in the average recreational cyclist, suggesting that low cost HR monitor are equally capable as training devices

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on post-exercise heart rate recovery in coronary heart-disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Senen, Alejandro Berenguel; Jiménez, Verónica Hernández; Garrido-Lestache, María Elvira Barrios; Chicharro, Jose López

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been considered a prognostic and mortality indicator in both healthy and coronary patients. Physical exercise prescription has shown improvements in VO2peak and HRR, but most of the studies have been carried out applying continuous training at a moderate intensity, being very limited the use of protocols of high intensity interval training in coronary patients. We aimed to compare the effects of a moderate continuous training (MCT) versus a high intensity interval training (HIIT) programme on VO2peak and HRR. Seventy three coronary patients were assigned to either HIIT or MCT groups for 8weeks. Incremental exercise tests in a cycloergometer were performed to obtain VO2peak data and heart rate was monitored during and after the exercise test to obtain heart rate recovery data. Both exercise programmes significantly increase VO2peak with a higher increase in the HIIT group (HIIT: 4.5±4.46ml/kg/min vs MCT: 2.46±3.57ml/kg/min; p=0.039). High intensity interval training resulted in a significantly increase in HRR at the first and second minute of the recovery phase (15,44±7,04 vs 21,22±6,62, ptraining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (PHIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (PHIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  8. Effect of a 10 week high intensity interval training supplemented with green tea on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing the intensity of physical activity along with regular consumption of green tea can be effective on energy metabolism, weight, and body fat content. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a 10 week. .high intensity interval training supplemented with consuming green tea .on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 overweight women were purposefully and randomly chosen and divided into 3 equal groups. Training group performed training programs including 3 sessions per week at maximum intensity of 85-95% heart rate and the supplement group consumed 3 tablets of green tea (500 mg daily for 10 weeks High intensity interval training and the supplement group both underwent intervention. Blood samples were collected before and after the intervention in fasting state. Finally,the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (V. 19 and analyzed using paired t test, covariance analysis, one way-variance analysis, and Bonferroni post- hoc tests at the significant level of P<0.05. Results: After the period of high intensity interval training and green tea supplementation triglycerides (P=0.001, LDL (P=0.02, weight (P=0.0001, body mass index (P=0.0001, and body fat percentage (P=0.0001 in all the groups and total cholesterol (P=0.01 decreased ,but  HDL (P=0.01 increased in high intensity interval training plus supplements and high intensity interval training plus placebo groups. However, these two indicators did not differ significantly in the supplement group (P=0.23 and P=0.06, respectively. Furthermore, systolic (P= 0.55 and diastolic (P= 0.15 blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio (P= 0.08 did not change after intervention in all the groups. Conclusion: It was found that consumption of green tea along with performing of high intensity interval training can be effective in improving of cardiovascular risk factors in overweight women.

  9. Effects of a Seven Day Overload-Period of High-Intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of Competitive Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bradley; Costa, Vitor P.; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Guglielmo, Luiz G.; Paton, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT) on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists. Design The study was a matched groups, controlled trial. Methods Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min−1) were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short) or 15, 30 and 45 second (long) maximal intensity efforts. Results Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p0.05) increases (mean ± SD) in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%), lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3%) and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9%) with only small differences between HIT regimes. Conclusions Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists. PMID:25521824

  10. Effects of a seven day overload-period of high-intensity training on performance and physiology of competitive cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Clark

    Full Text Available Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists.The study was a matched groups, controlled trial.Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min-1 were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short or 15, 30 and 45 second (long maximal intensity efforts.Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p0.05 increases (mean ± SD in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%, lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3% and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9% with only small differences between HIT regimes.Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists.

  11. The impact of high intensity physical training on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Bo M; Jensen, Joakim; Bode, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. Several studies have investigated various physical interventions on PD. The effects of a high intensity exercise program with focus on resistance; cardio; equilibrium......; and flexibility training have not been evaluated previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a complex, high intensity physical training program, with a long duration, on motor and non-motor symptoms in patients with PD. METHOD: 24 patients with PD Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-3 were...... regarding physical activity. The primary outcomes were the change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Subscores (UPDRS) and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). RESULTS: At week 32, the training significantly improved both UPDRS motor subscores (p = 0.045), activities of daily living...

  12. The Chronic Effects of Low- and High-Intensity Resistance Training on Muscular Fitness in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari R Assunção

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of high-load, low-repetition maximum (LRM and low-load, high-repetition maximum (HRM resistance training regimens on muscular fitness in untrained adolescents. Forty-five untrained adolescents of both sexes (13.7±0.8 years; 161.3±7.5 cm, 56.8±13.4 kg were randomly assigned into one of three groups: 1 LRM (n = 17: volunteers performed three sets of 4-6-repetition maximum (RM; 2 HRM (n = 16: volunteers performed three sets of 12-15 RM; and 3 control (CON, n = 12. Training was performed two times a week for 9 weeks. After training, there were significant increases in 1 RM chest press (LRM = 14.8% and HRM = 14.2%, p0.05. Additionally, muscular endurance increased significantly for the chest press (LRM = 14.5% and HRM = 21.8%, p0.05. These results suggest that both high-load, low-repetition and moderate-load, high-repetition resistance training can be prescribed to improve muscular fitness in untrained adolescents.

  13. The Chronic Effects of Low- and High-Intensity Resistance Training on Muscular Fitness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ari R.; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, João B.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Gentil, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of high-load, low-repetition maximum (LRM) and low-load, high-repetition maximum (HRM) resistance training regimens on muscular fitness in untrained adolescents. Forty-five untrained adolescents of both sexes (13.7±0.8 years; 161.3±7.5 cm, 56.8±13.4 kg) were randomly assigned into one of three groups: 1) LRM (n = 17): volunteers performed three sets of 4-6-repetition maximum (RM); 2) HRM (n = 16): volunteers performed three sets of 12–15 RM; and 3) control (CON, n = 12). Training was performed two times a week for 9 weeks. After training, there were significant increases in 1 RM chest press (LRM = 14.8% and HRM = 14.2%, p0.05). Additionally, muscular endurance increased significantly for the chest press (LRM = 14.5% and HRM = 21.8%, p0.05). These results suggest that both high-load, low-repetition and moderate-load, high-repetition resistance training can be prescribed to improve muscular fitness in untrained adolescents. PMID:27509050

  14. Effect of Lower and Upper Body High Intensity Training on Genes Associated with Cellular Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Żychowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of upper and lower body high intensity exercise (HIE on select gene expression in athletes. Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (age 20.9±2.6 years; weight 68.6±7.2 kg; fat free mass 63.6±6.7 kg; height 1.70±0.04 m performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests (WAnTs before and after eight weeks of specific HIIT. Two milliliters of blood was collected before and after (5, 30 min, resp. lower and upper body WAnTs, and select gene expression was determined by PCR. Eight weeks of HIIT caused a significant increase in maximal power (722 to 751 Wat, relative peak power in the lower body WAnTs (10.1 to 11 W/kg, mean power (444 to 464 W, and relative mean power (6.5 to 6.8 W/kg. No significant differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected after HIIT, and a significant decrease in the IL6/IL10 ratio was observed after lower (−2∧0.57 p=0.0019 and upper (−2∧0.5 p=0.03 WAnTs following eight weeks of HIIT. It is hypothesized that a similar adaptive response to exercise may be obtained by lower and upper body exercise.

  15. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area, muscle force, and jump performance during 6 weeks of progressive whole-body vibration combined with progressive, high intensity resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, A.; Beijer, Å.; Johannes, B.; Schoenau, E.; Mester, J.; Rittweger, J.; Zange, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We hypothesized that progressive whole-body vibration (WBV) superimposed to progressive high intensity resistance training has greater effects on muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle force of leg muscles, and jump performance than progressive high intensity resistance training alone. Methods: Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either 6 weeks of Resistive Vibration Exercise (RVE, squats and heel raises with WBV, n=13) or Resistive Exercise (RE, squats and heel raises without WBV, n=13). Squats under RVE required indispensable weight loading on the forefoot to damp harmful vibrations to the head. Time, intervention, and interaction effects were analyzed. Results: After 6 weeks of training, knee extensor CSA, isometric knee extension force, and counter movement jump height increased equally in both groups (time effect, Ptraining effects than RE only in plantar flexor muscles. RVE seems to be suitable in professional sports with a special focus on calf muscles. PMID:28574410

  16. The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alan R; Day, Josephine; Smith, Aaron; Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish whether 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training would have a beneficial effect on aerobic fitness, fat oxidation, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescent boys. Ten adolescent boys (15.1 ± 0.3 years, 1.3 ± 0.2 years post-estimated peak height velocity) completed six sessions of Wingate-style high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. The first session consisted of four sprints with training progressed to seven sprints in the final session. High-intensity interval training had a beneficial effect on maximal O2 uptake (mean change, ±90% confidence intervals: 0.19 L · min(-1), ±0.19, respectively), on the O2 uptake at the gas exchange threshold (0.09 L · min(-1), ±0.13) and on the O2 cost of sub-maximal exercise (-0.04 L · min(-1), ±0.04). A beneficial effect on the contribution of lipid (0.06 g · min(-1), ±0.06) and carbohydrate (-0.23 g · min(-1), ±0.14) oxidation was observed during sub-maximal exercise, but not for the maximal rate of fat oxidation (0.04 g · min(-1), ±0.08). Systolic blood pressure (1 mmHg, ±4) and BMI (0.1 kg · m2, ±0.1) were not altered following training. These data demonstrate that meaningful changes in health outcomes are possible in healthy adolescent boys after just six sessions of high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  18. The Effect of Folate Supplementation on Ghrelin of Stomach and Insulin Level of Serum in Male Wistar Rats during 10 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.

  19. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  1. Contrasting effects of a mixed-methods high-intensity interval training intervention in girl football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Matthew D; Hurst, Christopher; Taylor, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the responses of girl athletes to training interventions throughout maturation. This study evaluated group and individual responses to an 8-week, mixed-methods, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programme in girl football players. Thirty-seven players (age 13.4 ± 1.5 years) were tested for 20-m speed, repeated-sprint ability, change-of-direction speed and level 1 yo-yo intermittent recovery (YYIR). Players were subcategorised into before-, at- and after-PHV (peak height velocity) based on maturity offset. Very likely moderate (25%; ±90% confidence limits = 9.2) improvements occurred in YYIR, but data were unclear in players before-PHV with moderate individual differences in response. Decrements in repeated-sprint ability were most likely very large (6.5%; ±3.2) before-PHV, and likely moderate (1.7%; ±1.0) at-PHV. Data were unclear after-PHV. A very likely moderate (2.7%; ±1.0) decrement occurred in change-of-direction speed at-PHV while there was a very likely increase (-2.4%; ±1.3) in after-PHV players. Possibly small (-1.1%; ±1.4) improvements in 20-m speed occurred before-PHV but the effect was otherwise unclear with moderate to large individual differences. These data reflect specific responses to training interventions in girls of different biological maturity, while highlighting individual responses to HIIT interventions. This can assist practitioners in providing effective training prescription.

  2. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  3. Nonconsecutive- versus consecutive-day high-intensity interval training in cyclists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gross, Micah; Swensen, Thomas; King, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    ...), and 5-km time trial (TT5k) performance in trained cyclists. Fifteen trained cyclists completed a TT5k and an incremental test to exhaustion for VO2peak and PPOa determination before and after training...

  4. A single bout of high-intensity interval training improves motor skill retention in individuals with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepveu, Jean-Francois; Thiel, Alexander; Tang, Ada

    2017-01-01

    intensity is sufficient to induce neuroplastic changes and improve motor skill retention in patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with different levels of motor impairment were recruited. On the first session, the effects of a maximal graded exercise test on corticospinal...... a motor task, the exercise group performed 15 minutes of high-intensity interval training while the control group rested. Twenty-four hours after motor practice all participants completed a test of the motor task to assess skill retention. RESULTS: The graded exercise test reduced interhemispheric...... imbalances in GABAA-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition but changes in other markers of excitability were not statistically significant. The group that performed high-intensity interval training showed a better retention of the motor skill. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of a maximal graded...

  5. Functional high-intensity training improves pancreatic β-cell function in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Stephan; Fealy, Ciarán E; Foucher, Julie A; Scelsi, Amanda R; Malin, Steven K; Pagadala, Mangesh; Rocco, Michael; Burguera, Bartolome; Kirwan, John P

    2017-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by reductions in β-cell function and insulin secretion on the background of elevated insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve β-cell function, despite a subset of T2D patients displaying "exercise resistance." Further investigations into the effectiveness of alternate forms of exercise on β-cell function in the T2D patient population are needed. We examined the effect of a novel, 6-wk CrossFit functional high-intensity training (F-HIT) intervention on β-cell function in 12 sedentary adults with clinically diagnosed T2D (54 ± 2 yr, 166 ± 16 mg/dl fasting glucose). Supervised training was completed 3 days/wk, comprising functional movements performed at a high intensity in a variety of 10- to 20-min sessions. All subjects completed an oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measures at baseline and following the intervention. The mean disposition index, a validated measure of β-cell function, was significantly increased (PRE: 8.4 ± 3.1, POST: 11.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.02) after the intervention. Insulin processing inefficiency in the β-cell, expressed as the fasting proinsulin-to-insulin ratio, was also reduced (PRE: 2.40 ± 0.37, POST: 1.78 ± 0.30, P = 0.04). Increased β-cell function during the early-phase response to glucose correlated significantly with reductions in abdominal body fat ( R 2 = 0.56, P = 0.005) and fasting plasma alkaline phosphatase ( R 2 = 0.55, P = 0.006). Mean total body-fat percentage decreased significantly (Δ: -1.17 0.30%, P = 0.003), whereas lean body mass was preserved (Δ: +0.05 ± 0.68 kg, P = 0.94). We conclude that F-HIT is an effective exercise strategy for improving β-cell function in adults with T2D. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thi...

  7. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R; Damasceno, M; Cruz, R; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Lima-Silva, A E; Bishop, D J; Bertuzzi, R

    2017-10-19

    This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8) or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8). The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and peak treadmill speed (PTS). A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE) and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5) were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012) and PTS (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495) or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101). No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05). These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS), but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  8. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  9. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M Holloway

    Full Text Available There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05, and promoted a 20% (P<0.05 increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05, and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05. In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05 and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05. HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05, in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  10. Effect of aerobic high-intensity hybrid training on stroke volume and peak oxygen consumption in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brurok, Berit; Helgerud, Jan; Karlsen, Trine; Leivseth, Gunnar; Hoff, Jan

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-intensity interval training during combined arm cycling exercise (ACE) and functional electrical stimulation leg cycling (hybrid exercise), on peak stroke volume and peak oxygen consumption in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A baseline control trial at an outpatient SCI clinic (St. Olav's University Hospital, Norway) was conducted. Participants included six men with SCI in stable neurologic recovery (ASIA Impairment Scale grade A). The study intervention included aerobic high-intensity hybrid exercise training three times a week for 8 wks preceded by a 7-wk control period of regular daily activity. Main outcome measures were peak stroke volume during hybrid cycling and peak oxygen consumption during hybrid cycling, ACE, and functional electrical stimulation leg cycling. The tests were conducted at three time points: 1, baseline; 2, control; and 3, post-training. Data are presented as mean (SD). From control to post-training tests, a significant increase in peak stroke volume by 33% (P = 0.004), from 77.7 (9.9) to 103.4 (17.1) ml/beat, was found. Furthermore, between control and post-training tests, hybrid peak oxygen consumption increased by 24.4%, from 24.6 (3.9) to 30.6 (5.2) ml kg (-1) min (-1) (P = 0.003), and peak oxygen consumption during isolated ACE and functional electrical stimulation cycling increased by 25.9% (P = 0.001) and 23.5% (P = 0.007), respectively. Training aerobic high-intensity hybrid intervals at 85%-95% of peak Watt was feasible for this group of SCI men and significantly increased peak stroke volume and peak oxygen uptake. Because aerobic capacity is directly linked to mortality and morbidity, the present study may be useful for designing training programs sufficient to reverse the risk of cardiovascular disease in SCI.

  11. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2017-06-21

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 yr and 40.1 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (n = 32, age and VO2max = 25.6 ± 4.4 yr and 40.6 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (p > 0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (p = 0.04) with HIIT, and genderXtime (p = 0.03) and genderXtimeXregimen interactions (p = 0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (p = 0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  12. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnevali, L.C. Jr. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro Universitário Ítalo-Brasileiro (Unítalo), São Paulo SP (Brazil); Eder, R.; Lira, F.S. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lima, W.P. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação,Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, D.C. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Zanchi, N.E. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisa do Genoma Humano, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Nicastro, H. [Laboratorio de Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicado à Atividade Motora, Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Lavoie, J.M. [Department of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Seelaender, M.C.L. [Grupo de Biologia Molecular da Célula, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-29

    We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT) to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g) were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5), HI-IT (N = 10), and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10). The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT) and a 5% (MI-CT) overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01), as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min{sup −1}·mg protein{sup −1}) in HI-IT (around 83%). We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a “time-efficient” strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  13. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Carnevali Jr

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the capacity of high-intensity intermittent training (HI-IT to facilitate the delivery of lipids to enzymes responsible for oxidation, a task performed by the carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT system in the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Male adult Wistar rats (160-250 g were randomly distributed into 3 groups: sedentary (Sed, N = 5, HI-IT (N = 10, and moderate-intensity continuous training (MI-CT, N = 10. The trained groups were exercised for 8 weeks with a 10% (HI-IT and a 5% (MI-CT overload. The HI-IT group presented 11.8% decreased weight gain compared to the Sed group. The maximal activities of CPT-I, CPT-II, and citrate synthase were all increased in the HI-IT group compared to the Sed group (P < 0.01, as also was gene expression, measured by RT-PCR, of fatty acid binding protein (FABP; P < 0.01 and lipoprotein lipase (LPL; P < 0.05. Lactate dehydrogenase also presented a higher maximal activity (nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in HI-IT (around 83%. We suggest that 8 weeks of HI-IT enhance mitochondrial lipid transport capacity thus facilitating the oxidation process in the gastrocnemius muscle. This adaptation may also be associated with the decrease in weight gain observed in the animals and was concomitant to a higher gene expression of both FABP and LPL in HI-IT, suggesting that intermittent exercise is a "time-efficient" strategy inducing metabolic adaptation.

  14. A Single Bout of High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Awareness of Subsequent Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooijackers, Hanne M; Wiegers, Evita C; van der Graaf, Marinette; Thijssen, Dick H; Kessels, Roy P C; Tack, Cees J; de Galan, Bastiaan E

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has gained increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since the administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation while preserving cognitive function. We tested the hypothesis that, in the short term, HIIT reduces awareness of hypoglycemia and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. In a randomized crossover trial, patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia (NAH), patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), and healthy participants ( n = 10 per group) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic (2.6 mmol/L) clamp, either after a HIIT session or after seated rest. Compared with rest, HIIT reduced symptoms of hypoglycemia in patients with NAH but not in healthy participants or patients with IAH. HIIT attenuated hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction, which was mainly driven by changes in the NAH subgroup. HIIT suppressed cortisol and growth hormone responses, but not catecholamine responses to hypoglycemia. The present findings demonstrate that a single HIIT session rapidly reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes and NAH, but does not in patients with IAH, and attenuates hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction. The role of exercise-induced lactate in mediating these effects, potentially serving as an alternative fuel for the brain, should be further explored. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. L-dopa does not add to the success of high-intensity language training in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenstein, Caterina; Korsukewitz, Catharina; Baumgärtner, Annette; Flöel, Agnes; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Dobel, Christian; Knecht, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    L-dopa has been shown to improve outcome of moderate-intensity language training after stroke in acute aphasia. Given the critical role of training intensity we probed the effect of l-dopa in combination with high-intensity language training in chronic post-stroke aphasia. In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, aphasia patients (>1 year post stroke) were administered 100/25 mg of l-dopa/carbidopa or placebo daily prior to four hours of language training for two weeks. Conditions were crossed-over after a wash-out period of 4 weeks. An a-priori planned interim analysis (n = 10) showed that naming performance and verbal communication improved significantly and persistently for at least 6 months in every patient, but l-dopa had no incremental effect to intensive training. High-intensity language training in chronic aphasia may take learning to a ceiling that precludes additive benefits from l-dopa. Effects of l-dopa on post-stroke recovery during less intense treatment in chronic aphasia remain to be evaluated.

  16. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  17. Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on potassium kinetics and performance in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Mohr, Magni; Klarskov, Christina; Kristensen, Michael; Krustrup, Peter; Juel, Carsten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2004-01-01

    A rise in extracellular potassium concentration in human skeletal muscle may play an important role in development of fatigue during intense exercise. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent training on muscle interstitial potassium kinetics and its relationship to the density of Na+,K+-ATPase subunits and KATP channels, as well as exercise performance, in human skeletal muscle. Six male subjects performed intense one-legged knee-extensor training for 7 weeks. On separate days the trained leg (TL) and the control leg (CL) performed a 30 min exercise period of 30 W and an incremental test to exhaustion. At frequent intervals during the exercise periods interstitial potassium ([K+]I) was determined by microdialysis, femoral arterial and venous blood samples were drawn and thigh blood flow was measured. Time to fatigue for TL was 28% longer (P < 0.05) than for CL (10.6 ± 0.7 (mean ±s.e.m.) versus 8.2 ± 0.7 min). The amounts of Na+,K+-ATPase α1 and α2 subunits were, respectively, 29.0 ± 8.4 and 15.1 ± 2.7% higher (P < 0.05) in TL than in CL, while the amounts of β1 subunits and ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels were the same. In CL [K+]I increased more rapidly and was higher (P < 0.05) throughout the 30 W exercise bout, as well at 60 and 70 W, compared to TL, whereas [K+]I was similar at the point of fatigue (9.9 ± 0.7 and 9.1 ± 0.5 mmol l−1, respectively). During the 30 W exercise bouts and at 70 W during the incremental exercise femoral venous potassium concentration ([K+]v) was higher (P < 0.05) in CL than in TL, but identical at exhaustion (6.2 ± 0.2 mmol l−1). Release of potassium to the blood was not different in the two legs. The present data demonstrated that intense intermittent training reduce accumulation of potassium in human skeletal muscle interstitium during exercise, probably through a larger re-uptake of potassium due to greater activity of the muscle Na+,K+-ATPase pumps. The lower accumulation of

  18. High-intensity intermittent training in hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled field study in youth football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Faiss, Raphael; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 5 weeks (∼60 minutes per training, 2 d·wk) of run-based high-intensity repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and explosive strength/agility/sprint training in either normobaric hypoxia repeated sprints in hypoxia (RSH; inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 14.3%) or repeated sprints in normoxia (RSN; FIO2 = 21.0%) on physical performance in 16 highly trained, under-18 male footballers. For both RSH (n = 8) and RSN (n = 8) groups, lower-limb explosive power, sprinting (10-40 m) times, maximal aerobic speed, repeated-sprint (10 × 30 m, 30-s rest) and repeated-agility (RA) (6 × 20 m, 30-s rest) abilities were evaluated in normoxia before and after supervised training. Lower-limb explosive power (+6.5 ± 1.9% vs. +5.0 ± 7.6% for RSH and RSN, respectively; both p < 0.001) and performance during maximal sprinting increased (from -6.6 ± 2.2% vs. -4.3 ± 2.6% at 10 m to -1.7 ± 1.7% vs. -1.3 ± 2.3% at 40 m for RSH and RSN, respectively; p values ranging from <0.05 to <0.01) to a similar extent in RSH and RSN. Both groups improved best (-3.0 ± 1.7% vs. -2.3 ± 1.8%; both p ≤ 0.05) and mean (-3.2 ± 1.7%, p < 0.01 vs. -1.9 ± 2.6%, p ≤ 0.05 for RSH and RSN, respectively) repeated-sprint times, whereas sprint decrement did not change. Significant interactions effects (p ≤ 0.05) between condition and time were found for RA ability-related parameters with very likely greater gains (p ≤ 0.05) for RSH than RSN (initial sprint: 4.4 ± 1.9% vs. 2.0 ± 1.7% and cumulated times: 4.3 ± 0.6% vs. 2.4 ± 1.7%). Maximal aerobic speed remained unchanged throughout the protocol. In youth highly trained football players, the addition of 10 repeated-sprint training sessions performed in hypoxia vs. normoxia to their regular football practice over a 5-week in-season period was more efficient at enhancing RA ability (including direction changes), whereas it had no additional effect on improvements in lower-limb explosive power, maximal sprinting, and RSA

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  20. Physiological Acute Response to High-Intensity Intermittent and Moderate-Intensity Continuous 5 km Running Performance: Implications for Training Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Santos, Carolina; Gerosa-Neto, José; Inoue, Daniela S.; Rossi, Fabrício E.; Cholewa, Jason M.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity intermittent exercise. Twelve physically active male subjects were recruited and completed a 5-km run on a treadmill in two experimental sessions in randomized order: continuously (70% sVO2max) and intermittently (1:1 min at sVO2max). Oxygen uptake, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, lactate concentration, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion data were recorded during and after each session. The lactate levels exhibited higher values immediately post-exercise than at rest (High-Intensity: 1.43 ± 0.25 to 7.36 ± 2.78; Moderate-Intensity: 1.64 ± 1.01 to 4.05 ± 1.52 mmol⋅L−1, p = 0.0004), but High-Intensity promoted higher values (p = 0.001) than Moderate-Intensity. There was a difference across time on oxygen uptake at all moments tested in both groups (High-Intensity: 100.19 ± 8.15L; Moderate-Intensity: 88.35 ± 11.46, p exercise conditions promoted increases in excess postexercise oxygen consumption (High-Intensity: 6.61 ± 1.85 L; Moderate-Intensity: 5.32 ± 2.39 L, p exercise protocol. High-Intensity was more effective at modifying the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (High-Intensity: 183 ± 12.54 and 19; Moderate-Intensity: 172 ± 8.5 and 16, respectively, p exercise exhibited different lactate concentrations, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. As expected, the metabolic contribution also differed, and High-Intensity induced higher energy expenditure, however, the total duration of the session may have to be taken into account. Moreover, when following moderate-intensity training, the percentage of sVO2max and the anaerobic threshold might influence exercise and training responses. PMID:28469751

  1. Increased mortality in patients with severe COPD associated with high-intensity exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaadt, Lone; Christensen, Robin; Kristensen, Lars Erik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intensity of exercise is believed to be a key determinant of response to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation. We hypothesized that a higher intensity of exercise, in combination with physiotherapist-led instructions and education in management of breathlessness...... prospective cohort study on severe COPD patients referred to outpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: In 2013, four rehabilitation courses were scheduled (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) each lasting 8 weeks and including eight to ten patients. This preliminary study was designed as a controlled cohort study...... assessed from the participants' medical records in an 18-month period. RESULTS: We were able to enroll 31 patients in total (15 in the high-intensity exercise group and 16 in regular intensity). There were no group differences in the hospitalization rates. However, during review of the medical records, we...

  2. Much potential but many unanswered questions for high-intensity intermittent exercise training for patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkstaff, Sherry O

    2015-01-01

    There is a robust trove of scientific studies that support the positive physical and mental health benefits associated with aerobic exercise for healthy individuals. These recommendations suggest that more vigorous exercise can be performed on fewer days for the same benefit. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has begun to show promise. HIIE seems safe and improves physiology, quality of life, and functional capacity. This review defines HIIE, discusses its physiologic benefit for patients with heart failure, outlines the studies that have been conducted to date, and places it in the context of the current clinical environment of exercise training for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; pHIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO 2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO 2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  5. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT...

  6. Rehabilitation Using High-Intensity Physical Training and Long-Term Return-to-Work in Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; van de Wouw, Agnès J.; Houterman, Saskia; Schep, Goof

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Due to large and increasing numbers of cancer survivors, long-term cancer-related health issues have become a major focus of attention. This study examined the relation between a high-intensity physical rehabilitation program and return-to-work in cancer survivors who had received

  7. Fibre-specific responses to endurance and low volume high intensity interval training: striking similarities in acute and chronic adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha D Scribbans

    Full Text Available The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week, on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼ 170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼ 65% of VO2peak, immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (p<0.05 reduced, while p-ACC was significantly increased (p<0.05 following both protocols. Nineteen recreationally active males (n = 16 and females (n = 3 were VO2peak-matched and assigned to either the LV-HIT (n = 10; 21 ± 2 yrs or END (n = 9; 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs group for experiment 2. After 6 weeks, both training protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3 ± 6.0, Mid: 51.8 ± 6.0, Post: 55.0 ± 6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9 ± 8.1, Mid: 50.4 ± 7.4, Post: 54.7 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min, fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼ 65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼ 170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  9. High Intensity Resistance Training Methods with and without Protein Supplementation to Fight Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people’s compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance training (HIT with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a a HIT group; (b a HIT&P group, and (c a waiting-control group (phase I that crossed over to (d high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT during the second study phase. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score. MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p≤0.001 with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p≥0.829. However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p<0.001 which deteriorated significantly (p=0.039. In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health.

  10. Preoperative high-intensity training in frail old patients undergoing pulmonary resection for NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic surgery remains the better therapeutic option for non-small cell lung cancer patients that are diagnosed in early stage disease. Preoperative lung function assessment includes respiratory function tests (RFT and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET. Vo2 peak, FEV1 and DLCO as well as recognition of performance status, presence of co-morbidities, frailty indexes, and age predict the potential impact of surgical resection on patient health status and survival risk. In this study we have retrospectively assessed the benefit of a high-intensity preoperative pulmonary rehabilitation program (PRP in 14 patients with underlying lung function impairment prior to surgery. Amongst these, three patients candidate to surgical resection exhibited severe functional impairment associated with high score of frailty according CHS and SOF index, resulting in a substantial mortality risk.

  11. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W; Van Hall, Gerrit; Pedersen, Bente K; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2017-12-22

    To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT). Glycaemic control (HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, 3-hour mixed meal tolerance test with double tracer technique and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]), lipolysis, VO 2 peak and body composition were evaluated before and after 11 weeks of intervention. Exercise training increased VO 2 peak more in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycaemic variability and HOMA-IR decreased after HIIT. The reduced postprandial glucose in the HIIT group was driven primarily by a lower rate of exogenous glucose appearance. In the CON group, postprandial lipolysis was augmented over the 11-week control period. Despite a ~45% lower training volume, HIIT resulted in similar or even better improvements in physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control compared to END. HIIT therefore appears to be an important time-efficient treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Exercise Training on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Koldobika Villelabeitia; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Bautista, Lorena Ruiz; de la Peña, Cesar Hernández; Gómez, María José Arriaza; Rueda, María José Calero; Fernández Mahillo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and to assess safety. Seventy-two patients with ischemic heart disease were assigned to either HIIT or MCT for 8 weeks. We analyzed cardiopulmonary exercise test data, quality of life, and adverse events. High-intensity interval training resulted in a significantly greater increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak (4.5 ± 4.7 mL·kg·min) compared with MCT (2.5 ± 3.6 mL·kg·min) (P training protocols improved quality of life. No adverse events were reported in either of the groups. On the basis of the results of this study, HIIT should be considered for use in cardiac rehabilitation as it resulted in a greater increase in functional capacity compared with MCT. We also observed greater improvement in quality of life without any increase in cardiovascular risk.

  13. Evidence of exercise-induced O2 arterial desaturation in non-elite sportsmen and sportswomen following high-intensity interval-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, P; Blondel, N; Fabre, C; Nourry, C; Berthoin, S

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH defined as an exercise decrease > 4 % in oxygen arterial saturation, i. e. SaO (2) measured with a portable pulse oximeter) in twelve sportsmen and ten sportswomen (18.5 +/- 0.5 years) who were non-elite and not initially engaged in endurance sport or training. They followed a high-intensity interval-training program to improve V.O (2)max for eight weeks. The training running speeds were set at approximately 140 % V.O (2)max running speed up to 100 % 20-m maximal running speed. Pre- and post-training pulmonary gas exchanges and SaO (2) were measured during an incremental running field-test. After the training period, men and women increased their V.O (2)max (p arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation developing during exercise.

  14. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Aguilera Eguía, Raúl; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Zafra Santos, Edson; Pavéz Von Martens, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    ...: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed...

  15. The influence of low-intensity resistance training versus high-intensity resistance training on left ventricular structure and function of healthy adolescent boys using Echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    asghar Kianzadeh; maghsood Peeri; mohammad ali Azarbayjani; bahman Hasanvand; farid Bahrami; hosein Omidi

    2013-01-01

    Background: The study on the influence of different protocol of resistance training on left ventricular of adolescent boys dose have its limitation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of low-intensity resistance training versus high-intensity resistance training on left ventricular structure and function of healthy adolescent boys by echocardiography. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four subjects volunteers, 15 to 18 years old were randomly assigned to three groups in the e...

  16. Effect of Six Sessions of High Intensity Interval Training on Levels of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and Serum Uric Acid in active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHOULLAH HAGHSHENAS GATABI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and objectives: long-term sport and physical activity results in compatibility in maintaining purine derivatives but the compatibility achieved within a few sessions is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 30-seconds high intensity interval training on Hypoxanthine, xanthine, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and serum uric acid in young college men. Methods: In this study, 18 untrained healthy men were divided into two control and training groups after homogenization based on their personal characteristics. Training included six sessions (every other day for two weeks with different intervals (4, 7, 6, 6, 5 & 4, respectively with a fixed four-minute rest between each interval, and with a constant load of .6 on the cycle-ergometer. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last training session, and were used to analyze hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and serum HGPRT. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that high-intensity interval training for two weeks did not cause significant changes in serum HGPRT (P = .73; likewise, the increase in serum hypoxanthine (P = .170 and serum xanthine (P = .170 was not statistically significant but significant reduction was observed in serum uric acid (P = .025. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that two-week HIIT training is likely to enhance athletic performance and recovery of purine nucleotide cycle.

  17. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C; Ramírez-Campillo, R; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Martínez, C; Castro-Sepúlveda, M; Alonso-Martínez, A; Izquierdo, M

    2017-07-31

    Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level. Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=-0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β'=-0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity. The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more the effects of the improvements in glucose control of IR schoolchildren in R group after 6 weeks of RT or HIT, showing both regimes similar effects on body composition or muscular strength independent of interindividual metabolic response

  18. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were...

  19. Recharge heterogeneity and high intensity rainfall events increase contamination risk for Mediterranean groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Jasechko, Scott; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Andreo, Bartolomé; Barberá, Juan Antonio; Brielmann, Heike; Charlier, Jean-Baptiste; Darling, George; Filippini, Maria; Garvelmann, Jakob; Goldscheider, Nico; Kralik, Martin; Kunstmann, Harald; Ladouche, Bernard; Lange, Jens; Mudarra, Matías; Francisco Martín, José; Rimmer, Alon; Sanchez, Damián; Stumpp, Christine; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst develops through the dissolution of carbonate rock and results in pronounced spatiotemporal heterogeneity of hydrological processes. Karst groundwater in Europe is a major source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries like Austria or Slovenia. Previous work showed that karstic recharge processes enhance and alter the sensitivity of recharge to climate variability. The enhanced preferential flow from the surface to the aquifer may be followed by enhanced risk of groundwater contamination. In this study we assess the contamination risk of karst aquifers over Europe and the Mediterranean using simulated transit time distributions. Using a new type of semi-distributed model that considers the spatial heterogeneity of karst hydraulic properties, we were able to simulate karstic groundwater recharge including its heterogeneous spatiotemporal dynamics. The model is driven by gridded daily climate data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Transit time distributions are calculated using virtual tracer experiments. We evaluated our simulations by independent information on transit times derived from observed time series of water isotopes of >70 karst springs over Europe. The simulations indicate that, compared to humid, mountain and desert regions, the Mediterranean region shows a stronger risk of contamination in Europe because preferential flow processes are most pronounced given thin soil layers and the seasonal abundance of high intensity rainfall events in autumn and winter. Our modelling approach includes strong simplifications and its results cannot easily be generalized but it still highlights that the combined effects of variable climate and heterogeneous catchment properties constitute a strong risk on water quality.

  20. Chronic beta2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn; Wilson, Richard; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-10-05

    Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized 21 trained men to four weeks of high intensity training with (HIT + β2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg d(-1) ). Of 486 proteins identified by mass-spectrometry proteomics of muscle biopsies sampled before and after the intervention, 32 and 85 were changing (FDR ≤ 5%) with the intervention in HIT and HIT + β2 A. Proteome signature changes were different in HIT and HIT + β2 A (P = 0.005), wherein β2 -agonist caused a repression of 25 proteins in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT, and an upregulation of 7 proteins compared to HIT. β2 -agonist repressed or even downregulated training-induced enrichment of pathways related to oxidative phosphorylation and glycogen metabolism, but upregulated pathways related to histone trimethylation and the nucleosome. Muscle contractile phenotype changed differently in HIT and HIT + β2 A (P ≤ 0.001), with a fast-to-slow twitch transition in HIT and a slow-to-fast twitch transition in HIT + β2 A. β2 -agonist attenuated training-induced enhancements in maximal oxygen consumption (P ≤ 0.01) and exercise performance (11.6 vs. 6.1%, P ≤ 0.05) in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT. These findings indicate that daily β2 -agonist treatment attenuates the beneficial effects of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, and causes remodelling of muscle proteome signature towards a fast-twitch phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by

  1. [Effects of 12 sessions of high intensity intermittent training and nutrition counseling on body fat in obese and overweight participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Catalina; Cifuentes, Gabriela; Martínez, Cristian; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Díaz, Erik

    2016-10-01

    The search of efficient exercise alternatives to treat obesity is worthwhile. To demonstrate the effect of high intensity intermittent exercise on body fat reduction in overweight and obese subjects. A group of 65 overweight and obese adult subjects (25 men), aged 18-65 years, participated during 12 sessions in a high intensity physical exercise program, 3 days/week. Weight, height and body fat was measured before and after the intervention by bioimpedance. Each session consisted of 1 min stationary cycling exercise at high intensity, followed by 2 min inactive rest. This cycle was repeated 10 times, thus the method is called 1*2*10. There was a significant reduction of body fat of -1.88 ± 2.8 and -3.44 ± 2.7 kg, in women and men, respectively (p < 0.05). The 1*2*10 training protocol lasting 12 weeks in association with nutrition counseling is effective in reducing body fat in overweight persons.

  2. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  3. Effect of high-intensity training on exercise-induced gene expression specific to ion homeostasis and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during recovery from high-intensity, intermittent, one-legged exercise were studied before and after 5.5 wk of training. Genes related to metabolism, as well as Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, were selected for analyses. After the same work was performed before and after...... the training period, several muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle. In the untrained state, the Na+-K+-ATPase alpha1-subunit mRNA level was approximately threefold higher (P ... in the untrained state, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 and hexokinase II mRNA levels were elevated 13-fold (P training period, only pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mRNA levels were elevated (P

  4. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  5. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokora Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI. Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD, twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%. The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  6. Effect of a 12-Week Low vs. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training on Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Exercise Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner Luiz; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Oyama, Lila Missae; Cardel, Michelle; Gomes, Priscyla Praxedes; Andrade, Maria Laura S S; Freitas, Camila R M; Balagopal, Prabhakaran; Hill, James O

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how the intensity of aerobic training influences appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Our goal was to assess the effect of low and high intensity aerobic trainings on food intake and appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Forty three obese adolescents (age: 13-18y, BMI: 34.48 ± 3.94 kg/m2) were randomized into high intensity training (HIT; n = 20) or low intensity training (LIT; n = 23) groups for 12 weeks. All participants also received the same nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Pre- and postintervention energy intake (EI) and circulating levels of insulin, leptin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and ghrelin were measured. Adolescents in the HIT showed a reduction in total EI and an increase in PYY3-36 (p exercise training performed at ventilatory threshold 1 intensity, reduced EI and augmented PYY3-36 in obese adolescents, compared with LIT. The data suggest that HIT and LIT have differential effects in the regulation of appetite signals and subsequent EI in obese adolescents.

  7. Fibre-specific responses to endurance and low volume high intensity interval training: striking similarities in acute and chronic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribbans, Trisha D; Edgett, Brittany A; Vorobej, Kira; Mitchell, Andrew S; Joanisse, Sophie D; Matusiak, Jennifer B L; Parise, Gianni; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J

    2014-01-01

    The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END) in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week), on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min) reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼ 170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼ 65% of VO2peak), immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (ptraining protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3 ± 6.0, Mid: 51.8 ± 6.0, Post: 55.0 ± 6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9 ± 8.1, Mid: 50.4 ± 7.4, Post: 54.7 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min), fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼ 65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼ 170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation); correspondingly, training-induced adaptations resulting for these protocols, and other HIT and END protocols are strikingly similar.

  8. Influence of two high-intensity intermittent training programmes on anaerobic capacity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Buśko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of a maximal effort training programme with variation of the pedalling rate on the anaerobic capacity, post-exercise maximal concentration of lactic acid (LA and acid-alkali balance changes in the capillary blood. Identification of the dependence between the lactic acid concentration and the anaerobic capacity produced in the Wingate test was also the goal. The hypothesis that cycloergometer training consisting of maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW will elicit bigger changes of measured values in comparison to training with a load of 5% BW was verified. Twenty non-athletes, students of UPE took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (M10; n=9 performed maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW. The second group (M5; n=11 performed maximal efforts with a load of 5% BW. Control measurements of anaerobic capacity (Wingate test were taken every Monday: before the test (0, during 4 weeks of training (1-4 and for 2 weeks after the test (5-6. Blood for the determination of lactic acid concentration and acid-alkali balance was taken from the fingertip before performing the Wingate test – in the 5th, 7th, 9th and 30th resting minute. Changes of maximal power (Pmax were not statistically significant in either group. Significant differences were found between the two groups after the second week of rest. For mean power (Pm the most important changes were noted in the first week from training (M10 – 6.5%; M5 – 11.0% No significant differences were found between groups. Average values of the individual LA concentration peak (the highest LA concentration occurring after the Wingate test for each individual changed significantly in group M10 from 15.233±2.367 mmol/l in the measurement made before training to 12.340±2.353 mmol/l in the measurement taken 2 weeks after training. Group M5 is characterised by a change of this factor

  9. Improved clinical status, quality of life, and walking capacity in Parkinson's disease after body weight-supported high-intensity locomotor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Martin Høyer; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of body weight-supported progressive high-intensity locomotor training in Parkinson's disease (PD) on (1) clinical status; (2) quality of life; and (3) gait capacity. DESIGN: Open-label, fixed sequence crossover study. SETTING: University motor control laboratory....... PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=13) with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 or 3) and stable medication use. INTERVENTIONS: Patients completed an 8-week (3 × 1h/wk) training program on a lower-body positive-pressure treadmill. Body weight support was used to facilitate increased intensity and motor challenges...... during treadmill training. The training program contained combinations of (1) running and walking intervals, (2) the use of sudden changes (eg, in body weight support and speed), (3) different types of locomotion (eg, chassé, skipping, and jumps), and (4) sprints at 50 percent body weight. MAIN OUTCOME...

  10. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Costigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6 years were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP (n = 21, resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP (n = 22 and control (n = 22. The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session, delivered during physical education (PE lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run, muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests, body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI, BMI-z scores, waist circumference and physical activity motivation (questionnaire, by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024, BMI-z (p = 0.037 and BMI (not significant in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  11. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  12. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  13. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  14. Effects of resistance training combined with moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Bailey, Kaitlyn J; Jung, Mary E; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effects of resistance training combined with either moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with coronary artery disease. Factorial repeated-measures study design. Nineteen patients were randomized into moderate-intensity endurance (n = 10) or high-intensity interval (n = 9) groups, and attended 2 supervised exercise sessions a week for 6-months. The first 3-months involved exclusive moderate-intensity endurance or high-intensity interval exercise, after which progressive resistance training was added to both groups for the remaining 3-months. Fitness (VO(2)peak), blood pressure and heart rate, lipid profiles and health related quality of life assessments were performed at pretraining, 3 and 6-months training. VO(2)peak increased from pretraining to 3-months in both groups (moderate-intensity endurance: 19.8 ± 7.3 vs. 23.2 ± 7.4 ml kg(-1)min(-1); high-intensity interval: 21.1 ± 3.3 vs. 26.4 ± 5.2 ml kg(-1)min(-1), phigh-density lipoprotein were increased following 6-months of moderate-intensity endurance exercise, while all remaining indices were unchanged. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise did not elicit improvements in lipids or health related quality of life. Blood pressures and heart rates were unchanged with training in both groups. Findings from our pilot study suggest improvements in fitness occur within the first few months of training in patients with coronary artery disease, after which the addition of resistance training to moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity interval exercise elicited no further improvements. Given the importance of resistance training in cardiac rehabilitation, additional research is required to determine its effectiveness when combined with high-intensity interval exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High intensity aerobic exercise training improves chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance without basal autophagy modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Marion; Assense, Allan; Rondon, Aurélie; Thomas, Amandine; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Freyssenet, Damien; Benoit, Henri; Castells, Josiane; Flore, Patrice

    2017-03-03

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21-5% FiO 2 , 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT). After 8 days of HIT (2*24 min, 50 to 90% of Maximal Aerobic Speed or MAS on a treadmill) mice underwent 14 days IH or N. We found that IH induced IR, characterized by a greater glycemia, an impaired insulin sensitivity and lower AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue and liver. Nevertheless, MAS and AKT phosphorylation were greater in muscle after IH. IH associated with HIT induced better systemic insulin sensitivity and AKT phosphorylation in liver. Autophagy markers were not altered in both conditions. These findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced IR without change of basal autophagy.

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Overgaard, Kristian; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2), non-active T2D patients (n = 10) and matched (52 yrs±2) healthy controls (CON) (n = 13) exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT) a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01), end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04) and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04) were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β) were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively). Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI) was significantly increased (p = 0.03). During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03), 30 (p = 0.03) and 120 min (p = 0.03) and at -10 (p = 0.003) and 0 min (p = 0.003) with an additional improvement (p = 0.03) of its 1st phase (30 min) area under curve (AUC). Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02) corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Møller Madsen

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2, non-active T2D patients (n = 10 and matched (52 yrs±2 healthy controls (CON (n = 13 exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01, end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04 and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04 were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively. Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI was significantly increased (p = 0.03. During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03, 30 (p = 0.03 and 120 min (p = 0.03 and at -10 (p = 0.003 and 0 min (p = 0.003 with an additional improvement (p = 0.03 of its 1st phase (30 min area under curve (AUC. Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02 corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  18. Cardiac adaptations to high-intensity aerobic training in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Jon; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Mandrup, Camilla M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the role of menopause on cardiac dimensions and function and assessed the efficacy of exercise training before and after menopause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of healthy premenopausal (n=36, 49.4±0.3 years) and postmenopausal (n=37, 53.5±0.5 years) women with no histo....... Furthermore, the hormonal changes associated with the menopausal transition do not appear to affect cardiac dimensions and function. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02135575....

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Training on Anaerobic and Aerobic Contributions to Total Energy Release During Repeated Supramaximal Exercise in Obese Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jabbour, Georges; Iancu, Horia-Daniel; Paulin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    ... weeks of high-intensity training (HIT) on relative anaerobic and aerobic contributions to total energy release and on peak power output during repeated supramaximal cycling exercises (SCE) in obese...

  20. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  1. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  2. Effects of Low-Volume, High-Intensity Training on Performance in Competitive Swimmers: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Frank J; Comyns, Thomas M; Burrows, Emma; Warrington, Giles D

    2017-03-01

    Nugent, FJ, Comyns, TM, Burrows, E, and Warrington, GD. Effects of low-volume, high-intensity training on performance in competitive swimmers: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 837-847, 2017-The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature to determine the effects of low-volume, high-intensity training (HIT) on physiological performance and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. The methodology followed the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. A search of relevant databases and conference proceedings was performed until December 2015. The inclusion criteria were (a) competitive swimmers, (b) ≥4 weeks HIT intervention, (c) comparison group had to involve a higher training volume, (d) outcome measures of physiological and swimming performance, and (e) all experimental study designs. Quality assessment was performed using the Quality Index checklist. Results indicate that of the 538 studies retrieved, 7 studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the 7 studies found that an HIT intervention resulted in significant improvements in physiological performance. Four of the 7 studies found that HIT resulted in significant improvements in swimming performance, whereas none of the 7 studies resulted in a reduction in physiological or swimming performance. Despite the positive findings of this review, the short study duration is a limitation to a number of studies. The current evidence on the effects of HIT on performance is promising; however, it is difficult to draw accurate conclusions until further research has been conducted.

  3. Repeated-High-Intensity-Running Activity and Internal Training Load of Elite Rugby Sevens Players During International Matches: A Comparison Between Halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Núñez, Javier; Sáez de Villareal, Eduardo; Gálvez, Javier; Suarez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego

    2016-05-01

    To describe the repeated-high-intensity activity and internal training load of rugby sevens players during international matches and to compare the differences between the 1st and 2nd halves. Twelve international-level male rugby sevens players were monitored during international competitive matches (n = 30 match files) using global positioning system technology and heart-rate monitoring. The relative total distance covered by the players throughout the match was 112.1 ± 8.4 m/ min. As a percentage of total distance, 35.0% (39.2 ± 9.0 m/min) was covered at medium speed and 17.1% (19.2 ± 6.8 m/min) at high speed. A substantial decrease in the distance covered at >14.0 km/h and >18.0 km/h, the number of accelerations of >2.78 m/s and >4.0 m/s, repeated-sprint sequences interspersed with ≤60 s rest, and repeated-acceleration sequences interspersed with ≤30 s or ≤60 s rest was observed in the 2nd half compared with the 1st half. A substantial increase in the mean heart rate (HR), HRmax, percentage of time at >80% HRmax and at >90% HRmax, and Edwards training load was observed in the 2nd half compared with the 1st half. This study provides evidence of a pronounced reduction in high-intensity and repeated-high-intensity activities and increases in internal training load in rugby sevens players during the 2nd half of international matches.

  4. A study of intensity, fatigue and precision in two specific interval trainings in young tennis players: high-intensity interval training versus intermittent interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Rodríguez, David; Del Valle Soto, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the differences between two specific interval exercises. We begin with the hypothesis that the use of microintervals of work and rest allow for greater intensity of play and a reduction in fatigue. Thirteen competition-level male tennis players took part in two interval training exercises comprising nine 2 min series, which consisted of hitting the ball with cross-court forehand and backhand shots, behind the service box. One was a high-intensity interval training (HIIT), made up of periods of continuous work lasting 2 min, and the other was intermittent interval training (IIT), this time with intermittent 2 min intervals, alternating periods of work with rest periods. Average heart rate (HR) and lactate levels were registered in order to observe the physiological intensity of the two exercises, along with the Borg Scale results for perceived exertion and the number of shots and errors in order to determine the intensity achieved and the degree of fatigue throughout the exercise. There were no significant differences in the average heart rate, lactate or the Borg Scale. Significant differences were registered, on the other hand, with a greater number of shots in the first two HIIT series (series 1 p>0.009; series 2 p>0.056), but not in the third. The number of errors was significantly lower in all the IIT series (series 1 p<0.035; series 2 p<0.010; series 3 p<0.001). Our study suggests that high-intensity intermittent training allows for greater intensity of play in relation to the real time spent on the exercise, reduced fatigue levels and the maintaining of greater precision in specific tennis-related exercises.

  5. High-intensity sprint training inhibits mitochondrial respiration through aconitase inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Filip J; Schiffer, Tomas A; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2016-01-01

    . In contrast, the triceps failed to increase mitochondrial density, and citrate did not accumulate. Instead, mitochondrial H2O2 emission was decreased to 40% of the pretraining levels, together with a 6-fold increase in protein abundance of catalase. In this study, a novel mitochondrial stress response...

  6. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Pmusic during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  7. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  8. Home-based versus hospital-based high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Forbord, Siv Hege; Gustad, Kjersti; Løckra, Vibeke; Stensen, Andreas; Berg, Astrid Tarlebø; Dalen, Håvard; Karlsen, Trine; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2014-09-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) as exercise therapy is gradually implemented in cardiac rehabilitation as the cardiovascular benefits from exercise is intensity dependent. However, in previous studies, HIT has been performed with strict supervision. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of different modes of HIT in cardiac rehabilitation. a randomized clinical study. Ninety participants with coronary artery disease (80 men/10 women, mean age 57 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of three exercise modes: group exercise (GE), treadmill exercise (TE), or home-based exercise (HE). HIT was performed twice a week for 12 weeks with an exercise intensity of 85-95% of peak heart rate. The primary outcome measure was change in peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2). Eighty-three participants (92%) completed the intervention without any severe adverse events. Peak VO2 increased from 34.7 ± 7.3 to 39.0 ± 8.0 ml/kg/min, 32.7 ± 6.5 to 36.0 ± 6.2 ml/kg/min, and 34.4 ± 4.8 to 37.2 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min in TE, GE, and HE, respectively. Mean group difference for TE vs. HE was 1.6 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.7 to 3.1, p = 0.02), TE vs. GE 1.1 ml/kg/min (95% CI-0.5 to 2.5, p = 0.27), and GE vs. HE 0.6 ml/kg/min (95% CI -1.0 to 2.1, p = 1). However, on-treatment analysis showed no significant difference between groups. HIT was efficiently performed in three settings of cardiac rehabilitation, with respect to target exercise intensity, exercise attendance, and increase in peak VO2. Exercise mode was not essential for exercise capacity. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals.

  10. Comparison of Acute Physiological and Psychological Responses Between Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise and three Regimes of High Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole; Wertz, Timothy; LaPorta, Zachary; Mora, Adam; Serbas, Jasmine; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-07-19

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) despite less time commitment. However, there is debate whether HIIT is more aversive than MICT. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between MICT and three regimes of HIIT. Nineteen active adults (age = 24.0 ± 3.3 yr) unfamiliar with HIIT initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and determine workload for subsequent sessions, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training (SIT) consisted of six 20 s bouts of "all-out" cycling at 140% of maximum watts (Wmax). Low volume (HIITLV) and high volume HIIT (HIITHV) consisted of eight 60 s bouts at 85% Wmax and six 2 min bouts at 70% Wmax, respectively. MICT consisted of 25 min at 40% Wmax. Across regimes, work was not matched. Heart rate, VO2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed during exercise. Ten minutes post-exercise, Physical Activity Enjoyment (PACES) was measured via a survey. Results revealed significantly higher (pregimes versus MICT at 50, 75, and 100 % of session duration, PACES was similar across regimes (p=0.65) although it was higher in women (p=0.03). Findings from healthy adults unaccustomed to interval training demonstrate that HIIT and SIT are perceived as enjoyable as MICT despite being more aversive.

  11. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  12. Determination of possibilities of the use of high-intensive trainings facilities on lessons health aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhanova N.A.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment was an exposure of reaction of heart rate of students on the increase of rate of musical accompaniment. 89 students of the first course took part in experimental employments. Height of step platform 15-20 centimetre. The large reaction of heart rate is exposed considerably on the increase of height of step platform (on 18,3 %, what at growth of music rate (on 8,5 %. Also appeared, that 14 from 89 students have weak functional preparedness: already at the rate of music of 138-142 shots in a minute and height of step platform 15 centimetre, heart rate for them attained an age-dependent maximum (on the average 207 shots in a minute. It is recommended to utillize in employments the increase of intensity only in the limited volume: increase of music rate to 142-45 shots in a minute or heights of step platform to 20 centimetre.

  13. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body......±5%) and lean tissue mass (+1.4±0.5%) only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73±19% and 86±27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively. Conclusion High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile......Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...

  14. Martial Arts-Based High Intensity Interval Training in the Rehabilitation of Combat Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-11

    The US Armed Forces are currently engaged in the longest active period of continuous armed conflict in United States history . The advancement in...survival rates. The second-order effect of the improved survival of combat injuries is the increased clinical burden of extremity injuries to include

  15. Mental fatigue negatively influences manual dexterity and anticipation timing but not repeated high-intensity exercise performance in trained adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Fowler, Nicholas; George, Oliver; Joyce, Samuel; Hankey, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a period of mental fatigue on manual dexterity, anticipation timing and repeated high intensity exercise performance. Using a randomised, repeated measures experimental design, eight physically trained adults (mean age = 24.8 ± 4.1 years) undertook a 40 minute vigilance task to elicit mental fatigue or a control condition followed by four repeated Wingate anaerobic performance tests. Pre, post fatigue/control and post each Wingate test, manual dexterity (Seconds), coincidence anticipation (absolute error) were assessed. A series of two (condition) by six (time) ways repeated measures ANOVAs indicated a significant condition by time interactions for manual dexterity time (p = 0.021) and absolute error (p = 0.028). Manual dexterity and coincidence anticipation were significantly poorer post mental fatigue compared with control. There were no significant differences in mean power between conditions or across trials (all p > 0.05).

  16. Changes in the heart rate recovery to endurance effort after high intensity interval, strength, and concurrent exercise training in patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Cano-Montoya, Johnathan; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Flores-Opazo, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three exercise training programs in the adaptation of the heart rate recovery of patients with insulin resistance. We studied 43 women with insulin resistance, which were assigned to three training groups: 1) high intensity interval training (HIT, age 39.0±10 years); 2) strength training (ST, age 33.9±9.4 years); 3) HIT+ST (MIXT, age 43.3±8.1 years); and 4) control group (CG, age 40.1±11 years). Heart rate was measured at rest (HRrest), during the 2-km-walking-test (UKKT) for mean (HRDE), and maximum (HRMDE) values, and during the recovery at one, two, and three minutes after the UKKT. Additionally, anthropometric measurements (body mass and body mass index) were assessed. HIT significantly decreased HRrest and HRDE (-4.5% and -2% respectively, Ptraining also decreased HRDE in -3% whilst both average and maximal HR during UKK were significantly increased in the control group HRDE (+2% and +3% respectively). Moreover, there were significant reductions in HR recovery at 1, 2 and 3 minutes after both HIT and MIXT training, whereas these values were increased in control group. Our findings suggest that HIT induces meaningful cardiovascular adaptations in patient with insulin resistance, reducing heart rate at rest, as well as during and after exercise, and that complementary strength training increases these adaptations.

  17. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu MH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meng Hsiu Wu,1,2 Chin Pang Lee,1–3 Shih Chieh Hsu,1,3 Chia Ming Chang,1,3 Ching Yen Chen1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results: Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01 and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01. Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729. Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001 and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003 both improved significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive

  18. Long-term Exercise Adherence After High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Karlsen, Trine; Dalen, Håvard; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2016-03-01

    Exercise adherence in general is reported to be problematic after cardiac rehabilitation. Additionally, vigorous exercise is associated with impaired exercise adherence. As high-intensity interval training (HIT) is frequently used as a therapy to patients with coronary artery disease in cardiac rehabilitation, the objective was to assess long-term exercise adherence following an HIT cardiac rehabilitation programme. A multicentre randomized study was carried out. Eligible participants were adults who had previously attended a 12-week HIT cardiac rehabilitation programme, as either a home-based or hospital-based HIT (treadmill exercise or group exercise). The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake; secondary outcomes were self-reported and objectively measured physical activity. Out of 83 eligible participants, 76 were available for assessment (68 men/8 women, mean age 59 (8) years) at a one-year follow-up. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly elevated above baseline values, (treadmill exercise: 35.8 (6.4) vs. 37.4 (7.4) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) , group exercise: 32.7 (6.5) vs. 34.1 (5.8) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) and home-based exercise: 34.5 (4.9) vs. 36.7 (5.8) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) at baseline and follow-up, respectively), with no significant differences between groups. The majority of the participants (>90%) met the recommended daily level of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity. The home-based group showed a strong trend towards increased physical activity compared with the hospital-based groups. The results from this study have shown that both home-based and hospital-based HIT in cardiac rehabilitation induce promising long-term exercise adherence, with maintenance of peak oxygen uptake significantly above baseline values at a one-year follow-up. The implication for physiotherapy practice is that HIT in cardiac rehabilitation induces satisfactory long-term exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  20. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Run Training on Cross-sectional Area of the Vastus Lateralis in Untrained College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Rebekah R; Malinowski, Amy; Piacentini, Meredith; Thrush, David; Salley, Eric; Losey, Cassidy; Hayes, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic cycling has been repeatedly shown to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle across a variety of populations, while there has been a lack of investigation into the impact of running upon hypertrophy. An increasingly popular model of aerobic exercise is high-intensity interval training (HIIT); in addition to its positive impact upon cardiovascular health, HIIT may be sufficient for inducing significant muscular hypertrophy. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of a high-intensity interval running protocol upon hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in an untrained, young population. Twelve recreationally active university students (Male: 2; Female: 10; 19.9±0.5 yr.; 169.8±1.9 cm; 63.8±2.3 kg; VO2max: 42.1±1.6 ml•kg-1min-1) completed 24.5±0.6 sessions of high-intensity interval run training over 10 weeks. The protocol consisted of four sets of 4 minutes running at 90-95% HRmax followed by 3 minutes active rest at 70% HRmax. Relative and absolute aerobic capacity increased 5.2±2.2% and 6.0±2.3% respectively as a result of the intervention (phypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in a young population following a running protocol. These data support the existing body of evidence suggesting aerobic exercise to be an effective mode of improving cardiorespiratory fitness as well as increasing whole muscle size of the quadriceps.

  1. The effect of HMB ingestion on the IGF-I and IGF binding protein response to high intensity military training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Michael J; Hoffman, Jay R; Gepner, Yftach; Stout, Jeffrey R; Hoffman, Mattan W; Ben-Dov, Daniel; Funk, Shany; Church, David D; Avital, Guy; Chen, Yacov; Frankel, Hagai; Ostfeld, Ishay

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a metabolic and anabolic biomarker that has been proposed to reflect physiological adaptations resulting from multistressor environments. The bioactivity of IGF-I is regulated by seven different insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) which act not only as carriers of IGF-1, but also function as a modulator of IGF-I availability and activity. Supplementing with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to enhance physiological outcomes associated with intense training, and has been reported to augment the IGF-1 response. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 23days of HMB supplementation on circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBPs in combat soldiers during highly intense military training. Thirteen male soldiers from an elite infantry unit volunteered to participate in this double-blind, parallel design study. Soldiers were provided 3g·day(-1) of either HMB (n=6) or placebo (PL; n=7). During the study soldiers performed advanced military training with periods of restricted sleep and severe environmental stressors. Blood samples were obtained prior to (PRE) and approximately 18h following the final supplement consumption (POST). No significant differences were observed for circulating IGF-1 concentrations between HMB and PL (p=0.568). In addition, no differences were seen between the groups for IGFBP-1 (p=1.000), IGFBP-2 (p=0.855), IGFBP-3 (p=0.520), IGFBP-4 (p=0.103), IGFBP-5 (p=0.886), or IGFBP-6 (p=0.775). A significant difference was noted between HMB (169.9±23.0ng·ml(-1)) and PL (207.2±28.0ng·ml(-1)) for IGFBP-7 at POST (p=0.042). Although the results of this study do not support the influence of HMB supplementation on circulating concentrations of IGF-1 or IGFBPs1-6 during high intensity military training, it does present initial evidence that it may lower circulating IGFBP-7 concentrations. This may provide some indication of a reduced stress response, but further investigation

  2. Comparison of the effects on dynamic balance and aerobic capacity between objective and subjective methods of high-intensity robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min; Ko, Mansoo

    2017-05-01

    Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is effective for improving dynamic balance and aerobic capacity, but previous RAGT method does not set suitable training intensity. Recently, high-intensity treadmill gait training at 70% of heart rate reserve (HRR) was used for improving aerobic capacity and dynamic balance. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness between objective and subjective methods of high-intensity RAGT for improving dynamic balance and aerobic capacity in chronic stroke. Subjects were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 17) and control (n = 17) groups. The experimental group underwent high-intensity RAGT at 70% of HRR, whereas the control group underwent high-intensity RAGT at an RPE of 15. Both groups received their assigned training for 30 min per session, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. All subjects also received an additional 30 min of conventional physical therapy. Before and after each of the 18 sessions, the dynamic balance and aerobic capacity of all subjects were evaluated by a blinded examiner. After training, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go Test scores, VO2max, and VO2max/kg were significantly increased in both groups (p high-intensity RAGT. No adverse effect of training was observed in both groups. High-intensity RAGT at 70% of HRR significantly improved dynamic balance and aerobic capacity more than RAGT at RPE of 15. These results suggest that high-intensity RAGT at 70% of HRR is safe and effective for improving dynamic balance and aerobic capacity in chronic stroke.

  3. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women.A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30 randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak, both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES were collected during the intervention.After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41. Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034, fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002 and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016, there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids.Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  4. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  5. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 individuals with type 2...... diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT...... in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose...

  6. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of GH and IGF-I

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    Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-recognized that exercise has a significant impact on the GH/IGF system but less is known about the effects of HIIT on this axis. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ten weeks of HIIT on plasma levels of GH and IGF-I in healthy men. Methods: Twenty young men (age 23.34 ± 2.56 weight 72.47 ± 12.01 height 174.10 ± 5.75 recruited and randomly assigned into control (n=10 and HIIT (n=12 groups. HIIT protocol was started with 4 cycles. Then, every two weeks one cycle was added to the previous ones. Finally, it was to 8 cycles/ session in tenth weeks that lasted 16 minutes. Blood samples were collected prior to and after HIIT program for all subjects and IGF-I and GH levels were measured. Result: HIIT subjects showed a significant increase in IGF-I (P=0.002, F=12.38. However, no significant change was shown in GH levels (P=0.716, F=0.62. Discussion and conclusion: Our findings indicate that the HIIT caused increase in circulating levels of IGF-I independently from GH levels. Both hormones may contribute to positive effects of anabolic conditions.

  7. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. CONCLUSION: Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength......AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... by 2 s relaxation at baseline and 10-week follow-up. RESULTS: In the case-control study, peak force, rate of force development, and rate of force relaxation as well as EMG amplitude were lower in MYA than CON throughout all 100 MVC. Muscle fiber capillarization was not significantly different between...

  9. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  10. High-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous training: Superior metabolic benefits in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningning; Liu, Yang; Ma, Yanan; Wen, Deliang

    2017-12-15

    Exercise is beneficial in obesity, however, the debate about the value of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been long lasting. Therefore, here we have compared the possible beneficial effects of two different exercise training regimes in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Following 7wk. on high fat diet (HFD), ten-week-old male ICR mice (n=30) were assigned to HIIT, distance-matched MICT or remained sedentary for the next 8 constitutive weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. Age-matched sedentary mice with standard diet were used as a control (n=10). Exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill for 5days a week. Both modes of exercise ameliorated adiposity and related metabolic dysfunction induced by HFD and sedentary lifestyle, while mice following HIIT exhibited significantly lower body weight, percentage of fat mass and smaller adipocyte size. HIIT was more favorable in preventing liver lipid accumulation by restoring mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis (SREBP1, ACC1, FAS) and β-oxidation (PPARα, CPT1a, HAD). In addition, HIIT was more efficient in mitigating adipose tissue inflammation and insulin insensitivity, partly dependent on abrogating phosphorylation of JNK/IRS1 (Ser307) pathway. Moreover, only HIIT led to pronounced beige adipocyte recruitment in inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. We conclude that HIIT contribute a more favorable regulation of metabolic dysfunctions in DIO mice compared with MICT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Timothy P; Baker, Matthew D; Evans, Shelley-Ann; Adams, Rachel A; Cobbold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which provides significant improvements in CVD risk markers. Healthy volunteers undertook 6 weeks of HIIT. T2DM and CVD risk predictors including glucose tolerance, VO2max, blood pressure (BP), and lipids were measured before and after HIIT. HIIT training was associated with beneficial changes in a range of predictors of blood flow and cardiovascular risk. There was a heterogeneous response to HIIT, with some subjects responding with favourable changes and others being non-responders to HIIT. In responders, HIIT was associated with a statistically significant (p = 0.023) increase in VO2max, from 45.4 (38.4,52.5) to 56.9 (51.2,65.7) (median (interquartile range)(ml/min/kg)). In responders HIIT resulted in a decrease in systolic BP from 127 (126,129) to 116 (106,122) (mmHg) with p = 0.026 and a decrease is diastolic blood pressure from 72 (69,74) to 57 (56,66) with p = 0.026. There was also some evidence of a beneficial change in blood lipid and glucose concentrations with HIIT. In conclusion, personalised HIIT has potential as an intervention to improve blood flow and cardiovascular health.

  12. Can Increasing the Manufacturer's Recommended Shortest Curing Time of High-intensity Light-emitting Diodes Adequately Cure Sealants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branchal, Caroline F; Wells, Martha H; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2015-01-01

    To investigate sealant depth of cure after increasing the curing times of high-intensity light-emitting diode units (LEDs). Three sealants (opaque-unfilled, opaque-filled, and clear-filled) were light cured in a covered-slot mold with: (a) three LEDs (VALO, SmartLite, Fusion) for six to 15 seconds; and (b) a quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH) light for 40 seconds as a control (N=10). Twenty-four hours after light curing, microhardness was measured at the sealant surface and through the depth at 0.5 mm increments. Results were analyzed via analysis of variance followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (significance level 0.05). The opaque-filled and clear-filled sealants cured with VALO for six or nine seconds had hardness values that were statistically equivalent to or better than the QTH to a depth of 1.5 mm. Using Fusion for 10 seconds (exposure limit) did not adequately cure the three sealants beyond one mm. SmartLite at 15 seconds (maximum exposure period without overheating) did not adequately cure the sealants beyond 0.5 mm. Among the tested high-intensity LEDs, only VALO at double or triple the manufacturers' shortest curing time (six or nine seconds) provided adequate curing of opaque-filled and clear-filled sealants at 1.5 mm depth compared to the 40-second QTH light.

  13. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

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    P. Abreu

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min compared to the sedentary group (27th min. Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. An evaluation of low volume high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) for health risk reduction in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Benjamin M; Xenophontos, Soteris; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2017-01-01

    Both sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) have been described as time-efficient strategies for inducing favourable metabolic and cardiorespiratory adaptations in healthy and diseased participants. To date, little attention has been given to profiling the potential health benefits of HIIT or modified HIIT training within overweight and obese cohorts with particular focus on inflammation. Within this pilot trial, we tested the hypothesis that 6 sessions of HIIT performed over 2 weeks with 1-2 days' rest would improve aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism and inflammatory profile in an overweight and obese male cohort. Additionally, we profiled the potential health benefits of 4 HIIT sessions performed over the same period. 18 overweight or obese males (BMI = 31.2 ± 3.6; V̇O 2  = 30.3 ± 4.4 ml.kg.min -1 ) were studied before and 72 h after HIIT. Training sessions consisted of 10 x 1 min intervals at 90% HR peak separated by 1 min recovery periods. Exercise was performed either 6 (group 1, n  = 8) or 4 (group 2, n  = 10) times over a 2 week period. After training no changes were detected from baseline for body composition, aerobic capacity, glucose metabolism or inflammatory profile ( p  > 0.05) in either group. Both 6 and 4 sessions of HIIT performed over a 2-week period are ineffective in improving selected health markers within an overweight and obese cohort. This trial reports data from human participants and was retrospectively registered on 22/02/2017 with the ISRCTN registry, trial number ISRCTN90672085.

  15. High-intensity interval training, solutions to the programming puzzle. Part II: anaerobic energy, neuromuscular load and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Laursen, Paul B

    2013-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is a well-known, time-efficient training method for improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic function and, in turn, physical performance in athletes. HIT involves repeated short (high-intensity exercise interspersed with recovery periods (refer to the previously published first part of this review). While athletes have used 'classical' HIT formats for nearly a century (e.g. repetitions of 30 s of exercise interspersed with 30 s of rest, or 2-4-min interval repetitions ran at high but still submaximal intensities), there is today a surge of research interest focused on examining the effects of short sprints and all-out efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory. Prescription of HIT consists of the manipulation of at least nine variables (e.g. work interval intensity and duration, relief interval intensity and duration, exercise modality, number of repetitions, number of series, between-series recovery duration and intensity); any of which has a likely effect on the acute physiological response. Manipulating HIT appropriately is important, not only with respect to the expected middle- to long-term physiological and performance adaptations, but also to maximize daily and/or weekly training periodization. Cardiopulmonary responses are typically the first variables to consider when programming HIT (refer to Part I). However, anaerobic glycolytic energy contribution and neuromuscular load should also be considered to maximize the training outcome. Contrasting HIT formats that elicit similar (and maximal) cardiorespiratory responses have been associated with distinctly different anaerobic energy contributions. The high locomotor speed/power requirements of HIT (i.e. ≥95 % of the minimal velocity/power that elicits maximal oxygen uptake [v/p(·)VO(2max)] to 100 % of maximal sprinting speed or power) and the accumulation of high-training volumes at high-exercise intensity (runners can cover up to 6-8 km at v(·)VO(2max) per

  16. The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joyce S; Dalleck, Lance C; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Beetham, Kassia S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-05-01

    Vascular dysfunction is a precursor to the atherosclerotic cascade, significantly increasing susceptibility to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous studies have revealed a strong relationship between vascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Thus, since high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent method of improving CRF, several small randomized trials have investigated the impact on vascular function of HIIT relative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence and quantify the impact on vascular function of HIIT compared with MICT. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE) were searched (until May 2014) for randomized trials comparing the effect of at least 2 weeks of HIIT and MICT on vascular function. HIIT protocols involved predominantly aerobic exercise at a high intensity, interspersed with active or passive recovery periods. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the mean difference in the change in vascular function assessed via brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from baseline to post-intervention between HIIT and MICT. The impact of HIIT versus MICT on CRF, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and biomarkers associated with vascular function (oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance) was also reviewed across included studies. Seven randomized trials, including 182 patients, met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A commonly used HIIT prescription was four intervals of 4 min (4 × 4 HIIT) at 85-95% of maximum or peak heart rate (HRmax/peak), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 60-70% HRmax/peak, three times per week for 12-16 weeks. Brachial artery FMD improved by 4.31 and 2.15% following HIIT and MICT, respectively. This resulted in a significant (p HIIT also had a greater tendency than MICT to induce positive effects on secondary

  17. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  18. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, [Formula: see text] or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention (P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly

  19. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry McGawley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT within a polarized microcycle.Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5 completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR, session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE, and perceived recovery (pREC were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT were completed.Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, V˙O2max or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention (P = 0.003, and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly

  20. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, V˙O2max or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention (P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly altered

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-11-08

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI -0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI -8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as "good" by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Herget

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation twice a week (60 min/session. Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female. The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10 units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024, p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37, p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  3. High-intensity endurance training results in faster vessel-specific rate of vasorelaxation in type 1 diabetic rats.

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    Juan M Murias

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of moderate- (MD and high-intensity endurance training (HD and resistance training (RD on the vasorelaxation responsiveness of the aorta, iliac, and femoral vessels in type 1 diabetic (D rats. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was modeled as a mono-exponential function. A potential mediator of vasorelaxation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS was determined by Western blots. Vessel lumen-to-wall ratios were calculated from H&E stains. The vasorelaxation time-constant (τ (s was smaller in control (C (7.2 ± 3.7 compared to D (9.1 ± 4.4 and it was smaller in HD (5.4 ± 1.5 compared to C, D, RD (8.3 ± 3.7 and MD (8.7 ± 3.8 (p<0.05. The rate of vasorelaxation (% · s(-1 was larger in HD (2.7 ± 1.2 compared to C (2.0 ± 1.2, D (2.0 ± 1.5, RD (2.0 ± 1.0, and MD (2.0 ± 1.2 (p<0.05. τ vasorelaxation was smaller in the femoral (6.9 ± 3.7 and iliac (6.9 ± 4.7 than the aorta (9.0 ± 5.0 (p<0.05. The rate of vasorelaxation was progressively larger from the femoral (3.1 ± 1.4 to the iliac (2.0 ± 0.9 and to the aorta (1.3 ± 0.5 (p<0.05. e-NOS content (% of positive control was greater in HD (104 ± 90 compared to C (71 ± 64, D (85 ± 65, RD (69 ± 43, and MD (76 ± 44 (p<0.05. e-NOS normalized to lumen-to-wall ratio (% · mm(-1 was larger in the femoral (11.7 ± 11.1 compared to the aorta (3.2 ± 1.9 (p<0.05. Although vasorelaxation responses were vessel-specific, high-intensity endurance training was the most effective exercise modality in restoring the diabetes-related loss of vascular responsiveness. Changes in the vasoresponsiveness seem to be endothelium-dependent as evidenced by the greater e-NOS content in HD and the greater normalized e-NOS content in the smaller vessels.

  4. Effects of long or short duration stimulus during high-intensity interval training on physical performance, energy intake, and body composition.

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    Alves, Elaine Domingues; Salermo, Gabriela Pires; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of 6 weeks of long or short high-intensity interval training (long- or short-HIIT) on body composition, hunger perception, food intake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty previously untrained women (25±5 years) were randomly assigned to do a long-HIIT (n=10) or a short-HIIT (n=10). The long-HIIT group performed fifteen 1-min bouts at 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), interspersed by 30-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The short-HIIT group performed forty-five 20-sec bouts at 90% of HRmax, interspersed by 10-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The training for both groups was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks. All subjects performed the Astrand cycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) 1 week before and after the training period, as well as body composition, which was estimated through circumferences and skinfold thicknesses. For all training sessions, the heart rate, visual scale of hunger, internal load, and RPE were recorded. In the first and last week of training, subjects were asked to record a 24-hr food diary for 3 days. Both training induced significant pre to post decreases for fat mass, fat percentage, waist circumference, sum of seven skinfolds and RPE. As expected estimated, the VO2max increased in both groups. There were no differences for hunger perception, energy intake, and body mass. Long and short-HIIT resulted in fat loss, without altering the energy intake.

  5. Effect of high-intensity training on speed and agility performance in 10-year-old soccer players.

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    Mathisen, G; Pettersen, S A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of short-burst high intensity training on speed and agility performance in 10-year-old male soccer players. Pretest posttest experimental design. A training group (TG) (N.=20; age 10.5 SD ± 0.2), followed an 8 week intervention program, and with an corresponding control group (CG) (N.=12; age 10.4 SD ± 0.2). 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint and 20 m agility performance, and correlation between linear sprint and agility performance. Brower Timing System (USA) were used to record split and completion time. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA), two tailed paired t-test and Pearson's correlation r were used in statistical analyses. All analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0. Findings from the present study showed significant improvement in agility performance (7.8%) and 20 m sprint (1.8%) (Pagility was r=0.40 and between 20 m sprint and agility performance r=0.58 (Pagility performance in 10-year-old male soccer players. The results also indicate a common variance between straight line sprinting and agility performance.

  6. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

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    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  7. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: A pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Tom; George, K.; Nolan, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The health benefits of high-intensity interval\\ud training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research.\\ud We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity\\ud interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in\\ud chronic heart failure.\\ud Design/Settings: Unblinded, two arm parallel design with\\ud random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient\\ud hospital rehabilitation gym.\\ud Methods: Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and\\ud ejec...

  8. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  9. The effect of 6-week high intensity interval training on the VEGF/COL-18 ratio and some echocardiographic indices in rats with myocardial infarction

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    Sara Karbalaeifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI is the irreversible cell death caused by ischemia in parts of myocardium. The molecular process of increased capillary density in response to activity and its appropriate intensity is not clear yet. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of 6-week high intensity interval training on the VEGF/COL-18 ratio and echocardiographic indices in rats with MI. Methods: Twelve Wistar male rats of 10 weeks old and mean weight 250-300gr were allocated to two groups of experimental (60 minutes of interval treadmill running for four minutes with the intensity of 85-90 and two minutes of active rest at 50-60 percent of VO2max for four days a week for 6 weeks and control group (without any training. Real-time PCR was used to assess the expression of VEGF and COL-18 genes after inducing MI, and shortening fractional and ejection fraction were investigated as echocardiographic indices. Data were analyzed in SPSS18 using independent t test (α≤ 0.05. Results: The findings showed that there was no significant increase in the VEGF/COL-18 ratio in the HIIT group (1.856 mg/ml as compared with the control group (1.245 mg/ml (p=0.263. A significant increase was observed in the HIIT group for SF (77.461±7.022% and EF (41.625±6.847% as compared with the control group (64.483±3.695% and (31.320±3.460%, respectively (p=0.001. Conclusion: In general, 6 weeks of high intensity interval training can effectively increase angiogenesis factors and improve myocardial function in male Wistar rats after MI.

  10. Effects of high-intensity interval training on central haemodynamics and skeletal muscle oxygenation during exercise in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Ruud F.; Niemeijer, Victor M.; Wijn, Pieter F. F.; Doevendans, Pieter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164248366; Kemps, Hareld M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIT) improves exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moreover, HIT was associated with improved resting cardiac function. However, the extent to which these improvements actually contribute to training-induced changes in exercise

  11. Low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic cycling in patients with chronic heart failure: a pragmatic randomised clinical trial of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H; George, Keith P; Nolan, James

    2014-04-01

    The health benefits of high-intensity interval training in cardiac rehabilitation warrant further research. We compared the effectiveness of low-volume high-intensity interval training vs continuous aerobic exercise training in chronic heart failure. Unblinded, two arm parallel design with random assignment to exercise interventions in out-patient hospital rehabilitation gym. Patients with signs of chronic heart failure and ejection fraction training (n = 9) or high-intensity interval training (n = 8). Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined during cycle ergometry using respiratory gas exchange analysis. Functional capacity was assessed via sit-to-stand and gait speed. Quality of life was assessed using the MOS Short-Form 36 and Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaires. Cardiac autonomic regulation was assessed using Heart Rate Variability. Analysis of Covariance revealed significant time effects but no group × time interactions for exercise and functional capacity outcomes. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) improved by a mean of 14.9% (SD 16.3%) from baseline and by 22% (SD 28.3) at ventilatory threshold in both groups. Sit-to-stand (11.9 (SD 11%)) and gait speed (16.0 (SD 19%)) improved similarly in both groups. No changes in quality of life or heart rate variability were noted. Training adaptations in high-intensity interval training were achieved despite a significantly reduced time commitment and total work volume compared to continuous aerobic exercise training. Low-volume high-intensity interval training is a feasible and well tolerated training modality in cardiac rehabilitation settings, but is not more effective than continuous aerobic exercise training.

  12. Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (pperiod, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (ptraining of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941. PMID:24516645

  13. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) and Continuous Endurance Training for VO2max Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Weston, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint interval training', 'endurance training', 'peak oxygen uptake', and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18-45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). When compared with no-exercise controls

  14. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

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    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  15. Comparison of Two Intensities of Aerobic Training (low intensity and High Intensity on Expression of Perlipin 2 Skeletal Muscle, Serum Glucose and Insulin levels in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

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    M Ghafari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Background & aim: Lipid metabolism disorder plays an important role in insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and lipid drop proteins such as perlipine 2 (PLIN2 are effective in regulating intracellular fat metabolism. One of the suggested pathways for the effects of endurance activity in metabolic diseases is the effect of physical activity on intramuscular. Therefore, the purpose of this study was compare the intensity of aerobic exercise intensity (low intensity and high intensity on expression of PLIN2 skeletal muscle, serum glucose and insulin levels in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.   Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 8, including two intervention groups (low intensity endurance training group and high intensity continuous exercise group and one control group. After induction of diabetic rats by injection streptozotocin (55 mg / kg body weight, Intraperitoneally, endurance training was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week in diabetic rats. Exercise intensity in the low-intensity group was equal to 5-8 m / min (equivalent to 50-60% Vo2max, the intensity of training in a high intensity training group was equivalent to a speed of 22-25 m / min (equivalent to 80% Vo2max and the control group did not receive intervene in this time. Relative protein expression of PLIN2 was performed using western blot technique. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test.   Results: The results of the intergroup comparison revealed a significant difference among three groups in the PLIN2 variables (p = 0.037. The results of post hoc test showed a significant increase in PLIN2 in high intensity training diabetic group compared to the control group (p = 0.033 However, there was no significant difference in PLIN2 level in the low exercise group compared to the control group (p = 0.18. Also, there was no significant difference between the low intensity and

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg-1·min-1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  18. Effect of 3-week high-intensity interval training on VO2max, total haemoglobin mass, plasma and blood volume in well-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Verena; Strobl, Jochen; Faulhaber, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the haematological adaptations to high-intensity interval training (HIT), i.e. total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass), blood volume (BV), and plasma volume (PV), and its effects on VO2max in well-trained athletes. Twenty-seven male and eight female well-trained (VO2max 63.7 ± 7.7 ml/min/kg) athletes were randomly assigned to the HIT (HITG, N = 19) or the control group (CG, N = 16). Over a 3-week period, the HITG performed 11 HIT sessions, consisting of four 4-min interval bouts at an exercise intensity of 90-95 % of the individual maximal heart rate (HRmax), separated by 4-min active recovery periods. Before and 5 ± 2 days after the intervention, tHb-mass, BV and PV were determined by the CO-rebreathing method. VO2max was assessed in a laboratory treadmill test. tHb-mass (from 753 ± 124 to 760 ± 121 g), BV (from 5.6 ± 0.8 to 5.6 ± 0.9 l) and PV (from 3.2 ± 0.5 to 3.2 ± 0.5 l) remained unchanged after HIT and did not show an interaction (group × time). Within the HITG, VO2max improved from baseline by +3.5 % (p = 0.011), but remained unchanged in the CG. No interaction (group × time) was seen for VO2max. The HITG showed a significant reduction in HRmax compared to the baseline measurement (-2.3 %, p ≤ 0.001), but HRmax remained unchanged in the CG. There was a significant interaction (group × time) for HRmax (p = 0.006). Also, oxygen pulse significantly increased only in HITG from 22.9 ± 4.4 to 23.9 ± 4.2 ml/beat, with no interaction (p = 0.150). Eleven HIT sessions added to usual training did neither improve VO2max nor haematological parameters compared to the CG.

  19. Effect of Low vs. High Intensity Exercise Training on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in Adolescents With Obesity: A 6-Month Randomized Exercise Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenório, Thiago R S; Balagopal, P Babu; Andersen, Lars B; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Hill, James O; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Prado, Wagner L

    2017-08-08

    To investigate the effects of a low vs. high intensity aerobic training on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with obesity. Sixty-two adolescents with obesity (age: 15±14 years, BMI: 34.87±4.22 kg.m-2) were randomized to receive either a high intensity training (HIT, n=31) or a low intensity training (LIT, n=31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Leptin, total and subtype leukocyte counts, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were obtained at baseline and after 24 weeks. HIT reduced neutrophils (from 4.4 ± 1.9 to 3.6 ± 1.3 μL-1 x10(3); p= 0.01) and monocytes (from 7.2 ± 2.5 to 5.2 ± 1.8 μL-1 x10(2); p< 0.01), but LIT increased neutrophils (from 4.5 ± 1.7 to 5.2 ± 3.3 μL-1 x10(3); p= 0.01). While TNF-α increased in LIT (from 13.3 (7.5) to 17.7 (10.8) pg.mL-1; p= 0.01), it decreased in HIT (from 12.4 (7.5) to 11.3 (6.2) pg.mL-1; p= 0.01). No changes in leucocyte counts, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance were observed. Both HIT and LIT improved the inflammatory profile. The study, however, indicated that the number of biomarkers and the magnitude of changes were higher in the HIT compared to LIT.

  20. Protein Supplementation to Augment the Effects of High Intensity Resistance Training in Untrained Middle-Aged Males: The Randomized Controlled PUSH Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wittke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity (resistance exercise training (HIT defined as a “single set resistance exercise to muscular failure” is an efficient exercise method that allows people with low time budgets to realize an adequate training stimulus. Although there is an ongoing discussion, recent meta-analysis suggests the significant superiority of multiple set (MST methods for body composition and strength parameters. The aim of this study is to determine whether additional protein supplementation may increase the effect of a HIT-protocol on body composition and strength to an equal MST-level. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly allocated to three groups: (a HIT, (b HIT and protein supplementation (HIT&P, and (c waiting-control (CG and (after cross-over high volume/high-intensity-training (HVHIT. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two equal sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5–1.7 g/kg/d/body mass. Primary study endpoint was lean body mass (LBM. LBM significantly improved in all exercise groups (p≤0.043; however only HIT&P and HVHIT differ significantly from control (p≤0.002. HIT diverges significantly from HIT&P (p=0.017 and nonsignificantly from HVHIT (p=0.059, while no differences were observed for HIT&P versus HVHIT (p=0.691. In conclusion, moderate to high protein supplementation significantly increases the effects of a HIT-protocol on LBM in middle-aged untrained males.

  1. High-intensity interval training every second week maintains VO2max in soccer players during off-season.

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    Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2014-07-01

    Reduced endurance training among semiprofessional soccer players during off-season may have negative effect on game performance during the competition season. This negative effect can be prevented by adding high-intensity interval training (HIT) to normal activity. In this study, we want to compare 2 different frequencies of HIT (5 bouts of 4 minutes on 87-97% peak heart rate) session on maintenance of aerobic fitness among semiprofessional soccer players during a 6-week off-season period. Seventeen male players at second and third highest soccer division in Norway participated. The subjects were randomized into 1 HIT session every second week (HIT 0.5) or 1 HIT session per week (HIT 1). All participants performed a 20-m shuttle run test and a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test on treadmill before and after the training intervention. VO2max (HIT 0.5, 63.4 ± 5.9 ml·kg-1·min-1; HIT 1, 65.6 ± 2.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) and 20-m shuttle run performance (HIT 0.5, 2335 ± 390 m, HIT 1, 2531 ± 106 m) were not different between the groups before the training intervention. VO2max was maintained after the training intervention in both HIT 0.5 and HIT 1 (64.0 ± 5.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 and 64.3 ± 1.3 ml·kg-1·min-1, respectively). There was a reduction in distance covered during the 20-m shuttle run test in HIT 1 and when groups were pooled (-7.9 ± 5.7% and -6.4 ± 7.9%, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, HIT 1 did not maintain VO2max better than HIT 0.5 when added to normal off-season activity. However, performance in 20-m shuttle run, which is a more soccer-specific fitness test than VO2max test, was slightly reduced when both groups was pooled.

  2. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese

  3. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  4. Effect of high-intensity interval training on body composition and bioenergetic indices in boys - futsal players

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    Balbasi Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval trainings (HIIT can result in the best improvement of body fitness among athletes in the shortest possible time. The impact of HIIT on bioenergetic factors of futsal players has not been studied extensively. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 3-week HIIT on body composition indices, maximum aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power, anaerobic power among boys - futsal players. Material: 30 boys - futsal players (mean± SD age, 13.49±1.03 years; BMI, 20.95±1.78 kg/m2 participated in the study voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15 and control (n=15 groups. HIIT lasted for three weeks, three sessions a week for 12-36 minutes on treadmill. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, thickness of body fat, maximal aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power were recorded before intervention and 48 hours after the final training session. Aerobic power was measured with 20-m shuttle run, and maximum anaerobic power was measured with RAST test. Paired sample t-test was used to determine pretest-posttest differences, and independent t-test was used to determine between-group differences. The significance level was set to P < 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found in weight, BMI, thickness of body fat, maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power in experimental group (P = 0.001 before and after training intervention, but the change in WHR was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in selected body composition between experimental and control groups, but they exhibited significant differences in maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power (P = 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, HIIT can be an effective training program for improving the performance of bioenergetic indices of futsal players. Also, it is recommended to study the effect of similar trainings with longer durations on other

  5. Acute Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Function of High-Intensity Interval Training in Collegiate Male Soccer Players with Different Chronotype: A Cross-Over Study

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    Matteo Bonato, Luca Agnello, Letizia Galasso, Angela Montaruli, Eliana Roveda, Giampiero Merati, Antonio La Torre, Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m. and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8 2 hours, or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympatho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete’s chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high-intensity

  6. Acute Modification of Cardiac Autonomic Function of High-Intensity Interval Training in Collegiate Male Soccer Players with Different Chronotype: A Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Matteo; Agnello, Luca; Galasso, Letizia; Montaruli, Angela; Roveda, Eliana; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Vitale, Jacopo A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the time of the day (8.00 a.m. vs 8.00 p.m.) and chronotype could influence autonomic cardiac control in soccer players in relation to an acute session of high-intensity interval training. The morningness-eveningness questionnaire was administered to recruit Morning-type and Evening-type collegiate male soccer players. Therefore, 24 players (12 Morning-types and 12 Evening-types) were randomly assigned, to either morning (n = 12; age 23 ± 3 years; height 1.75 ± 0.07 m; body mass 73 ± 10 kg; weekly training volume 8 2 hours), or evening (n = 12; age 21 ± 3 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 75 ± 11 kg; weekly training volume 8 ± 3 hours) training. Heart Rate Variability vagal and sympatho/vagal indices were calculated in time, frequency and complexity domains at rest, before, after 12 and 24 hours of high-intensity interval training. Before evening training session, a higher resting heart rate was observed which was determined by a marked parasympathetic withdrawal with a sympathetic predominance. Moreover, Evening-type subjects during morning training session, present a significant higher heart rate that corresponded to significant higher vagal indices with a significant lower parasympathetic tone that returned to the rest values after 24 hours of the cessation of high-intensity interval training exercise. On the contrary, Morning-type subjects did not reveal any significant differences with Evening-Type subjects during evening high-intensity interval training session. Stress response of high-intensity interval training is influenced by both the time of the day and by the chronotype. Understanding the Heart Rate Variability response to high-intensity interval training can be an additional important procedure for evaluating of cardiovascular recovery in soccer players. Moreover, these results suggest that an athlete's chronotype should be taken into account when scheduling a high-intensity interval training

  7. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  8. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Time-course changes of oxidative stress response to high-intensity discontinuous training versus moderate-intensity continuous training in masters runners.

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    Alessandra Vezzoli

    Full Text Available Beneficial systemic effects of regular physical exercise have been demonstrated to reduce risks of a number of age-related disorders. Antioxidant capacity adaptations are amongst these fundamental changes in response to exercise training. However, it has been claimed that acute physical exercise performed at high intensity (>60% of maximal oxygen uptake may result in oxidative stress, due to reactive oxygen species being generated excessively by enhanced oxygen consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT, characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on oxidative damage. Twenty long-distance masters runners (age 47.8 ± 7.8 yr on the basis of the individual values of gas exchange threshold were assigned to a different 8-weeks training program: continuous moderate-intensity training (MOD, n = 10 or HIDT (n = 10. In both groups before (PRE and after (POST training we examined the following oxidative damage markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS as marker of lipid peroxidation; protein carbonyls (PC as marker of protein oxidation; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OH-dG as a biomarker of DNA base modifications; and total antioxidant capacity (TAC as indicator of the overall antioxidant system. Training induced a significant (p<0.05 decrease in resting plasma TBARS concentration in both MOD (7.53 ± 0.30 and 6.46 ± 0.27 µM, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (7.21 ± 0.32 and 5.85 ± 0.46 µM, PRE and POST respectively. Resting urinary 8-OH-dG levels were significantly decreased in both MOD (5.50 ± 0.66 and 4.16 ± 0.40 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively and HIDT (4.52 ± 0.50 and 3.18 ± 0.34 ng mg(-1creatinine, PRE and POST respectively. Training both in MOD and HIDT did not significantly modify plasma levels of PC. Resting plasma TAC was reduced in MOD while no significant changes were observed in HIDT. In conclusion

  10. A comparison of low volume 'high-intensity-training' and high volume traditional resistance training methods on muscular performance, body composition, and subjective assessments of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, J; Eichmann, B; Steele, J; Fisher, J

    2016-09-01

    Most studies of resistance training (RT) examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n = 13; females, n = 17) were randomised to either a group performing low volume 'High Intensity Training' (HIT; n = 16) or high volume 'Body-building' (3ST; n = 14) RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant's subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals) with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively). HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05) and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively) in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively) and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively). Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  11. Development of low-volume, high-intensity, aerobic-type interval training for elderly Japanese men: a feasibility study.

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    Osuka, Yosuke; Matsubara, Muneaki; Hamasaki, Ai; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify 1) the feasibility of a novel exercise protocol (elderly Japanese male version of high-intensity interval aerobic training: EJ-HIAT) and 2) its preliminary data (%V̇O2peak, rating of perceived exertion) in comparison with traditional moderate-intensity continuous aerobic training (MICT). Twenty-one sedentary elderly men, aged 60-69 years, performed two exercise protocols: EJ-HIAT, consisting of 3 sets of 2-3-min cycling at 75-85%V̇O2peak with 1-2-min active rests at 50%V̇O2peak between sets, and MICT, consisting of 40-min cycling at 65%V̇O2peak. The completion rate, defined as the rate of participants who 1) did not demand withdrawal, 2) were not interrupted by the tester, and 3) did not change the workload during either exercise protocol, of EJ-HIAT was similar to that of MICT (EJ-HIAT: 100%, MICT: 95.2%). Maximal perceived exertion ratings assessed by Borg scale were also similar between EJ-HIAT and MICT. However, objectively measured maximal intensity assessed by %V̇O2peak was higher for EJ-HIAT than for MICT (EJ-HIAT: 86.0 ± 5.6%, MICT: 67.1 ± 6.4%). These results suggested that EJ-HIAT has good feasibility and perceived exertion similar to MICT despite having higher objectively measured intensity than MICT. An intervention aimed as identifying the effects of EJ-HIAT on exercise tolerance should be performed in the future. UMIN000021185 (February 26, 2016).

  12. The Mucosal Immune Function Is Not Compromised during a Period of High-Intensity Interval Training. Is It Time to Reconsider an Old Assumption?

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    Born, Dennis-Peter; Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners ( n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90-95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70-75% of maximum heart rate for 60-80 min. The psycho-immunological stress-response was investigated with a full daily profile of salivary cortisol and immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate along with the mood state on a baseline day, the first and last day of training and at follow-up 4 days after the last day of training. Before and after the training period, each athlete's running performance and peak oxygen uptake (V · O 2peak ) was determined with an incremental exercise test. Results: The HIIT resulted in a longer time-to-exhaustion ( P = 0.02) and increased V · O 2peak compared to LSD ( P = 0.01). The circadian variation of sIgA secretion rate showed highest values in the morning immediately after waking up followed by a decrease throughout the day in both groups ( P HIIT, the wake-up response of sIgA secretion rate was higher on the last day of training ( P HIIT and LSD ( P HIIT indicates no compromised mucosal immune function compared to LSD and shows the functional adaptation of the mucosal immune system in response to the increased stress and training load of nine sessions of HIIT.

  13. Short-term high-intensity interval and continuous moderate-intensity training improve maximal aerobic power and diastolic filling during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Sasson, Zion; Goodman, Jack M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on cardiac function in young, healthy men. Sixteen previously untrained men (mean age of 25.1 ± 4.1 years) were randomly assigned to HIT and CMT (n = 8 each) and assessed before and after six sessions over a 12-day training period. HIT consisted of 8-12 intervals of cycling for 60 s at 95-100% of pre-training maximal aerobic power (VO(2max)), interspersed by 75 s of cycling at 10% VO(2max). CMT involved 90-120 min of cycling at 65% pre-training VO(2max). Left ventricular (LV) function was determined at rest and during submaximal exercise (heart rate ~105 bpm) using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Training resulted in increased calculated plasma volume (PV) in both groups, accompanied by improved VO(2max) in HIT (HIT: from 39.5 ± 7.1 to 43.9 ± 5.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1); CMT: from 39.9 ± 5.9 to 41.7 ± 5.3 mL kg(-1) min(-1); P volume (P = 0.02) and cardiac output (P = 0.02) were observed, secondary to increases in end-diastolic volume (P training groups and were related to changes in PV. Short-term HIT and CMT elicit rapid improvements in VO2max and LV filling without global changes in cardiac performance at rest.

  14. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheema, Birinder S.; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Methods Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25?...

  15. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, David B; Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Anton J. M. Wagenmakers; Shaw, Christopher S.; Lord, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43???11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak...

  16. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

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    Shila Nayebifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1 in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026 and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001 groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 (P = 0.093, MCP-1(P = 0.075, and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10 (P = 0.164. Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement.

  17. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebifar, Shila; Afzalpour, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kazemi, Toba; Eivary, Seyed Hosein Abtahi; Mogharnasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run) for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1) in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026) and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001) groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (P = 0.093), MCP-1(P = 0.075), and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) (P = 0.164). Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement. PMID:28255324

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Caffeine prevents high-intensity exercise-induced increase in enzymatic antioxidant and Na+-K+-ATPase activities and reduction of anxiolytic like-behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Juliano M; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Gutierres, Jessié M; Soares, Mayara S P; Oliveira, Pathise S; Rubin, Maribel A; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa; Spanevello, Roselia M

    2017-11-01

    Here we investigated the impact of chronic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and caffeine consumption on the activities of Na + -K + -ATPase and enzymes of the antioxidant system, as well as anxiolytic-like behaviour in the rat brain. Animals were divided into groups: control, caffeine (4 mg/kg), caffeine (8 mg/kg), HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine (4 mg/kg) and HIIT plus caffeine (8 mg/kg). Rats were trained three times per week for 6 weeks, and caffeine was administered 30 minutes before training. We assessed the anxiolytic-like behaviour, Na + -K + -ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the brain. HIIT-induced anxiolytic-like behaviour increased Na + -K + -ATPase and GPx activities and TBARS levels, altered the activities of SOD and CAT in different brain regions, and decreased GSH levels. Caffeine, however, elicited anxiogenic-like behaviour and blocked HIIT effects. The combination of caffeine and HIIT prevented the increase in SOD activity in the cerebral cortex and GPx activity in three brain regions. Our results show that caffeine promoted anxiogenic behaviour and prevented HIIT-induced changes in the antioxidant system and Na + -K + -ATPase activities.

  20. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate Continuous Training on Arterial Stiffness in Episodic Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henner Hanssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular dysfunction. Since aerobic exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk, the present randomized controlled trail aimed at investigating the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT vs. moderate continuous exercise training (MCT on arterial stiffness in migraine patients.Methods: Forty-eight episodic migraineurs were initially enrolled in the study. 37 patients [female: 30; age: 37 (SD: 10; BMI: 23.1 (5.2; Migraine days per month: 3.7 (2.5] completed the intervention. Central blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were obtained by an oscillometric monitor. Incremental treadmill exercise testing yielded maximal and submaximal fitness parameters. Participants were randomly assigned to either HIT, MCT, or a control group (CON. The intervention groups trained twice a week over a 12-week intervention period.Results: After adjustment for between-group baseline differences, a moderate meaningful overall reduction of the augmentation index at 75 min−1 heart rate (AIx@75 was observed [partial eta squared (ηp2 = 0.16; p = 0.06]. With 91% likely beneficial effects, HIT was more effective in reducing AIx@75 than MCT [HIT: pre 22.0 (9.7, post 14.9 (13.0, standardized mean difference (SMD = 0.62; MCT: pre 16.6 (8.5, post 21.3 (10.4, SMD −0.49]. HIT induced a relevant reduction in central systolic blood pressure [cSBP: pre 118 (23 mmHg, post 110 (16 mmHg, SMD = 0.42] with a 59% possibly beneficial effect compared to CON, while MCT showed larger effects in lowering central diastolic blood pressure [pre 78 (7 mmHg, post 74 (7 mmHg, SMD = 0.61], presenting 60% possibly beneficial effects compared to CON. Central aortic PWV showed no changes in any of the three groups. Migraine days were reduced more successfully by HIT than MCT (HIT: SMD = 1.05; MCT: SMD = 0.43.Conclusion: HIT but not MCT reduces AIx@75 as a measure of pulse wave

  1. Effects of high intensity interval versus moderate continuous training on markers of ventilatory and cardiac efficiency in coronary heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Gustavo G; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that high intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate intensity continuous training (MIT) to improve newly emerged markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, as the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and oxygen pulse (O2P). Seventy-one patients with optimized treatment were randomly assigned into HIIT (n = 23, age = 56 ± 12 years), MIT (n = 24, age = 62 ± 12 years), or nonexercise control group (CG) (n = 24, age = 64 ± 12 years). MIT performed 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at 70-75% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), and HIIT performed 30 min sessions split in 2 min alternate bouts at 60%/90% HRmax (3 times/week for 16 weeks). No differences among groups (before versus after) were found for VE/VCO2 slope or OUES (P > 0.05). After training the O2P slope increased in HIIT (22%, P 0.05), while decreased in CG (-20%, P < 0.05) becoming lower versus HIIT (P = 0.03). HIIT was more effective than MIT for improving O2P slope in CHD patients, while VE/VCO2 slope and OUES were similarly improved by aerobic training regimens versus controls.

  2. Exercise training increases sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fatty acid transport proteins in human skeletal muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talanian, Jason L; Holloway, Graham P; Snook, Laelie A; Heigenhauser, George J F; Bonen, Arend; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-01-01

    ... examined. Therefore, we determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increased total skeletal muscle, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid transport protein contents...

  3. High-intensity interval training in hypoxia does not affect muscle HIF responses to acute hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Stefan; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Poffé, Chiel; Van Thienen, Ruud; Berardi, Emanuele; Hespel, Peter

    2018-02-08

    The myocellular response to hypoxia is primarily regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs thus conceivably are implicated in muscular