WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-energy beta beam

  1. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  2. Polarized beams in high energy circular accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1979-05-01

    In recent years, high energy physicists have become increasingly interested in the possible spin effects at high energies. To study those spin effects, it is desirable to have beams with high energy, high intensity and high polarization. In this talk, we briefly review the present status and the prospects for the near future of high energy polarized beams. 30 refs.

  3. High energy laser beam dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John

    2004-09-14

    The laser beam dump is positioned in a housing. An absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing. A heat sync means for extracting heat from the absorbing glass plate means is operatively connected to the housing and operatively connected to the absorbing glass plate means.

  4. Optics of High-Energy Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, Owen

    1960-05-01

    Many of the experiments now being conducted on high-energy accelerators requires the use of beams of charged secondary particles. It is worth while at this time to attempt to summarize information about some of the most useful methods of setting up such beams. We are not concerned here with the primary beam of the accelerator. Rather, they assume that a target is struck by the primary beam and that it is desired to form a beam from the secondary charged particles that emerge from collisions within the target. The simplest system of forming this beam of secondary particles involves the use of magnetic fields only. In most cases it is desirable to obtain a beam of particles of known magnetic rigidity, or momentum. The bulk of this article is addressed to this problem. Some comments are also made about the use of electric fields in conjunction with magnetic fields. The inclusion of electric fields allows the separation of a beam of known momentum into its various components according to the velocities of the particles, hence according to the masses of the particles. These are referred to as ''separated beams''.

  5. High energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clifford, J.R. [Titan Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide layer.

  6. High energy ion beam analysis at ARRONAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France); GIP ARRONAX, Saint-Herblain (France); Guertin, A.; Metivier, V.; Michel, N.; Ragreb, D.; Servagent, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: ARRONAX, acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes' is a high energy cyclotron. It is characterized by the acceleration of several types of particle beams: 68 MeV alpha, 15-35 MeV deuterons and 30-68 MeV protons. A platform was implemented on ARRONAX to perform non-destructive materials analysis with X and gamma rays emission (PIXE-PIGE). A proper selection of the projectile type and beam energy allows to analyze heavy and light elements in thin and thick samples. Our research activities are oriented along three axes: 1) Measurements of K X-ray production cross section for various elements to complement the databases at high energy. A first experiment has been conducted to measure these cross sections for copper and gold with protons energy between 34 and 68 MeV. 2) Study of the detection sensitivity which depends on the nuclear background and the Bremsstrahlung radiations. A dedicated shielding has been developed and detection limits below tens of μg/g/μC have been assessed using different referenced samples from IAEA. 3) Determination of concentration profile as function of the depth in a thick target. Using layered samples, we have showed for a target consisting of three different layers, the possibility to determine the sequence and thickness of each layer by using X and gamma rays measured respectively during and after irradiation. During this talk, I will present the characteristics and the capabilities of our platform. In the near future we intend to install the PIGE technique and use it with 15 MeV deuterons to analyze lightweight elements. (author)

  7. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  8. Symbolic modeling of high energy beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Autin, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    A classical problem of computational physics consists of finding the minimum of a chi /sup 2/ like function of many variables. Powerful optimization algorithms have been developed but do not guarantee convergence towards an absolute minimum. Analytical methods can improve the insight into a physical problem but calculations quickly exceed the power of a human brain. There comes the interest of optical design of high energy particle accelerators. The physics background is sketched and emphasis is put on the methodology. In practice, algebraic models may not be precise enough but they usually provide excellent initial conditions for a final numerical optimization. (4 refs).

  9. Experiments with high-energy neutrino beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, J

    1989-09-15

    Experiments in which high-energy neutrinos were used as projectiles have made substantial contributions to our understanding of both weak and strong interactions, as well as the structure of hadrons. This article offers some illustrations. It recalls the discovery of the neutral weak current and some experiments on its nature. The sections on charged-current inclusive scattering recall the important role of these experiments in the understanding of the quark structure of the nucleon and the validity of quantum chromodynamics. The section on dimuon production illustrates the role of neutrino experiments in establishing the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani current as well as the measurement of the structure function of the strange quark in the nucleon.

  10. Mercuric iodide dosimeter response to high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewinger, E.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mercuric iodide solid state dosimeter response to high energy electron beams of up to 35 MeV is reported. High sensitivity of up to 1.5 V/cGy was observed with a 200 V external bias, as well as several mV/cGy, with no external bias for small volume (approx. 10 mm/sup 3/) detectors. The physical characteristics of the detector response are discussed, showing the feasibility of mercuric iodide as a reliable dosimeter for high energy electron beams.

  11. Beam Comissioning of the PEP-II High Energy Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienands, U.; Anderson, S.; Assmann, R.; Bharadwaj, V.; Cai, Y.; Clendenin, J.; Corredoura, P.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Emma, P.; Erickson, R.; Fox, J.; Fieguth, T.; Fisher, A.; Heifets,, S.; Hill, A.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Johnson, R.; Judkins, J.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.; Lee, M.; Mattison, T.; Minty, M.; Nosochkov, Y.; Phinney, N.; Placidi, M.; Prabhakar, S.; Ross, M.; Smith, S.; Schwarz, H.; Stanek, M.; Teytelman, D.; Traller, R.; Turner, J.; Zimmermann, F.; Barry, W.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Corlett, J.; Decking, W.; Furman, M.; Nishimura, H.; Portmann, G.; Rimmer, R.; Zholents, A.; Zisman, M.; Kozanecki, W.; Hofmann, A.; Zotter, B.; Steier, C.; Bialowons, W.; Lomperski, M.; Lumpkin, A.; Reichel, I.; Safranek, J.; Smith, V.; Tighe, R.; Sullivan, M.; Byrd, J.; Li, D.

    1998-11-12

    The PEP-II High Energy Ring (HER), a 9 GeV electron storage ring, has been in commissioning since spring 1997. Initial beam commissioning activities focused on systems checkout and commissioning and on determining the behavior of the machine systems at high beam currents. This phase culminated with the accumulation of 0.75 A of stored beam-sufficient to achieve design luminosity--in January 1998 after 3.5 months of beam time. Collisions with the 3 GeV positron beam of the Low Energy Ring (LER) were achieved in Summer of 1998. At high beam currents, collective instabilities have been seen. Since then, commissioning activities for the HER have shifted in focus towards characterization of the machine and a rigorous program to understand the machine and the beam dynamics is presently underway.

  12. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  13. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Lidia, S; Ni, P A

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K(+) beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  14. Diagnostics for ion beam driven high energy density physics experimentsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30 mA K+ beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multichannel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  15. Cryogenic Beam Screens for High-Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Tavian, L; van Weelderen, R

    2013-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key enabling technology for high-energy particle accelerators, thus making them large helium cryogenic systems operating at very low temperature. The circulation of high-intensity particle beams in these machines generates energy deposition in the first wall through different processes. For thermodynamic efficiency, it is advisable to intercept these beam-induced heat loads, which may be large in comparison with cryostat heat in-leaks, at higher temperature than that of the superconducting magnets of the accelerator, by means of beam screens located in the magnet apertures. Beam screens may also be used as part of the ultra-high vacuum system of the accelerator, by sheltering the gas molecules cryopumped on the beam pipe from impinging radiation and thus avoiding pressure runaway. Space being extremely tight in the magnet apertures, cooling of the long, slender beam screens also raises substantial problems in cryogenic heat transfer and fluid flow. We present sizing rule...

  16. Modelling polychromatic high energy photon beams by superposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, P E; Hoban, P W; Murray, D C; Round, W H

    1989-09-01

    A unified three dimensional superposition approach to dose calculations used in treatment planning of polychromatic high energy photon beams in radiotherapy is developed. The approach we have used involves computing the dose at all points in a medium by superposing the dose spread array (DSA) from the interaction of a photon at a point in the medium with an array of data representing the TERMA (photon fluence times the photon energy) at points in the beam. The polychromatic nature of the beam is accounted for by modelling the beam as having ten spectral components. A "polychromatic dose spread array" (PDSA) for an interaction from a beam with this spectrum was derived. The TERMA array is calculated from a weighted average of the TERMA arrays for the ten photon energies to give a "polychromatic TERMA array". Thus the method accounts for the effect of beam hardening of the TERMA. But it does not account for the effect of beam hardening on the PDSA since a single PDSA (usually for the spectrum at the surface of the medium) is used at all depths. However, by considering measured and calculated beam central axis data, this model is shown to be adequate for computing depth doses for beams in a homogeneous medium penetrating to extreme radiological depths. A computation time advantage is gained because only one superposition per beam is required.

  17. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  18. Spacecraft Power Beaming Using High-Energy Lasers, Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Sherif

    2008-04-01

    The lifetime of many spacecrafts are often limited by degradation of their electrical power subsystem, e.g. radiation-damaged solar arrays or failed batteries. Being able to beam power from terrestrial sites using high energy lasers, could alleviate this limitation, extending the lifetime of billions of dollars of satellite assets, as well as providing additional energy for electric propulsion that can be used for stationkeeping and orbital changes. In addition, extensive research at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has shown the potential for annealing damaged solar cells using lasers. This paper describes that research and a proposed experiment to demonstrate the relevant concepts of high energy laser power beaming to an NPS-built and operated satellite. Preliminary results of ground experiment of laser illuminations of some of the solar panels of one of the spacecrafts are also presented.

  19. Narrow beam dosimetry for high-energy hadrons and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccioni, M; Ulrici, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10°— 400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formula should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in case of accidental exposures to high-energy beams.

  20. Narrow beam dosimetry for high energy hadrons and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccioni, M; Silari, M; Ulrici, L

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10-400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formulae should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in the case of accidental exposures to high energy beams.

  1. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  2. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  3. Enhanced creation of high energy particles in colliding laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The creation of particles by two colliding strong laser beams is considered. It is found that the electron-positron pairs created in the laser field via the Schwinger mechanism may recollide after one or several oscillations in the field. Their collision can take place at high energy, which the pair gains from the field. As a result, high energy gamma quanta can be created by inelastic scattering or annihilation of the pair. Moreover, heavy particles such as muon pairs may also be created via the annihilation $e^+ + e^-\\rightarrow \\mu^+ + \\mu^- $. The probability of $e^-e^+$ collision is greatly enhanced due to a strong alignment of the electron and positron momenta with the electric field. The found muon creation rate exponentially exceeds the rate predicted by the direct Schwinger mechanism for muons, while the photon creation rate exponentially exceeds photon emission due to the fermion oscillation.

  4. A Beam Interlock System for CERN High Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Schmidt, R

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (The European Organisation for Nuclear Research) is one of the largest and most complicated machines envisaged to date. The LHC has been conceived and designed over the course of the last 25 years and represents the cutting edge of accelerator technology with a collision energy of 14TeV, having a stored beam energy over 100 times more powerful than the nearest competitor. Commissioning of the machine is already nderway and operation with beam is intended for Autumn 2007, with 7TeV operation expected in 2008. The LHC is set to answer some of the fundemental questions in theoretical physics, colliding particles with such high energy that the inner workings of the quantum world can be revealed. Colliding particles together at such high energy makes very high demands on machine operation and protection. The specified beam energy requires strong magnetic fields that are made in superconducting dipole magnets, these magnets are kept only around two degrees above absolute zero...

  5. High energy electron beam joining of ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    High strength, hermetic braze joints between ceramic components have been produced using high energy electron beams. With a penetration depth into a typical ceramic of {approximately}1 cm for a 10 MeV electron beam, this method provides the capability for rapid, transient brazing operations where temperature control of critical components is essential. The method deposits energy directly into a buried joint, allowing otherwise inaccessible interfaces to be brazed. Because of transient heating, higher thermal conductivity, lower heat capacity, and lower melting temperature of braze metals relative to the ceramic materials, a pulsed high power beam can melt a braze metal without producing excessive ceramic temperatures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this process related to ceramic coupons as well as ceramic and glass tubes. The transient thermal response was predicted, using as input the energy absorption predicted from the coupled electron-photon transport analysis. The joining experiments were conducted with an RF Linac accelerator at 10-13 MV. The repetition rate of the pulsed beam was varied between 8 and 120 Hz, the average beam current was varied between 8 and 120 microamps, and the power was varied up to 1.5 kW. These beam parameters gave a beam power density between 0.2 to 2 kW/cm{sup 2}. The duration of the joining runs varied from 5 to 600 sec. Joining experiments have provided high strength between alumina - alumina and alumina - cermet joints in cylindrical geometry. These joints provided good hermetic seals. A series of tests was conducted to determine the minimum beam power and exposure time for producing, a hermetic seal.

  6. Feasibility of ceramic joining with high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clifford, J.R. [Titan Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Joining structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for producing joints with high temperature capability. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the adjacent ceramic. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 NTa have been measured for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Mo-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. These modest strengths are due to beam non-uniformity and the limited area of bonding. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide reaction layer. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joints with no metal layer were also produced, apparently bonded an yttrium apatite grain boundary phase.

  7. Crystals channel high-energy beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect particle beams, as suggested by E. Tsyganov in 1976. Experimental demonstrations have been carried out for four decades in various laboratories worldwide. In recent tests, a bent crystal inserted into the LHC beam halo successfully channelled and deflected 6.5 TeV protons into an absorber, with reduced secondary irradiation.    Quasimosaic crystal for the LHC (developed by PNPI). Bent crystal technology was introduced at CERN and further developed for the LHC by the UA9 Collaboration. For about ten years, experts from CERN, INFN (Italy), Imperial College (UK), LAL (France), and PNPI, IHEP and JINR (Russia) have been investigating the advantages of using bent crystals in the collimation systems of high-energy hadron colliders. A bent crystal replacing the primary collimator can deflect the incoming halo deeply inside the secondary collimators, improving their absorption efficiency. “The bent crystals we have just tested at the world-record en...

  8. Radiosurgery with high energy photon beams: a comparison among techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E.B.; Pike, G.B.; Olivier, A.; Pla, M.; Souhami, L.

    1989-03-01

    The presently known radiosurgical techniques with high energy photon beams are based either on the commercially available Gamma unit utilizing 201 stationary cobalt beams or on isocentric linear accelerators. The techniques using linear accelerators are divided into the single plane rotation, the multiple non-coplanar arcs, and the dynamic rotation. A brief description of these techniques is given, and their physical characteristics, such as precision of dose delivery, dose fall-off outside the target volume, and isodose distributions are discussed. It is shown that the multiple non-coplanar arcs technique and the dynamic rotation give dose distributions similar to those of the Gamma unit, which makes these two linear accelerator based techniques attractive alternatives to radiosurgery with the Gamma unit.22 references.

  9. Producing titanium-niobium alloy by high energy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P., E-mail: sharkeev@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Golkovski, M. G., E-mail: golkoski@mail.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Akademika Lavrentiev Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Glukhov, I. A., E-mail: gia@ispms.tsc.ru; Eroshenko, A. Yu., E-mail: eroshenko@ispms.tsc.ru; Fortuna, S. V., E-mail: s-fortuna@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4 Akademicheski Prosp., Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Bataev, V. A., E-mail: bataev@vadm.ustu.ru [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prosp., Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The research is involved in producing a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer on titanium substrate by high energy beam method, as well as in examining their structures and mechanical properties. Applying electron-beam cladding it was possible to produce a Ti-Nb alloy surface layer of several millimeters, where the niobium concentration was up to 40% at. and the structure itself could be related to martensite quenching structure. At the same time, a significant microhardness increase of 3200-3400 MPa was observed, which, in its turn, is connected with the formation of martensite structure. Cladding material of Ti-Nb composition could be the source in producing alloys of homogeneous microhardness and desired concentration of alloying niobium element.

  10. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  11. Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation for the High Energy Beam Transport Line of I.P.H.I.

    CERN Document Server

    Ausset, P; Coacolo, J L; Lesrel, J; Maymon, J N; Olivier, A; Rouviere, N; Solal-Cohen, M; Vatrinet, L; Yaniche, J F

    2005-01-01

    I.P.H.I. is a High Intensity Proton Injector under construction at Saclay (C.N.R.S/ I.N.2P.3; C.E.A. / D.A.P.N.I.A and C.E.R.N. collaboration). An E.C.R. produces a 100 keV, 100 mA C.W. proton beam which will be accelerated at 3 MeV by a 4 vanes R.F.Q. operating at 352.2 MHz. Finally, a High Energy Beam Transport Line (H.E.B.T.) will deliver the beam to a beam stopper and will be equipped with appropriate beam diagnostics to carry intensity; centroïd beam transverse position, transverse beam profiles, beam energy and energy spread measurements for the commissioning of I.P.H.I. These beam diagnostics will operate under both pulsed and C.W. operation. Transverse beam profile measurements will be acquired under low and high duty factor pulsed beam operation using a slow wire scanner and a C.C.D. camera to image the beam-induced fluorescence. The beam instrumentation of the H.E.B.T. is reviewed and preliminary obtained transverse profile measurements at 100 keV are described.

  12. Beam diagnostics instrumentation for the high energy beam transfer line of I.P.H.I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausset, P.; Berthelot, S.; Coacolo, J.L.; Lesrel, J.; Maymon, J.N.; Olivier, A.; Rouviere, N.; Solal, M.; Vatrinet, L.; Yaniche, J.F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, (IN2P3/CNRS) 91 - Orsay (France); Belyaev, G.; Roudskoy, I. [I.T.E.P. Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    I.P.H.I. is a High Intensity Proton Injector under construction at Saclay. An E.C.R. source produces a 100 keV, 100 mA C.W. proton beam which will be accelerated at 3 MeV by a 4 vanes R.F.Q. operating at 352.2 MHz. Finally, a High Energy Beam Transport Line (H.E.B.T.) will deliver the beam to a beam stopper and will be equipped with appropriate beam diagnostics to carry intensity, centroid beam transverse position, transverse beam profiles, beam energy and energy spread measurements for the commissioning of I.P.H.I. These beam diagnostics will operate under both pulsed and C.W. operation. Transverse beam profile measurements will be acquired under low and high duty factor pulsed beam operation using a slow wire scanner and a C.C.D. camera to image the beam-induced fluorescence. The beam instrumentation of the H.E.B.T. is reviewed and preliminary obtained transverse profile measurements at 100 keV are described. (authors)

  13. High-energy tritium beams as current drivers in tokamak reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Grisham, L.R.

    1983-04-01

    The effect on neutral-beam design and reactor performance of using high-energy (approx. 3-10 MeV) tritium neutral beams to drive steady-state tokamak reactors is considered. The lower current of such beams leads to several advantages over lower-energy neutral beams. The major disadvantage is the reduction of the reactor output caused by the lower current-drive efficiency of the high-energy beams.

  14. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  15. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  16. Measurement of the polarisation of a high energy muon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Ahmad, S.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, G.; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjoerkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; Botton, N. de; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Bruell, A.; Buchanan, J.; Bueltmann, S.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Chen, J.P.; Clement, J.; Clocchiatti, M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dantzig, R. van; Day, D.; Demolis, J.M.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dupont, J.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Frois, B.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Gatignon, L.; Gaussiran, T.; Giorgi, M.; Goeler, E. von; Gomez, A.; Gracia, G.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Harrach, D. von; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Jong, M. de; Kabuss, E.M.; Kaiser, R.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kishi, A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; La; Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC)

    1994-04-11

    A muon beam polarimeter has been built for the SMC experiment at the CERN SPS, for muon energies of 100 to 200 GeV. The beam polarisation is determined from the energy spectrum of positrons from the decay [mu][sup +][yields]e[sup +][nu][sub e] anti [nu][sub [mu

  17. Thermo-mechanical modelling of high energy particle beam impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, M; Dallocchio, A

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in LHC in a single beam is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV proton beam generated by LHC. The case study represents an accidental case consequent to an abnormal release of the beam, in which 8 bunches irradiate the target directly. The energy delivered on the component is calculated using the FLUKA code and then used as input in the numerical simulations, that are carried out via the FEM code LS-DYNA. ...

  18. Improved Beam Jitter Control Methods for High Energy Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public...Gyro FSM Fast Steering Mirror FX-LMS Filtered-X Least Mean Squares FX-RLS Filtered-X Recursive Least Square HEL High Energy Laser JCT

  19. LET effects of high energy ion beam irradiation on polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shu; Kanzaki, Kenichi; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Sugimoto, Masaki; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Seguchi, Tadao; Shibata, Hiromi

    1997-03-01

    Thin films of poly(di-n-hexylsilane) were irradiated with 2-20 MeV H{sup +} and He{sup +} ion beams. The beams caused heterogeneous reactions of crosslinking and main chain scission in the films. The relative efficiency of the crosslinking was drastically changed in comparison with that of main chain scission. The anomalous change in the molecular weight distribution was analyzed with increasing irradiation fluence, and the ion beam induced reaction radius; track radius was determined for the radiation sources by the function of molecular weight dispersion. Obtained values were 59{+-}15 A and 14{+-}6 A for 2 MeV He{sup +} and 20 MeV H{sup +} ion beams respectively. (author)

  20. STOCHASTIC COOLING OF HIGH-ENERGY BUNCHED BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN, J.M.

    2007-06-25

    Stochastic cooling of 100 GeV/nucleon bunched beams has been achieved in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The physics and technology of the longitudinal cooling system are discussed, and plans for a transverse cooling system are outlined.

  1. Control of beam dynamics in high energy induction linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, G. J.

    1986-07-01

    The Advent of laser-ion-guiding in the Advanced test Accelerator along with the development of accelerator cavities optimized with respect to beam breakup coupling impedence now make it possible to consider a new class of high current, high emergy linear induction accelerators. The control of the beam breakup and other instabilities by laser guiding and by various magnetic focusing schemes will be discussed along with the scaling laws for the design of such machines to minimize the growth of the beam breakup instability. Many linacs, particularly induction linacs are limited in performance by the beam breakup (BBU) instability. The instability is found in two forms. In the first form the accelerating cavities communicate with one another through interaction with the beam and through propagation of cavity fields through the accelerator structure. In the second form which is the more virulent of the two, the cavities couple to each other only through their interactions with the beam. It is this second form of PPU that will be discussed in this paper.

  2. Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor

  3. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied sulfuric acid aerosol nucleation in an atmospheric pressure reaction chamber using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear contribution from ion-induced nucleation and consider this to be the first unambiguous observation of the ion......-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions that resemble the Earth's atmosphere. By comparison with ionization using a gamma source we further show that the nature of the ionizing particles is not important for the ion-induced component of the nucleation. This implies that inexpensive...... ionization sources - as opposed to expensive accelerator beams - can be used for investigations of ion-induced nucleation....

  4. Microbunched electron cooling for high-energy hadron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, D

    2013-08-23

    Electron and stochastic cooling are proven methods for cooling low-energy hadron beams, but at present there is no way of cooling hadrons as they near the TeV scale. In the 1980s, Derbenev suggested that electron instabilities, such as free-electron lasers, could create collective space charge fields strong enough to correct the hadron energies. This Letter presents a variation on Derbenev's electron cooling scheme using the microbunching instability as the amplifier. The large bandwidth of the instability allows for faster cooling of high-density beams. A simple analytical model illustrates the cooling mechanism, and simulations show cooling rates for realistic parameters of the Large Hadron Collider.

  5. High energy physics with polarized beams and targets. [65 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, M L [ed.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-six papers are presented as a report on conference sessions held from August 23-27, 1976, at Argonne National Laboratory. Topics covered include: (1) strong interactions; (2) weak and electromagnetic interactions; (3) polarized beams; and (4) polarized targets. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and for the INIS Atomindex. (PMA)

  6. High Energy Electron Reconstruction in the BeamCal

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This note discusses methods of particle reconstruction in the forward region detectors of future e+ e− linear colliders such as ILC or CLIC. At the nominal luminosity the innermost electromagnetic calorimeters undergo high particle fluxes from the beam-induced background. In this prospect, different methods of the background simulation and signal electron reconstruction are described.

  7. High-energy proton beam analysis of geological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Norman M.

    1993-05-01

    Partitioning of trace elements between mineral phases reflects the physical, chemical and kinetic conditions of crystallization. Variations in environmental conditions during growth often result in complex and small-scale chemical zoning in minerals. The low abundance of trace elements and their spatial inhomogeneity on a μm scale makes their analysis by a muprobe technique essential for addressing many petrological problems. μ-PIXE (2-3 MeV) has been successfully applied to many mineralogical problems and is rapidly becoming a routine analytical tool for geologists. High-energy PIXE (40-60 MeV) provides a new dimension in mineralogical analysis. The K X-rays for many petrologically important trace elements occur in the 25-90 keV region, here the X-rays are not affected by interference from the X-rays of more abundant geochemically coherent elements. Furthermore, the K X-ray spectrum for an element is less complex than its corresponding L X-ray spectrum so data reduction is simplified. The use of high energy protons for elemental analysis makes high-energy PIGE accessible, here on-line emission of γ-rays can be used to provide information on element (or in some cases isotope) concentrations. For the analysis of chemically complex materials such as rocks and minerals it is necessary to thoroughly characterize the material beforehand such that likely proton induced reactions can be predicted. Nuclear reactions produced by proton interaction with mineral samples occur during on-line exposure of the sample. The by-products of such reactions may have significant half-lives which will make them amenable to off-line analysis. One such case is where Pt undergoes (p, xn) reactions to form Au which then decays back to Pt via electron capture. The off-line spectrum after such a run contains Au X-rays and the background to such spectra is low, which raises the possibility that this form of analysis will provide low detection limits. This is the proton analogue of neutron

  8. Aerosol nucleation induced by a high energy particle beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    atmospheric conditions using a 580 MeV electron beam to ionize the volume of the reaction chamber. We find a clear and significant contribution from ion induced nucleation and consider this to be an unambiguous observation of the ion-effect on aerosol nucleation using a particle beam under conditions not far......The effect of ions in aerosol nucleation is a subject where much remains to be discovered. That ions can enhance nucleation has been shown by theory, observations, and experiments. However, the exact mechanism still remains to be determined. One question is if the nature of the ionization affects...... the nucleation. This is an essential question since many experiments have been performed using radioactive sources that ionize differently than the cosmic rays which are responsible for the majority of atmospheric ionization. Here we report on an experimental study of sulphuric acid aerosol nucleation under near...

  9. In-beam PET at high-energy photon beams: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H.; Enghardt, W.

    2006-04-01

    For radiation therapy with carbon ion beams, either for the stable isotope 12C or for the radioactive one 11C, it has been demonstrated that the β+-activity distribution created or deposited, respectively, within the irradiated volume can be visualized by means of positron emission tomography (PET). The PET images provide valuable information for quality assurance and precision improvement of ion therapy. Dedicated PET scanners have been integrated into treatment sites at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator at Chiba (HIMAC), Japan, and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany, to make PET imaging feasible during therapeutic irradiation (in-beam PET). A similar technique may be worthwhile for radiotherapy with high-energy bremsstrahlung. In addition to monitoring the dose delivery process which in-beam PET has been primarily developed for, it may be expected that radiation response of tissue can be detected by means of in-beam PET. We investigate the applicability of PET for treatment control in the case of using bremsstrahlung spectra produced by 15-50 MeV electrons. Target volume activation due to (γ, n) reactions at energies above 20 MeV yields moderate β+-activity levels, which can be employed for imaging. The radiation from positrons produced by pair production is not presently usable because the detectors are overloaded due to the low duty factor of medical electron linear accelerators. However, the degradation of images caused by positron motion between creation and annihilation seems to be tolerable.

  10. Design of a neutrino source based on beta beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wildner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available “Beta beams” produce collimated pure electron (antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a racetrack shaped storage ring of 7 km circumference, the decay ring. EUROnu beta beams are based on CERN infrastructures and existing machines. Using existing machines may be an advantage for the cost evaluation, but will also constrain the physics performance. The isotope pair of choice for the beta beam is ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne. However, before the EUROnu studies one of the required isotopes, ^{18}Ne, could not be produced in rates that satisfy the needs for physics of the beta beam. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, with properties interesting for a beta beam have been proposed and have been studied within EUROnu. These alternative isotopes could be produced by using a small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the ^{8}Li and ^{8}B isotopes. This production ring, the injection linac and the target system have been evaluated. Measurements of the cross section of the reactions to produce the beta beam isotopes show interesting results. A device to collect the produced isotopes from the target has been developed and tested. However, the yields of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, using the production ring for production of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, is not yet, according to simulations, giving the rates of isotopes that would be needed. Therefore, a new method of producing the ^{18}Ne isotope has been developed and tested giving good production rates. A 60 GHz ECRIS prototype, the first in the world, was developed and tested for ion production with contributions from EUROnu. The decay ring lattices for the ^{8}Li and ^{8}B have been developed and the lattice for ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne has been optimized to ensure the high intensity ion beam stability.

  11. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  12. Medium and high energy electron beam processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki [Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron Beam Processing System (EPS) is a useful and powerful tool for industrial irradiation process. The specification of EPS is decided by consideration to irradiate what material with how thick and wide, how much dose, how to handle, in what atmosphere. In designing an EPS, it is necessary to consider safety measure such as x-ray shielding, ozone control and interlock system. The initial costs to install typical EPS are estimated for acceleration voltages from 500 kV to 5 MV, including following items; those are electron beam machine, x-ray shielding, auxiliary equipment, material handling, survey for installation, ozone exhaust duct, cooling water system, wiring and piping. These prices are reference only because the price should be changed for each case. The price of x-ray shielding should be changed by construction cost. Auxiliary equipment includes window, cooling blower, ozone exhaust blower and SF6 gas handling equipment. In installation work at site, actual workers of 3 - 4 persons for 2 months are necessary. Material handling system is considered only rolls provided in the shielding room as reference. In addition to the initial installation, operators and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitor. An x-ray monitor of suitable design should be installed outside the shield room to monitor x-ray level in the working area. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Beam Performance and Luminosity Limitations in the High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR)

    CERN Document Server

    Lehrach, A; Hinterberger, F; Maier, R; Prasuhn, D

    2006-01-01

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the future International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is planned as an antiproton synchrotron and storage ring in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. An important feature of this new facility is the combination of phase space cooled beams with dense internal targets (e.g. pellet targets), resulting in demanding beam parameter of two operation modes: high luminosity mode with peak luminosities up to 2*10^32 cm-2 s-1, and high resolution mode with a momentum spread down to 10^-5, respectively. To reach these beam parameters very powerful phase space cooling is needed, utilizing high-energy electron cooling and high-bandwidth stochastic cooling. The effect of beam-target scattering and intra-beam interaction is investigated in order to study beam equilibria and beam losses for the two different operation modes.

  14. Beam performance and luminosity limitations in the high-energy storage ring (HESR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrach, A.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.; Hinterberger, F.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.

    2006-06-01

    The high-energy storage ring (HESR) of the future International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is planned as an antiproton synchrotron storage ring in the momentum range 1.5-15 GeV/ c. An important feature of this new facility is the combination of phase space cooled beams and dense internal targets (e.g. pellet targets), which results in demanding beam parameter requirements for two operation modes: high luminosity mode with peak luminosities to 2×10 32 cm -2 s -1, and high-resolution mode with a momentum spread down to 10 -5. To reach these beam parameters one needs a very powerful phase space cooling, utilizing high-energy electron cooling and high-bandwidth stochastic cooling. The effects of beam-target scattering and intra-beam interaction are investigated in order to study beam equilibria and beam losses for the two different operation modes.

  15. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyunchang, E-mail: hcjin@ibs.re.kr; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  16. Characterization of the high-energy neutron beam of the PRISMA beamline using a diamond detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Frost, C. D.; Minniti, T.; Schooneveld, E.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Tardocchi, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-07-01

    The high-energy neutron component (En > 10 MeV) of the neutron spectrum of PRISMA, a beam-line at the ISIS spallation source, has been characterized for the first time. Neutron measurements using a Single-crystal Diamond Detector at a short-pulse source are obtained by a combination of pulse height and time of flight analysis. An XY scan provides a 2D map of the high-energy neutron beam which has a diameter of about 40 mm. The high neutron flux, that has been found to be (3.8 ± 0.7) · 105 cm-2s-1 for En > 10 MeV in the centre, opens up for a possible application of the beam-line as a high-energy neutron irradiation position. Results are of interest for the development of the ChipIR beam-line, which will feature an atmospheric-like neutron spectrum for chip irradiation experiment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that diamond detectors can be used at spallation sources to investigate the transport of high-energy neutrons down instruments which is of interest in general to designers as high-energy neutrons are a source of background in thermal beamlines.

  17. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  18. The edge transient-current technique (E-TCT) with high energy hadron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorišek, Andrej; Cindro, Vladimir; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandić, Igor [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muškinja, Miha; Zavrtanik, Marko [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-09-21

    We propose a novel way to investigate the properties of silicon and CVD diamond detectors for High Energy Physics experiments complementary to the already well-established E-TCT technique using laser beam. In the proposed setup the beam of high energy hadrons (MIPs) is used instead of laser beam. MIPs incident on the detector in the direction parallel to the readout electrode plane and perpendicular to the edge of the detector. Such experiment could prove very useful to study CVD diamond detectors that are almost inaccessible for the E-TCT measurements with laser due to large band-gap as well as to verify and complement the E-TCT measurements of silicon. The method proposed is being tested at CERN in a beam of 120 GeV hadrons using a reference telescope with track resolution at the DUT of few μm. The preliminary results of the measurements are presented.

  19. Numerical simulation of inducing characteristics of high energy electron beam plasma for aerodynamics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongfeng, DENG; Jian, JIANG; Xianwei, HAN; Chang, TAN; Jianguo, WEI

    2017-04-01

    The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.

  20. Splitting of a high-energy positively-charged particle beam with a bent crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, L.; Kirillin, I. V.; Bagli, E.; Berra, A.; De Salvador, D.; Guidi, V.; Lietti, D.; Mazzolari, A.; Prest, M.; Shul'ga, N. F.; Sytov, A.; Vallazza, E.

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of high-energy positively-charged particle beam splitting by means of a short bent axially oriented silicon crystal was recently reported in an experiment carried out at CERN SPS H8 extracted line with a 400 GeV/c proton beam. Here, we investigate more deeply such a possibility focusing our attention on the efficiency of beam splitting and its modulation for different crystal-to-beam orientations. New experimental results confirm the possibility of modulating the 400 GeV/c proton beam intensity in different planar channels by adjusting the orientation of the crystal. Furthermore, an analysis of the beam splitting efficiency vs. the curvature of the crystal was carried out through simulation, highlighting that there exists a bending radius for which the efficiency is maximal.

  1. Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; Śrutek, Mścisław

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

  2. Acceleration of dust grains by means of the high energy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S.M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabzinezhad, F. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A.R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-08

    The acceleration of charged dust grains by a high energy ion beam is investigated by obtaining the dispersion relation. The Cherenkov and cyclotron acceleration mechanisms of dust grains are compared with each other. The role of dusty plasma parameters and the magnetic field strength in the acceleration process are discussed. In addition, the stimulated waves by an ion beam in a fully magnetized dust–ion plasma are studied. It is shown that these waves are unstable at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field. It is also indicated that the growth rates increase by either increasing the ion and dust densities or decreasing the magnetic field strength. Finally, the results of our research show that the high energy ion beam can accelerate charged dust grains.

  3. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  4. Polarization beam combination technique for gain saturation effect compensation in high-energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junchi; Peng, Yujie; Su, Hongpeng; Leng, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    To compensate for the gain saturation effect in the high-energy laser amplifier, a modified polarization beam combination (PBC) method is introduced to reshape temporal waveform of the injected laser pulse to obtain a controlled high-energy laser pulse shape after amplification. One linearly polarized beam is divided into two orthogonal polarized beams, which spatially recombine together collinearly after propagating different optical paths with relative time delay in PBC structure. The obtained beam with polarization direction being rotated by the following half wave plate is divided and combined again to reform a new beam in another modified polarization beam structure. The reformed beam is injected into three cascaded laser amplifiers. The amplified pulse shape can be controlled by the incident pulse shape and amplifier gain, which is agreeable to the simulation by the Frank-Nodvik equations. Based on the simple method, the various temporal waveform of output pulse with tunable 7 to 20 ns pulse duration can be obtained without interferometric fringes.

  5. Radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry with high energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Halina; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Zimek, Zbigniew; Kałuska, Iwona; Skowron, Karolina Jadwiga

    2013-06-01

    The research was carried out to assess the efficiency of radiation hygienization of cattle and swine slurry of different density using the high energy electron beam based on the inactivation rate of Salmonella ssp, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp and Ascaris suum eggs. The experiment was conducted with use of the linear electron accelerator Elektronika 10/10 in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw. The inoculated slurry samples underwent hygienization with high energy electron beam of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Numbers of reisolated bacteria were determined according to the MPN method, using typical microbiological media. Theoretical lethal doses, D90 doses and hygienization efficiency of high energy electron beam were determined. The theoretical lethal doses for all tested bacteria ranged from 3.63 to 8.84 kGy and for A. suum eggs from 4.07 to 5.83 kGy. Salmonella rods turned out to be the most sensitive and Enterococcus spp were the most resistant to electron beam hygienization. The effectiveness or radiation hygienization was lower in cattle than in swine slurry and in thick than in thin one. Also the species or even the serotype of bacteria determined the dose needed to inactivation of microorganisms.

  6. Damage evaluation in metal structures subjected to high energy deposition due to particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Dallocchio, A

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in a single beam of LHC particle accelerator is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area with a typical value of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage for high energy and high intensity occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. The interaction between high energy particle beams and metals induces a sudden non uniform temperature increase. This provokes a dynamic response of the structure entailing thermal stress waves and thermally induced vibrations or even the failure of the component. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV pro...

  7. Poster: The EURISOL Beta-beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    The beta-beam concept for the generation of an electron (anti-)neutrino beam was proposed by Piero Zucchelli (CERN) in 2002. A first study of the possibility of using the existing CERN machines for the acceleration for radioactive ions to a relativistic gamma of roughly 100, for later storage in a new decay ring of approximately the size of SPS, was made in 2002. The results from this very first short study were very encouraging.In 2004 it was decided to incorporate a design study for the beta-beam within the EURISOL DS proposal. EURISOL is a project name for a next-generation radioactive beam facility based on the ISOL method for the production of intense radioactive beams for nuclear physics, astrophysics and other applications. The proposal was accepted with the beta-beam task as an integral part. The design study officially started 1 February 2005 and will run for 4 years resulting in a conceptual design report for a beta-beam facility.

  8. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  9. Self-similar approach to the explosion of droplets by a high energy laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1987-09-25

    We have constructed a model in which a small droplet is exploded by the absorption of energy from a high energy laser beam. The beam flux is so high that we assume the formation of a plasma. We have a single-fluid model of a plasma droplet interacting with laser radiation. Selfsimilarity is invoked to reduce the spherically symmetric problem involving hydrodynamics and Maxwell's equations to quadrature. We show analytically that our model reproduces in a qualitative manner certain features observed experimentally by Eickmans et al.

  10. Study of Radiation Damage in Lead Tungstate Crystals Using Intense High Energy Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Batarin, V; Butler, J; Cheung, H; Datsko, V S; Davidenko, A; Derevshchikov, A A; Dzhelyadin, R I; Fomin, Y; Frolov, V; Goncharenko, Yu M; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Khroustalev, K; Konoplyannikov, A K; Konstantinov, A S; Kravtsov, V; Kubota, Y; Leontiev, V M; Lukanin, V S; Maisheev, V; Matulenko, Yu A; Melnik, Yu M; Meshchanin, A P; Mikhalin, N; Minaev, N G; Mochalov, V; Morozov, D A; Mountain, R; Nogach, L V; Pikalov, V A; Ryazantsev, A; Semenov, P A; Shestermanov, K E; Soloviev, L; Solovyanov, V L; Stone, S; Ukhanov, M N; Uzunian, A V; Vasilev, A; Yakutin, A; Yarba, J V

    2003-01-01

    We report on the effects of radiation on the light output of lead tungstate crystals. The crystals were irradiated by pure, intense high energy electron and hadron beams as well as by a mixture of hadrons, neutrons and gammas. The crystals were manufactured in Bogoroditsk, Apatity (both Russia), and Shanghai (China). These studies were carried out at the 70-GeV proton accelerator in Protvino.

  11. Study of radiation damage in lead tungstate crystals using intense high-energy beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batarin, V.A.; Brennan, T.; Butler, J.; Cheung, H.; Datsko, V.S.; Davidenko, A.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Fomin, Y.V.; Frolov, V.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Grishin, V.N.; Kachanov, V.A.; Khodyrev, V.Y.; Khroustalev, K.; Konoplyannikov, A.K.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kubota, Y.; Leontiev, V.M.; Lukanin, V.S.; Maisheev, V.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Melnick, Y.M.; Meschanin, A.P.; Mikhalin, N.E.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Mountain, R.; Nogach, L.V.; Pikalov, V.A.; Ryazantsev, A.V.; Semenov, P.A. E-mail: semenov@mx.ihep.su; Shestermanov, K.E.; Soloviev, L.F.; Solovianov, V.L.; Stone, S.; Ukhanov, M.N.; Uzunian, A.V.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Yakutin, A.E.; Yarba, J

    2003-10-21

    We report on the effects of radiation on the light output of lead tungstate crystals. The crystals were irradiated by pure, intense high-energy electron and hadron beams as well as by a mixture of hadrons, neutrons and gammas. The crystals were manufactured in Bogoroditsk, Apatity (both Russia), and Shanghai (China). These studies were carried out at the 70-GeV proton accelerator in Protvino.

  12. High-Energy Molecular Beam Source Using a Non-Diaphragm Type Small Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuta; Miyoshi, Nobuya; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2010-11-01

    The molecular beam technique is one of the powerful tools to analyze gas-surface interactions. In order to generate high-energy molecular beam in a range of 1 - 5 eV, which corresponds to the typical activation energy of surface reactions, we are developing a beam source using a non-diaphragm type shock tube, which can operate at a repetition rate high enough for efficient data acquisition. We made the volume of a tube much smaller than that of conventional ones so that the evacuation time between each shot becomes as short as possible. Our measurement of shock Mach numbers showed that even small diameter (2 or 4 mm) tubes, in which the wall boundary layer has a large influence on the propagation of shock waves, could generate molecular beam with the translational energy of more than 1 eV. This is because the reduction of shock formation distance by rapid opening of the valve, which separates a high pressure room from a low pressure room, weakened the effect of viscous damping on the accelerating shock wave. In addition, the convergent shock tubes of which diameters linearly decrease from 4 to 2 mm exhibited higher Mach numbers than straight ones. This indicates that the application of the convergent tube with the optimized geometry would be promising for generating high-energy molecular beam.

  13. Feasibility Study on Cardiac Arrhythmia Ablation Using High-Energy Heavy Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, H. Immo; Graeff, Christian; Simoniello, Palma; Constantinescu, Anna; Takami, Mitsuru; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Richter, Daniel; Eichhorn, Anna; Prall, Matthias; Kaderka, Robert; Fiedler, Fine; Helmbrecht, Stephan; Fournier, Claudia; Erbeldinger, Nadine; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Rivinius, Rasmus; Thomas, Dierk; Katus, Hugo A.; Johnson, Susan B.; Parker, Kay D.; Debus, Jürgen; Asirvatham, Samuel J.; Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco; Packer, Douglas L.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy ion beams are successfully used in cancer therapy and precisely deliver high doses of ionizing radiation to small deep-seated target volumes. A similar noninvasive treatment modality for cardiac arrhythmias was tested here. This study used high-energy carbon ions for ablation of cardiac tissue in pigs. Doses of 25, 40, and 55 Gy were applied in forced-breath-hold to the atrioventricular junction, left atrial pulmonary vein junction, and freewall left ventricle of intact animals. Procedural success was tracked by (1.) in-beam positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging; (2.) intracardiac voltage mapping with visible lesion on ultrasound; (3.) lesion outcomes in pathohistolgy. High doses (40–55 Gy) caused slowing and interruption of cardiac impulse propagation. Target fibrosis was the main mediator of the ablation effect. In irradiated tissue, apoptosis was present after 3, but not 6 months. Our study shows feasibility to use high-energy ion beams for creation of cardiac lesions that chronically interrupt cardiac conduction.

  14. Position and size of the electron beam in the high-energy electron beam ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Utter, S B; López-Urrutia, J R C; Widmann, K

    1999-01-01

    In the last decade, many spectroscopic studies have been performed using the electron beam ion trap. Often these measurements rely on the electron beam as an effective slit, yet until now, no systematic study of the position and size of the electron beam under various operating conditions has been made. Here, we present a thorough study of the electron beam's position and size (and thus the electron density) as affected by various operating parameters, and give optimal parameter ranges for operating the device as a spectroscopic source. It is shown that the diameter is constant as the energy is varied, which is important for accurate cross-section measurements.

  15. A comparison of phantom scatter from flattened and flattening filter free high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Neil, E-mail: neil.richmond@stees.nhs.uk [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Allen, Vince [The Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Daniel, Jim [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Dacey, Rob [The Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Walker, Chris [Department of Medical Physics, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams have different dosimetric properties from those of flattened beams. The aim of this work was to characterize the collimator scatter (S{sub c}) and total scatter (S{sub cp}) from 3 FFF beams of differing quality indices and use the resulting mathematical fits to generate phantom scatter (S{sub p}) data. The similarities and differences between S{sub p} of flattened and FFF beams are described. S{sub c} and S{sub cp} data were measured for 3 flattened and 3 FFF high-energy photon beams (Varian 6 and 10 MV and Elekta 6 MV). These data were fitted to logarithmic power law functions with 4 numerical coefficients. The agreement between our experimentally determined flattened beam S{sub p} and published data was within ± 1.2% for all 3 beams investigated and all field sizes from 4 × 4 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. For the FFF beams, S{sub p} was only within 1% of the same flattened beam published data for field sizes between 6 × 6 and 14 × 14 cm{sup 2}. Outside this range, the differences were much greater, reaching − 3.2%, − 4.5%, and − 4.3% for the fields of 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} for the Varian 6-MV, Varian 10-MV, and Elekta 6-MV FFF beams, respectively. The FFF beam S{sub p} increased more slowly with increasing field size than that of the published and measured flattened beam of a similar reference field size quality index, i.e., there is less Phantom Scatter than that found with flattened beams for a given field size. This difference can be explained when the fluence profiles of the flattened and FFF beams are considered. The FFF beam has greatly reduced fluence off axis, especially as field size increases, compared with the flattened beam profile; hence, less scatter is generated in the phantom reaching the central axis.

  16. SPL and Beta Beams to the Frejus

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzetto, M

    2005-01-01

    Physics potential of a conventional neutrino beam generated by the 2.2 GeV, 4MW, Superconducting Proton Linac and of a Beta Beam fired to a gigantic water Ccaronerenkov detector hosted below Frejus, 130 km away from CERN, are briefly summarized. theta/sub 13/ sensitivity could be improved by up to 3 orders of magnitude with respect to the present experimental limit and a first sensitive search for leptonic CP violation could be performed.

  17. Beta Beams: an accelerator based facility to explore Neutrino oscillation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Payet, J; Chance, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, VL; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; De Rosa, G; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that the neutrino changes flavor as it travels through space has implications for the Standard Model of particle physics (SM)[1]. To know the contribution of neutrinos to the SM, needs precise measurements of the parameters governing the neutrino oscillations. This will require a high intensity beam-based neutrino oscillation facility. The EURONu Design Study will review three currently accepted methods of realizing this facility (the so-called Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make a decision on the layout and construction of the future European neutrino oscillation facility. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron neutrino and antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and letting them decay in a race-track shaped storage ring. EURONu Beta Beams are based on CERNs infrastructure and the fact that some of the already ...

  18. Effects of high-energy-pulse-electron beam radiation on biomacromolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of high mutation frequency induced by high-energy-pulse-electron (HEPE) beam radiation, the effects of HEPE radiation on yeast cells, plasma membrane, plasmid DNA, and protein activity were investigated by means of cell counting, gel electrophoresis, AO/EB double fluorescent staining, etc. The results showed that the viability of yeast cells declined statistically with increase of absorbed doses. The half lethal dose (LD50) was 134 Gy. HEPE beam radiation had little influence on the function of plasma membrane and protein, while it could induce much DNA damage of single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) that were required for gene mutation. The G-value for DSB formation of HEPE beam radiation in aqueous solution was 5.7 times higher than that caused by 60Co gamma rays. HEPE can be a new effective method for induced mutation breeding and deserves further research in the future.

  19. Refractive lenses as a beam diagnostics tool for high-energy synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Weitkamp, T; Drakopoulos, M; Souvorov, A; Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A; Guenzler, F; Schrör, C; Lengeler, B

    2001-01-01

    Parabolic compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for hard X rays have been used to image the electron beam at undulator and bending-magnet beamlines at the ESRF. The measurements yield the shape and size of the synchrotron radiation source, and show that CRLs with paraboloid surface shape can be used as a beam diagnostics tool at high-energy electron storage rings. The optical resolution of the imaging setup can be as small as 4 mu m. This is smaller than typical values of the electron beam size in third-generation synchrotron sources. We report measurements at two ESRF beamlines and resolution calculations taking into account the properties of synchrotron radiation and the transmission characteristics of the CRLs used.

  20. Short-pulse, high-energy radiation generation from laser-wakefield accelerated electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Will

    2013-10-01

    Recent experimental results of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of ~GeV electrons driven by the 200TW HERCULES and the 400TW ASTRA-GEMINI laser systems and their subsequent generation of photons, positrons, and neutrons are presented. In LWFA, high-intensity (I >1019 W /cm2), ultra-short (τL Z target via bremsstrahlung into low-divergence (Z, the resulting Ne+ /Ne- ratio can approach unity, resulting in a near neutral density plasma jet. These quasi-neutral beams are presumed to retain the short-pulse (τL characteristic of the electron beam, resulting in a high peak density of ne- /e+ ~ 1016 cm-3 , making the source an excellent candidate for laboratory study of astrophysical leptonic jets. Alternatively, the electron beam can be interacted with a counter-propagating, ultra-high intensity (I >1021 W /cm2) laser pulse to undergo inverse Compton scattering and emit a high-peak brightness beam of high-energy photons. Preliminary results and experimental sensitivities of the electron-laser beam overlap are presented. The high-energy photon beams can be spectrally resolved using a forward Compton scattering spectrometer. Moreover, the photon flux can be characterized by a pixelated scintillator array and by nuclear activation and (γ,n) neutron measurements from the photons interacting with a secondary solid target. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA to support the yield estimates. This research was supported by DOE/NSF-PHY 0810979, NSF CAREER 1054164, DARPA AXiS N66001-11-1-4208, SF/DNDO F021166, and the Leverhulme Trust ECF-2011-383.

  1. Implementation of Radio-Frequency Deflecting Devices for Comprehensive High-Energy Electron Beam Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craievich, Paolo; Petronio, Marco; Biedron, Sandra G.; Castronovo, Davide; Dal Forno, Massimo; Di Mitri, Simone; Faure, Nicolas; La Civita, Daniele; Penco, Giuseppe; Rumiz, Luca; Sturari, Luca; Vescovo, Roberto; Wang, Defa

    2015-02-01

    In next-generation light sources, high-brightness electron beams are used in a free-electron laser configuration to produce light for use by scientists and engineers in numerous fields of research. High-brightness beams are described for such light sources as having low transverse and longitudinal emittances, high peak currents, and low slice emittance and energy spread. The optimal generation and preservation of such high-brightness electron beams during the acceleration process and propagation to and through the photon-producing element is imperative to the quality and performance of the light source. To understand the electron beam's phase space in the accelerating section of a next-generation light source machine, we employed radio-frequency cavities operating in a deflecting mode in conjunction with a magnetic spectrometer and imaging system for both low (250 MeV) and high (1.2 GeV) electron energies. This high-resolution, high-energy system is an essential diagnostic for the optimization and control of the electron beam in the FERMI light source generating fully transversely and longitudinally coherent light in the VUV to soft x-ray wavelength regimes. This device is located at the end of the linear accelerator in order to provide the longitudinal phase space nearest to the entrance of the photon-producing beam-lines. Here, we describe the design, fabrication, characterization, commissioning, and operational implementation of this transverse deflecting cavity structure diagnostic system for the high-energy (1.2 GeV) regime.

  2. HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY PINHOLE CAMERA FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON BEAM SIZE MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Morgan, J.; Lee, S.H.; Shang, H.

    2017-03-25

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is developing a multi-bend achromat (MBA) lattice based storage ring as the next major upgrade, featuring a 20-fold reduction in emittance. Combining the reduction of beta functions, the electron beam sizes at bend magnet sources may be reduced to reach 5 – 10 µm for 10% vertical coupling. The x-ray pinhole camera currently used for beam size monitoring will not be adequate for the new task. By increasing the operating photon energy to 120 – 200 keV, the pinhole camera’s resolution is expected to reach below 4 µm. The peak height of the pinhole image will be used to monitor relative changes of the beam sizes and enable the feedback control of the emittance. We present the simulation and the design of a beam size monitor for the APS storage ring.

  3. Nuclear fragmentation of high-energy heavy-ion beams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardt, D; Schall, I; Geissel, H; Irnich, H; Kraft, G; Magel, A; Mohar, M F; Munzenberg, G; Nickel, F; Scheidenberger, C; Schwab, W; Sihver, L

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the physical-technical program of the heavy-ion therapy project at GSI we have investigated the nuclear fragmentation of high-energy ion beams delivered by the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS, using water as a tissue-equivalent target. For a direct comparison of fragmentation properties, beams of 10B, 12C, 14N, and 16O were produced simultaneously as secondary beams from a primary 18O beam and separated in flight by magnetic beam analysis. The Z-distributions of beam fragments produced in the water target were measured via energy loss in a large ionisation chamber and a scintillator telescope. From these data we obtained both total and partial charge-changing cross sections. In addition we have performed Bragg measurements using two parallel-plate ionization chambers and a water target of variable length. The detailed shape of the measured Bragg curves and the measured cross sections are in good agreement with model calculations based on semi-empirical formulae.

  4. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  5. Beam manipulation techniques, nonlinear beam dynamics, and space charge effect in high energy high power accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2014-04-07

    We had carried out a design of an ultimate storage ring with beam emittance less than 10 picometer for the feasibility of coherent light source at X-ray wavelength. The accelerator has an inherent small dynamic aperture. We study method to improve the dynamic aperture and collective instability for an ultimate storage ring. Beam measurement and accelerator modeling are an integral part of accelerator physics. We develop the independent component analysis (ICA) and the orbit response matrix method for improving accelerator reliability and performance. In collaboration with scientists in National Laboratories, we also carry out experimental and theoretical studies on beam dynamics. Our proposed research topics are relevant to nuclear and particle physics using high brightness particle and photon beams.

  6. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  7. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  8. Non-Fourier Heat Conduction Effects During High-Energy Beam Metalworking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海泉; 张彦华; 赵海燕

    2004-01-01

    Non-Fourier heat conduction induced by ultrafast heating of metals with a high-energy density beam was analyzed. The non-Fourier effects during high heat flux heating were illustrated by comparing the transient temperature response to different heat flux and material relaxation times. Based on the hyperbolic heat conduction equation for the non-Fourier heat conduction law, the equation was solved using a hybrid method combining an analytical solution and numerical inversion of the Laplace transforms for a semi-infinite body with the heat flux boundary. Analysis of the temperature response and distribution led to a criterion for the applicability of the non-Fourier heat conduction law. The results show that at a relatively large heat flux, such as greater than 108 W/cm2, the heat-affected zone in the metal material experiences a strong thermal shock as the non-Fourier effects cause a large step increase in the surface temperature. The results provide a method for analyzing transient heat conduction problems using a high-energy density beam, such as electron beam deep penetration welding.

  9. Base Line Design for a Beta/Beam Neutrino Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The term beta-beam has been coined for the production of pure beams of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles through the decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. The neutrino source itself consists of a high-energy storage ring (gamma ~150), with long straight sections in line with the experiment(s). The radioactive ions (6He and 18Ne) will be produced in an ISOL type target system. Due to the short life times of around 1 s at rest, the beam needs to be accelerated as quickly as possible. For this a staged system of accelerators is proposed. The chain starts with a linac followed by a rapid cycling synchrotron for acceleration up to ~300 MeV/u. For further acceleration the existing PS and SPS machines are used. Finally, after acceleration to SPS top energy, the ions are transferred to a decay ring where they are merged with the existing bunches through a longitudinal stacking procedure. The baseline design of the beta-beam facility will be presented together with its major problems. Potent...

  10. Very High Energy Electron-positron Colliding Beams for the Study of the Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, B

    1976-01-01

    We consider the design of very high energy electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings for use primarily as a tool for investigating the weak interactions. These devices appear to be a very powerful tool for determining the properties of these interactions. Experimental possibilities are described, a cost minimization technique is developed, and a model machine is designed to operate at centre-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV. Costs are discussed, and problems delineated that must be solved before such a machine can be finally designed.

  11. Neutron measurements around a beam dump bombarded by high energy protons and lead ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2001-02-01

    Measurements of the spectral fluence and the ambient dose equivalent of secondary neutrons produced by 250 GeV/ c protons and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon lead ions were performed at CERN around a thick beam dump. The experimental results obtained with protons were compared with calculations performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. As the available Monte Carlo codes do not transport particles with mass larger than one atomic mass unit, it is shown that for high energy heavy ions, estimates can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number.

  12. Dry-boxes for manipulation of high-energy {beta} emitters; Bottes pour manipulation d'emetteurs {beta} energiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, K.; Laurent, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Because of the thinners of latex or neoprene gloves and the high intensity of Bremsstrahlung radiation, manipulation of pure high-energy {beta}{sup -} emitters is impossible in ordinary dry-boxes. There are many types of box equipped with heavy lead or steel protection, but their use for radioelements such as {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y is not justified. We have devised units known as 'tong boxes' which, while retaining much of the flexibility of operation found in dry-boxes, provide adequate protection. 1 curie of {sup 32}P placed in the centre of the enclosure gives about 15 mR/ 8 h. at the part of the wall closest to the source. (author) [French] La faible epaisseur des gants de latex ou de neoprene et l'importance du rayonnement de freinage rendent impossible la manipulation des emetteurs {beta}{sup -} purs energiques dans des boites a gants normales. Il existe de nombreux types d'enceintes dotees d'une forte protection de plomb ou d'acier dont l'emploi n'est pas justifie pour des radioelements tels que {sup 32}P, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y. Nous avons realise des ensembles appeles 'Boites a Pinces', qui tout en conservant une grande partie de la souplesse d'utilisation des boites a gants sont dotees d'une protection suffisante. 1 curie de {sup 32}P place au centre de l'enceinte donne environ 15 mR/ 8 h au contact de la paroi la plus rapprochee de la source. (auteur)

  13. Critical properties of the high-energy electron-beam-irradiated superconductor weak links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Hoon; Lee, Soon Gul [Korea University, Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    We have studied the effects of high-energy electron-beam irradiation on the superconducting transition properties of an YBCO bicrystal junction, a focused ion-beam (FIB)-patterned YBCO nanobridge, a MgB{sub 2} intergrain nanobridge, and a BaKFeAs multigrain microbridge. We used one sample for each junction type and repeated the irradiation-and-measurement process at 6 accumulated-dose steps: 0, 3 x 10{sup 14}, 10{sup 15}, 3 x 10{sup 15}, 10{sup 16}, and 10{sup 17} e/cm{sup 2}. A uniform electron beam with a 1-MeV kinetic energy was irradiated indiscrimately over the samples. We measured the resistive transition temperature, the normal-state resistance, and the critical current. The irradiation effect was significant for all the samples except the BaKFeAs microbridge. The critical current data for the YBCO bicrystal junction and the MgB{sub 2} intergrain nanobridge had a maximum at 3 x 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 2}, and the YBCO nanobridge showed a monotonic decrease. For all the samples, the normal state resistance increased monotonically with increasing dose by up to ∼20% at 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2}, and the change in T{sub c} was negligible. The results showed that the YBCO and MgB{sub 2} weak links were susceptive to irradiation, indicating the possibility of controlling the critical current of those junctions by using high-energy electron-beam irradiation.

  14. Simulation of Short-Term High-Temperature Impact Processes by Using a High-Energy Laser Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M.; Hecht, L.; Hamann, C.

    2016-08-01

    This study applies high-energy laser beam experiments to better understand the high-temperature chemical interaction processes between iron meteorite projectiles and siliceous target material analog to meteorite impacts.

  15. Edge sensitivity of “edgeless” silicon pad detectors measured in a high-energy beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

    2005-09-01

    We report measurements in a high-energy beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in “edgeless” planar silicon pad diode detectors. The edgeless side of these rectangular diodes is formed by a cut and break through the contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of this device above the full depletion voltage, but we have shown that the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at a low temperature. A pair of these edgeless silicon diode pad sensors was exposed to the X5 high-energy pion beam at CERN, to determine the edge sensitivity. The signal of the detector pair triggered a reference telescope made of silicon microstrip detector modules. The gap width between the edgeless sensors, determined using the tracks measured by the reference telescope, was then compared with the results of precision metrology. It was concluded that the depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is compatible with zero within the statistical precision of ±8 μm and systematic error of ±6 μm.

  16. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka

    2016-06-22

    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  17. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  18. Fluence correction factor for graphite calorimetry in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Rossomme, S.; Renaud, J.; Kanai, T.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and adapt a formalism to determine absorbed dose to water from graphite calorimetry measurements in carbon-ion beams. Fluence correction factors, {{k}\\text{fl}} , needed when using a graphite calorimeter to derive dose to water, were determined in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed in a 290 MeV/n carbon-ion beam with a field size of 11  ×  11 cm2, without modulation. In order to sample the beam, a plane-parallel Roos ionization chamber was chosen for its small collecting volume in comparison with the field size. Experimental information on fluence corrections was obtained from depth-dose measurements in water. This procedure was repeated with graphite plates in front of the water phantom. Fluence corrections were also obtained with Monte Carlo simulations through the implementation of three methods based on (i) the fluence distributions differential in energy, (ii) a ratio of calculated doses in water and graphite at equivalent depths and (iii) simulations of the experimental setup. The {{k}\\text{fl}} term increased in depth from 1.00 at the entrance toward 1.02 at a depth near the Bragg peak, and the average difference between experimental and numerical simulations was about 0.13%. Compared to proton beams, there was no reduction of the {{k}\\text{fl}} due to alpha particles because the secondary particle spectrum is dominated by projectile fragmentation. By developing a practical dose conversion technique, this work contributes to improving the determination of absolute dose to water from graphite calorimetry in carbon-ion beams.

  19. Baseline ion production dedicated to beta-beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Beta-beams, a concept introduced in 1991, require a large facility that produces and accelerates to high energy electron neutrino and antineutrino beams for oscillation experiments. They are produced by b decay of radioactive ion beams in a dedicated ring directed towards underground detectors. This article addresses the production of the 6He and 18Ne baseline ions. Part of the results were obtained within EURISOL-DS, a design study for the next generation OnLine Isotope Separation facility for nuclear physics in Europe. 200 kW, 2 GeV protons on a solid neutron spallation source surrounded by a thick beryllium oxide target produce the required 6He rates, while 18Ne production falls short by more than an order of magnitude. A first alternative might fulfil the objectives with a 30 MeV 3He primary beam onto large solid oxide target disks at several MW. A second 18Ne production alternative is based on a 700 kW proton beam at medium energy (70-160 MeV) and a target made of a circulating molten salt loop.

  20. Canted-Cosine-Theta Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for High Energy Physics and Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Lucas Nathan

    Advances in superconducting magnet technology have historically enabled the construction of new, higher energy hadron colliders. Looking forward to the needs of a potential future collider, a significant increase in magnet field and performance is required. Such a task requires an open mind to the investigation of new design concepts for high field magnets. Part I of this thesis will present an investigation of the Canted-Cosine-Theta (CCT) design for high field Nb3Sn magnets. New analytic and finite element methods for analysis of CCT magnets will be given, along with a discussion on optimization of the design for high field. The design, fabrication, and successful test of the 2.5 T NbTi dipole CCT1 will be presented as a proof-of-principle step towards a high field Nb3Sn magnet. Finally, the design and initial steps in the fabrication of the 16 T Nb3Sn dipole CCT2 will be described. Part II of this thesis will investigate the CCT concept extended to a curved magnet for use in an ion beam therapy gantry. The introduction of superconducting technology in this field shows promise to reduce the weight and cost of gantries, as well as open the door to new beam optics solutions with high energy acceptance. An analytic approach developed for modeling curved CCT magnets will be presented, followed by a design study of a superconducting magnet for a proton therapy gantry. Finally, a new magnet concept called the "Alternating Gradient CCT" (AG-CCT) will be introduced. This concept will be shown to be a practical magnet solution for achieving the alternating quadrupole fields desired for an achromatic gantry, allowing for the consideration of treatment with minimal field changes in the superconducting magnets. The primary motivation of this thesis is to share new developments for Canted-Cosine-Theta superconducting magnets, with the hope this design will improve technology for high energy physics and ion beam cancer therapy.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET detectors for high-energy photon beams using the PENELOPE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panettieri, Vanessa [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Duch, Maria Amor [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jornet, Nuria [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Ginjaume, Merce [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrasco, Pablo [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Badal, Andreu [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Xavier [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-07

    The aim of this work was the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the response of commercially available dosimeters based on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for radiotherapeutic photon beams using the PENELOPE code. The studied Thomson and Nielsen TN-502-RD MOSFETs have a very small sensitive area of 0.04 mm{sup 2} and a thickness of 0.5 {mu}m which is placed on a flat kapton base and covered by a rounded layer of black epoxy resin. The influence of different metallic and Plastic water(TM) build-up caps, together with the orientation of the detector have been investigated for the specific application of MOSFET detectors for entrance in vivo dosimetry. Additionally, the energy dependence of MOSFET detectors for different high-energy photon beams (with energy >1.25 MeV) has been calculated. Calculations were carried out for simulated 6 MV and 18 MV x-ray beams generated by a Varian Clinac 1800 linear accelerator, a Co-60 photon beam from a Theratron 780 unit, and monoenergetic photon beams ranging from 2 MeV to 10 MeV. The results of the validation of the simulated photon beams show that the average difference between MC results and reference data is negligible, within 0.3%. MC simulated results of the effect of the build-up caps on the MOSFET response are in good agreement with experimental measurements, within the uncertainties. In particular, for the 18 MV photon beam the response of the detectors under a tungsten cap is 48% higher than for a 2 cm Plastic water(TM) cap and approximately 26% higher when a brass cap is used. This effect is demonstrated to be caused by positron production in the build-up caps of higher atomic number. This work also shows that the MOSFET detectors produce a higher signal when their rounded side is facing the beam (up to 6%) and that there is a significant variation (up to 50%) in the response of the MOSFET for photon energies in the studied energy range. All the results have shown that the PENELOPE code system

  2. Orbit Error Correction on the High Energy Beam Transport Line at the KHIMA Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chawon; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancer and medical research, the synchrotron based medical machine under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project have been conducted and is going to treat the patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract the carbon ion (proton) beam with various energy range, 110 up to 430 MeV/u (60 up to 230 MeV). A lattice design and beam optics studies for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out with WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because the magnetic eld errors and the mis-alignments introduce to the deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to di erent individual error sources is considered. Various types of errors which are static and dynamic one have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X pr...

  3. Orbit error correction on the high energy beam transport line at the KHIMA accelerator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chawon; Yim, Heejoong; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-09-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancers and medical research, a synchrotron based medical machine has been developed under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project and is scheduled for use to treat patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract carbon ion (proton) beams with various energies from 110 to 430 MeV/u (60 to 230 MeV). Studies on the lattice design and beam optics for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out using the WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because magnetic field errors and misalignments introduce deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly, and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to different individual error sources should be considered. Various types of errors, both static and dynamic, have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X program. Based on the error analysis, the optimized correction setup is decided, and the specifications for the correcting magnets of the HEBT lines are determined.

  4. Study of the ATLAS MDT Spectrometer using High Energy CERN combined Test beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    Adorisio, C; Alexopoulos, T; Alviggi, M G; Amelung, C; Anastopoulos, C; Avolio, G; Bachas, K; Bagnaia, P; Ball, R; Barisonzi, M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, M; Bauer, F; Bellomo, M; Benhammou, Ya; Bensinger, J; Beretta, M; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Bini, C; Bobbink, G; Borisov, A; Boterenbrood, H; Boyko, I; Branchini, P; Brambilla, Elena; Brandenburg, G; Bratzler, U; Bressler, S; Brouwer, G; Cambiaghi, M; Canale, V; Caprio, M; Cardarelli, R; Cerutti, F; Chapman, J W; Chelkov, G; Chevalier, L; Chiodini, G; Cirilli, M; Coco, R; Curatolo, M; Esposito, B; Etzion, E; Dai, T; De Asmundis, R; Dedovich, D; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; DeZorzi, G; Di Ciaccio, A; DiDomenico, A; Di Luise, S; Di Simone, A; Dris, M; Dushkin, A; Ernwein, J; Fakhrutdinov, R; Falciano, S; Fassouliotis, D; Ferrari, R; Formica, A; Fukunaga, C; Gaudio, G; Gazis, E; Giraud, PF; Gorini, E; Grancagnolo, F; Gregory, J A; Groenstege, H; Guimarães da Costa, J; Guyot, C; Harel, A; Hart, R; Hashemi, K S; Hassani, S; Herten, G; Horvat, S; Hurst, P; Ichimiya, R; Iengo, P; Ikeno, M; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Kataoka, Y; Khodinov, A; König, A; Kortner, O; Kotov, S; Kourkoumelis, C; Kozhin, A; Krepouri, A; Kroha, H; Krumshtein, Z; Kurashige, H; Landgraf, U; Lacava, F; Lançon, E; Lanza, A; Laporte, JF; Lellouch, D; Levin, D S; Levinson, L; Liberti, B; Lifshitz, R; Linde, F; Luci, C; Lupu, N; Maccarrone, G; Maeno, T; Mair, K; Maltezos, S; Manz, A; Marchesotti, M; Meoni, E; Mikenberg, G; Mohr, W; Mohrdieck-Möck, S; Nagano, K; Nikolaidou, R; Nikolaev, K; Nikolopoulos, K; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Oliver, J; Orestano, D; Osborne, LS; Ouraou, A; Palestini, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Perrino, R; Petridou, C; Petrucci, F; Podkladkin, S; Policicchio, Antonio; Pomarède, D; Ponsot, P; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Rebuzzi, D; Richter, R; Rimoldi, A; Rosati, S; Rothberg, J E; Sakamoto, H; Salvatore, D; Sampsonidis, D; Santonico, R; Sasaki, O; Schricker, A; Schuh, S; Schune, P; Shoa, M; Skvorodnev, N; Sliwa, K; Solfaroli, E; Spagnolo, S; Spogli, L; Strauss, E; Sugaya, Y; Tanaka, S; Tarem, S; Taylor, F E; Todorova, S; Trigger, I; Tsiafis, I; Tsipolitis, G; Valderanis, C; Valente, P; Vandelli, W; van der Graaf, H; Vari, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, Sandro; Vermeulen, J; Vlachos, S; Vreeswijk, M; Yasu, Y; Wellenstein, H; Werneke, P; Wijnen, T; Wolter, M; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M; Zema, P F; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhou, B; Zimmerman, S

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a combined system test was performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS with a setup using muon chambers made of Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) to form a spectrometer which represented 1% of the ATLAS detector. The basic design performances of the muon spectrometer were veried. The full ATLAS analysis chain was used to obtain the results presented in this paper. The stability of MDT calibration constants, the alignment system using optical devices and high energy tracks, as well as the intrinsic sagitta resolution of the Muon Spectrometer were studied and found to agree with expectations. The reconstruction of muon tracks using the combined information from both the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer are also presented.

  5. Micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie

    2013-09-10

    The present invention relates to micro-cone targets for producing high energy and low divergence particle beams. In one embodiment, the micro-cone target includes a substantially cone-shaped body including an outer surface, an inner surface, a generally flat and round, open-ended base, and a tip defining an apex. The cone-shaped body tapers along its length from the generally flat and round, open-ended base to the tip defining the apex. In addition, the outer surface and the inner surface connect the base to the tip, and the tip curves inwardly to define an outer surface that is concave, which is bounded by a rim formed at a juncture where the outer surface meets the tip.

  6. In Bern high-energy physics shares proton beams with the hospital

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    A joint venture bringing together public institutions and private companies is building a new facility on the campus of Inselspital, Bern’s university hospital. The facility will host a cyclotron for the production of radiopharmaceuticals for use in PET as well as in multidisciplinary research laboratories for the development of new products for medical imaging. The Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP) of Bern University, which is deeply involved in the project, will have access to a dedicated beam line and specialized labs.     Construction of the new facility is ongoing at Bern's University Hospital, where the cyclotron will be installed.   The first Bern Cyclotron symposium will take place on 6 and 7 June this year. The event is being organised by LHEP in collaboration with Bern’s Inselspital and will bring together experts – including several from CERN – to promote research activities at the new Bern Cyclotron Laboratory. &ld...

  7. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  8. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Baffes, C; Leibfritz, J; Oplt, S; Rakhno, I

    2013-01-01

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type RF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a Helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. In addition, the potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  9. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Vay, J. -L.; Geddes, C. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  10. Photonuclear dose calculations for high-energy photon beams from Siemens and Varian linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibani, Omar; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie

    2003-08-01

    The dose from photon-induced nuclear particles (neutrons, protons, and alpha particles) generated by high-energy photon beams from medical linacs is investigated. Monte Carlo calculations using the MCNPX code are performed for three different photon beams from two different machines: Siemens 18 MV, Varian 15 MV, and Varian 18 MV. The linac head components are simulated in detail. The dose distributions from photons, neutrons, protons, and alpha particles are calculated in a tissue-equivalent phantom. Neutrons are generated in both the linac head and the phantom. This study includes (a) field size effects, (b) off-axis dose profiles, (c) neutron contribution from the linac head, (d) dose contribution from capture gamma rays, (e) phantom heterogeneity effects, and (f) effects of primary electron energy shift. Results are presented in terms of absolute dose distributions and also in terms of DER (dose equivalent ratio). The DER is the maximum dose from the particle (neutron, proton, or alpha) divided by the maximum photon dose, multiplied by the particle quality factor and the modulation scaling factor. The total DER including neutrons, protons, and alphas is about 0.66 cSv/Gy for the Siemens 18 MV beam (10 cm x 10 cm). The neutron DER decreases with decreasing field size while the proton (or alpha) DER does not vary significantly except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field. Both Varian beams (15 and 18 MV) produce more neutrons, protons, and alphas particles than the Siemens 18 MV beam. This is mainly due to their higher primary electron energies: 15 and 18.3 MeV, respectively, vs 14 MeV for the Siemens 18 MV beam. For all beams, neutrons contribute more than 75% of the total DER, except for the 1 cm x 1 cm field (approximately 50%). The total DER is 1.52 and 2.86 cSv/Gy for the 15 and 18 MV Varian beams (10 cm x 10 cm), respectively. Media with relatively high-Z elements like bone may increase the dose from heavy charged particles by a factor 4. The total DER is sensitive to

  11. Evaluation of risk from space radiation with high-energy heavy ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F.; Kim, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    The most challenging radiation in space consists of fully ionized atomic elements with high energy for which only the few lowest energy ions can be stopped in shielding materials. The health risk from exposure to these ions and their secondary radiations generated in shield materials is poorly understood since there are few human data and a systematic study in relevant animal model systems has not been made. The accuracy of risk prediction is described as the major limiting factor in the management of space radiation risk. The expected impact of systematic studies is examined using the limited available biological data and models. Given the limitations of current predictions, models must be developed that are able to incorporate the required fundamental scientific data into accurate risk estimates. The important radiation components that can be provided for laboratory testing are identified. The use of ground-based accelerator beams to simulate space radiation is explained and quantitative scientific constraints on such facilities are derived. Three facilities, one each in the United States, in Germany and in Japan, currently have the partial capability to satisfy these constraints. A facility has been proposed using the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster Synchrotron in the United States; in conjuction with other on-site accelerators, it will be able to provide the full range of heavy ion beams and energies required.

  12. Numerical simulations of generation of high-energy ion beams driven by a petawatt femtosecond laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Jarosław

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents results of a Particle-in-Cell simulation of ion beam acceleration via the interaction of a petawatt 25 fs laser pulse of high intensity (up to ~1021 W/cm2 with thin hydrocarbon (CH and erbium hydride (ErH3 targets of equal areal mass density (of 0.6 g/m2. A special attention is paid to the effect that the laser pulse polarization and the material composition of the target have on the maximum ion energies and the number of high energy (>10 MeV protons. It is shown that both the mean and the maximum ion energies are higher for the linear polarization than for the circular one. A comparison of the maximum proton energies and the total number of protons generated from the CH and ErH3 targets using a linearly polarized beam is presented. For the ErH3 targets the maximum proton energies are higher and they reach 50 MeV for the laser pulse intensity of 1021 W/cm2. The number of protons with energies higher than 10 MeV is an order of magnitude higher for the ErH3 targets than that for the CH targets.

  13. Dosimetric characteristics of four PTW microDiamond detectors in high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolat, F.; De Marzi, L.; Patriarca, A.; Nauraye, C.; Moignier, C.; Pomorski, M.; Moignau, F.; Heinrich, S.; Tromson, D.; Mazal, A.

    2016-09-01

    Small diamond detectors are useful for the dosimetry of high-energy proton beams. However, linear energy transfer (LET) dependence has been observed in the literature with such solid state detectors. A novel synthetic diamond detector has recently become commercially available from the manufacturer PTW-Freiburg (PTW microDiamond type 60019). This study was designed to thoroughly characterize four microDiamond detectors in clinical proton beams, in order to investigate their response and their reproducibility in high LET regions. Very good dosimetric characteristics were observed for two of them, with good stability of their response (deviation less than 0.4% after a pre-irradiation dose of approximately 12 Gy), good repeatability (coefficient of variation of 0.06%) and a sensitivity of approximately 0.85 nC Gy-1. A negligible dose rate dependence was also observed for these two microDiamonds with a deviation of the sensitivity less than 0.7% with respect to the one measured at the reference dose rate of 2.17 Gy min-1, in the investigated dose rate range from 1.01 Gy min-1 to 5.52 Gy min-1. Lateral dose profile measurements showed the high spatial resolution of the microDiamond oriented with its stem perpendicular to the beam axis and with its small sensitive thickness of about 1 μm in the scanning profile direction. Finally, no significant LET dependence was found with these two diamond dosimeters in comparison to a reference ionization chamber (model IBA PPC05). These good results were in accordance to the literature. However, this study showed also a non reproducibility between the devices in terms of stability, sensitivity and LET dependence, since the two other microDiamonds characterized in this work showed different dosimetric characteristics making them not suitable for proton beam dosimetry with a maximum difference of the peak-to-plateau ratio of 6.7% relative to the reference ionization chamber in a clinical 138 MeV proton beam.

  14. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams generating high-energy-density matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic responses of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/ c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. These data have been used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1 m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy deposition region will extend to a length of about 35 m over the beam duration. This is due to the fact that first few tens of bunches deposit sufficient energy that leads to high pressure that generates an outgoing radial shock wave. Shock propagation leads to continuous reduction in the density at the target center that allows the protons delivered in subsequent bunches to penetrate deeper and deeper into the target. This phenomenon has also been seen in case of heavy-ion heated targets [N. A. Tahir, A. Kozyreva, P. Spiller, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and A. Shutov, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036407 (2001)]. This effect needs to be considered in the design of a sacrificial beam stopper. These simulations have also shown that the target is severely damaged and is converted into a huge sample of high-energy density (HED) matter. In fact, the inner part of the target is transformed into a strongly coupled plasma with fairly uniform physical conditions. This work, therefore, has

  15. Study of the effects of high-energy proton beams on escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is one of the most serious risks to public health care today. However, discouragingly, the development of new antibiotics has progressed little over the last decade. There is an urgent need for alternative approaches to treat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Novel methods, which include photothermal therapy based on gold nano-materials and ionizing radiation such as X-rays and gamma rays, have been reported. Studies of the effects of high-energy proton radiation on bacteria have mainly focused on Bacillus species and its spores. The effect of proton beams on Escherichia coli (E. coli) has been limitedly reported. Escherichia coli is an important biological tool to obtain metabolic and genetic information and is a common model microorganism for studying toxicity and antimicrobial activity. In addition, E. coli is a common bacterium in the intestinal tract of mammals. In this research, the morphological and the physiological changes of E. coli after proton irradiation were investigated. Diluted solutions of cells were used for proton beam radiation. LB agar plates were used to count the number of colonies formed. The growth profile of the cells was monitored by using the optical density at 600 nm. The morphology of the irradiated cells was observed with an optical microscope. A microarray analysis was performed to examine the gene expression changes between irradiated samples and control samples without irradiation. E coli cells have observed to be elongated after proton irradiation with doses ranging from 13 to 93 Gy. Twenty-two were up-regulated more than twofold in proton-irradiated samples (93 Gy) compared with unexposed one.

  16. Effect of high energy electron beam irradiation on the optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO 2

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka, K. P.; SUNNY JOSEPH; ANUTRESA SUNNY; THOMAS VARGHESE

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high energy electron beam irradiation on the optical properties of TiO 2 nanoparticles was studied in order to improve the optical absorption performance and photoactivity. Electron beam irradiation may have resulted in size reduction, which in turn caused an increase of the optical band gap and photoluminescence intensity. Irradiation at a suitable dose rate was found to enhance the optical absorption performance and photoactivity of the tested TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  17. Increase of the Density, Temperature and Velocity of Plasma Jets driven by a Ring of High Energy Laser Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wen; Liang, Edison P.; Fatenejad, Milad; Lamb, Donald Q.; Grosskopf, Michael; Park, Hye-Sook; Remington, Bruce; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic plasma outflows driven by multi-beam, high-energy lasers, such as Omega and NIF, have been and will be used as platforms for a variety of laboratory astrophysics experiments. Here we propose a new way of launching high density and high velocity, plasma jets using multiple intense laser beams in a hollow ring formation. We show that such jets provide a more flexible and versatile platform for future laboratory astrophysics experiments. Using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations,...

  18. Laser-Driven Very High Energy Electron/Photon Beam Radiation Therapy in Conjunction with a Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Nakajima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by radio frequency (RF power amplifiers, producing electron beams with an energy range of 6–20 MeV, in conjunction with modern radiation therapy technologies for effective shaping of three-dimensional dose distributions and spatially accurate dose delivery with imaging verification. However, the limited penetration depth and low quality of the transverse penumbra at such electron beams delivered from the present RF linear accelerators prevent the implementation of advanced modalities in current cancer treatments. These drawbacks can be overcome if the electron energy is increased to above 50 MeV. To overcome the disadvantages of the present RF-based medical accelerators, harnessing recent advancement of laser-driven plasma accelerators capable of producing 1-GeV electron beams in a 1-cm gas cell, we propose a new embodiment of the external-beam radiation therapy robotic system delivering very high-energy electron/photon beams with an energy of 50–250 MeV; it is more compact, less expensive, and has a simpler operation and higher performance in comparison with the current radiation therapy system.

  19. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.

    1998-06-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment.

  20. High-Brightness High-Energy Electron Beams from a Laser Wakefield Accelerator via Energy Chirp Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. T.; Li, W. T.; Liu, J. S.; Zhang, Z. J.; Qi, R.; Yu, C. H.; Liu, J. Q.; Fang, M.; Qin, Z. Y.; Wang, C.; Xu, Y.; Wu, F. X.; Leng, Y. X.; Li, R. X.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2016-09-01

    By designing a structured gas density profile between the dual-stage gas jets to manipulate electron seeding and energy chirp reversal for compressing the energy spread, we have experimentally produced high-brightness high-energy electron beams from a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator with peak energies in the range of 200-600 MeV, 0.4%-1.2% rms energy spread, 10-80 pC charge, and ˜0.2 mrad rms divergence. The maximum six-dimensional brightness B6 D ,n is estimated as ˜6.5 ×1 015 A /m2/0.1 % , which is very close to the typical brightness of e beams from state-of-the-art linac drivers. These high-brightness high-energy e beams may lead to the realization of compact monoenergetic gamma-ray and intense coherent x-ray radiation sources.

  1. Optimizing the greenfield Beta-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Winter, Walter

    2008-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive and detailed comparison of the physics reach of Beta-beam experiments between two pairs of plausible source ions, (8B, 8Li) and (18Ne, 6He). We study the optimal choices for the baseline, boost factor, and luminosity. We take a 50 kton iron calorimeter, a la ICAL@INO, as the far detector. We follow two complementary approaches for our study: (i) Fixing the number of useful ion decays and boost factor of the beam, and optimizing for the sensitivity reach between the two pairs of ions as a function of the baseline. (ii) Matching the shape of the spectrum between the two pairs of ions, and studying the requirements for baseline, boost factor, and luminosity. We find that for each pair of ions there are two baselines with very good sensitivity reaches: a short baseline with $L [km]/ \\gamma \\simeq 2.6$ (8B+8Li) and $L [km]/\\gamma \\simeq 0.8$ (18Ne+6He), respectively, and a long ``magic'' baseline. For $\\gamma \\sim 500$, one would optimally use 6He and 18Ne at the short baseline for CP vi...

  2. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyrich, K. (comp.)

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  3. Optimizing the greenfield Beta-beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Choubey, Sandhya; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Winter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in

    2008-11-01

    A comprehensive and detailed comparison of the physics reach of Beta-beam experiments between two pairs of plausible source ions, ({sup 8}B, {sup 8}Li) and ({sup 18}Ne, {sup 6}He) is performed. We study the optimal choices for the baseline, boost factor, and luminosity. We take a 50 kton iron calorimeter, a la ICAL-INO, as the far detector. We follow two complementary approaches for our study: (i) Fixing the number of useful ion decays and boost factor of the beam, and optimizing for the sensitivity reach between the two pairs of ions as a function of the baseline, (ii) Matching the shape of the spectrum between the two pairs of ions, and studying the requirements for baseline, boost factor, and luminosity. We find that for each pair of ions there are two baselines with very good sensitivity reaches: a short baseline with L [km]/{gamma} {approx_equal} 2.6 ({sup 8}B+{sup 8}Li) and L [km]/{gamma} {approx_equal} 0.8 ({sup 18}Ne+{sup 6}He), respectively, and a long 'magic' baseline. For {gamma} {approx} 500, one would optimally use {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne at the short baseline for CP violation, {sup 8}B and {sup 8}Li at the magic baseline for the mass hierarchy, and either {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne at the short baseline or {sup 8}B and {sup 8}Li at the magic baseline for the sin{sup 2} 2{theta}{sub 13} discovery.

  4. Conceptual design report for a Beta-Beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; Borgnolutti, F; Bouquerel, E; Bozyk, L; Bruer, J; Chance, A; Delahaye, P; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Hansen, C; Jensen, E; Kallberg, A; Kirk, M; Lachaize, A; Lindroos, M; Loiselet, M; Magistris, M; Mitrofanov, S; Mueller, A C; Payet, J; Podlech, H; Puppel, P; Silari, M; Simonsson, A; Spiller, P; Stadlmann, J; Stora, T; Tkatchenko, A; Trovati, S; Vlachoudis, V; Wildner, E

    2011-01-01

    The Beta-Beam is a concept of large-scale facility that aims at providing pure electronic neutrino and antineutrino beams for the measurement of v(e) -> v(mu) oscillations. Beta-decaying nuclides are produced in large amounts in a facility of the scale of EURISOL, and are then post-accelerated and stored at large gamma in a racetrack decay ring. We present here a conceptual design of the accelerator chain of a Beta-Beam based at CERN.

  5. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  6. Enhancement of resistance against high energy laser pulse injection with chevron beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuka, Eiichi; Hatae, Takaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Bassan, Michele; Vayakis, George; Walsh, Michael [ITER Organization, St Paul Lez Durance Cedex, Provence 13067 (France); Itami, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The laser irradiation tests onto flat-mirror-molybdenum sample were carried out. • The absorbed energy density is the correct figure of the laser-induced damage. • Experiments validated the design of a new beam dump called chevron beam dump. • The chevron beam dump would have much longer lifetime than conventional beam dumps. - Abstract: The laser beam dump of the Edge Thomson scattering (ETS) in ITER is being developed and a new type of beam dump called the chevron beam dump was proposed recently. The laser-induced damage on the surface is one of the most severe issues to be overcome. The key concept of the chevron beam dump is to reduce the laser energy absorption per unit area and to absorb the laser beam gradually. The laser irradiation tests onto flat-mirror-molybdenum sample were carried out. It was clarified that the absorbed (rather than incident) energy density of the laser pulses should be the correct figure of merit for the laser-induced damage. Therefore, the concept of the chevron beam dump design, that minimizes the absorbed laser energy density per unit area, was validated experimentally. The chevron beam dump enables us to extend its lifetime drastically relative to conventional beam dumps. Potential methods to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Real-time control and data-acquisition system for high-energy neutral-beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, A S; Jacobson, V

    1981-12-01

    The need for a real-time control system and a data acquisition, processing and archiving system operating in parallel on the same computer became a requirement on General Atomic's Doublet III fusion energy project with the addition of high energy neutral beam injectors. The data acquisition processing and archiving system is driven from external events and is sequenced through each experimental shot utilizing ModComp's intertask message service. This system processes, archives and displays on operator console CRTs all physics diagnostic data related to the neutral beam injectores such as temperature, beam alignment, etc. The real-time control system is data base driven and provides periodic monitoring and control of the numerous dynamic subsystems of the neutral beam injectors such as power supplies, timing, water cooling, etc.

  8. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yingge; Zhang, Hongliang; Varga, Tamas; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-08

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO3 as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO3, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  9. The Influence of Radiation Damage on the Deflection of High-Energy Beams in Bent Silicon Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Biino, C; Doble, Niels T; Elsener, K; Gatignon, L; Grafström, P; Mikkelsen, U; Kirsebom, K; Møller, S P; Uggerhøj, Erik; Worm, T

    1996-01-01

    Experimental results obtained for deflection of 450 GeV/c protons channeling along the {111} planes in a bent, strongly irradiated silicon crystal are presented. A comparison between the deflection efficiencies in irradiated areas and non-irradiated areas in the crystal shows that irradiation by 2.4 · 1020 protons/cm2 leads to a reduction of around 30 % in deflection efficiency. As a consequence, beam-splitting and extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal are feasible solutions at high energies even for intense beams and during long periods.

  10. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  11. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K; Hurh, P; Zwaska, R; Atherton, A; Caretta, O; Davenne, t; Densham, C; Fitton, M; Loveridge, P; O'Dell, J; Roberts, S; Kuksenko, v; Butcher, M; Calviani, M; Guinchard, M; Losito, R

    2015-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  12. Examination of Beryllium Under Intense High Energy Proton Beam at CERN's HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Zwaska, R.; Atherton, A.; Caretta, O.; Davenne,T.; Densham, C.; Fitton, M.; Loveridge, P.; O'Dell, J.; Roberts, S.; Kuksenko, V.; Butcher, M.; Calviani, M.; Guinchard, M.; Losito, R.

    2017-01-01

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as material for beam win- dows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle produc- tion targets. With increasing beam intensities of future ac- celerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to avoid compro- mising particle production efficiency by limiting beam pa- rameters. As a result, the planned experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility will take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several grades of beryllium. The test matrix will consist of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. Online instrumentations will acquire real time temperature, strain, and vibration data of the cylinders, while Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) of the discs will exploit advanced microstructural characteri- zation and imagin...

  13. Generation of high energy and good beam quality pulses with a master oscillator power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Li(李志刚); Z.Xiong; Nicholas Moore; Chen Tao; G.C.Lim; Weiling Huang(黄维玲); Dexiu Huang(黄德修)

    2004-01-01

    A high efficiency and high peak power laser system with short-pulse and good beam quality has been demonstrated by using a master oscillator power amplifier with two-pass amplification configuration. The master oscillator, end-pumped with a fiber-coupled laser diode array, provides low power but excellent beam quality pulses, and the amplifier boosts the pulse energy by orders without significant beam quality degradation. Short pulses of 8.5 ns with energy up to 130 mJ and approximately diffraction limited beam quality have been demonstrated.

  14. NEUTRINO FACTORY AND BETA BEAM EXPERIMENTS AND DEVELOPMENT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALBRIGHT, C.; BERG, J.S.; FERNOW, R.; GALLARDO, J.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; ET AL.

    2004-09-21

    The long-term prospects for fully exploring three-flavor mixing in the neutrino sector depend upon an ongoing and increased investment in the appropriate accelerator R&D. Two new concepts have been proposed that would revolutionize neutrino experiments, namely the Neutrino Factory and the Beta Beam facility. These new facilities would dramatically improve our ability to test the three-flavor mixing framework, measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and perhaps determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, and, if necessary, probe extremely small values of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}. The stunning sensitivity that could be achieved with a Neutrino Factory is described, together with our present understanding of the corresponding sensitivity that might be achieved with a Beta Beam facility. In the Beta Beam case, additional study is required to better understand the optimum Beta Beam energy, and the achievable sensitivity. Neither a Neutrino Factory nor a Beta Beam facility could be built without significant R&D. An impressive Neutrino Factory R&D effort has been ongoing in the U.S. and elsewhere over the last few years and significant progress has been made towards optimizing the design, developing and testing the required accelerator components, and significantly reducing the cost. The recent progress is described here. There has been no corresponding activity in the U.S. on Beta Beam facility design and, given the very limited resources, there is little prospect of starting a significant U.S. Beta Beam R&D effort in the near future. However, the Beta Beam concept is interesting, and progress on its development in Europe should be followed. The Neutrino Factory R&D program has reached a critical stage in which support is required for two crucial international experiments and a third-generation international design study. If this support is forthcoming, a Neutrino Factory could be added to the Neutrino Community's road map in about a decade.

  15. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitosinkova Klara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS tokamak is equipped with two identical neutral beam injectors (NBI for additional plasma heating. They provide a beam of deuterium atoms with a power of up to ~(2 × 300 kW. We show that the neutral beam is not monoenergetic but contains several energy components. An accurate knowledge of the neutral beam power in each individual energy component is essential for a detailed description of the beam- -plasma interaction and better understanding of the NBI heating processes in the COMPASS tokamak. This paper describes the determination of individual energy components in the neutral beam from intensities of the Doppler-shifted Dα lines, which are measured by a high-resolution spectrometer viewing the neutral beam-line at the exit of NBI. Furthermore, the divergence of beamlets escaping single aperture of the last accelerating grid is deduced from the width of the Doppler-shifted lines. Recently, one of the NBI systems was modified by the removal of the Faraday copper shield from the ion source. The comparison of the beam composition and the beamlet divergence before and after this modification is also presented.

  16. The Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostic Challenges for LHC Operation at high Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, OR

    2014-01-01

    This contribution will present the role of beam diagnostics in facing the challenges posed by running the LHC close to its design energy of 7TeV. Machine protection will be ever more critical, with the quench level of the magnets significantly reduced, so relying heavily on the beam loss system, abort gap monitor, interlocks on the beam position and fast beam current change system. Non-invasive profile monitoring also becomes more of a challenge, with standard synchrotron light imaging limited by diffraction and rest gas ionization monitoring dominated by space charge effects. There is also a requirement to better understand beam instabilities, of which several were observed during Run I, leading to the need for synchronised bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn information from many distributed instrumentation systems. All of these challenges will be discussed along with the strategies adopted to overcome them.

  17. Increase of the Density, Temperature and Velocity of Plasma Jets driven by a Ring of High Energy Laser Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Wen; Fatenejad, Milad; Lamb, Donald Q; Grosskopf, Michael; Park, Hye-Sook; Remington, Bruce; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic plasma outflows driven by multi-beam, high-energy lasers, such as Omega and NIF, have been and will be used as platforms for a variety of laboratory astrophysics experiments. Here we propose a new way of launching high density and high velocity, plasma jets using multiple intense laser beams in a hollow ring formation. We show that such jets provide a more flexible and versatile platform for future laboratory astrophysics experiments. Using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate that the collimated jets can achieve much higher density, temperature and velocity when multiple laser beams are focused to form a hollow ring pattern at the target, instead of focused onto a single spot. We carried out simulations with different ring radii and studied their effects on the jet properties. Implications for laboratory collisionless shock experiments are discussed.

  18. Study of Thermo-Mechanical Effects Induced in Solids by High Energy Particle Beams: Analytical and Numerical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dallocchio, Alessandro; Kurtyka, T; Bertarelli, A

    2008-01-01

    Requirements of modern nuclear physics entail big efforts in the field of particle accelerator technology in order to build powerful machines providing particle beams at higher and higher energies; in this context, the Large Hadron Collider represents the future for particle physics. The LHC stores 360 MJ for each circulating beam; this large amount of energy is potentially destructive for accelerator equipments having direct interaction with particles; the need to handle high thermal loads bestows strategic importance to the study of thermo-mechanical problems in accelerator devices. The aim of this work is the study of thermo-mechanical effects induced in solids by high energy particle beams. Development of facilities devoted to the experimental test of accelerator equipments in real working conditions presents several technical difficulties and high cost; the importance of developing reliable methods and accurate models that could be efficiently applied during the design phase of the most critical particle...

  19. Coating synthesis on dielectric substrates assisted by pulsed beams of high-energy gas atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, S. N.; Melnik, Yu A.; Metel, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    Titanium nitride and aluminum nitride coatings have been deposited on glass and aluminum oxide substrates in a flow of metal atoms accompanied by high-energy gas atoms. The metal atoms are produced due to sputtering of a flat rectangular magnetron target. The gas atoms with energy up to 25 keV are produced due to charge exchange collisions of ions extracted from the magnetron discharge plasma and accelerated by high-voltage pulses applied to a flat grid parallel to the target. The metal atoms pass through the grid and deposit on the substrate. Conjunction of their trajectories with those of gas atoms bombarding the growing coating enables the coating synthesis on complex-shape dielectric products planetary rotating inside the vacuum chamber. Mixing high-energy gas atoms of the coating and substrate atoms substantially improves the coating adhesion.

  20. Simulations of the high energy beam transport section (HEBT) at FRANZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ole; Claessens, Christine; Heilmann, Manuel; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Reifarth, Rene; Schmidt, Stefan; Schwarz, Malte; Sonnabend, Kerstin [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) currently under construction will deliver a proton beam of up to 20 mA constant current with energies between 1.8 MeV and 2.2 MeV. This facility aims at exploring proton- and neutron-induced reactions of astrophysical interest. The high proton flux is well suited for studying nuclear reactions related to the nucleosynthesis of the p-nuclei, which might yield hints on the physics of type Ia supernovae. Furthermore, FRANZ will offer the opportunity to measure radiative neutron capture reactions for unstable branch point nuclei of the s-process. We will present the current status of the beam line up to the BaF{sub 2} calorimeter. This contribution focuses on simulations to optimise beam transport and phase space distribution with respect to an optimised beam spot size.

  1. Noninvasive measurement of micron electron beam size of high energy using diffraction radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, G A

    2003-01-01

    Treatments of the usage of diffraction radiation from the relativistic electrons moving though a conductive slit for the transverse beam size measurement encounter hard limitation of the method sensitivity for the electron energy larger than 1 GeV. We consider in this article a possibility of application of the artificial phase shift, which can take place when transverse electron position varies. This allows us to realize the measurements of transverse size of supper-relativistic electron beams with the small emittance.

  2. Experimental results of beryllium exposed to intense high energy proton beam pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammigan, K. [Fermilab; Hartsell, B. [Fermilab; Hurh, P. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab; Butcher, M. [CERN; Guinchard, M. [CERN; Calviani, M. [CERN; Losito, R. [CERN; Roberts, S. [Culham Lab; Kuksenko, V. [Oxford U.; Atherton, A. [Rutherford; Caretta, O. [Rutherford; Davenne, T. [Rutherford; Densham, C. [Rutherford; Fitton, M. [Rutherford; Loveridge, J. [Rutherford; O' Dell, J. [Rutherford

    2017-02-10

    Beryllium is extensively used in various accelerator beam lines and target facilities as a material for beam windows, and to a lesser extent, as secondary particle production targets. With increasing beam intensities of future accelerator facilities, it is critical to understand the response of beryllium under extreme conditions to reliably operate these components as well as avoid compromising particle production efficiency by limiting beam parameters. As a result, an exploratory experiment at CERN’s HiRadMat facility was carried out to take advantage of the test facility’s tunable high intensity proton beam to probe and investigate the damage mechanisms of several beryllium grades. The test matrix consisted of multiple arrays of thin discs of varying thicknesses as well as cylinders, each exposed to increasing beam intensities. This paper outlines the experimental measurements, as well as findings from Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) work where different imaging techniques were used to analyze and compare surface evolution and microstructural response of the test matrix specimens.

  3. SU-E-T-298: Dosimetric Assessment of Using Brass Mesh Bolus with High Energy X-Ray Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manger, R; Yock, A; Soultan, D; Harry, T; Cervino, L [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Brass mesh bolus has been shown to be an acceptable substitute for tissue equivalent bolus to increase superficial dose for 6 MV chest wall tangent plans. It may be advantageous to deliver a portion of the treatment using higher energy beams to decrease dose heterogeneity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the photoneutron production and activation of brass mesh bolus by high energy x-ray beams. Methods: MCNPX was used to determine brass mesh photoneutron energy spectrum and PDDs for 15 MV and 24 MV beams. PDD and photoneutron spectra were determined with and without photoneutron production to assess the contribution of photoneutrons to CAX dose. Brass mesh was placed on a solid water slab phantom and irradiated with 500 MU of 15 MV photons at 100cm SSD. A Geiger-Mueller counter was used to record counts in 10-second intervals for 30 minutes. A survey meter was used to estimate dose on contact immediately following irradiation. Results: The thickness of brass mesh bolus for MCNPX simulation was 0.4 mm. The PDDs with and without photoneutron production were statistically equivalent (i.e. the increase in neutron dose at the central axis is insignificant). Using ICRP 103 dose conversion coefficients, the increase in effective dose from en-face delivery of 300 MU was 0.047 mSv for 15 MV and 0.525 mSV for 24 MV. The dose rate on contact after the 500 MU irradiation was 0.4 mrem/hr. The effective half-life was estimated to approximately 6 minutes. Conclusion: The use of brass mesh bolus with high energy beams does not significantly affect central axis PDD. The use of a 24 MV beam with brass bolus results in nearly 10 times the increase in effective dose as with 15 MV. The activation products produced by brass bolus have an effective half-life of approximately 6 minutes.

  4. Experimental analysis of general ion recombination in a liquid-filled ionization chamber in high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunah; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Davis, Stephen [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital (L5-112), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To study experimentally the general ion recombination effect in a liquid-filled ionization chamber (LIC) in high-energy photon beams. Methods: The general ion recombination effect on the response of a micro liquid ion chamber (microLion) was investigated with a 6 MV photon beam in normal and SRS modes produced from a Varian{sup Registered-Sign} Novalis Tx{sup TM} linear accelerator. Dose rates of the linear accelerator were set to 100, 400, and 1000 MU/min, which correspond to pulse repetition frequencies of 60, 240, and 600 Hz, respectively. Polarization voltages applied to the microLion were +800 and +400 V. The relative collection efficiency of the microLion response as a function of dose per pulse was experimentally measured with changing polarization voltage and pulse repetition frequencies and was compared with the theoretically calculated value. Results: For the 60 Hz pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency was not different from the theoretical one for a pulsed beam more than 0.3% for both polarization voltages. For a pulsed radiation beam with a higher pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency converged to the theoretically calculated efficiency for continuous beams. This result indicates that the response of the microLion tends toward the response to a continuous beam with increasing pulse repetition frequency of a pulsed beam because of low ion mobility in the liquid. Conclusions: This work suggests an empirical method to correct for differences in general ion recombination of a LIC between different radiation fields. More work is needed to quantitatively explain the LIC general ion recombination behavior in pulsed beams generated from linear accelerators.

  5. Laser-driven ultraintense proton beams for high energy-density physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Slawomir; Badziak, Jan; Parys, Piotr; Rosinski, Marcin; Wolowski, Jerzy; Szydlowski, Adam; Antici, P.; Fuchs, J.; Mancic, A.

    2008-04-01

    The results of studies of high-intensity proton beam generation from thin (1 -- 3μm) solid targets irradiated by 0.35-ps laser pulse of energy up to 15J and intensity up to 2x10^19 W/cm^2 are reported. It is shown that the proton beams of multi-TW power and intensity above 10^18 W/cm^2 at the source can be produced when the laser-target interaction conditions approach the Skin-Layer Ponderomotive Acceleration requirements. The laser-protons energy conversion efficiency and proton beam parameters remarkably depend on the target structure. In particular, using a double-layer Au/PS target (plastic covered by 0.1 -- 0.2μm Au front layer) results in two-fold higher conversion efficiency and proton beam intensity than in the case of a plastic target. The values of proton beam intensities attained in our experiment are the highest among the ones measured so far.

  6. Optimization studies of photo-neutron production in high- metallic targets using high energy electron beam for ADS and transmutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah; H C Soni; S Kotaiah

    2007-02-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been performed using MCNP code to study the optimization of photo-neutron yield for different electron beam energies impinging on Pb, W and Ta cylindrical targets of varying thickness. It is noticed that photo-neutron yield can be increased for electron beam energies ≥ 100 MeV for appropriate thickness of the target. It is also noticed that it can be maximized by further increasing the thickness of the target. Further, at higher electron beam energy heat gradient in the target decreases, which facilitates easier heat removal from the target. This can help in developing a photo-neutron source based on electron LINAC by choosing appropriate electron beam energy and target thickness to optimize the neutron flux for ADS, transmutation studies and as high energy neutron source etc. Photo-neutron yield for different targets, optimum target thickness and photo-neutron energy spectrum and heat deposition by electron beam for different incident energy is presented.

  7. A Polarized High-Energy Photon Beam for Production of Exotic Mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senderovich, Igor [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This work describes design, prototyping and testing of various components of the Jefferson Lab Hall D photon beamline. These include coherent bremsstrahlung radiators to be used in this facility for generating the photon beam, a fine resolution hodoscope for the facility's tagging spectrometer, and a photon beam position sensor for stabilizing the beam on a collimator. The principal instrumentation project was the hodoscope: its design, implementation and beam testing will be thoroughly described. Studies of the coherent bremsstrahlung radiators involved X-ray characterization of diamond crystals to identify the appropriate line of manufactured radiators and the proper techniques for thinning them to the desired specification of the beamline. The photon beam position sensor project involved completion of a designed detector and its beam test. The results of these shorter studies will also be presented. The second part of this work discusses a Monte Carlo study of a possible photo-production and decay channel in the GlueX experiment that will be housed in the Hall D facility. Specifically, the γ p → Xp → b1 π → ω π+1 π-1 channel was studied including its Amplitude Analysis. This exercise attempted to generate a possible physics signal, complete with internal angular momentum states, and be able to reconstruct the signal in the detector and find the proper set of JPC quantum numbers through an amplitude fit. Derivation of the proper set of amplitudes in the helicity basis is described, followed by a discussion of the implementation, generation of the data sets, reconstruction techniques, the amplitude fit and results of this study.

  8. High-energy nanosecond radially polarized beam output from Nd:YAG amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Xudong; Pu, Jixiong

    2017-04-01

    Radially polarized laser beam amplification up to the 772 mJ using flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers was demonstrated. In the experiments, a nanosecond radially polarized seed beam was converted from a conventional Q-switched Nd:YAG laser output with a polarization converter and then amplified with two Nd:YAG amplifier stages. A maximum amplification output energy up to 772 mJ was achieved at 10 Hz with a 10-ns pulse, corresponding to an amplification factor of 323%. Excellent conservation of polarization was also obtained during the amplification.

  9. Plasma effects on extragalactic ultra-high-energy cosmic ray hadron beams in cosmic voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakau, Steffen; Schlickeiser, Reinhard [Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (Γ{sub b} ∼ 10{sup 6}) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 10{sup 15} eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times which are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilize and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the intergalactic medium.

  10. A Toroidal Charge Monitor for High-Energy Picosecond Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Robert H.; Ng, Johnny S.T.

    2007-03-28

    A monitor system suitable for the accurate measurement of the total charge of a 2-ps 28.5 GeV electron beam over a large dynamic range is described. Systematic uncertainties and results on absolute calibration, resolution, and long-term stability are presented.

  11. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Havens, Stephen J.; Dorsey, George F.; Moulton, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  12. In-phantom spectra and dose distributions from a high-energy neutron therapy beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benck, S. E-mail: benck@fynu.ucl.ac.be; D' Errico, F.; Denis, J.-M.; Meulders, J.-P.; Nath, R.; Pitcher, E.J

    2002-01-01

    In radiotherapy with external beams, healthy tissues surrounding the target volumes are inevitably irradiated. In the case of neutron therapy, the estimation of dose to the organs surrounding the target volume is particularly challenging, because of the varying contributions from primary and secondary neutrons and photons of different energies. The neutron doses to tissues surrounding the target volume at the Louvain-la-Neuve (LLN) facility were investigated in this work. At LLN, primary neutrons have a broad spectrum with a mean energy of about 30 MeV. The transport of a 10x10 cm{sup 2} beam through a water phantom was simulated by means of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Distributions of energy-differential values of neutron fluence, kerma and kerma equivalent were estimated at different locations in a water phantom. The evolution of neutron dose and dose equivalent inside the phantom was deduced. Measurements of absorbed dose and of dose equivalent were then carried out in a water phantom using an ionization chamber and superheated drop detectors (SDDs). On the beam axis, the calculations agreed well with the ionization chamber data, but disagreed significantly from the SDD data due to the detector's under-response to neutrons above 20 MeV. Off the beam axis, the calculated absorbed doses were significantly lower than the ionization chamber readings, since gamma fields were not accounted for. The calculated data are doses from neutron-induced charge particles, and these agreed with the values measured by the photon-insensitive SDDs. When exposed to the degraded spectra off the beam axis, the SDD offered reliable estimates of the neutron dose equivalent.

  13. Novel correction method for X-ray beam energy fluctuation of high energy DR system with a linear detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; CHEN Hao; MENG Fan-Yong; WEI Dong-Bo

    2011-01-01

    A high energy digital radiography (DR) testing system has generated diverse scientific and technological interest in the field of industrial non-destructive testing.However,due to the limitations of manufacturing technology for accelerators,an energy fluctuation of the X-ray beam exists and leads to bright and dark streak artifacts in the DR image.Here we report the utilization of a new software-based method to correct the fluctuation artifacts.The correction method is performed using a high pass filtering operation to extract the high frequency information that reflects the X-ray beam energy fluctuation,and then subtracting it from the original image.Our experimental results show that this method is able to rule out the artifacts effectively and is readily implemented on a practical scanning system.

  14. High energy electron beams characterization using CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE Phosphors for clinical therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion. 11500 Mexico DF (Mexico); Espinoza, A.; Von, S.M. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de los Servicios de Salud de Nayarit, Enfermeria S/n, Fracc, Fray Junipero Serra, 63169 Tepic Nay (Mexico); Alvarez, R.; Jimenez, Y. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria, IPN. Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion. 11500 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work high energy electron beam dosimetry from linear accelerator (LINACs) for clinical applications using dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE) was studied. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator (LINAC) Varian, CLINAC 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions (EEC). Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electrons beams irradiations. The TL response of the pellets showed an intensity peak centered at around 215 Degree-Sign C. TL response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy to electron beams dosimetry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of caSO{sub 4}:Dy to radiation safety in LINACs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TL characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy for electron beams quality control.

  15. Beams of Particles and Papers. The Role of Preprint Archives in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Delfanti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In high energy physics scholarly papers circulate primarily through online preprint archives based on a centralized repository, arXiv.org, that physicists simply refer to as 'the archive.' This is not a tool for preservation and memory, but rather a space of flows where written objects are detected and then disappear, and their authors made available for scrutiny. In this work I analyse the reading and publishing practices of two subsets of particle physicists, theorists and experimentalists. In order to be recognized as legitimate and productive members of their community, physicists need to abide by the temporalities and authorial practices structured by the archive. Theorists live in a state of accelerated time that shapes their reading and publishing practices around a 24 hour cycle. Experimentalists resolve to tactics that allow them to circumvent the slowed-down time and invisibility they experience as members of large collaborations. As digital archives for the exchange of preprint articles emerge in o...

  16. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  17. Diffraction Radiation Diagnostics for Moderate to High Energy Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorito, R B

    2001-01-01

    Diffraction radiation (DR) is produced when a charged particle passes throughan aperture or near a discontinuity in the media in which it is traveling. DRis closely related to transition radiation (TR), which is produced when acharged particle traverses the boundary between media with different dielectricconstants. In contrast to TR, which is now extensively used for beam diagnosticpurposes, the potential of DR as a non-interceptive, multi-parameter beamdiagnostic remains largely undeveloped. For diagnostic measurements it isuseful to observe backward reflected DR from an circular aperture or slitinclined with respect to the beam velocity. However, up to now, well foundedequations for the spectral-angular intensities of backward DR from suchapertures have not been available. We present a new derivation of the spectralangular intensity of backward DR produced from an inclined slit for twoorientations of the slit axis, i.e. perpendicular and parallel to the plane ofincidence. Our mathematical approach is genera...

  18. Study of efficient high-power, high-energy neutral beams for the Reference Mirror Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.; Barr, W.L.; Hamilton, G.W.

    1976-11-11

    An injector design for the Reference Mirror Reactor is described which uses negative ions created by charge-exchange in a cesium vapor cell and neutralized by photodetachment. Some of the innovations discussed include a continuously operating cathode for an LBL/LLL ion source, a negative ion beam line with cooled grids, a high voltage accelerator configuration with insulators shielded from the neutron and gamma flux, and cryopanels which continuously cycle between pumping and outgassing modes.

  19. Evaluation of the mechanical and corrosion protection performance of electrodeposited hydroxyapatite on the high energy electron beam treated titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopi, D., E-mail: dhanaraj_gopi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011,Tamil Nadu (India); Sherif, El-Sayed M. [Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), Advanced Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Al-Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, Department of Physical Chemistry, National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Rajeswari, D. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamil Nadu (India); Kavitha, L. [Department of Physics, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610 101, Tamil Nadu (India); Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, Jishnu [Industrial Accelerator Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Polaki, S.R. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ti–6Al–4V alloy was surface treated by high energy low current DC electron beam. • Successful electrodeposition of HAP was achieved on surface treated Ti–6Al–4V. • The as-formed coating possessed improved surface wettability and adhesion strength. • Maximum corrosion protection performance was exhibited by the as-formed coating. - Abstract: In our present study, the Ti–6Al–4V alloy surface was modified by irradiating with the high energy low current DC electron beam (HELCDEB) using 700 keV DC accelerator. Following this, the HELCDEB treated surface was coated with hydroxyapatite by adopting electrodeposition method. The microstructure and hardness of HELCDEB treated Ti–6A1–4V alloy with and without electrodeposited hydroxyapatite were investigated. Also, the electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) was studied by potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedence techniques (EIS) which showed an enhanced corrosion resistance and revealed an improved life time for the hydroxyapatite coating developed on the HELCDEB treated Ti–6A1–4V alloy than the untreated sample.

  20. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chong [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  1. The Possibility of Noninvasive Micron High Energy Electron Beam Size Measurement Using Diffraction Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Naumenko, Gennady; Aryshev, Alexander; Cline, David B; Fukui, Yasuo; Hamatsu, Ryosuke; Hayano, Hitoshi; Karataev, Pavel; Muto, Toshiya; Potylitsyn, Alexander; Ross, Marc; Urakawa, Junji

    2005-01-01

    During the last years a noninvasive method for beam size measurement based on the optical diffraction radiation (ODR) has been in progress (P. Karataev, et al., Physical Review Letters 93, 244802 (2004). However this technique encounters with hard sensitivity limitation for electron energies larger than several GeV. For example, for SLAC conditions the sensitivity of this method is 4 orders smaller than an appropriate one. We suggest to use a "dis-phased" slit target, where two semi-planes are turned with respect to each other at a small "dis-phased" angle. In order to ensure the interference between the diverged radiation beams we use a cylindrical lens. This method has much better sensitivity and resolution. A "dis-phased" angle 10 milliradians gives the optimal sensitivity to 5 microns transversal beam size. The theoretical model for calculating the ODR radiation from such targets (including focusing by cylindrical lens) is presented. It is shown that the sensitivity of this method does not depend on the L...

  2. Upgrade of the Minos+ Experiment Data Acquisition for the High Energy NuMI Beam Run

    CERN Document Server

    Badgett, William; Torretta, Donatella; Meier, Jerry; Gunderson, Jeffrey; Osterholm, Denise; Saranen, David

    2015-01-01

    The Minos+ experiment is an extension of the Minos experiment at a higher energy and more intense neutrino beam, with the data collection having begun in the fall of 2013. The neutrino beam is provided by the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam-line at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). The detector apparatus consists of two main detectors, one underground at Fermilab and the other in Soudan, Minnesota with the purpose of studying neutrino oscillations at a base line of 735 km. The original data acquisition system has been running for several years collecting data from NuMI, but with the extended run from 2013, parts of the system needed to be replaced due to obsolescence, reliability problems, and data throughput limitations. Specifically, we have replaced the front-end readout controllers, event builder, and data acquisition computing and trigger processing farms with modern, modular and reliable devices with few single points of failure. The new system is based on gigabit Ethernet T...

  3. Are high energy proton beams ideal for AB-BNCT? A brief discussion from the viewpoint of fast neutron contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2014-06-01

    High energy proton beam (>8MeV) is favorable for producing neutrons with high yield. However, the produced neutrons are of high energies. These high energy neutrons can cause severe fast neutron contamination and degrade the BNCT treatment quality if they are not appropriately moderated. Hence, this study aims to briefly discuss the issue, from the viewpoint of fast neutron contamination control, whether high energy proton beam is ideal for AB-BNCT or not. In this study, D2O, PbF4, CaF2, and Fluental(™) were used standalone as moderator materials to slow down 1-, 6-, and 10-MeV parallelly incident neutrons. From the calculated results, we concluded that neutrons produced by high energy proton beam could not be easily moderated by a single moderator to an acceptable contamination level and still with reasonable epithermal neutron beam intensity. Hence, much more complicated and sophisticated designs of beam shaping assembly have to be developed when using high energy proton beams.

  4. Time-Dependent Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Atmosphere: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Equation (Al) can be written <xi> 2 <x. > i = p I dx± dx2 ^1^(^,^2,3)1 , = p I &c1 da?2 x±\\S{x1,x2,z)\\ , ( A4a ) i = 1, 2 (A4b...where "P is the beam power given by P = / dx± dx2 \\${x±,x2)| 2 46- (A5) By differentiating Eqs. ( A4a ) and (A4b) with respect to z and making

  5. Performance of a Tungsten-Cerium Fluoride Sampling Calorimeter in High-Energy Electron Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, R.; Dissertori, G.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A.C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Cavallari, F.; Dafinei, I.; Diemoz, M.; Lope, C. Jorda; Meridiani, P.; Nuccetelli, M.; Paramatti, R.; Pellegrino, F.; Micheli, F.; Organtini, G.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Brianza, L.; Govoni, P.; Martelli, A.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Monti, V.; Pastrone, N.; Trapani, P.P.; Candelise, V.; Della Ricca, G.

    2015-12-21

    A prototype for a sampling calorimeter made out of cerium fluoride crystals interleaved with tungsten plates, and read out by wavelength-shifting fibres, has been exposed to beams of electrons with energies between 20 and 150 GeV, produced by the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator complex. The performance of the prototype is presented and compared to that of a Geant4 simulation of the apparatus. Particular emphasis is given to the response uniformity across the channel front face, and to the prototype's energy resolution.

  6. Performance of a tungsten–cerium fluoride sampling calorimeter in high-energy electron beam tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Bianchini, L.; Dissertori, G.; Djambazov, L.; Donega, M.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A.C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F. [Institut for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Pandolfi, F., E-mail: francesco.pandolfi@cern.ch [Institut for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Peruzzi, M.; Schönenberger, M. [Institut for Particle Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Cavallari, F.; Dafinei, I.; Diemoz, M.; Lope, C. Jorda; Meridiani, P.; Nuccetelli, M.; Paramatti, R.; Pellegrino, F. [INFN – Sezione di Roma (Italy); Micheli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Sapienza”, Università di Roma e INFN – Sezione di Roma (Italy); and others

    2015-12-21

    A prototype for a sampling calorimeter made out of cerium fluoride crystals interleaved with tungsten plates, and read out by wavelength-shifting fibres, has been exposed to beams of electrons with energies between 20 and 150 GeV, produced by the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator complex. The performance of the prototype is presented and compared to that of a GEANT4 simulation of the apparatus. Particular emphasis is given to the response uniformity across the channel front face, and to the prototype's energy resolution.

  7. Large Hadron Collider at CERN: Beams Generating High-Energy-Density Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, IV; Piriz, A R; Hoffmann, D H H; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations that have been carried out to study the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a solid copper cylindrical target that is facially irradiated along the axis by one of the two Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 7 TeV/c proton beams. The energy deposition by protons in solid copper has been calculated using an established particle interaction and Monte Carlo code, FLUKA, which is capable of simulating all components of the particle cascades in matter, up to multi-TeV energies. This data has been used as input to a sophisticated two--dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, BIG2 that has been employed to study this problem. The prime purpose of these investigations was to assess the damage caused to the equipment if the entire LHC beam is lost at a single place. The FLUKA calculations show that the energy of protons will be deposited in solid copper within about 1~m assuming constant material parameters. Nevertheless, our hydrodynamic simulations have shown that the energy de...

  8. In-phantom spectra and dose distributions from a high-energy neutron therapy beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benck, S; Denis, J M; Meulders, J P; Nath, R; Pitcher, E J

    2002-01-01

    In radiotherapy with external beams, healthy tissues surrounding the target volumes are inevitably irradiated. In the case of neutron therapy, the estimation of dose to the organs surrounding the target volume is particularly challenging, because of the varying contributions from primary and secondary neutrons and photons of different energies. The neutron doses to tissues surrounding the target volume at the Louvain-la-Neuve (LLN) facility were investigated in this work. At LLN, primary neutrons have a broad spectrum with a mean energy of about 30 MeV. The transport of a 10x10 cm sup 2 beam through a water phantom was simulated by means of the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Distributions of energy-differential values of neutron fluence, kerma and kerma equivalent were estimated at different locations in a water phantom. The evolution of neutron dose and dose equivalent inside the phantom was deduced. Measurements of absorbed dose and of dose equivalent were then carried out in a water phantom using an ionization ch...

  9. High-energy gamma-ray beams from Compton-backscattered laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1983-01-01

    Collisions of light photons with relativistic electrons have previously been used to produce polarized ..gamma..-ray beams with modest (-10%) resolution but relatively low intensity. In contrast, the LEGS project (Laser + Electron Gamma Source) at Brookhaven will produce a very high flux (>2 x 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/) of background-free polarized ..gamma.. rays whose energy will be determined to a high accuracy (..delta..E = 2.3 MeV). Initially, 300(420)-MeV ..gamma.. rays will be produced by backscattering uv light from the new 2.5(3.0)-GeV X-ray storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The LEGS facility will operate as one of many passive users of the NSLS. In a later stage of the project, a Free Electron Laser is expectred to extend the ..gamma..-ray energy up to 700 MeV.

  10. Toward high-energy laser-driven ion beams: Nanostructured double-layer targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, M.; Sgattoni, A.; Prencipe, I.; Fedeli, L.; Dellasega, D.; Cialfi, L.; Choi, Il Woo; Kim, I. Jong; Janulewicz, K. A.; Lee, Hwang Woon; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-06-01

    The development of novel target concepts is crucial to make laser-driven acceleration of ion beams suitable for applications. We tested double-layer targets formed of an ultralow density nanostructured carbon layer (˜7 mg/cm 3 , 8 - 12 μ m -thick) deposited on a μ m -thick solid Al foil. A systematic increase in the total number of the accelerated ions (protons and C6 + ) as well as enhancement of both their maximum and average energies was observed with respect to bare solid foil targets. Maximum proton energies up to 30 MeV were recorded. Dedicated three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were in remarkable agreement with the experimental results, giving clear indication of the role played by the target nanostructures in the interaction process.

  11. Test study of boron nitride as a new detector material for dosimetry in high-energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D; Halbur, J; Lemmer, S; Delfs, B; Harder, D; Looe, H K; Poppe, B

    2017-09-05

    The aim of this test study is to check whether boron nitride (BN) might be applied as a detector material in high-energy photon-beam dosimetry. Boron nitride exists in various crystalline forms. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses high mobility of the electrons and holes as well as a high volume resistivity, so that ionizing radiation in the clinical range of the dose rate can be expected to produce a measurable electrical current at low background current. Due to the low atomic numbers of its constituents, its density (2.0 g cm(-3)) similar to silicon and its commercial availability, h-BN appears as possibly suitable for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Five h-BN plates were contacted to triaxial cables, and the detector current was measured in a solid-state ionization chamber circuit at an applied voltage of 50 V. Basic dosimetric properties such as formation by pre-irradiation, sensitivity, reproducibility, linearity and temporal resolution were measured with 6 MV photon irradiation. Depth dose curves at quadratic field sizes of 10 cm and 40 cm were measured and compared to ionization chamber measurements. After a pre-irradiation with 6 Gy, the devices show a stable current signal at a given dose rate. The current-voltage characteristic up to 400 V shows an increase in the collection efficiency with the voltage. The time-resolved detector current behavior during beam interrupts is comparable to diamond material, and the background current is negligible. The measured percentage depth dose curves at 10 cm  ×  10 cm field size agreed with the results of ionization chamber measurements within  ±2%. This is a first study of boron nitride as a detector material for high-energy photon radiation. By current measurements on solid ionization chambers made from boron nitride chips we could demonstrate that boron nitride is in principle suitable as a detector material for high-energy photon-beam dosimetry.

  12. Test study of boron nitride as a new detector material for dosimetry in high-energy photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, D.; Halbur, J.; Lemmer, S.; Delfs, B.; Harder, D.; Looe, H. K.; Poppe, B.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this test study is to check whether boron nitride (BN) might be applied as a detector material in high-energy photon-beam dosimetry. Boron nitride exists in various crystalline forms. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses high mobility of the electrons and holes as well as a high volume resistivity, so that ionizing radiation in the clinical range of the dose rate can be expected to produce a measurable electrical current at low background current. Due to the low atomic numbers of its constituents, its density (2.0 g cm‑3) similar to silicon and its commercial availability, h-BN appears as possibly suitable for the dosimetry of ionizing radiation. Five h-BN plates were contacted to triaxial cables, and the detector current was measured in a solid-state ionization chamber circuit at an applied voltage of 50 V. Basic dosimetric properties such as formation by pre-irradiation, sensitivity, reproducibility, linearity and temporal resolution were measured with 6 MV photon irradiation. Depth dose curves at quadratic field sizes of 10 cm and 40 cm were measured and compared to ionization chamber measurements. After a pre-irradiation with 6 Gy, the devices show a stable current signal at a given dose rate. The current–voltage characteristic up to 400 V shows an increase in the collection efficiency with the voltage. The time-resolved detector current behavior during beam interrupts is comparable to diamond material, and the background current is negligible. The measured percentage depth dose curves at 10 cm  ×  10 cm field size agreed with the results of ionization chamber measurements within  ±2%. This is a first study of boron nitride as a detector material for high-energy photon radiation. By current measurements on solid ionization chambers made from boron nitride chips we could demonstrate that boron nitride is in principle suitable as a detector material for high-energy photon-beam dosimetry.

  13. Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements in High Energy Electron Beam Diode Plasmas using Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark; Patel, Sonal; Kiefer, Mark; Biswas, S.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2016-10-01

    The RITS accelerator (5-11MV, 100-200kA) at Sandia National Laboratories is being used to evaluate the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) diode as a potential flash x-ray radiography source. This diode consists of a small, hollowed metal cathode and a planar, high atomic mass anode, with a small vacuum gap of approximately one centimeter. The electron beam is focused, due to its self-field, to a few millimeters at the target, generating bremsstrahlung x-rays. During this process, plasmas form on the electrode surfaces and propagate into the vacuum gap, with a velocity of a 1-10 cm's/microseconds. These plasmas are measured spectroscopically using a Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a gated, ICCD detector, and input optical fiber array. Local magnetic and electric fields of several Tesla and several MV/cm were measured through Zeeman splitting and Stark shifting of spectral lines. Specific transitions susceptible to quantum magnetic and electric field effects were utilized through the application of dopants. Data was analyzed using detailed, time-dependent, collisional-radiative (CR) and radiation transport modeling. Recent results will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Measurement of the primary and scatter dose in high energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, P.M. [Catharina Ziekenhuis, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Radiotherapy Dept.; Tiourina, T.B.; Dries, W.

    1995-12-01

    A method is presented to measure the primary and scatter components separately in a water tank using a small cylindrical absorber. Results from this experiment are compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The measurement setup consists of a small cylindrical absorber placed on a central axis of the beam a few centimetres above the radiation detector. Both absorber and detector move along the central axis while absorbed dose is registered. As the primary radiation is fully blocked, only scatter component is measured when a cylindrical absorber is used. Measurements in open fields result in the total absorbed dose being the sum of primary and scatter components. The primary dose component can be derived by substraction. Absorbers with different diameters are used. With decreasing dimensions the relative contribution of the dose due to scatter radiation increases. A steep increase is observed when the range of laterally scattered electrons becomes comparable with the radius of the absorber. Two different Monte Carlo simulations have been performed: with and without secondary electron transport. The data obtained for the former case perfectly agrees with the experiment. The situation where the secondary electron is assumed zero (i.e. local energy deposition) simulates the Cunningham model. Our results show that the Cunningham model predicts lower scatter component under the block edge which can be important for these applications.

  15. Modification of magnetic anisotropy in metallic glasses using high-energy ion beam irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Amrute; U R Mhatre; S K Sinha; D C Kothari; R Nagarajan; D Kanjilal

    2002-05-01

    Heavy ion irradiation in the electronic stopping power region induces macroscopic dimensional change in metallic glasses and introduces magnetic anisotropy in some magnetic materials. The present work is on the irradiation study of ferromagnetic metallic glasses, where both dimensional change and modification of magnetic anisotropy are expected. Magnetic anisotropy was measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy of virgin and irradiated Fe40Ni40B20 and Fe40Ni38Mo4B18 metallic glass ribbons. 90 MeV 127I beam was used for the irradiations. Irradiation doses were 5 × 1013 and 7.5 × 1013 ions/cm2. The relative intensity ratios 23 of the second and third lines of the Mössbauer spectra were measured to determine the magnetic anisotropy. The virgin samples of both the materials display in-plane magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the spins are oriented parallel to the ribbon plane. Irradiation is found to cause reduction in magnetic anisotropy. Near-complete randomization of magnetic moments is observed at high irradiation doses. Correlation is found between the residual stresses introduced by ion irradiation and the change in magnetic anisotropy.

  16. Final Report for Statistical Nonlinear Optics of High Energy Density Plasmas: The Physics of Multiple Crossing Laser Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afeyan, Bedros [Polymath Research Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Hueller, Stefan [Centre de Physique Theorique de l' Ecole Polytechnique (France); Montgomery, David S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hammer, James H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meezan, Nathan B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heebner, John E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-24

    The various implementations of the STUD pulse program (spike trains of uneven duration and delay) for LPI (laser-plasma instability) control were studied in depth, and novel regimes were found. How to generate STUD pulses with large time-bandwidth products, how to measure their optical scattering signatures, and how to experimentally demonstrate their usefulness were explored. Theoretical and numerical studies were conducted on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) and Crossed Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) including statistical models. We established how LPI can be tamed and gain democratized in space and time. Implementing STUD pulses on NIF was also studied. Future high rep rate lasers and fast diagnostics will aid in the adoption of the whole STUD pulse program for LPI control in High Energy Density Plasmas (HEDP).

  17. In situ degradation of antibiotic residues in medical intravenous infusion bottles using high energy electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Lele; Zhang, Guilong; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2017-01-01

    This study reported an immediate approach for the degradation of three antibiotic (amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefradine) residues in medical intravenous infusion bottles (MIIBs) using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The effects of irradiation doses, initial concentrations, initial pH, and scavengers of active radicals on the degradation of three antibiotic residues (ARs) were investigated, and the results displayed that 97.02%, 97.61% and 96.87% of amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and cefradine residues could be degraded in situ through HEEB irradiation respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis demonstrated that ARs were mainly decomposed into inorganic ions and alkanes. Typically, the detailed degradation mechanism of ARs was also investigated, and the dominant active particle inducing the degradation of antibiotics during the HEEB irradiation process was demonstrated to be hydroxyl radical.

  18. Micro-nanopores fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation: suitable structure for controlling pesticide loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yubin; Wang, Ning; Song, Jimei; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2013-06-01

    Pesticide sprayed onto crop leaves tends to be washed off by rainwater and discharge into the environment through leaching and runoff, resulting in severe pollution to both soil and water. Here, to control pesticide loss, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding modified natural nanoclay (diatomite) through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) to traditional pesticide. After HEEB treatment, the originally clogged pores in diatomite opened, resulting in plenty of micro-nanopores in diatomite, which are beneficial for the pesticide molecules to access and be adsorbed. This pesticide-diatomite complex tended to be retained by the rough surface of crop leaves, displaying a high adhesion performance onto the leaves, so that the pesticide loss reduced, sufficient pesticide for crops was supplied, and the pollution risk of the pesticide could be substantially lowered.

  19. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Heavy Ion Beam at FAIR: The HEDgeHOB Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.; Deutsch, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-03-01

    International project, Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), has entered in its construction phase at Darmstadt. It is expected that the new powerful heavy ion synchrotron, SIS100 will deliver a strongly bunched intense beam of energetic uranium ions that will provide the scientists with an efficient and novel tool to research High Energy Density (HED) Physics in the laboratory. Over the past 15 years, substantial theoretical work has been done to design numerous experiments that can be done at this facility in this field. This work has resulted in an extensive scientific proposal named HEDgeHOB, that includes experiment proposals addressing various aspects of HED matter, for example, planetary physics, equation of state, hydrodynamic instabilities and others. In this paper we present a summary of this work.

  20. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  1. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-11-04

    Measurements of 2s{sub l/2}-2p{sub 3/2} electric dipole and 2p{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U{sup 82+} through U{sup 89+} have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer {minus}39.21 {plus_minus} 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy of lithiumlike U{sup 89+}. A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell.

  2. Evaluation of the water-equivalence of plastic materials in low- and high-energy clinical proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A; Shipley, D; Wellock, N; Thomas, R; Bouchard, H; Kacperek, A; Fracchiolla, F; Lorentini, S; Schwarz, M; MacDougall, N; Royle, G; Palmans, H

    2017-05-21

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the water-equivalence of new trial plastics designed specifically for light-ion beam dosimetry as well as commercially available plastics in clinical proton beams. The water-equivalence of materials was tested by computing a plastic-to-water conversion factor, [Formula: see text]. Trial materials were characterized experimentally in 60 MeV and 226 MeV un-modulated proton beams and the results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. For the high-energy beam, a comparison between the trial plastics and various commercial plastics was also performed using FLUKA and Geant4 Monte Carlo codes. Experimental information was obtained from laterally integrated depth-dose ionization chamber measurements in water, with and without plastic slabs with variable thicknesses in front of the water phantom. Fluence correction factors, [Formula: see text], between water and various materials were also derived using the Monte Carlo method. For the 60 MeV proton beam, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] factors were within 1% from unity for all trial plastics. For the 226 MeV proton beam, experimental [Formula: see text] values deviated from unity by a maximum of about 1% for the three trial plastics and experimental results showed no advantage regarding which of the plastics was the most equivalent to water. Different magnitudes of corrections were found between Geant4 and FLUKA for the various materials due mainly to the use of different nonelastic nuclear data. Nevertheless, for the 226 MeV proton beam, [Formula: see text] correction factors were within 2% from unity for all the materials. Considering the results from the two Monte Carlo codes, PMMA and trial plastic #3 had the smallest [Formula: see text] values, where maximum deviations from unity were 1%, however, PMMA range differed by 16% from that of water. Overall, [Formula: see text] factors were deviating more from unity than [Formula: see text] factors

  3. Non-equilibrium QCD Interplay of hard and soft dynamics in high-energy multi-gluon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    A quantum-kinetic formulation of the dynamical evolution of a high-energy non-equilibrium gluon system at finite density is developed, to study the interplay between quantum fluctuations of high-momentum (hard) gluons and the low-momentum (soft) mean color-field that is induced by the collective motion of the hard particles. From the exact field-equations of motion of QCD, a self-consistent set of approximate quantum-kinetic equations are derived by separating hard and soft dynamics and choosing a convenient axial-type gauge. This set of master equations describes the momentum space evolution of the individual hard quanta, the space-time development of the ensemble of hard gluons, and the generation of the soft mean-field by the current of the hard particles. The quantum-kinetic equations are approximately solved to order g^2 (1+gA) for a specific example, namely the scenario of a high-energy gluon beam along the lightcone, demonstrating the practical applicability of the approach.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Complex Targets for High-Energy- Density Experiments with Ion Beams and other Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniges, Alice; Liu, Wangyi; Lidia, Steven; Schenkel, Thomas; Barnard, John; Friedman, Alex; Eder, David; Fisher, Aaron; Masters, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    We explore the simulation challenges and requirements for experiments planned on facilities such as the NDCX-II ion accelerator at LBNL, currently undergoing commissioning. Hydrodynamic modeling of NDCX-II experiments include certain lower temperature effects, e.g., surface tension and target fragmentation, that are not generally present in extreme high-energy laser facility experiments, where targets are completely vaporized in an extremely short period of time. Target designs proposed for NDCX-II range from metal foils of order one micron thick (thin targets) to metallic foam targets several tens of microns thick (thick targets). These high-energy-density experiments allow for the study of fracture as well as the process of bubble and droplet formation. We incorporate these physics effects into a code called ALE-AMR that uses a combination of Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrodynamics and Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Inclusion of certain effects becomes tricky as we must deal with non-orthogonal meshes of various levels of refinement in three dimensions. A surface tension model used for droplet dynamics is implemented in ALE-AMR using curvature calculated from volume fractions. Thick foam target experiments provide information on how ion beam induced shock waves couple into kinetic energy of fluid flow. Although NDCX-II is not fully commissioned, experiments are being conducted that explore material defect production and dynamics.

  5. Theoretical and experimental characterization of novel water-equivalent plastics in clinical high-energy carbon-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A.; Wellock, N.; Thomas, R.; Homer, M.; Bouchard, H.; Kanai, T.; MacDougall, N.; Royle, G.; Palmans, H.

    2016-11-01

    Water-equivalent plastics are frequently used in dosimetry for experimental simplicity. This work evaluates the water-equivalence of novel water-equivalent plastics specifically designed for light-ion beams, as well as commercially available plastics in a clinical high-energy carbon-ion beam. A plastic- to-water conversion factor {{H}\\text{pl,w}} was established to derive absorbed dose to water in a water phantom from ionization chamber readings performed in a plastic phantom. Three trial plastic materials with varying atomic compositions were produced and experimentally characterized in a high-energy carbon-ion beam. Measurements were performed with a Roos ionization chamber, using a broad un-modulated beam of 11  ×  11 cm2, to measure the plastic-to-water conversion factor for the novel materials. The experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Commercially available plastics were also simulated for comparison with the plastics tested experimentally, with particular attention to the influence of nuclear interaction cross sections. The measured H\\text{pl,w}\\exp correction increased gradually from 0% at the surface to 0.7% at a depth near the Bragg peak for one of the plastics prepared in this work, while for the other two plastics a maximum correction of 0.8%-1.3% was found. Average differences between experimental and numerical simulations were 0.2%. Monte Carlo results showed that for polyethylene, polystyrene, Rando phantom soft tissue and A-150, the correction increased from 0% to 2.5%-4.0% with depth, while for PMMA it increased to 2%. Water-equivalent plastics such as, Plastic Water, RMI-457, Gammex 457-CTG, WT1 and Virtual Water, gave similar results where maximum corrections were of the order of 2%. Considering the results from Monte Carlo simulations, one of the novel plastics was found to be superior in comparison with the plastic materials currently used in dosimetry, demonstrating that it is feasible to tailor plastic

  6. A combined beta-beam and electron capture neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Orme, C; Palomares-Ruiz, S; Pascoli, S

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of long baseline neutrino experiments will aim at determining the value of the unknown mixing angle, theta_{13}, the type of neutrino mass hierarchy and the presence of CP-violation in the lepton sector. Beta-beams and electron capture experiments have been studied as viable candidates for long baseline experiments. They use a very clean electron neutrino beam from the beta-decays or electron capture decays of boosted ions. In the present article we consider an hybrid setup which combines a beta-beam with an electron capture beam by using boosted Ytterbium ions. We study the sensitivity to the CP-violating phase delta and the theta_{13} angle, the CP-discovery potential and the reach to determine the type of neutrino mass hierarchy for this type of long baseline experiment. The analysis is performed for different neutrino beam energies and baselines. Finally, we also discuss how the results would change if a better knowledge of some of the assumed parameters was achieved by the time this e...

  7. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu; Loo, Billy W., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin [RaySearch Laboratories AB, Stockholm SE-103 65 (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a treatment planning workflow for rapid radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron (VHEE) scanning pencil beams of 60–120 MeV and to study VHEE plans as a function of VHEE treatment parameters. Additionally, VHEE plans were compared to clinical state-of-the-art volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) photon plans for three cases. Methods: VHEE radiotherapy treatment planning was performed by linking EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with inverse treatment planning in a research version of RayStation. In order to study the effect of VHEE treatment parameters on VHEE dose distributions, a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of VHEE MC pencil beam doses was developed. Through the GUI, pediatric case MC simulations were run for a number of beam energies (60, 80, 100, and 120 MeV), number of beams (13, 17, and 36), pencil beam spot (0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 mm) and grid (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm) sizes, and source-to-axis distance, SAD (40 and 50 cm). VHEE plans for the pediatric case calculated with the different treatment parameters were optimized and compared. Furthermore, 100 MeV VHEE plans for the pediatric case, a lung, and a prostate case were calculated and compared to the clinically delivered VMAT plans. All plans were normalized such that the 100% isodose line covered 95% of the target volume. Results: VHEE beam energy had the largest effect on the quality of dose distributions of the pediatric case. For the same target dose, the mean doses to organs at risk (OARs) decreased by 5%–16% when planned with 100 MeV compared to 60 MeV, but there was no further improvement in the 120 MeV plan. VHEE plans calculated with 36 beams outperformed plans calculated with 13 and 17 beams, but to a more modest degree (<8%). While pencil beam spacing and SAD had a small effect on VHEE dose distributions, 0.1–3 mm pencil beam sizes resulted in identical dose distributions. For the 100 MeV VHEE pediatric

  8. Investigation and optimization of transverse non-linear beam dynamics in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Dominic Markus

    2010-03-10

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a

  9. Distortion of the per-pixel signal in the Timepix detector observed in high energy carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B.; Soukup, P.; Granja, C.; Jakubek, J.; Pospíšil, S.; Jäkel, O.; Martišíková, M.

    2014-09-01

    Within the application of the pixelated semiconductor Timepix detector for ion beam therapy purposes, distortion and non-linearity in the spectrometric pixel response to high energy carbon ions were observed. In this contribution, these effects are studied in detail. A distinct correlation between the arrival time of a particle during the exposure time and the respective detector signal was found. The hypothesis to explain these findings by oscillations in the pixel electronics leading to a second rise of the preamplifier output above threshold is discussed. Depending on the particle arrival time, the distortions can result in an artificially increased counter value and consequently an enlarged detector signal in energy mode. The effect appears when the signal per-pixel is above approximately 1 MeV, therefore becomig especially significant for measurements with heavy ions. The results presented in this publication are part of: B. Hartmann, A Novel Approach to Ion Spectroscopy of Therapeutic Ion Beams Using a Pixelated Semiconductor Detector, Ph.D. thesis, University of Heidelberg, Germany (2013).

  10. High energy density physics effects predicted in simulations of the CERN HiRadMat beam-target interaction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments have been done at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility in which large cylindrical copper targets were irradiated with 440 GeV proton beam generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). The primary purpose of these experiments was to confirm the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of ultra-relativistic protons and their hadronic shower in solid materials, that was predicted by previous numerical simulations. The experimental measurements have shown very good agreement with the simulation results. This provides confidence in our simulations of the interaction of the 7 TeV LHC (Large Hadron Collider) protons and the 50 TeV Future Circular Collider (FCC) protons with solid materials, respectively. This work is important from the machine protection point of view. The numerical simulations have also shown that in the HiRadMat experiments, a significant part of thetarget material is be converted into different phases of High Energy Density (HED) matter, including two-phase solid-liquid mixture, expanded as well as compressed hot liquid phases, two-phase liquid-gas mixture and gaseous state. The HiRadMat facility is therefore a unique ion beam facility worldwide that is currently available for studying the thermophysical properties of HED matter. In the present paper we discuss the numerical simulation results and present a comparison with the experimental measurements.

  11. Application of Monte Carlo techniques to optimization of high-energy beam transport in a stochastic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. V.; Dieudonne, J. E.; Filippas, T. A.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithm employing a modified sequential random perturbation, or creeping random search, was applied to the problem of optimizing the parameters of a high-energy beam transport system. The stochastic solution of the mathematical model for first-order magnetic-field expansion allows the inclusion of state-variable constraints, and the inclusion of parameter constraints allowed by the method of algorithm application eliminates the possibility of infeasible solutions. The mathematical model and the algorithm were programmed for a real-time simulation facility; thus, two important features are provided to the beam designer: (1) a strong degree of man-machine communication (even to the extent of bypassing the algorithm and applying analog-matching techniques), and (2) extensive graphics for displaying information concerning both algorithm operation and transport-system behavior. Chromatic aberration was also included in the mathematical model and in the optimization process. Results presented show this method as yielding better solutions (in terms of resolutions) to the particular problem than those of a standard analog program as well as demonstrating flexibility, in terms of elements, constraints, and chromatic aberration, allowed by user interaction with both the algorithm and the stochastic model. Example of slit usage and a limited comparison of predicted results and actual results obtained with a 600 MeV cyclotron are given.

  12. Treatment test of supernatant from sewage sludge by irradiation of high energy electron beams under supersaturation with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Masakazu; Arai, Hidehiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Aizawa, Masaki; Shimooka, Toshio; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Shimizu, Ken; Sugiyama, Masashi.

    1993-02-01

    Supernatant comes from dewaterization of sewage sludge, and contains biologically nondegradable organics. Therefore, it is hard to be treated by conventional activated sludge method. The development of a new technology is required to decrease the chemical oxygen demand (COD) effectively below 30 mg/l. Irradiation of high energy electron beams can convert nondegradable organics in water into substances which are biodegradable. However, sufficient dissolved oxygen in water is needed to induce oxidation effectively. In the present study, the treatment of supernatant was studied using an apparatus which can be irradiated by high intensity electron beams in flow system under supersaturation with oxygen by pressurization up to 3 atms. The dependence of oxygen concentration on the reduction in absorbance at 230 nm of azo dye (Acid Red 265) aqueous solution was examined, and it was clarified that sufficient oxygen was supplied in the solution up to about 14 kGy under 3 atms of oxygen. Radiation treatment of supernatant which came from the leather works was carried out using the above apparatus. However, as this supernatant contained high concentration of nitrite, the nitrite was removed by limited aeration activated sludge method. By this pretreatment, COD was reduced from 200 mg/l to 53 mg/l. Then, the biodegradability of supernatant irradiated under supersaturation with oxygen was examined. The final COD of the supernatant was reduced below 30 mg/l by the combined method of irradiation of 7 kGy and biological treatment. (author).

  13. Analysis of pixel systematics and space point reconstruction with DEPFET PXD5 matrices using high energy beam test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuen, Lars

    2011-02-15

    To answer the current questions in particle physics vertex-detectors, the innermost sub-detector system of a multipurpose particle detector, with brilliant spatial resolution and at the same time with as little sensor material as possible are mandatory. These requirements are the driving force behind the newest generation of silicon pixel sensors like the DEPFET pixel, which incorporates the first amplification stage in form of a transistor in the fully depleted sensor bulk, allowing for a high spatial resolution even with thinned down sensors. A DEPFET pixel prototype system, build for the future TeV-scale liner collider ILC, was characterized in a high energy beam test at CERN with a spatial resolution and statistics that allowed for the first time in-pixel homogeneity measurements of DEPFET pixels. Yet, in the quest for higher precision the sensor development must be accompanied by progress in position reconstruction algorithms. A study with three novel approaches in position reconstruction was undertaken. The results of the in-pixel beam test and the performance of the new methods with an emphasis on {delta}-electrons will be presented here. (orig.)

  14. The clinical potential of high energy, intensity and energy modulated electron beams optimized by simulated annealing for conformal radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Bill Jean, Jr.

    Purpose. The advent of new, so called IVth Generation, external beam radiation therapy treatment machines (e.g. Scanditronix' MM50 Racetrack Microtron) has raised the question of how the capabilities of these new machines might be exploited to produce extremely conformal dose distributions. Such machines possess the ability to produce electron energies as high as 50 MeV and, due to their scanned beam delivery of electron treatments, to modulate intensity and even energy, within a broad field. Materials and methods. Two patients with 'challenging' tumor geometries were selected from the patient archives of the Cancer Therapy and Research Center (CTRC), in San Antonio Texas. The treatment scheme that was tested allowed for twelve, energy and intensity modulated beams, equi-spaced about the patient-only intensity was modulated for the photon treatment. The elementary beams, incident from any of the twelve allowed directions, were assumed parallel, and the elementary electron beams were modeled by elementary beam data. The optimal arrangement of elementary beam energies and/or intensities was optimized by Szu-Hartley Fast Simulated Annealing Optimization. Optimized treatment plans were determined for each patient using both the high energy, intensity and energy modulated electron (HIEME) modality, and the 6 MV photon modality. The 'quality' of rival plans were scored using three different, popular objective functions which included Root Mean Square (RMS), Maximize Dose Subject to Dose and Volume Limitations (MDVL - Morrill et. al.), and Probability of Uncomplicated Tumor Control (PUTC) methods. The scores of the two optimized treatments (i.e. HIEME and intensity modulated photons) were compared to the score of the conventional plan with which the patient was actually treated. Results. The first patient evaluated presented a deeply located target volume, partially surrounding the spinal cord. A healthy right kidney was immediately adjacent to the tumor volume, separated

  15. Treatment planning for radiotherapy with very high-energy electron beams and comparison of VHEE and VMAT plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Qu, Bradley; Palma, Bianey; Hårdemark, Björn; Hynning, Elin; Jensen, Christopher; Maxim, Peter G; Loo, Billy W

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a treatment planning workflow for rapid radiotherapy delivered with very high-energy electron (VHEE) scanning pencil beams of 60-120 MeV and to study VHEE plans as a function of VHEE treatment parameters. Additionally, VHEE plans were compared to clinical state-of-the-art volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) photon plans for three cases. VHEE radiotherapy treatment planning was performed by linking EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations with inverse treatment planning in a research version of RayStation. In order to study the effect of VHEE treatment parameters on VHEE dose distributions, a matlab graphical user interface (GUI) for calculation of VHEE MC pencil beam doses was developed. Through the GUI, pediatric case MC simulations were run for a number of beam energies (60, 80, 100, and 120 MeV), number of beams (13, 17, and 36), pencil beam spot (0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 mm) and grid (2.0, 2.5, and 3.5 mm) sizes, and source-to-axis distance, SAD (40 and 50 cm). VHEE plans for the pediatric case calculated with the different treatment parameters were optimized and compared. Furthermore, 100 MeV VHEE plans for the pediatric case, a lung, and a prostate case were calculated and compared to the clinically delivered VMAT plans. All plans were normalized such that the 100% isodose line covered 95% of the target volume. VHEE beam energy had the largest effect on the quality of dose distributions of the pediatric case. For the same target dose, the mean doses to organs at risk (OARs) decreased by 5%-16% when planned with 100 MeV compared to 60 MeV, but there was no further improvement in the 120 MeV plan. VHEE plans calculated with 36 beams outperformed plans calculated with 13 and 17 beams, but to a more modest degree (plan, OAR doses were up to 70% lower and the integral dose was 33% lower for VHEE compared to 6 MV VMAT. Additionally, VHEE conformity indices (CI100 = 1.09 and CI50 = 4.07) were better than VMAT conformity indices (CI

  16. Pulse compression below 40fs at 1μm: The first step towards a short-pulse, high-energy beam line at LULI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Zou, Jiping; Martin, Luc; Simon, Francois; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Audebert, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We present the upgrading project ELFIE (Equipement Laser de Forte Intensité et Energie) based on the "100TW" mixed Nd:glass CPA laser system at 1μm at LULI, which includes an energy enhancement and the development of a short-pulse, high-energy, good temporal contrast beam line (50fs/5J). We report the first experimental step towards the short-pulse, high-energy beam line: spectral broadening above 60nm from 7nm and temporal pulse compression below 40fs from 300fs at 1μm through a Krypton-filled hollow fiber compressor.

  17. Intermediate γ beta beams with a cluster of detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, D.; Mena, O.; Orme, C.; Palomares-Ruiz, S.; Pascoli, S.

    2008-05-01

    The acceleration of radionuclides in a beta beam provides an alternative experimental design to superbeam and neutrino factory long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Only single baseline beta beam scenarios have been considered thus far although a storage ring could source at least two baselines. The multitude of possible detector sites in Europe potentially allows for numerous baselines for future long baseline experiments sourced at CERN. Here, we will consider an example taking the CERN-Canfranc and CERN-Boulby baselines. We present results that indicate good sensitivity to the mass hierarchy for values of sin2 2θ13 as small as 10-3 and CP-violation discovery for sin2 2θ13 down to 10-4. These results are achieved with a single helicity since the second baseline provides the synergies usually associated with an anti-neutrino run.

  18. High-energy electron beam irradiation of Al-doped ZnO thin films deposited at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Eui-Jung; Jung, Jin-Woo [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jong-Ha; Lee, Byung-Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung-Hee [Anyang University, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    In this research, we demonstrated the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation (HEEBI) on the optical and structural properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films grown on transparent corning glass substrates at room temperature (RT) by using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique. The AZO thin films were treated with HEEBI in air at RT at an electron beam energy of 0.8 MeV and doses of 1 x 10{sup 14} - 1 x 10{sup 16} electrons/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements revealed that the dominant peak at 2.77 eV was a blue emission originating from donor-like defects, oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}), suggesting that the n-type conductivity was preserved in HEEBI-treated films. On the basis of PL, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we suggest that the density of V{sub o} donor defects is decreased due to in-diffusion of oxygen from the ambient into the films after HEEBI treatment at low doses up to 10{sup 15} electrons/cm{sup 2} while the opposite phenomenon can occur with further increase in the dose. We also found from the XRD analysis that the worse crystallinity with a smaller grain size was observed in HEEBI-treated AZO films at a higher dose, corresponding to a higher oxygen fraction in the films. We believe that our results will contribute to developing high-quality AZO-based materials and devices for space applications.

  19. Microstructure evolution of nanostructured and submicrometric porous refractory ceramics induced by a continuous high-energy proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Bruetsch, Roland; Catherall, Richard; Groeschel, Friedrich; Guenther-Leopold, Ines; Lettry, Jacques; Manfrin, Enzo; Marzari, Stefano; Noah, Etam; Sgobba, Stefano; Stora, Thierry; Zanini, Luca

    2011-09-01

    The production of radioactive ion beams by the isotope mass separation online (ISOL) method requires a fast diffusion and effusion of nuclear products from thick refractory target materials under high-energy particle beam irradiation. A new generation of ISOL nanostructured and submicrometric porous materials have been developed, exhibiting enhanced release of exotic isotopes, compared to previously used conventional micrometric materials. A programme was developed at PSI within the framework sof the Design Study of EURISOL, the next generation European ISOL-type facility to study aging under irradiation on porous ceramic pellets and dense thin metal foils at high temperatures. Ceramic oxides and carbide samples underwent proton damage with fluence up to 3.0 × 10 20 and 1.3 × 10 21 cm -2 respectively. The post-irradiation examination on Al 2O 3, Y 2O 3 and SiC - C nanotube composite matrices show a proton-induced densification region in which a moderate grain growth occurred. The microstructural evolution effects were associated to the combination of radiation-enhanced diffusion and thermal diffusion. The irradiated Al 2O 3 shows higher sintering rates than in similar non-irradiation isothermal conditions, in particular at the lowest irradiation temperature, subjected to a proton fluence inferior to 1.1 × 10 15 cm -2. The apparent activation energy for its sintering controlling mechanism was found to be between 44 and 88 kJ mol -1. However, despite the enhanced sintering, shrinkage and increased grain growth, the selected nanostructured and submicrometric TARPIPE materials did not display an average grain diameter above 2 μm, which confirms that these materials are suited as production targets for present and next generation ISOL facilities.

  20. High-$\\gamma$ Beta Beams within the LAGUNA design study

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Within the LAGUNA design study, seven candidate sites are being assessed for their feasibility to host a next-generation, very large neutrino observatory. Such a detector will be expected to feature within a future European accelerator neutrino programme (Superbeam or Beta Beam), and hence the distance from CERN is of critical importance. In this article, the focus is a $^{18}$Ne and $^{6}$He Beta Beam sourced at CERN and directed towards a 50 kton Liquid Argon detector located at the LAGUNA sites: Slanic (L=1570 km) and Pyh\\"{a}salmi (L=2300 km). To improve sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, these baselines are then combined with a concurrent run with the same flux directed towards a large Water \\v{C}erenkov detector located at Canfranc (L=650 km). This degeneracy breaking combination is shown to provide comparable physics reach to the conservative Magic Baseline Beta Beam proposals. For $^{18}$Ne ions boosted to $\\gamma=570$ and $^{6}$He ions boosted to $\\gamma=350$, the correct mass ordering can be...

  1. Neutrino parameters with magical beta-beam at INO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Choubey, Sandhya; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)], E-mail: sanjib@hri.res.in

    2008-11-01

    We have studied the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The idea of beta-beam is based on the production of a pure, intense, collimated beam of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles via the beta decay of accelerated radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. Interestingly, the CERN-INO distance of 7152 km happens to be tantalizingly close to the so-called 'magic' baseline where the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering (sign of {delta}m{sup 2}{sub 31} {identical_to} m{sup 2}{sub 3} - m{sup 2}{sub 1}) and more importantly, {theta}{sub 13}, goes up significantly, while the sensitivity to the unknown CP phase is absent. This permits such an experiment involving the golden P{sub e{mu}} channel to make precise measurements of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and neutrino mass hierarchy avoiding the issues of intrinsic degeneracies and correlations which plague other baselines.

  2. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  3. Enhanced thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutated by high-energy pulse electron beam and protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-11-01

    To increase thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YZ1, the strategies of high-energy pulse electron beam (HEPE) and three rounds of protoplast fusion were explored. The YF31 strain had the characteristics of resistant to high-temperature, high-ethanol tolerance, rapid growth and high yield. The YF31 could grow on plate cultures up to 47 °C, containing 237.5 g L(-1) of ethanol. In particular, the mutant strain YF31 generated 94.2 ± 4.8 g L(-1) ethanol from 200 g glucose L(-1) at 42 °C, which was 2.48 times the production of the wild strain YZ1. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from the strains screening by HEPE irradiation could be used as parent stock for yeast regeneration and the protoplast fusion technology is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable characteristics in a single strain for ethanol fermentation.

  4. Ion beam driven high energy density physics studies at FAIR at darmstadt: the HEDgeHOB collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A.; Spiller, P. [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Shutov, A.; Zharkov, A.P. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R.; Rodriguez Prietoc, G. [LPGP, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Deutsch, C. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain); Stoehlker, T. [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Helmholz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    High Energy Density (HED) physics spans over numerous areas of basic and applied physics, for example, astrophysics, planetary physics, geophysics, inertial fusion and many others. Due to this reason, it has been a subject of very active research over the past many decades. Static as well as dynamic methods have been applied to generate samples of HED matter in the laboratory. The most commonly used tool in the static techniques is the diamond anvil cell while the dynamic methods involve shock compression of matter. During the past fifteen years, great progress has been made on the development of bunched intense particle beams that have emerged as an additional new tool for studying HED physics. In this paper we present two experiment designs that have been worked out for HED physics studies at the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. This facility has entered into construction phase and will provide one of the largest and most powerful particle accelerators in the world. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Loss management in the beta-beam decay ring

    CERN Document Server

    Chancé, Antoine

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the beta-beams is to produce pure electron neutrino and anti-neutrino highly energetic beams, coming from β-decay of the 18Ne10+ and 6He2+, both at γ = 100, directed towards experimental halls situated in the Fréjus tunnel [1], [2]. The high intensity ion beams are stored in a ring, until the ions decay. Consequently, all the injected particles will be lost anywhere around the ring generating a high level of irradiation. In order to keep a constant neutrino flux, the losses due to the decay of the radioactive ions are compensated with regular injections. The new ion beam is then merged with the stored beam with a specific RF program [3]. We have to consider two sources of losses: – The β-decay products: their magnetic rigidity being different from the reference one, they are bent differently and lost. – The losses during the injection merging process. The first one needs a particular ring design in order to insert appropriate beam stoppers at the right place. The second one needs a specific...

  6. HEDgeHOB High-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams at the future facility for antiprotons and ion research

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Lomonosov, I V; Gryaznov, V; Piriz, A R; Wouchuk, G; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E; Hoffmann, D H H; Schmidt, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the theoretical work that has been carried out during the past few years to assess the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of High-Energy Density (HED) in matter. This work has shown that two different experimental schemes can be used to study HED physics employing intense ion beams. These schemes have been named HIHEX [Heavy Ion Heating and EXpansion] and LAPLAS [LAboratory PLAnetary Sciences], respectively. The first scheme involves isochoric and uniform heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB [High Energy Density Matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams] collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future accelerator facility, FAIR [Facility for Antipr...

  7. Nanocrystalline {beta}-sialon by reactive sintering of a SiO{sub 2}-AlN mixture subjected to high-energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessier, P. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)]. E-mail: pascal.tessier@airliquide.com; Alamdari, H.D. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)]. E-mail: alamdari.houshang@nanoxnps.com; Dubuc, R. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada); Boily, S. [Groupe Minutia, Boucherville, Que. (Canada)

    2005-04-05

    A mixture of powders of silica and aluminum nitride is subjected to high-energy ball milling for different milling times. This material is subsequently compacted by uniaxial pressing and sintered at 1450 deg. C. The resulting pellets are crushed and analysed by X-ray diffraction. For short milling times, the amount of phase transformation is minimal and the resulting material mostly consists of cristobalite and aluminum nitride. For long milling times, nanocrystalline {beta}-SiAl{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} is mainly produced.

  8. High energy photon reference for radiation protection: technical design of the LINAC beam and ionization chambers; and calculation of monoenergetic conversion coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusciac, D.; Bordy, J.-M.; Daures, J.; Blideanu, V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present the results of the first part of a research project aimed at offering a complete response to dosimeters providers and nuclear physicists' demands for high-energy (6 - 9 MeV) photon beams for radiation protection purposes. Classical facilities allowing the production of high-energy photonic radiation (proton accelerators, nuclear reactors) are very rare and need large investment for development and use. A novel solution is proposed, consisting in the use of a medical linear accelerator, allowing a significant decrease of all costs.Using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP5 and PENELOPE codes), a specifically designed electron-photon conversion target allowing for obtaining a high energy photon beam (with an average energy weighted by fluence of about 6 MeV) has been built for radiation protection purposes. Due to the specific design of the target, this "realistic" radiation protection high-energy photon beam presents a uniform distribution of air kerma rate at a distance of 1 m, over a 30 × 30 cm2 surface. Two graphite cavity ionizing chambers for ionometric measurements have been built. For one of these chambers, the charge collection volume has been measured allowing for its use as a primary standard. The second ionizing chamber is used as a transfer standard; as such it has been calibrated in a 60Co beam, and in the high energy photon beam for radiation protection.The measurements with these ionizing chambers allowed for an evaluation of the air kerma rate in the LINAC based high-energy photon beam for radiation protection: the values cover a range between 36 mGy/h and 210 mGy/h, compatible with radiation protection purposes.Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent quantities have been calculated in the range between 10 keV and 22.4 MeV, for the spectral distribution of the fluence corresponding to the beam produced by the linear accelerator of the LNE-LNHB.

  9. High energy photon reference for radiation protection: technical design of the LINAC beam and ionization chambers; and calculation of monoenergetic conversion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusciac D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the results of the first part of a research project aimed at offering a complete response to dosimeters providers and nuclear physicists’ demands for high-energy (6 – 9 MeV photon beams for radiation protection purposes. Classical facilities allowing the production of high-energy photonic radiation (proton accelerators, nuclear reactors are very rare and need large investment for development and use. A novel solution is proposed, consisting in the use of a medical linear accelerator, allowing a significant decrease of all costs.Using Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP5 and PENELOPE codes, a specifically designed electron-photon conversion target allowing for obtaining a high energy photon beam (with an average energy weighted by fluence of about 6 MeV has been built for radiation protection purposes. Due to the specific design of the target, this “realistic” radiation protection high-energy photon beam presents a uniform distribution of air kerma rate at a distance of 1 m, over a 30 × 30 cm2 surface. Two graphite cavity ionizing chambers for ionometric measurements have been built. For one of these chambers, the charge collection volume has been measured allowing for its use as a primary standard. The second ionizing chamber is used as a transfer standard; as such it has been calibrated in a 60Co beam, and in the high energy photon beam for radiation protection.The measurements with these ionizing chambers allowed for an evaluation of the air kerma rate in the LINAC based high-energy photon beam for radiation protection: the values cover a range between 36 mGy/h and 210 mGy/h, compatible with radiation protection purposes.Finally, using Monte Carlo simulations, conversion coefficients from air kerma to dose equivalent quantities have been calculated in the range between 10 keV and 22.4 MeV, for the spectral distribution of the fluence corresponding to the beam produced by the linear accelerator of the LNE-LNHB.

  10. High Energy Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere: The Integral Invariants of the Nonlinear Parabolic Equation and the Method of Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The method of moments is used to define and derive expressions for laser beam deflection and beam radius broadening for high-energy propagation through the Earth s atmosphere. These expressions are augmented with the integral invariants of the corresponding nonlinear parabolic equation that describes the electric field of high-energy laser beam to propagation to yield universal equations for the aforementioned quantities; the beam deflection is a linear function of the propagation distance whereas the beam broadening is a quadratic function of distance. The coefficients of these expressions are then derived from a thin screen approximation solution of the nonlinear parabolic equation to give corresponding analytical expressions for a target located outside the Earth s atmospheric layer. These equations, which are graphically presented for a host of propagation scenarios, as well as the thin screen model, are easily amenable to the phase expansions of the wave front for the specification and design of adaptive optics algorithms to correct for the inherent phase aberrations. This work finds application in, for example, the analysis of beamed energy propulsion for space-based vehicles.

  11. Studies of equation of state properties of high-energy density matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future FAIR facility: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: n.tahir@gsi.de; Spiller, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Udrea, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Cortazar, O.D. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Deutsch, C. [LPGP, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Fortov, V.E. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lomonosov, I.V. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Ni, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Piriz, A.R. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Shutov, A. [Institute for Problems in Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Temporal, M. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Varentsov, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of high-energy density (HED) in matter. Two different experimental schemes are considered, namely, HIHEX (heavy ion heating and expansion) and LAPLAS (laboratory planetary sciences). The first scheme considers isochoric heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB (high-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams) collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future FAIR (facility for antiprotons and ion research) facility.

  12. Studies of equation of state properties of high-energy density matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future FAIR facility: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Spiller, P.; Udrea, S.; Cortazar, O. D.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V. E.; Gryaznov, V.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Ni, P.; Piriz, A. R.; Shutov, A.; Temporal, M.; Varentsov, D.

    2006-04-01

    This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations the capabilities of intense heavy ion beams to induce states of high-energy density (HED) in matter. Two different experimental schemes are considered, namely, HIHEX (heavy ion heating and expansion) and LAPLAS (laboratory planetary sciences). The first scheme considers isochoric heating and subsequent isentropic expansion of matter while the latter deals with low entropy compression of matter using multiple shock reflection technique. This work has been done within the framework of the HEDgeHOB (high-energy density matter generated by heavy ion beams) collaboration that has been formed to organize and facilitate construction of experimental facilities and later to perform experimental work in the field of HED matter at the future FAIR (facility for antiprotons and ion research) facility.

  13. A method for measuring coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering at a far off-axis high-energy neutrino beam target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, S. J. [Fermilab; Cooper, R. L. [Indiana U.; DeJongh, F. [Fermilab; Empl, A. [Houston U.; Garrison, L. M. [Indiana U.; Hime, A. [Los Alamos; Hungerford, E. [Houston U.; Kobilarcik, T. [Fermilab; Loer, B. [Fermilab; Mariani, C. [Virginia Tech.; Mocko, M. [Los Alamos; Muhrer, G. [Los Alamos; Pattie, R. [North Carolina State U.; Pavlovic, Z. [Los Alamos; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab; Scholberg, K. [Duke U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Thornton, R. T. [Indiana U.; Yoo, J. [Fermilab; Young, A. [North Carolina State U.

    2014-04-03

    We present an experimental method for measuring the process of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS). This method uses a detector situated transverse to a high-energy neutrino beam production target. This detector would be sensitive to the low-energy neutrinos arising from decay-at-rest pions in the target. We discuss the physics motivation for making this measurement and outline the predicted backgrounds and sensitivities using this approach. We report a measurement of neutron backgrounds as found in an off-axis surface location of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) target. The results indicate that the Fermilab BNB target is a favorable location for a CENNS experiment.

  14. First results from the microwave air yield beam experiment (MAYBE: Measurement of GHz radiation for ultra-high energy cosmic ray detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verzi V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of microwave emission from an electron-beam induced air plasma performed at the 3 MeV electron Van de Graaff facility of the Argonne National Laboratory. Results include the emission spectrum between 1 and 15 GHz, the polarization of the microwave radiation and the scaling of the emitted power with respect to beam intensity. MAYBE measurements provide further insight on microwave emission from extensive air showers as a novel detection technique for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

  15. A New Method for Measuring Coherent Elastic Neutrino Nucleus Scattering at an Off-Axis High-Energy Neutrino Beam Target

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, S J; DeJongh, F; Empl, A; Garrison, L M; Hime, A; Hungerford, E; Kobilarcik, T; Loer, B; Mariani, C; Mocko, M; Muhrer, G; Pattie, R; Pavlovic, Z; Ramberg, E; Scholberg, K; Tayloe, R; Thornton, R T; Yoo, J; Young, A

    2013-01-01

    We present a new experimental method for measuring the process of Coherent Elastic Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CENNS). This method uses a detector situated transverse to a high energy neutrino beam production target. This detector would be sensitive to the low energy neutrinos arising from pion decays-at-rest in the target. We discuss the physics motivation for making this measurement and outline the predicted backgrounds and sensitivities using this approach. We report a measurement of neutron backgrounds as found in an off-axis surface location of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) target. The results indicate that the Fermilab BNB target is a favorable location for a CENNS experiment.

  16. High energy electron radiography system design and simulation study of beam angle-position correlation and aperture effect on the images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, S.C.; Liu, M.; Sheng, X.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang, Y.R. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zong, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, X.M. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jing, Y.; Cheng, R.; Zhao, Y.T. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Z.M., E-mail: zzm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du, Y.C. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gai, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    A beam line dedicated to high-energy electron radiography experimental research with linear achromat and imaging lens systems has been designed. The field of view requirement on the target and the beam angle-position correlation correction can be achieved by fine-tuning the fields of the quadrupoles used in the achromat in combination with already existing six quadrupoles before the achromat. The radiography system is designed by fully considering the space limitation of the laboratory and the beam diagnostics devices. Two kinds of imaging lens system, a quadruplet and an octuplet system are integrated into one beam line with the same object plane and image plane but with different magnification factor. The beam angle-position correlation on the target required by the imaging lens system and the aperture effect on the images are studied with particle tracking simulation. It is shown that the aperture position is also correlated to the beam angle-position on the target. With matched beam on the target, corresponding aperture position and suitable aperture radius, clear pictures can be imaged by both lens systems. The aperture is very important for the imaging. The details of the beam optical requirements, optimized parameters and the simulation results are presented.

  17. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high energy electron accelerator beam dump 2, Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, Stefan; Rokni, Sayed H; Taniguchi, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code. The energy and time-of-flight spectra were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators. (5 refs).

  18. Neutron energy and time-of-flight spectra behind the lateral shield of a high-energy electron accelerator beam dump. Part 2. Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Roesler, S; Rokni, S H; Taniguchi, S

    2003-01-01

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code. The energy and time-of-flight spectra were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators.

  19. Comparison of film measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of dose delivered with very high-energy electron beams in a polystyrene phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Liu, Michael; Palma, Bianey; Koong, Albert C.; Maxim, Peter G., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu; Loo, Billy W., E-mail: Peter.Maxim@Stanford.edu, E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Dunning, Michael; McCormick, Doug; Hemsing, Erik; Nelson, Janice; Jobe, Keith; Colby, Eric; Tantawi, Sami; Dolgashev, Valery [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation dose in a water-equivalent medium from very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams and make comparisons to Monte Carlo (MC) simulation results. Methods: Dose in a polystyrene phantom delivered by an experimental VHEE beam line was measured with Gafchromic films for three 50 MeV and two 70 MeV Gaussian beams of 4.0–6.9 mm FWHM and compared to corresponding MC-simulated dose distributions. MC dose in the polystyrene phantom was calculated with the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes based on the experimental setup. Additionally, the effect of 2% beam energy measurement uncertainty and possible non-zero beam angular spread on MC dose distributions was evaluated. Results: MC simulated percentage depth dose (PDD) curves agreed with measurements within 4% for all beam sizes at both 50 and 70 MeV VHEE beams. Central axis PDD at 8 cm depth ranged from 14% to 19% for the 5.4–6.9 mm 50 MeV beams and it ranged from 14% to 18% for the 4.0–4.5 mm 70 MeV beams. MC simulated relative beam profiles of regularly shaped Gaussian beams evaluated at depths of 0.64 to 7.46 cm agreed with measurements to within 5%. A 2% beam energy uncertainty and 0.286° beam angular spread corresponded to a maximum 3.0% and 3.8% difference in depth dose curves of the 50 and 70 MeV electron beams, respectively. Absolute dose differences between MC simulations and film measurements of regularly shaped Gaussian beams were between 10% and 42%. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that relative dose distributions for VHEE beams of 50–70 MeV can be measured with Gafchromic films and modeled with Monte Carlo simulations to an accuracy of 5%. The reported absolute dose differences likely caused by imperfect beam steering and subsequent charge loss revealed the importance of accurate VHEE beam control and diagnostics.

  20. Beam-Induced Effects and Radiological Issues in High-Intensity High-Energy Fixed Target Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V; Drozhdin, A I; Pronskikh, V S; Reitzner, D; Tropin, I S; Vaziri, K

    2014-01-01

    The next generation of accelerators for Megawatt proton and heavy-ion beams moves us into a completely new domain of extreme specific energies of up to 0.1 MJ/g (Megajoule/gram) and specific power up to 1 TW/g (Terawatt/gram) in beam interactions with matter. This paper is focused on deleterious effects of controlled and uncontrolled impacts of high-intensity beams on components of beam-lines, target stations, beam absorbers, shielding and environment. Two new experiments at Fermilab are taken as an example. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) will explore the interactions and transformations of the world's highest-intensity neutrino beam by sending it from Fermilab more than 1,000 kilometers through the Earth's mantle to a large liquid argon detector. The Mu2e experiment is devoted to studies of the conversion of a negative muon to electron in the field of a nucleus without emission of neutrinos.

  1. Production of high-energy colliding. gamma gamma. and. gamma. e beams with a high luminosity at VLEPP accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I.F.; Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G.; Tel' nov, V.I.

    1981-11-05

    Colliding ..gamma gamma.. and ..gamma..e beams with an energy and luminosity of the same order of magnitude as for e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams can be produced by scattering a laser light at the accelerators with colliding e/sup +/e/sup -/ beams with an energy > or approx. =100 GeV. Such accelerators are currently in the design stage.

  2. Charge deep-level transient spectroscopy study of high-energy-electron-beam-irradiated hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, A.; Nádaždy, V.; Zeman, M.; Swaaiij, R.A.C.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of changes in the defect density of states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) due to high-energy electron irradiation using charged deep-level transient spectroscopy. It was found that defect states near the conduction band were removed, while in other band gap regions the

  3. High Energy Tests of Advanced Materials for Beam Intercepting Devices at CERN HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Berthome, E; Boccone, V; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Dos Santos, S; Francon, P; Gentini, L; Guinchard, M; Mariani, N; Masi, A; Moyret, P; Redaeelli, S; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2012-01-01

    Predicting by simulations the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting Collimators and other Beam Intercepting Devices (BID) is a fundamental issue for machine protection: this can be done by resorting to highly non-linear numerical tools (Hydrocodes). In order to produce accurate results, these codes require reliable material models that, at the extreme conditions generated by a beam impact, are either imprecise or non-existent. To validate relevant constitutive models or, when unavailable, derive new ones, a comprehensive experimental test foreseeing intense particle beam impacts on six different materials, either already used for present BID or under development for future applications, is being prepared at CERN HiRadMat facility. Tests will be run at medium and high intensity using the SPS proton beam (440 GeV). Material characterization will be carried out mostly in real time relying on embarked instrumentation (strain gauges, microphones, temperature and pressure sensors) and on remote acquisition dev...

  4. High-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography applied for fabrication of deep-submicrometer SAW devices on lithium niobate and quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondek, Christine A.; Poli, Louis C.

    1995-05-01

    Fabricating submicron feature size Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices on Lithium Niobate and Quartz allows one to take advantage of their unique piezoelectric material properties and operate at higher frequencies. With the recent availability of high performance, high energy e-beam nanowriter tools such as the Leica/Phillips EBPG-HR5 resident at this facility, SAW devices with very narrow line/space transducer gratings can be investigated. Utilizing very high energy (100 keV) direct write electron beam lithography (EBL), allows for processing of deep submicron features with an associated wider process latitude. This is specially desirable when applying EBL to high average Z materials such as lithium niobate. A previously presented paper demonstrated 400 and 500 nm line/space interdigitated transducer fingers on quartz and lithium niobate substrates. E-Beam lithography (30 keV) was used with two and three level, positive and negative tone processes respectively. In this current work a bilevel positive tone process is used by the authors, and involves first spinning a preparation of (1:1) ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) positive e-beam resist. A commercially available conductive polymer known as TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) is then spun onto the wafer and serves as a charge removal vehicle. The TQV-501 film is removed by the development procedure. Xylene is used as the developer. Contact pads and interdigitated transducer elements are realized by e-beam metal deposition and lift off process. We will show a direct write positive tone process for the fabrication of deep submicron (400 nM and smaller) interdigitated transducer gratings on Lithium Niobate and Quartz substrates. An improved process dose latitude is seen because of the reduced expected proximity effect at high beam energy.

  5. Radioactive Ions Production Ring for Beta-Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Wehner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the FP7 EUROnu program, Work Package 4 addresses the issues of production and acceleration of 8Li and 8B isotopes through the Beta-Beam complex, for the production of electron-neutrino. One of the major critical issues is the production of a high enougth ion ßux, to fulÞll the requirements for physics. In alternative to the direct ISOL production method, a new ap- proach is proposed in [1]. The idea is to use a compact ring for Litium ions at 25 MeV and an internal He or D target, in which the radioactive-isotopes production takes place. The beam is expected to survive for several thousands of turns, therefore cooling in 6D is required and, according this scheme, the ionization cooling provided by the target itself and a suitable RF system would be sufÞcient. We present some preliminary work on the Production ring lat- tice design and cooling issues, for the 7Li ions, and propose plans for future studies, within the EUROnu program.

  6. Optimized Two-Baseline Beta-Beam Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya; Donini, Andrea; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    We propose a realistic Beta-Beam experiment with four source ions and two baselines for the best possible sensitivity to theta_{13}, CP violation and mass hierarchy. Neutrinos from 18Ne and 6He with Lorentz boost gamma=350 are detected in a 500 kton water Cerenkov detector at a distance L=650 km (first oscillation peak) from the source. Neutrinos from 8B and 8Li are detected in a 50 kton magnetized iron detector at a distance L=7000 km (magic baseline) from the source. Since the decay ring requires a tilt angle of 34.5 degrees to send the beam to the magic baseline, the far end of the ring has a maximum depth of d=2132 m for magnetic field strength of 8.3 T, if one demands that the fraction of ions that decay along the straight sections of the racetrack geometry decay ring (called livetime) is 0.3. We alleviate this problem by proposing to trade reduction of the livetime of the decay ring with the increase in the boost factor of the ions, such that the number of events at the detector remains almost the same....

  7. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization in ultra-high energy electron(positron) storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Zhe; Barber, Desmond P; Qin, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the recently emerging global interest in building a next generation of circular electron-positron colliders to study the properties of the Higgs boson, and other important topics in particle physics at ultra-high beam energies, it is also important to pursue the possibility of implementing polarized beams at this energy scale. It is therefore necessary to set up simulation tools to evaluate the beam polarization at these ultra-high beam energies. In this paper, a Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization based on the Polymorphic Tracking Code(PTC) is described. The simulations are for a model storage ring with parameters similar to those of proposed circular colliders in this energy range, and they are compared with the suggestion that there are different regimes for the spin dynamics underlying the polarization of a beam in the presence of synchrotron radiation at ultra-high beam energies. In particular, it has been suggested that the so-called "correlated" crossing of spin resonances ...

  8. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  9. Dosimetric properties of radiophotoluminescent glass rod detector in high-energy photon beams from a linear accelerator and cyber-knife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakia, Fujio; Moribe, Nobuyuki; Shimonobou, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2004-07-01

    A fully automatic radiophotoluminescent glass rod dosimeter (GRD) system has recently become commercially available. This article discusses the dosimetric properties of the GRD including uniformity and reproducibility of signal, dose linearity, and energy and directional dependence in high-energy photon beams. In addition, energy response is measured in electron beams. The uniformity and reproducibility of the signal from 50 GRDs using a 60Co beam are both +/- 1.1% (one standard deviation). Good dose linearity of the GRD is maintained for doses ranging from 0.5 to 30 Gy, the lower and upper limits of this study, respectively. The GRD response is found to show little energy dependence in photon energies of a 60Co beam, 4 MV (TPR20(10)=0.617) and 10 MV (TPR(20)10=0.744) x-ray beams. However, the GRD responses for 9 MeV (mean energy, Ez = 3.6 MeV) and 16 MeV (Ez = 10.4 MeV) electron beams are 4%-5% lower than that for a 60Co beam in the beam quality dependence. The measured angular dependence of GRD, ranging from 0 degrees (along the long axis of GRD) to 120 degrees is within 1.5% for a 4 MV x-ray beam. As applications, a linear accelerator-based radiosurgery system and Cyber-Knife output factors are measured by a GRD and compared with those from various detectors including a p-type silicon diode detector, a diamond detector, and an ion chamber. It is found that the GRD is a very useful detector for small field dosimetry, in particular, below 10 mm circular fields.

  10. Modern applications of high energy ion beams: From "single-event burnout" to human eye cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, H.; Mahnke, H.-E.

    1996-12-01

    Energetic ion beams, originally the domain of nuclear physics, become increasingly important tools in many other fields of research and development. The choice of ion species and ion energy allows an enormously wide variation of the penetration depth and of the amount of the electronic stopping power. These features are utilized to modify or damage materials and living tissues in a specific way. Materials modification with energetic ion beams is one of the central aims of research and development at the ion beam laboratory, ISL-Berlin, a center for ion-beam applications at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin. In particular, energetic protons will be used for eye cancer treatment. Selected topics such as the "single-event burnout" of high power diodes and the eye cancer therapy setup will be presented in detail.

  11. High Energy Beam Impact Tests on a LHC Tertiary Collimator at CERN HiRadMat Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cauchi, M; Assmann, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Dallocchio, A; Deboy, D; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua, B; Lari, L; Mollicone, P; Sammut, N

    2013-01-01

    The correct functioning of the collimation system is crucial to safelyoperate the LHC. The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs) in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN HiRadMat (High Irradiation to Materials) facility, involved 440 GeV beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained together with some first outcomes from visual inspection.

  12. High energy beam impact tests on a LHC tertiary collimator at the CERN high-radiation to materials facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Cauchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct functioning of a collimation system is crucial to safely operate highly energetic particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. The requirements to handle high intensity beams can be demanding. In this respect, investigating the consequences of LHC particle beams hitting tertiary collimators (TCTs in the experimental regions is a fundamental issue for machine protection. An experimental test was designed to investigate the robustness and effects of beam accidents on a fully assembled collimator, based on accident scenarios in the LHC. This experiment, carried out at the CERN High-Radiation to Materials (HiRadMat facility, involved 440 GeV proton beam impacts of different intensities on the jaws of a horizontal TCT. This paper presents the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained, together with some first outcomes from visual inspection and a comparison of such results with numerical simulations.

  13. EPOCH code simulation of a non-thermal distribution driven by neutral beam injection in a high-beta plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necas, A.; Tajima, T.; Nicks, S.; Magee, R.; Clary, R.; Roche, T.; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2016-10-01

    In Tri Alpha Energy's C-2U experiment, advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas were sustained via tangential neutral beam injection. The dominant fast ion population made a dramatic impact on the overall plasma performance. To explain an experimentally observed anomalous neutron signal (100x thermonuclear), we use EPOCH PIC code to simulate possible beam driven non-destructive instabilities that transfer energy from fast ions to the plasma, causing phase space bunching. We propose that the hydrogen beam ion population drives collective modes in the deuterium target plasma, giving rise to the instability and increased fusion rate. The instability changes character from electrostatic in the low beta edge to fully electromagnetic in the core, with an associated reduction in growth rates. The DD reactivity enhancement is calculated using a two-body correlation function and compared to the experimentally observed neutron yield. The high-energy tails in the distributions of the plasma deuterons and beam protons are observed via a mass-resolving Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic. This observation is qualitatively consistent with EPOCH simulation of the beam-plasma instability.

  14. Preparation of Fiber Optics for the Delivery of High-Energy High-Beam-Quality Nd:YAG Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, A; French, P; Hand, D P; Blewett, I J; Richmond, M; Jones, J D

    2000-11-20

    Recent improvements in design have made it possible to build Nd:YAG lasers with both high pulse energy and high beam quality. These lasers are particularly suited for percussion drilling of holes of as much as 1-mm diameter thick (a few millimeters) metal parts. An example application is the production of cooling holes in aeroengine components for which 1-ms duration, 30-J energy laser pulses produce holes of sufficient quality much more efficiently than with a laser trepanning process. Fiber optic delivery of the laser beam would be advantageous, particularly when one is processing complex three-dimensional structures. However, lasers for percussion drilling are available only with conventional bulk-optic beam delivery because of laser-induced damage problems with the small-diameter (approximately 200-400-mum) fibers that would be required for preserving necessary beam quality. We report measurements of beam degradation in step-index optical fibers with an input beam quality corresponding to an M(2) of 22. We then show that the laser-induced damage threshold of 400-mum core-diameter optical fibers can be increased significantly by a CO(2) laser treatment step following the mechanical polishing routine. This increase in laser-induced damage threshold is sufficient to propagate 25-J, 1-ms laser pulses with a 400-mum core-diameter optical fiber and an output M(2) of 31.

  15. A study of Rhizophora spp wood phantom for dosimetric purposes using high-energy photon and electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjade, D.P. E-mail: dpbl4007@stud.usm.my; Tajuddin, A.A.; Shukri, A

    2001-09-01

    Previous scattering and depth-dose investigations involving use of the Malaysian hardwood Rhizophora spp have shown this medium to produce good agreement with measurements made in water. Present study extends the comparison, now including measurements of percentage depth-dose made for photons at 6 MV and 5 and 12 MeV electron beams. For the 6 MV photon and 5 MeV electron beams, discrepancies between percentage depth-dose for Rhizophora spp and water, at all depths, are found to be within 2.6 and 2.4% respectively. At 12 MeV electron energies, measured percentage depth-doses in Rhizophora spp beyond 3.5 cm depth are found to be in significant discord with those for water. The absorbed dose in water measured in Rhizophora spp at d{sub max} for all three beams produces discrepancies of no more than 1.1% when compared with measurements made in water.

  16. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  17. High energy muon induced radioactive nuclides in nickel plate and its use for 2-D muon-beam image profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurebayashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sakurai, H., E-mail: sakurail@sci.kj.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Doshita, N. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kikuchi, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Tokanai, F. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Horiuchi, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki 036-8561, Aomori (Japan); Tajima, Y. [Institute of Arts and Sciences, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Oe, T. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sato, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Gunji, S. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Inui, E. [Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Kondo, K. [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Iwata, N. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Sasaki, N. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3, Bunkyo-chou, Hirosaki 036-8561, Aomori (Japan); Matsuzaki, H. [Micro Analysis Laboratory, Tandem accelerator (MALT), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Kunieda, S. [Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-1195, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Target materials were exposed to a muon beam with an energy of 160 GeV/c at the COMPASS experiment line in CERN-SPS to measure the production cross-sections for muon-induced radionuclides. A muon imager containing four nickel plates, each measuring 100 mm×100 mm, exposed to the IP plate successfully detected the muon beam image during an irradiation period of 33 days. The contrasting density rate of the nickel plate was (5.2±0.7)×10{sup –9} PSL/muon per one-day exposure to IP. The image measured 122 mm and 174 mm in horizontal and vertical lengths, respectively, in relation to the surface of the base, indicating that 50±6% of the muon beam flux is confined to an area of 18% of the whole muon beam. The number of muons estimated from the PSL value in the total beam image area (0.81±0.1)×10{sup 13} was comparable to the total muon counts of the ion-chamber at the M2 beam line in the CERN-SPS. The production cross-sections of Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-58 in nickel were 0.19±0.08, 0.34±0.06, 0.5±0.05, 3.44±0.07, 0.4±0.03 in the unit of mb, respectively, reducing muon associated particles effects. They are approximately 10 times smaller than that a proceeding study by Heisinger et al.

  18. SU-E-T-748: Theoretical Investigation On Using High Energy Proton Beam for Total-Body-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M; Zou, J; Chen, T; Yue, N [Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The broad-slow-rising entrance dose region proximal to the Bragg peak made by a mono-energetic proton beam could potentially be used for total body irradiation (TBI). Due to the quasi-uniform dose deposition, customized thickness compensation may not be required to deliver a uniform dose to patients with varied thickness. We investigated the possibility, efficacy, and hardware requirement to use such proton beam for TBI. Methods: A wedge shaped water phantom with thickness varying from 2 cm to 40 cm was designed to mimic a patient. Geant4 based Monte Carlo code was used to simulate broad mono-energetic proton beams with energy ranging from 250 MeV to 300 MeV radiating the phantom. A 6 MV photon with 1 cm water equivalent build-up used for conventional TBI was also calculated. A paired-opposing beam arrangement with no thickness compensation was used to generate TBI plans for all beam energies. Dose from all particles were scored on a grid size of 2 mm{sup 3}. Dose uniformity across the phantom was calculated to evaluate the plan. The field size limit and the dose uniformity of Mevion S250 proton system was examined by using radiochromic films placed at extended treatment distance with the open large applicator and 90° gantry angle. Results: To achieve a maximum ± 7.5% dose variation, the largest patient thickness variation allowed for 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV proton beams were 27.0 cm, 34.9 cm and 36.7 cm. The value for 6 MV photon beam was only 8.0 cm to achieve the same dose variation. With open gantry, Mevion S250 system allows 5 m source-to-surface distance producing an expected 70 cm{sup 2} field size. Conclusion: Energetic proton beam can potentially be used to deliver TBI. Treatment planning and delivery would be much simple since no thickness compensation is required to achieve a uniform dose distribution.

  19. Relation between reflection high-energy electron diffraction specular beam intensity and the surface atomic structure/surface morphology of GaAs(111)B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Rajkumar, K.C.; Madhukar, A. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States))

    The intensity behavior of the specular beam in reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) from GaAs(111)B grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated for various growth and diffraction conditions. The temporal behavior during the initial growth of a buffer layer is examined at a fixed diffraction condition. Intensity increase is observed during and after the initial stages of buffer layer growth and found to saturate after about 80 monolayer growth. Intensity oscillations are seen starting at different moments of initial growth, the earliest observed after only 14 monolayer growth. These results are used to guide and control GaAs(111)B growths with mirrorlike surface morphology.

  20. Studies of lead tungstate crystal matrices in high energy beams for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, G; Baillon, Paul; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Bateman, E; Bell, K W; Benhammou, Ya; Bloch, P; Bomestar, D; Borgia, B; Bourotte, J; Burge, S R; Cameron, W; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Connolly, J; Dafinei, I; Denes, P; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; El-Mamouni, H; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Finger, M H; Flügel, T; Gautheron, F; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, B W; Kirn, T; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebeau, M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Ma, D; Martin, F; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newbold, D; Newman, H; Oukhanov, M; Pacciani, L; Peigneux, J P; Pirro, S; Popov, S; Puljak, I; Purves, C; Renker, D; Rondeaux, F; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Schwenke, J; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Shevchenko, S; Shi, X; Sillou, D; Simohand, D; Singovsky, A V; Soric, I; Smith, B; Stephenson, R; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1997-01-01

    Using matrices of lead tungstate crystals energy resolutions better than 0.6% at 100 GeV have been achieved in the test beam in 1995. It has been demonstrated that a lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter read out by avalanche photodiodes can consistently achieve the excellent energy resolutions necessary to justify its construction in the CMS detector. The performance achieved has been understood in terms of the properties of the crystals and photodetectors.

  1. Design and Construction of a stretched wire test bench to characterize Beam Position Monitor for the High Energy Storage Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Sudharsan

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator physics is a branch of applied physics, which deals with design, construction and operation of particle accelerators. In today’s world, their uses cover varied fields such as study structures in chemistry and biology or to perform sensitive trace element analysis. Moreover, accelerators have become entrenched as the key tools in the study of subatomic particles. Whether the application is scientific, industrial or medical, beam diagnostics is an essential constituent of an acceler...

  2. A method to restrain the charging effect on an insulating substrate in high energy electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyan, Yu; Shirui, Zhao; Yupeng, Jing; Yunbo, Shi; Baoqin, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Pattern distortions caused by the charging effect should be reduced while using the electron beam lithography process on an insulating substrate. We have developed a novel process by using the SX AR-PC 5000/90.1 solution as a spin-coated conductive layer, to help to fabricate nanoscale patterns of poly-methyl-methacrylate polymer resist on glass for phased array device application. This method can restrain the influence of the charging effect on the insulating substrate effectively. Experimental results show that the novel process can solve the problems of the distortion of resist patterns and electron beam main field stitching error, thus ensuring the accuracy of the stitching and overlay of the electron beam lithography system. The main characteristic of the novel process is that it is compatible to the multi-layer semiconductor process inside a clean room, and is a green process, quite simple, fast, and low cost. It can also provide a broad scope in the device development on insulating the substrate, such as high density biochips, flexible electronics and liquid crystal display screens.

  3. Portal verification of high-energy electron beams using their photon contamination by film-cassette systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Peter; Baus, Wolfgang W; Baumann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Though electron beams are widely used in radiotherapy, their verification is not well established in clinical practice. The present study compares the suitability of several sensitive film-cassette systems for electron-portal verification by contaminating photons. The characteristics of the optical density curves of film-cassette combinations were determined by exposing them to the bremsstrahlung contamination of a variety of electron beams. Using a Las-Vegas Phantom the spatial low-contrast resolution of the combinations was investigated. The absorbed dose rates due to the contaminant photons were measured for different geometric conditions. Suitable film-cassette combinations were found for portal verification of all usual electron energies. The best image quality was obtained using the EC film and the EC-L cassettes. For electron energies higher than 6 MeV some film-cassette combinations are suitable to verify abutted electron and photon portals using the same film sheet. The verification of electron portals and of abutted electron-photon portals can be performed by sensitive film-cassette systems with an image quality comparable to photon-beam verification.

  4. Generation of a quasi-monoenergetic high energy proton beam from a vacuum-sandwiched double layer target irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam Kim, Kyung; Lee, Kitae, E-mail: klee@kaeri.re.kr; Hee Park, Seong; Young Lee, Ji; Uk Jeong, Young; Vinokurov, Nikolay [Center for Quantum-Beam-based Radiation Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Gi Kim, Yong [Department of Physics, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    An acceleration mechanism to generate a high energy proton beam with a narrow energy spread in the laser-induced plasma acceleration of a proton beam is proposed; this mechanism employs two thin foils separated by a narrow vacuum gap. Instead of a thin sheath field at the plasma surfaces, it utilizes an electrostatic field formed in the bulk of the plasma. From a one-dimensional fluid analysis, it has been found that with an appropriate target thickness, protons on the front surface of the second layer can be fed into the plasma, in which the protons are accelerated by an electrostatic field built into the bulk of the plasma. This leads to a proton beam with higher energy and a narrower energy spread than those accelerated at the rear surface of the second layer. The acceleration mechanism is also verified by a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. With a 27-fs long and 2×10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} intense laser pulse, a proton beam with an 18-MeV peak energy and a 35% energy spread is generated. The peak energy is higher than that from the rear surface of the second layer by a factor of 3.

  5. Upward high-energy field-aligned electron beams above the polar edge of auroral oval: observations from the SKA-3 instruments onboard the Auroral Probe (Interball-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Stepanov

    Full Text Available A new phenomenon was found at the polar edge of the auroral oval in the postmidnight-morning sectors: field-aligned (FA high-energy upward electron beams in the energy range 20–40 keV at altitudes about 3RE, accompanied by bidirectional electron FA beams of keV energy. The beam intensity often reaches more than 0.5·103 electrons/s·sr·keV·cm2, and the beams are observed for a relatively long time (~3·102–103s, when the satellite at the apogee moves slowly in the ILAT-MLT frame. A qualitative scenario of the acceleration mechanism is proposed, according to which the satellite is within a region of bidirectional acceleration where a stochastic FA acceleration is accomplished by waves with fluctuating FA electric field components in both directions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle acceleration; wave-particle interactions · Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  6. Fabrication of nanostructured transmissive optical devices on ITO-glass with UV1116 photoresist using high-energy electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Calum; Bartholomew, Richard; Rughoobur, Girish; Gordon, George S. D.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2016-12-01

    High-energy electron beam lithography for patterning nanostructures on insulating substrates can be challenging. For high resolution, conventional resists require large exposure doses and for reasonable throughput, using typical beam currents leads to charge dissipation problems. Here, we use UV1116 photoresist (Dow Chemical Company), designed for photolithographic technologies, with a relatively low area dose at a standard operating current (80 kV, 40-50 μC cm-2, 1 nAs-1) to pattern over large areas on commercially coated ITO-glass cover slips. The minimum linewidth fabricated was ˜33 nm with 80 nm spacing; for isolated structures, ˜45 nm structural width with 50 nm separation. Due to the low beam dose, and nA current, throughput is high. This work highlights the use of UV1116 photoresist as an alternative to conventional e-beam resists on insulating substrates. To evaluate suitability, we fabricate a range of transmissive optical devices, that could find application for customized wire-grid polarisers and spectral filters for imaging, which operate based on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanosized geometries, with arrays encompassing areas ˜0.25 cm2.

  7. Poster — Thur Eve — 18: Cherenkov Emission By High-Energy Radiation Therapy Beams: A Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlateva, Y.; El Naqa, I. [Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Quitoriano, N. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    We investigate Cherenkov emission (CE) by radiotherapy beams via radiation dose-versus-CE correlation analyses, CE detection optimization by means of a spectral shift towards the near-infrared (NIR) window of biological tissue, and comparison of CE to on-board MV imaging. Dose-CE correlation was investigated via simulation and experiment. A Monte Carlo (MC) CE simulator was designed using Geant4. Experimental phantoms include: water; tissue-simulating phantom composed of water, Intralipid®, and beef blood; plastic phantom with solid water insert. The detector system comprises an optical fiber and diffraction-grating spectrometer incorporating a front/back-illuminated CCD. The NIR shift was carried out with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), emitting at (650±10) nm. CE and MV images were acquired with a CMOS camera and electronic portal imaging device. MC and experimental studies indicate a strong linear dose-CE correlation (Pearson coefficient > 0.99). CE by an 18-MeV beam was effectively NIR-shifted in water and a tissue-simulating phantom, exhibiting a significant increase at 650 nm for QD depths up to 10 mm. CE images exhibited relative contrast superior to MV images by a factor of 30. Our work supports the potential for application of CE in radiotherapy online imaging for patient setup and treatment verification, since CE is intrinsic to the beam and non-ionizing and QDs can be used to improve CE detectability, potentially yielding image quality superior to MV imaging for the case of low-density-variability, low-optical-attenuation materials (ex: breast/oropharynx). Ongoing work involves microenvironment functionalization of QDs and application of multi-channel spectrometry for simultaneous acquisition of dosimetric and tumor oxygenation signals.

  8. Addendum to the AAPM's TG-51 protocol for clinical reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, Malcolm, E-mail: malcolm.mcewen@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); DeWerd, Larry [University of Wisconsin, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey [Department of Radiation Physics, M D Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Followill, David [IROC Houston QA Center, Radiological Physics Center, 8060 El Rio Street, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States); Rogers, David W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Seltzer, Stephen [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Québec (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    An addendum to the AAPM's TG-51 protocol for the determination of absorbed dose to water in megavoltage photon beams is presented. This addendum continues the procedure laid out in TG-51 but new k{sub Q} data for photon beams, based on Monte Carlo simulations, are presented and recommendations are given to improve the accuracy and consistency of the protocol's implementation. The components of the uncertainty budget in determining absorbed dose to water at the reference point are introduced and the magnitude of each component discussed. Finally, the consistency of experimental determination of N{sub D,w} coefficients is discussed. It is expected that the implementation of this addendum will be straightforward, assuming that the user is already familiar with TG-51. The changes introduced by this report are generally minor, although new recommendations could result in procedural changes for individual users. It is expected that the effort on the medical physicist's part to implement this addendum will not be significant and could be done as part of the annual linac calibration.

  9. CERN-INO magical Beta-beam experiment: A high precision probe for neutrino parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Raychaudhuri, A

    2008-01-01

    This talk is an attempt to underscore in detail the physics reach of an experimental set-up where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN would be observed in the proposed large magnetized iron calorimeter detector (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The "magical" CERN-INO beta-beam set-up offers an excellent avenue to use the "Golden" channel ($\

  10. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Zhong, Z.; Ghose, S.; Kirk, H. G.; Trung, L.-P.; McDonald, K. T.; Kotsina, Z.; Nocera, P.; Assmann, R.; Redaelli, S.; Bertarelli, A.; Quaranta, E.; Rossi, A.; Zwaska, R.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Mokhov, N.

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5 ×1020 p /cm2 . The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF) selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (˜5 ×1018 p cm-2 ). In addition, the

  11. Effect of High-energy Proton Beam Irradiation on the Behaviour of Graphite Collimator Materials for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A; Chugunov, O; Latushkin, S; Prichodko, K; Semenov, E; Unezhev, V; Assmann, R; Aberle, O; Bertarelli, A; Schmidt, R; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2010-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of the physical-mechanical property changes of graphite collimator materials for LHC (CERN) irradiated at the cyclotron of RRC-KI by protons with energies up to 30 MeV are presented here. The numerical calculations of radiation damage accumulation in the collimator materials under proton beam irradiation in the energy interval from 20 MeV up to 35 MeV and up to irradiation doses of 1019 proton/cm2 have been made, to derive the irradiation conditions at the RRC KI cyclotron. Comparative investigations of physical-mechanical properties of irradiated and non irradiated graphite collimator materials were performed, including analysis of the degradation of main physical properties of these materials (coefficient of thermal conductivity, changes of electrical resistivity, thermal expansion coefficient, changes of density, changes of mechanical properties of these materials: strength analysis, elastic modulus changes, stress to rupture, yield stress, ultimate tensile stress...

  12. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5×10^{20}  p/cm^{2}. The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (∼5×10^{18}

  13. High Intensity High Energy E-Beam Interacting with a Thin Solid State Target First Results at AIRIX

    CERN Document Server

    Caron, Michel; Collignon, David; Hourdin, Laurent; Merle, Eric; Mouillet, Marc; Mouton, Olivier; Noel, Christian; Paradis, Dominique; Pichoff, Nicolas; Pierret, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    AIRIX is a 2 kA, 20 MeV, 60 ns linear accelerator dedicated to X-ray flash radiography. During a regular running phase, the primary electron beam is accelerated to and focused on a high atomic number target in order to generate X-rays by brembtrahlung mainly. The huge energy density deposited into the material is such that temperature rises up to 15000°K and that clusters and particles are violently ejected from the surface. In that mechanism, the backward emission speed can reach 5 km.s-1 and the debris can gradually accumulate and subsequently contaminate some sensitive parts of the machine. In order to protect the whole accelerating line from the detrimental effect of back-ejected particles, we have investigated the technical feasibility of a thin foil implementation upstream the X-ray converter.

  14. Measurement of photoneutron doses in and out of high-energy X-ray beam of a SATURNE-20 medical linear accelerator by ECE polycarbonate detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrabi, M

    1999-01-01

    Photoneutron contaminations in and out of high energy X-ray beams of the medical linear accelerator SATURNE 20 (CGR) of the Radiotherapy Department of Omeed Hospital in Isfahan, Iran, have been determined using 250 mu m polycarbonate (PC) dosimeters, in strips or in sheets, processed by electrochemical etching (ECE) using specially designed ECE chambers to etch larger sheets. A two dimensional or topographical distribution of neutron contamination was also determined in a full size beam. The neutron dose equivalents (Hn) in the beam of 18 MV X-rays at 80 cm FSD were determined to be linear functions of X-ray dose equivalents (Hx) up to 1400 cSv. The distribution of the Hn at different X-ray doses showed bell-shape profiles with maxima at the isocenter. The ratios of dose equivalents of neutrons to those of X-rays increased as the field size increased having values of 0.22%, 0.28%, 0.31% and 0.37% for field sizes of 10x10, 20x20, 30x30, and 40x40 cm sup 2 respectively. Although such neutron dose equivalents ca...

  15. Calculation of Nuclear Particles Production at High-Energy Photon Beams from a Linac Operating at 6, 10 and 15 MV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, Renato; Bettega, Daniela; Calzolari, Paola; Pignoli, Emanuele

    2017-05-01

    Production of photonuclear particles in a tissue-equivalent medium has been calculated for linacs at 6, 10 and 15 MV from Varian TrueBeam. Based on the knowledge of bremsstrahlung fluence spectra and linac photon beam parameters, numerical integration was performed on the cross sections for photoparticle production of the constituent elements of tissue (2H,12C,13C,16O,17O,18O,14N,15N). At 15 MV, at the depth of photon maximum dose, the total absorbed dose due to neutrons, protons, alphas and residual nuclei from photon reactions in tissue (5.5E-05 Gy per Gy of photons) is comparable to that due to neutrons from accelerator head. Results reasonably agree with data reported in the literature using Monte Carlo models simulating linac head components. This work suggests a simple method to estimate the dose contributed by the photon-induced nuclear particles for high-energy photon beams produced by linacs in use, as it might be relevant for late stochastic effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. High Energy $\

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a high statistics exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to both @n and &bar.@n beams. The principal physics aims are : \\item a) The study of the production of charmed mesons and baryons using fully constrained events. \\end{enumerate} b) The study of neutral current interactions on the free proton. \\item c) Measurement of the cross-sections for production of exclusive final state N* and @D resonances. \\item d) Studies of hadronic final states in charged and neutral current reactions. \\item e) Measurement of inclusive charged current cross-sections and structure functions. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ The neutrino flux is determined by monitoring the flux of muons in the neutrino shield. The Internal Picket Fence and External Muon Identifier of BEBC are essential parts of the experiment. High resolution cameras are used to search for visible decays of short-lived particles.

  17. Improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of high energy electron beam irradiated HDPE/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, M.; Ziaie, F.; Majdabadi, A.; Akhavan, A.; Shafaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, the nano-composites of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite samples were manufactured via two methods: In the first method, the granules of high density polyethylene and nano-structure hydroxyapatite were processed in an internal mixer to prepare the nano-composite samples with a different weight percentage of the reinforcement phase. As for the second one, high density polyethylene was prepared in nano-powder form in boiling xylene. During this procedure, the hydroxyapatite nano-powder was added with different weight percentages to the solvent to obtain the nano-composite. In both of the procedures, the used hydroxyapatite nano-powder was synthesized via hydrolysis methods. The samples were irradiated under 10 MeV electron beam in 70-200 kGy of doses. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the samples were investigated and compared. The results demonstrate that the nano-composites which we have prepared using nano-polyethylene, show better mechanical and thermal properties than the composites prepared from normal polyethylene granules, due to the better dispersion of nano-particles in the polymer matrix.

  18. Establishment of a mammalian cell line suitable for industrial production of recombinant protein using mutations induced by high-energy beam radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yasuhito; Takagi, Keiichi; Terada, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian cells are extensively used for production of biopharmaceuticals. Most cells used in industry have infinite proliferative capacity, which provides a high number of cells and corresponding productivity. However, infinite cells will continue to multiply even after cell density reaches sufficient levels. This excess proliferation aggravates the culture environment and induces low productivity. Therefore, after cell density reaches sufficient levels, downregulation of proliferation would prevent such aggravation and extend the culture period and improve productivity. To realize such suitable proliferation, we aimed to establish a novel cell line whose proliferation was spontaneously downregulated after reaching a sufficient population level. Mutagenesis using high-energy beam irradiation was used. CHO-DP12 cells were irradiated with 2.5 Gy X-rays and screened with hydroxyurea and 5-fluorouracil to eliminate any cells multiplying after confluence and to concentrate desired mutants. One clone was established and named CHO-M1. Cell cycle analysis indicated that CHO-M1 cells had a similar cell cycle profile in the exponential growth phase, but cells rapidly accumulated in G1 phase just before confluence and did not progress through the cell cycle. This suggested that until confluence, proliferation of CHO-M1 was similar to parental CHO, but after confluence, it was inhibited and under G1 arrest. The specific antibody production rate of CHO-M1 was kept high, even after confluence, while that of parental CHO was drastically decreased in stationary phase. These results suggest that the desired cell line was successfully established and that high-energy beam irradiation could be an efficient mutagenic technique for breeding industrial cells.

  19. Future experiments with neutrino superbeams, beta-beams, and neutrino factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah A Harris

    2003-10-27

    This report describes the goals of the next generations of accelerator-based neutrino experiments, and the various strategies that are being considered to achieve those goals. Because these next steps in the field are significantly different from the current or previous steps, novel techniques must be considered for both the detectors and the neutrino beams themselves. We consider not only conventional neutrino beams created by decays of pions, but also those which could be made by decays of beams of relativistic isotopes (so-called ''beta-beams'') and also by decays of beams of muons (neutrino factories).

  20. Simulations of beam-matter interaction experiments at the CERN HiRadMat facility and prospects of high-energy-density physics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N A; Burkart, F; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Wollmann, D; Piriz, A R

    2014-12-01

    In a recent publication [Schmidt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 080701 (2014)], we reported results on beam-target interaction experiments that have been carried out at the CERN HiRadMat (High Radiation to Materials) facility using extended solid copper cylindrical targets that were irradiated with a 440-GeV proton beam delivered by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). On the one hand, these experiments confirmed the existence of hydrodynamic tunneling of the protons that leads to substantial increase in the range of the protons and the corresponding hadron shower in the target, a phenomenon predicted by our previous theoretical investigations [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 25, 051003 (2012)]. On the other hand, these experiments demonstrated that the beam heated part of the target is severely damaged and is converted into different phases of high energy density (HED) matter, as suggested by our previous theoretical studies [Tahir et al., Phys. Rev. E 79, 046410 (2009)]. The latter confirms that the HiRadMat facility can be used to study HED physics. In the present paper, we give details of the numerical simulations carried out to understand the experimental measurements. These include the evolution of the physical parameters, for example, density, temperature, pressure, and the internal energy in the target, during and after the irradiation. This information is important in order to determine the region of the HED phase diagram that can be accessed in such experiments. These simulations have been done using the energy deposition code fluka and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, big2, iteratively.

  1. Mid-infrared High Energy Laser Beam Detector Array%中红外激光光斑探测阵列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏翎; 冯国斌; 王振宝; 邵碧波; 张磊; 冯刚; 闫燕; 武俊杰; 王群书

    2011-01-01

    The energy and power density distributions at target are important parameters for high energy system performance evaluation. A high energy laser beam detector array is developed using photoelectric and calorimetric compound method to accurately measure large area and long pulse mid-infrared laser. The detector array consists of graphite calorimeter and PbSe photoelectric detector array, temperature and voltage amplifier, analog to digital converter and signal processor. The effective sensitive area of the system is 22 cmX22 cm, the spatial resolution is 2.2 cm, and the temporal resolution is 20 ms, with the total energy measurement uncertainty of less than 10% and the power density distribution measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. The system is very suitable for high energy and large area mid-infrared laser beam measurement.%到靶能量和光斑分布参数是评价高能激光系统性能指标的重要参数,为准确测量中红外高能激光系统远场能量和功率密度的时空分布,采用热吸收和光电探测相结合的测量方法,研制了可用于大面积、长脉冲中红外高能激光测量的复合式光斑探测阵列.探测阵列由石墨热吸收单元和PbSe光电探测器阵列、信号调理放大电路、数据采集单元和信号处理单元等几部分组成,有效测量面积为22 cm×22 cm,光斑测量空间分辨率为2.2 cm,时间分辨率为20 ms,能量测量不确定度小于10%,功率密度测量不确定度小于15%.采用该系统,可实现高能量、大面积中红外高能激光光斑参数的综合测量.

  2. SU-E-T-274: Radiation Therapy with Very High-Energy Electron (VHEE) Beams in the Presence of Metal Implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C; Palma, B; Qu, B; Maxim, P; Loo, B; Bazalova, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hardemark, B; Hynning, E [RaySearch Laboratories, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of metal implants on treatment plans for radiation therapy with very high-energy electron (VHEE) beams. Methods: The DOSXYZnrc/BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) codes were used to simulate 50–150MeV VHEE beam dose deposition and its effects on steel and titanium (Ti) heterogeneities in a water phantom. Heterogeneities of thicknesses ranging from 0.5cm to 2cm were placed at 10cm depth. MC was also used to calculate electron and photon spectra generated by the VHEE beams' interaction with metal heterogeneities. The original VMAT patient dose calculation was planned in Eclipse. Patient dose calculations with MC-generated beamlets were planned using a Matlab GUI and research version of RayStation. VHEE MC treatment planning was performed on water-only geometry and water with segmented prostheses (steel and Ti) geometries with 100MeV and 150MeV beams. Results: 100MeV PDD 5cm behind steel/Ti heterogeneity was 51% less than in the water-only phantom. For some cases, dose enhancement lateral to the borders of the phantom increased the dose by up to 22% in steel and 18% in Ti heterogeneities. The dose immediately behind steel heterogeneity decreased by an average of 6%, although for 150MeV, the steel heterogeneity created a 23% increase in dose directly behind it. The average dose immediately behind Ti heterogeneities increased 10%. The prostate VHEE plans resulted in mean dose decrease to the bowel (20%), bladder (7%), and the urethra (5%) compared to the 15MV VMAT plan. The average dose to the body with prosthetic implants was 5% higher than to the body without implants. Conclusion: Based on MC simulations, metallic implants introduce dose perturbations to VHEE beams from lateral scatter and backscatter. However, when performing clinical planning on a prostate case, the use of multiple beams and inverse planning still produces VHEE plans that are dosimetrically superior to photon VMAT plans. BW Loo and P Maxim received research support from

  3. Beam brightness in low-beta linacs: a sensitivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, R.J.; Sacks, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy ion drivers for inertial-confinement fusion reactors depend on the ability to produce a high-intensity, high-quality beam with a minimum of in-machine loss. Deterioration of the beam quality, which subsequently leads also to beam loss, tends to occur in the early (low energy) stages of the acceleration process, since all nonlinear effects decrease with velocity. The current work does not directly address the specific causes for beam deterioration on a fundamental level. Rather, we present the results of a numerical study aimed at gaining an engineering characterization of the dependence of the accelerated beam quality and intensity on various parameters in the linac design, the initial beam configuration, and the initial current. A dramatic improvement is observed when injection energy is raised, and some tentative suggestions are offered for techniques of achieving this increase.

  4. Measurement and Calculation of High-Energy Neutron Spectra behind Shielding at the CERF 120 GeV/c Hadron Beam Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Nakao, N; Roesler, S; Brugger, M; Hagiwara, M; Vincke, H; Khater, H; Prinz, A A; Rokni, S H; Kosako, K

    2008-01-01

    Neutron energy spectra were measured behind the lateral shield of the CERF (CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field) facility at CERN with a 120 GeV/c positive hadron beam (a mixture of mainly protons and pions) on a cylindrical copper target (7-cm diameter by 50-cm long). An NE213 organic liquid scintillator (12.7-cm diameter by 12.7-cm long) was located at various longitudinal positions behind shields of 80- and 160-cm thick concrete and 40-cm thick iron. The measurement locations cover an angular range with respect to the beam axis between 13 and 133 degrees. Neutron energy spectra in the energy range between 32 MeV and 380 MeV were obtained by unfolding the measured pulse height spectra with the detector response functions which have been verified in the neutron energy range up to 380 MeV in separate experiments. Since the source term and experimental geometry in this experiment are well characterized and simple, and results are given in the form of energy spectra, these experimental results are very useful a...

  5. Correlation of microstructure with hardness and wear resistance in (TiC, SiC)/stainless steel surface composites fabricated by high-energy electron-beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eunsub; Kim, Yong Chan; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Nack J.

    2004-03-01

    Stainless-steel-based surface composites reinforced with TiC and SiC carbides were fabricated by high-energy electron beam irradiation. Four types of powder/flux mixtures, i.e., TiC, (Ti + C), SiC, and (Ti + SiC) powders with 40 wt. pct of CaF2 flux, were deposited evenly on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate, which was then irradiated with an electron beam. TiC agglomerates and pores were found in the surface composite layer fabricated with TiC powders because of insufficient melting of TiC powders. In the composite layer fabricated with Ti and C powders having lower melting points than TiC powders, a number of primary TiC carbides were precipitated while very few TiC agglomerates or pores were formed. This indicated that more effective TiC precipitation was obtained from the melting of Ti and C powders than of TiC powders. A large amount of precipitates such as TiC and Cr7C3 improved the hardness, high-temperature hardness, and wear resistance of the surface composite layer two to three times greater than that of the stainless steel substrate. In particular, the surface composite fabricated with SiC powders had the highest volume fraction of Cr7C3 distributed along solidification cell boundaries, and thus showed the best hardness, high-temperature hardness, and wear resistance.

  6. Generation of high-energy electron-positron beams in the collision of a laser-accelerated electron beam and a multi-petawatt laser

    CERN Document Server

    Lobet, Mathieu; d'Humières, Emmanuel; Gremillet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Generation of antimatter via the multiphoton Breit-Wheeler process in an all-optical scheme will be made possible on forthcoming high-power laser facilities through the collision of wakefield-accelerated GeV electrons with a counter-propagating laser pulse with $10^{22}$-$10^{23}$ $\\mathrm{Wcm}^{-2}$ peak intensity. By means of integrated 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the production of positron beams with 0.1-1 nC total charge, 100-400 MeV mean energy and 0.01-0.1 rad divergence is within the reach of soon-to-be-available laser systems. The variations of the positron beam's properties with respect to the laser parameters are also examined.

  7. SU-D-BRF-01: Applications of Photonuclear Activation of Biological Tissues in Clinical High-Energy X-Ray Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltchev, I; Fourkal, E; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The commercial availability of high-energy accelerators opens new therapeutic opportunities for X-rays with energies in excess of 15MV. Three clinical beams (Varian 18MV, Elekta SL25, and Top Grade LA45) were compared by the production of photo-activated positron emitters in five types of biological tissues. Methods: The activation studies were performed using FLUKA2011 Monte Carlo suite with beam models designed for the three accelerators. Absolute activity density (Bq/ml) distribution in space was obtained from this study. Additionally, the temporal evolution of all activated species was monitored for cooling times up to 30 minutes. Results: The relative activation contrast of tissue pairs was evaluated for 2Gy of dose at 10cm depth for five tissues (normal, hypoxic, adipose, bone, and lung). In bone the sort-lived isotopes O-15 and P-30 dominated the activity at the early cooling stages. In all tissues 15 minutes post-irradiation the C-11 activity became dominant. Tissues with higher carbon-to-oxygen ratio in their elemental composition became clearly visible in a PET scan at longer cooling times. Radiation treatment of a lung tumor with a hypoxic core was simulated in an anthropomorphic phantom using the LA45 beam model. Increase in the PET counts by more than 50% was measured in the hypoxic volume 15 minutes post-irradiation, demonstrating the benefits of the relative activation contrast concept. Conclusion: LA45 beam is found to produce measurable activation distribution for 2Gy of dose, suitable for tissue type discrimination studies. Maximum activation contrast of 1.7 between hypoxic and normal tissues was measured in a simulated treatment. The absolute activity density values obtained from these Monte Carlo studies suggest that the window of opportunity for a PET scan exists up to 60 minutes after 2Gy of dose is deposited by 45MV X-ray beam. Lung-to-tissue activation contrast can be explored for treatment QA purposes as well.

  8. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  9. The distribution of InCl sub x compounds in model polymeric LEDs A combined low and high-energy ion beam analysis study

    CERN Document Server

    Reijme, M A; Simons, D P L; Schok, M; Ijzendoorn, L J V; Brongersma, H H; De Voigt, M J A

    2002-01-01

    A combination of low- and high-energy ion beam analysis techniques was used to determine the distribution of indium chloride compounds in model polymeric light-emitting diodes (p-LEDs). Parts of polymeric LEDs (polydialkoxyphenylenevinylene (OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV) on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrates) were exposed to a HCl/Ar flow to simulate the processes occurring during conversion of precursor PPVs and acid treatment of polymers. Samples with variable exposure times as well as pristine samples were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The RBS measurements show that after HCl exposure indium is distributed throughout the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. LEIS and XPS measurements indicate that the indium and chlorine are present at the outermost surface of the OC sub 1 C sub 1 sub 0 -PPV layer. PIXE measurements in combination with the RBS data demonstrate that th...

  10. Measurement of a Phase of a Radio Wave Reflected from Rock Salt and Ice Irradiated by an Electron Beam for Detection of Ultra-High-Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, Masami; Tanikawa, Takahiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Fumiaki; Yasuda, Osamu; Chikashige, Yuichi; Kon, Tadashi; Shimizu, Yutaka; Watanabe, Souichirou; Utsumi, Michiaki; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have found a radio-wave-reflection effect in rock salt for the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos which are expected to be generated in Greisen, Zatsepin, and Kuzmin (GZK) processes in the universe. When an UHE neutrino interacts with rock salt or ice as a detection medium, a shower is generated. That shower is formed by hadronic and electromagnetic avalanche processes. The energy of the UHE neutrino shower converts to thermal energy through ionization processes. Consequently, the temperature rises along the shower produced by the UHE neutrino. The refractive index of the medium rises with temperature. The irregularity of the refractive index in the medium leads to a reflection of radio waves. This reflection effect combined with the long attenuation length of radio waves in rock salt and ice would yield a new method to detect UHE neutrinos. We measured the phase of the reflected radio wave under irradiation with an electron beam on ice and rock salt powder. The measured phase showed excellent consis...

  11. Probing sub-GeV dark sectors via high energy proton beams at LBNF/DUNE and MiniBooNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugiuele, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    We study the sensitivity to sub-GeV dark sectors of high energy (≥100 GeV ) proton fixed target experiments such as the Main Injector and the future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF). We focus on off-axis detectors since they have been shown to be the ideal location to reduce the neutrino background. We consider MiniBooNE as an off-axis detector for the NuMI facility and a hyphotetical detector for LBNF located 200 m away from the target and 6.5 degrees off-axis. We find that with the existing data, MiniBooNE can explore new regions of the parameter space for leptophobic dark forces in the 100 MeV-few GeV mass range. The dedicated MiniBooNE run in beam dump mode would further improve the reach for even lighter masses. Therefore, MiniBooNE has the potential to be one of the most sensitive probes of leptophobic dark forces for masses between 1 MeV-10 GeV. Hence we encourage MiniBooNE collaboration to perform a DM dedicated analysis of the existing data coming from neutrinos produced at the Main Injector.

  12. 国外高能束增材制造技术应用现状与最新发展%The Abroad Application and Latest Development of High-energy Beam Additive Manufacturing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈济轮; 杨洁; 于海静

    2014-01-01

    介绍了国外以激光束、电子束为热源的高能束增材制造技术研究应用现状以及最新发展,重点介绍了高能束增材制造技术在国外航空航天的应用案例,对高能束增材制造技术的未来发展进行了展望。%This paper introduces the application and the new development of high-energy beam additive manufacturing technology research by using laser beam and electron beam as heat resource. It mainly introduces the application example by using high energy beam additive manufacturing technology in foreign aeronautics and aerospace fields. Meanwhile this paper gives a further discussion for the future development also.

  13. Measurements of yields of fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with high-energy p, d and n beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, J.A.; Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was performed at the Michigan State University cyclotron to determine the yields of neutron-rich fission products in the reaction of {sup 238}U with 100-MeV neutrons, 200-MeV deuterons and 200-MeV protons. Several 1-mm-thick {sup 238}U foils were irradiated for 100-second intervals sequentially for each configuration and the ten spectra were added for higher statistics. The three successive spectra, each for a 40 s period, were accumulated for each sample. Ten foils were irradiated. Successive spectra allowed us to determine approximate half-lives of the gamma peaks. Several arrangements, which were similar to the setup we plan to use in our radioactive beam proposal, were used for the production of fission products. For the high-energy neutron irradiation, U foils were placed after a 5-inch-long, 1-inch-diameter Be cylinder which stopped the 200-MeV deuteron beam generating 100-MeV neutrons. Arrangements for deuteron irradiation included direct irradiation of U foils, placing U foils after different lengths of (0.5 inch, 1.0 inch and 1.5 inch) 2-inch diameter U cylinder. Since the deuteron range in uranium is 17 mm, some of the irradiations were due to the secondary neutrons from the deuteron-induced fission of U. Similar arrangements were also used for the 200-MeV proton irradiation of the {sup 238}U foils. In all cases, several neutron-rich fission products were identified and their yields determined. In particular, we were able to observe Sn in all the runs and determine its yield. The data show that with our proposed radioactive device we will be able to produce more than 10{sup 12} {sup 132}Sn atoms per second in the target. Assuming an overall efficiency of 1 %, we will be able to deliver one particle nanoampere of {sup 132}Sn beam at a target location. Detailed analysis of the {gamma}-ray spectra is in progress.

  14. High-energy transmission Laue micro-beam X-ray diffraction: a probe for intra-granular lattice orientation and elastic strain in thicker samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Felix; Song, Xu; Abbey, Brian; Jun, Tea-Sung; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2012-05-01

    An understanding of the mechanical response of modern engineering alloys to complex loading conditions is essential for the design of load-bearing components in high-performance safety-critical aerospace applications. A detailed knowledge of how material behaviour is modified by fatigue and the ability to predict failure reliably are vital for enhanced component performance. Unlike macroscopic bulk properties (e.g. stiffness, yield stress, etc.) that depend on the average behaviour of many grains, material failure is governed by `weakest link'-type mechanisms. It is strongly dependent on the anisotropic single-crystal elastic-plastic behaviour, local morphology and microstructure, and grain-to-grain interactions. For the development and validation of models that capture these complex phenomena, the ability to probe deformation behaviour at the micro-scale is key. The diffraction of highly penetrating synchrotron X-rays is well suited to this purpose and micro-beam Laue diffraction is a particularly powerful tool that has emerged in recent years. Typically it uses photon energies of 5-25 keV, limiting penetration into the material, so that only thin samples or near-surface regions can be studied. In this paper the development of high-energy transmission Laue (HETL) micro-beam X-ray diffraction is described, extending the micro-beam Laue technique to significantly higher photon energies (50-150 keV). It allows the probing of thicker sample sections, with the potential for grain-level characterization of real engineering components. The new HETL technique is used to study the deformation behaviour of individual grains in a large-grained polycrystalline nickel sample during in situ tensile loading. Refinement of the Laue diffraction patterns yields lattice orientations and qualitative information about elastic strains. After deformation, bands of high lattice misorientation can be identified in the sample. Orientation spread within individual scattering volumes is

  15. Unraveling neutrino parameters with a magical beta-beam experiment at INO

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We expound in detail the physics reach of an experimental set-up in which the proposed large magnetized iron detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) would serve as the far detector for a so-called beta-beam. If this pure $\

  16. Validation of electro-thermal simulation with experimental data to prepare online operation of a molten salt target at ISOLDE for the Beta Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Cimmino, S; Marzari, S; Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Beta Beams is to study oscillation property of pure electrons neutrinos. It produces high energy beams of pure electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos for oscillation experiments by beta decay of He-6 and Ne-18 radioactive ion beams, stored in a decay ring at gamma = 100. The production of He-6 beam has already been accomplished using a thick beryllium oxide target. However, the production of the needed rate of Ne-18 has proven to be more challenging. In order to achieve the requested yield for Ne-18 a new high power target design based on a circulating molten salt loop has been proposed. To verify some elements of the design, a static molten salt target prototype has been developed at ISOLDE and operated successfully. This paper describes the electro-thermal study of the molten salt target taking into account the heat produced by Joule effect, radiative heat exchange, active water cooling due to forced convection and air passive cooling due to natural convection. The numerical results...

  17. Optimization of Neutrino Rates from the EURISOL Beta-beam Acclerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Emelianenko, N; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    The beta beam concept for the production of intense (anti-)neutrino beams is now well established. A baseline design has recently been published for a beta-beam facility at CERN. It has the virtue of respecting the known limitations of the CERN PS and SPS synchrotrons, but falls short of delivering the requestedannual rate of neutrinos. We report on a first analysis to increase the rate using the baseline ions of 6He and18 Ne. A powerful method to understand the functional dependence of the many parameters that influencethe figure of merit for a given facility is available with modern analytical calculation software. The methodrequires that a symbolic analytical description is produced of the full accelerator chain. Such a descriptionhas been made using Mathematica for the proposed beta beam facility at CERN. The direct access fromMathematica to an ORACLE database for reading basic design parameters and re-injecting derivedparameters for completion of the parameter list is both convenient and efficient.We ack...

  18. Optimization of Neutrino Rates from the EURISOL Beta-Beam Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Emelianenko, N; Fabich, A; Hancock, S; Lindroos, M

    2007-01-01

    The beta beam concept for the production of intense (anti-)neutrino beams is now well established. A baseline design has recently been published for a beta-beam facility at CERN. It has the virtue of respecting the known limitations of the CERN PS and SPS synchrotrons, but falls short of delivering the requested annual rate of neutrinos. We report on a first analysis to increase the rate using the baseline ions of 6He and 18 Ne. A powerful method to understand the functional dependence of the many parameters that influence the figure of merit for a given facility is available with modern analytical calculation software. The method requires that a symbolic analytical description is produced of the full accelerator chain. Such a description has been made using Mathematica for the proposed beta beam facility at CERN. The direct access from Mathematica to an ORACLE database for reading basic design parameters and re-injecting derived parameters for completion of the parameter list is both convenient and efficient...

  19. Activity measurements of the high-energy pure beta-emitters Sr-89 and Y-90 by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The absolute activities of the pure beta-emitters Sr-89 and Y-90 have been determined by a direct method, namely the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) efficiency calculation technique. This undertaking has extended further the number...

  20. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-04-23

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  1. Response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor based TLD badge system to high energy electron beams from medical linear accelerator and estimation of whole body dose and skin dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S. [TLD Unit, RPAD, VECC/BARC, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Bakshi, A.K. [RPAD, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: akbakshi123@yahoo.com; Kinhikar, R.A. [Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, Earnest Borges Marg, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 (India); Chourasiya, G.; Kher, R.K. [RPAD, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-03-15

    Response of thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badge based on CaSO{sub 4}:Dy phosphor to high energy electron beams from medical linear accelerators was simulated using FLUKA Monte Carlo code and experimentally verified. This study was carried out in order to determine the response of TL discs under different filter regions of the TLD badge and their ratios under different irradiation conditions in the energy range 6-20 MeV of high energy electron beams. It was found that the response of TL disc under metal filters of the TLD badge (D1) is always higher than the response of the TL discs under Polystyrene filter (D2) and open window (D3) and its response was found to decrease with increase in the energy of the electron beam. Estimation of whole body dose and skin dose including its error was carried out as an extension of the present study in case of accidental exposure of radiation worker to high energy electron beam.

  2. SU-E-T-336: Dosimetric Properties of a New Solid Water High Equivalency Phantom for High-Energy Photon Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, F; Ohno, T; Onitsuka, R [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Shimohigashi, Y [Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate dosimetric properties in high-energy photon beams for a Solid Water High Equivalency (SWHE, SW557) phantom (Gammex) which was newly developed as water mimicking material. Methods: The mass density of SWHE and SWHE/water electron density ratio are 1.032 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.005 according to the manufacturer information, respectively. SWHE is more water equivalent material in physical characteristics and uniformity than conventional SW457. This study calculated the relative ionization ratio of water and SWHE as a function of depth from the cavity dose in PTW30013 and Exradin A19 Farmer-type ionization chambers using Monte Caro simulations. The simulation was performed with a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field at SAD of 100 cm for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photons. The ionization ratio was also measured with the PTW30013 chamber for 6 and 15 MV photons. In addition, the overall perturbation factor of both chambers was calculated for both phantoms. Results: The relative ionization ratio curves for water and SWHE was in good agreement for all photon energies. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE for both chambers was 0.999–1.002, 0.999–1.002, 1.001–1.004, 1.004–1.007, and 1.006–1.010 at depths of over the buildup region for 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 MV photons, respectively. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE increased up to 1% with increasing the photon energy. The measured ionization ratio of water/SWHE for 6 and 15 MV photons agreed well with calculated values. The overall perturbation factor for both chambers was 0.983–0.988 and 0.978–0.983 for water and SWHE, respectively, in a range from 4 MV to 18 MV. Conclusion: The depth scaling factor of water/SWHE was equal to unity for all photon energies. The ionization ratio of water/SWHE at a reference depth was equal to unity for 4 and 6 MV and larger up to 0.7% than unity for 18 MV.

  3. Luminosity control and beam orbit stability with beta star leveling at LHC and HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gorzawski, Arkadiusz Andrzej; Wenninger, Jorg

    This thesis describes the wide subject of the luminosity leveling and its requirements for the LHC and the HL-LHC. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different leveling methods focusing the thesis on the beta star leveling technique. We review the beams offset build--up due to the environmental (i.e. natural ground motion) and mechanical (i.e. moving quadrupole) sources. We quantify the instrumentation requirements for the reliable and reproducible operation with small offsets at the interaction points. Last but not least, we propose a novel method for the beam offset stabilization at the collision point based on the feedback from the luminosity.

  4. Testing the GlaaS algorithm for dose measurements on low- and high-energy photon beams using an amorphous silicon portal imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Vetterli, Daniel; Cozzi, Luca

    2008-02-01

    The GLAaS algorithm for pretreatment intensity modulation radiation therapy absolute dose verification based on the use of amorphous silicon detectors, as described in Nicolini et al. [G. Nicolini, A. Fogliata, E. Vanetti, A. Clivio, and L. Cozzi, Med. Phys. 33, 2839-2851 (2006)], was tested under a variety of experimental conditions to investigate its robustness, the possibility of using it in different clinics and its performance. GLAaS was therefore tested on a low-energy Varian Clinac (6 MV) equipped with an amorphous silicon Portal Vision PV-aS500 with electronic readout IAS2 and on a high-energy Clinac (6 and 15 MV) equipped with a PV-aS1000 and IAS3 electronics. Tests were performed for three calibration conditions: A: adding buildup on the top of the cassette such that SDD-SSD = d(max) and comparing measurements with corresponding doses computed at d(max), B: without adding any buildup on the top of the cassette and considering only the intrinsic water-equivalent thickness of the electronic portal imaging devices device (0.8 cm), and C: without adding any buildup on the top of the cassette but comparing measurements against doses computed at d(max). This procedure is similar to that usually applied when in vivo dosimetry is performed with solid state diodes without sufficient buildup material. Quantitatively, the gamma index (gamma), as described by Low et al. [D. A. Low, W. B. Harms, S. Mutic, and J. A. Purdy, Med. Phys. 25, 656-660 (1998)], was assessed. The gamma index was computed for a distance to agreement (DTA) of 3 mm. The dose difference deltaD was considered as 2%, 3%, and 4%. As a measure of the quality of results, the fraction of field area with gamma larger than 1 (%FA) was scored. Results over a set of 50 test samples (including fields from head and neck, breast, prostate, anal canal, and brain cases) and from the long-term routine usage, demonstrated the robustness and stability of GLAaS. In general, the mean values of %FA remain below 3% for

  5. Neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13} with a magic baseline beta-beam experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India) and Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)]. E-mail: sanjib@mri.ernet.in; Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)]. E-mail: sandhya@mri.ernet.in; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India) and Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)]. E-mail: raychaud@mri.ernet.in

    2007-05-28

    We underscore the physics advantage of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called 'magic' baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}. We expound the possibility of using radioactive {sup 8}B and {sup 8}Li as the source isotopes for the {nu}{sub e} and {nu}-bar{sub e} beta-beam, respectively, and show that very good sensitivity to both the mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13} is possible with a boost {gamma} in the 250-500 ballpark.

  6. Beta Beams for Neutrino Production Heat Deposition from Decaying Ions in Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, Elena; Cerutti, F

    2008-01-01

    This report describes studies of energy deposition in superconducting magnets from secondary ions in the "beta beam" decay ring as described in the base-line scenario of the EURISOL Beta Beam Design Study. The lattice structure proposed in the Design Study has absorber elements inserted between the superconducting magnets to protect the magnet coils. We describe an efficient and small model made to carry out the study. The specially developed options in the beam code "ACCSIM" to track largely off-momentum particles has permitted to extract the necessary information to interface the transport and interaction code "FLUKA" with the aim to calculate the heat deposition in the magnets and the absorbers. The two beta emitters 18Ne10+ and 6He2+ used for neutrino and anti-neutrino production and their daughter ions have been tracked. The absorber system proposed in the Design Study is efficient to intercept the ions decayed in the arc straight sections as foreseen, however, the continuous decay in the dipoles induce ...

  7. Measurement of the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in $^{35}$Ar decay with a laser polarized beam

    CERN Multimedia

    With this proposal we request beam time for the first two phases of a project that aims at measuring the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter of the mirror $\\beta$-decay branch in $^{35}$Ar using an optically polarized Ar atom beam. The final goal of the experiment is to measure this parameter to a precision of 0.5%. This will allow the most precise determination of the V$_{ud}$ quark mixing matrix element from all the mirror transitions with an absolute uncertainty of 0.0007. The proposal will be presented in phases and we ask here 11 shifts (7 on-line + 4 off-line) for phase 1 and 15 shifts (6 on-line and 9 off-line) for phase 2. Phase 1 aims at establishing the optimal laser polarization scheme as well as the best implantation host for maintaining the polarization. Phase 2 aims at enhancing the beam polarization by removing the unpolarized part of the beam using re-ionization.

  8. Fast Electronics in High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, Clyde

    1958-08-08

    A brief review of fast electronics is given, leading up to the present state of the art. Cherenkov counters in high-energy physics are discussed, including an example of a velocity-selecting Cherenkov counter. An electronic device to aid in aligning external beams from high-energy accelerators is described. A scintillation-counter matrix to identify bubble chamber tracks is discussed. Some remarks on the future development of electronics in high-energy physics experiments are included.

  9. In situ investigation of the surface silvering of late Roman coins by combined use of high energy broad-beam and low energy micro-beam X-ray fluorescence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Garraffo, S. [ITABC, CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo, Roma (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [LNS, INFN, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    The compositional analysis of archeological metals performed with the X-ray Fluorescence technique (XRF) provides information on the ancient technology. One of the most interesting case-study concerns the techniques used by Romans for silvering the surface of coins. Different metallurgical processes have been suggested in previous studies. Recently the investigation has been addressed to the mercury-silvering and to its possible use in the mass-production of coins minted during the late period (after 294 AD). In the present paper the non-destructive investigation of the silvering process used for manufacturing the Roman nummi - the important typology of coin introduced by Diocletian in his monetary reform - is approached by the combined use of the standard X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the low energy micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (LE-{mu}XRF) portable methods. The research was focused on the systematic determination of the mercury presence in a large number of samples and on its correlation with silver in the surface of the coins. 1041 Roman nummi belonging to the Misurata Treasure were analyzed in situ, at the Leptis Magna Museum (Al Khums, Libya). The treasure, composed of about 108 thousand silvered coins, gives the unique opportunity to study the Roman coinage in a wide interval of time (about 40 years in the period 294-333 AD) and in almost all the imperial mints operating in the Roman world. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Custom-building of a high energy broad-beam and a low energy micro-beam XRF Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ analysis of the silvering methods in late Roman nummi with plated surfaces Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The broad-beam XRF was applied for the detection of mercury traces in the coin alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The low energy micro-XRF was used to scan the surface patina of the coins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correlation between mercury and silver at the coin surface was evidenced.

  10. Beta Beams for neutrino production: Heat deposition from decaying ions in superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, Elena; Cerutti, Francesco

    This note describes studies of energy deposition in superconducting magnets from secondary ions in the “beta beam” decay ring as described in the base-line scenario of the EURISOL Beta Beam Design Study. The lattice structure proposed in the Design Study has absorber elements inserted between the superconducting magnets to protect the magnet coils. We describe an efficient and small model made to carry out the study. The specially developed options in the beam code “ACCSIM” to track largely off-momentum particles has permitted to extract the necessary information to interface the transport and interaction code “FLUKA” with the aim to calculate the heat deposition in the magnets and the absorbers. The two beta emitters 18Ne10+ and 6He2+ used for neutrino and anti-neutrino production and their daughter ions have been tracked. The absorber system proposed in the Design Study is efficient to intercept the ions decayed in the arc straight sections as foreseen, however, the continuous decay in the dipol...

  11. 高能重离子在聚合物中的辐照效应研究%Radiation effects in polymers induced by high energy heavy ion beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhiyong; LIU Qi; SUN Youmei; JIN Yunfan

    2005-01-01

    Ion irradiation of polymers can induce irreversible changes in their macroscopic properties such as electrical and optical properties and the surface-related mechanical properties. Electronic excitation, ionization, chains scission, cross-links and mass losses are accepted as the fundamental events that give rise to the observed macroscopic changes. Detailed and systematic study of radiation induced effects in polymers enriches not only the knowledge of ion-material interactions but also supplies new bases for polymeric materials synthesis through ion-beam technologies. Previous work has concentrated mainly on effects induced by low-ionization particles such as γ-rays and electrons. Since 1980,s the application of high energy heavy ion accelerators enables the use of high energy heavy ion as an irradiation source, and many new and exciting effects and phenomena have been revealed.Energetic heavy ions in matter lose energy mainly through electronic excitation and ionization. Compared to low-ionization particles, high energy heavy ion possesses higher LET(linear energy transfer) values which can reach several to several tens keV/nm. As most of the primary ionizations and excitations occur close to the ion trajectory in a core of a few nanometers in diameter, a continuous damaged zone along the ion path can be induced,in which all bonds inside the zone can be destroyed due to the high rate energy deposition. Studies on this particularity of high energy heavy ion irradiation and its effects in materials will cause great influence on industry as well as on our daily life.The previous work has revealed the great difference in the effects induced by high energy heavy ions compared to the other particles. It has been shown that under irradiation with lower LET particles gas release depends on molecular structure and material composition, whereas under irradiation with high LET particles, such as high energy heavy ions, it is not the case. Some materials that undergo

  12. Progress on the Implementation of a Neutral Beam for the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment-Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Enrique; Kozub, Thomas; Boyle, Dennis; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Smirnov, Artem; Catalano, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    In the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX), good performance discharges have been achieved with reduced-recycling lithium walls. Two hydrogen neutral beams (NB) have been loaned to the LTX project by Tri-Alpha Energy, Inc. To further improve plasma parameters, one of these neutral beams is being installed as part of an upgrade to LTX (LTX-Beta). Current ohmic input power in LTX is less than 100 kW. The NB will provide core plasma fueling with up to 700 kW of injected power. Requirements for accommodating the NB include the addition of injection and beam-dump ports on the vessel, and their designs have been finalized. Progress has also been made on the NB power supplies, including the preparation of a new room to accommodate them. A description of these activities and the status of other improvements to LTX for LTX-Beta will be presented. Work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02- 09CH11466 and DE-AC05- 00OR22725.

  13. Design of BPM PU for Low-Beta Proton Beam Using Magic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S J; Bae, Y S; Hwang, W H; Huang, J Y; Nam, S H

    2003-01-01

    We have designed the BPM PU based on capacitive buttons for use in the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex), the high-intensity proton linac that are under development at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Research Institute), Korea. The KOMAC is aiming to produce CW 20 mA beam current at the 100 MeV energy. We have chosen the button-type PU since it is easier to fabricate than other type PUs including the stripline, and it could provide enough signal power because of the high beam current. The PU sensitivity was calculated by the MAGIC that is a kind of the Particle-In-Cell code that originates from the plasma science community. The utilization of the MAGIC code is especially useful for BPM PUs in the low-beta sections of the accelerator, because it is difficult to obtain the PU sensitivity experimentally due to the difficulties in simulating the low-beta beams by the electromagnetic waves in a test bench. In this presentation, we report on the design of the BPM PU based on the MAGIC calculation.

  14. Unraveling neutrino parameters with a magical beta-beam experiment at INO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: sanjib@mri.ernet.in; Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)], E-mail: sandhya@mri.ernet.in; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: raychaud@mri.ernet.in

    2008-07-21

    We expound in detail the physics reaches of an experimental set-up in which the proposed large magnetized iron detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) would serve as the far detector for a so-called beta-beam. If this pure {nu}{sub e} and/or {nu}-bar{sub e} beam is shot from some source location like CERN such that the source-detector distance L{approx_equal}7500 km, the impact of the CP phase {delta}{sub CP} on the oscillation probability and associated parameter correlation and degeneracies are almost negligible. This 'magical' beta-beam experiment would have unprecedented sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and {theta}{sub 13}, two of the missing ingredients needed for our understanding of the neutrino sector. With Lorentz boost {gamma}=650 and irrespective of the true value of {delta}{sub CP}, the neutrino mass hierarchy could be determined at 3{sigma} C.L. if sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}(true)>5.6x10{sup -4} and we can expect an unambiguous signal for {theta}{sub 13} at 3{sigma} C.L. if sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}(true)>5.1x10{sup -4} independent of the true neutrino mass hierarchy.

  15. $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with radioactive At beams

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and radioactive decay of the newly available pure beams of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich astatine (Z=85) isotopes. The fission probability and the fission fragment distribution of the even-even isotopes $^{194,196}$Po following the $\\beta$-decay of the isotopes $^{194,196}$At will be studied with the Windmill setup. In-source laser spectroscopy will be performed on the entire astatine isotopic chain, using a combination of the Windmill setup, ISOLTRAP MR-ToF and ISOLDE Faraday. Radioactive decay data will be acquired at the Windmill setup throughout those studies and contribute to the global understanding of the phenomenon of shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region.

  16. Reflection high energy electron diffraction studies on Si{sub x}Sn{sub y}Ge{sub 1−x−y} on Si(100) molecular beam epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, A.I., E-mail: nikif@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentjeva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mashanov, V.I.; Timofeev, V.A.; Pchelyakov, O.P. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentjeva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Cheng, H.-H. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences and Graduate Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-30

    In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction was used to study the surface micromorphology of Si{sub x}Sn{sub y}Ge{sub 1−x−y} / Si(100) heterostructures obtained by molecular beam epitaxy. The obtained reflection high energy electron diffraction data allowed us to conclude that the epitaxial Si{sub x}Sn{sub y}Ge{sub 1−x−y} films are grown by the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism. It was established that Si{sub x}Sn{sub y}Ge{sub 1−x−y} and Ge{sub 1−z}Sn{sub z} wetting layer thicknesses depend on the substrate temperature. The observed surface superstructures changed during the wetting layer growth. - Highlights: • Stranski–Krastanov mechanism • Wetting layers depend on the temperature • Superstructures change.

  17. Development of a long-pulse (30-s), high-energy (120-keV) ion source for neutral-beam applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Multimegawatt neutral beams of hydrogen or deuterium atoms are needed for fusion machine applications such as MFTB-B, TFTR-U, DIII-U, and FED (INTOR or ETR). For these applications, a duoPIGatron ion source is being developed to produce high-brightness deuterium beams at a beam energy of approx. 120 keV for pulse lengths up to 30 s. A long-pulse plasma generator with active water cooling has been operated at an arc level of 1200 A with 30-s pulse durations. The plasma density and uniformity are sufficient for supplying a 60-A beam of hydrogen ions to a 13- by 43-cm accelerator. A 10- by 25-cm tetrode accelerator has been operated to form 120-keV hydrogen ion beams. Using the two-dimensional (2-D) ion extraction code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a 13- by 43-cm tetrode accelerator has been designed and is being fabricated. The aperture shapes of accelerator grids are optimized for 120-keV beam energy.

  18. Neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$ with a magic baseline beta-beam experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Raychaudhuri, Amitava K; Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Choubey, Sandhya; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2006-01-01

    We underscore the physics advantage of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$. We expound the possibility of using radioactive $^8B$ and $^{8}Li$ as the source isotopes for the $\

  19. Surface and Buildup Region Dose Measurements with Markus Parallel-Plate Ionization Chamber, GafChromic EBT3 Film, and MOSFET Detector for High-Energy Photon Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Akbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance for 5 × 5, 10 × 10, and 20 × 20 cm2 field sizes and 0°, 30°, 60°, and 80° beam angles. The surface doses using 6 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.3%, 18.8%, and 25.5% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface doses using 15 MV photon beams for 10 × 10 cm2 field size were found to be 14.9%, 13.4%, and 16.4% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film, and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary; thus, the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry and must be taken into account.

  20. Surface and buildup region dose measurements with Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, Gafchromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for high energy photon beams

    CERN Document Server

    Akbas, Ugur; Koksal, Canan; Bilge, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate surface and buildup region doses for 6 MV photon beams using a Markus parallel-plate ionization chamber, GafChromic EBT3 film and MOSFET detector for different field sizes and beam angles. The measurements were made in a water equivalent solid phantom at the surface and in the buildup region of the 6 MV photon beams at 100 cm source-detector distance (SDD) for 5x5, 10x10 and 20x20 cm2 field sizes and 0, 30, 60, 80 and 90 beam angles. The surface doses for 10x10 cm2 field size were found to be 20.33%, 18.80% and 25.48% for Markus chamber, EBT3 film and MOSFET detector, respectively. The surface dose increased with field size for all dosimeters. As the angle of the incident radiation beam became more oblique, the surface dose increased. The effective measurement depths of dosimeters vary, thus the results of the measurements could be different. This issue can lead to mistakes at surface and buildup dosimetry, and must be taken into account.

  1. Propagation of high-energy laser beams through the earth's atmosphere II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 21-23, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Peter B. (Editor); Wilson, Leroy E. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to turbulence at the inner scale, modeling turbulent transport in laser beam propagation, variable wind direction effects on thermal blooming correction, realistic wind effects on turbulence and thermal blooming compensation, wide bandwidth spectral measurements of atmospheric tilt turbulence, remote alignment of adaptive optical systems with far-field optimization, focusing infrared laser beams on targets in space without using adaptive optics, and a simplex optimization method for adaptive optics system alignment. Consideration is also given to ground-to-space multiline propagation at 1.3 micron, a path integral approach to thermal blooming, functional reconstruction predictions of uplink whole beam Strehl ratios in the presence of thermal blooming, and stability analysis of semidiscrete schemes for thermal blooming computation.

  2. An intermediate gamma beta-beam neutrino experiment with long baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Meloni, Davide; Orme, Christopher; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Pascoli, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    In order to address some fundamental questions in neutrino physics a wide, future programme of neutrino oscillation experiments is currently under discussion. Among those, long baseline experiments will play a crucial role in providing information on the value of theta13, the type of neutrino mass ordering and on the value of the CP-violating phase delta, which enters in 3-neutrino oscillations. Here, we consider a beta-beam setup with an intermediate Lorentz factor gamma=450 and a baseline of 1050 km. This could be achieved in Europe with a beta-beam sourced at CERN to a detector located at the Boulby mine in the United Kingdom. We analyse the physics potential of this setup in detail and study two different exposures (1 x 10^{21} and 5 x 10^{21} ions-kton-years). In both cases, we find that the type of neutrino mass hierarchy could be determined at 99% CL, for all values of delta, for sin^2(2 theta13) > 0.03. In the high-exposure scenario, we find that the value of the CP-violating phase delta could be meas...

  3. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, T., E-mail: T.Dupuis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G., E-mail: Gregoire.Chene@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Mathis, F., E-mail: Francois.Mathis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); and others

    2011-12-15

    The 'IPNAS' laboratory, in collaboration with the 'Centre Europeen d'Archeometrie' is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To Z Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  4. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  5. Pyroelectric-field driven defects diffusion along c-axis in ZnO nanobelts under high-energy electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yong, E-mail: yong.ding@mse.gatech.edu; Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    When ZnO nanobelts are exposed to a high-dose electron probe of several nanometers to hundred nanometers in diameter inside a transmission electron microscope, due to the radiolysis effect, part of oxygen atoms will be ejected into the vacuum and leaving a Zn-ion rich surface with a pit appearance at both the electron-entrance and electron-exit surfaces. At the same time, a temperature distribution is created around the electron probe due to local beam heating effect, which generates a unidirectional pyroelectric field. This pyroelectric field is strong enough to drive Zn ions moving along its positive c-axis direction as interstitial ions. In the first case, for the ZnO nanobelts with c-axis lie in their large surfaces, defects due to the aggregation of Zn interstitial ions will be formed at some distances of 30–50 nm approximately along the c-axis direction from the electron beam illuminated area. Alternatively, for the ZnO nanobelts with ±(0001) planes as their large surfaces, the incident electron beam is along its c-axis and the generated pyroelectric field will drive the interstitial Zn-ions to aggregate at the Zn terminated (0001) surface where the local electrical potential is the lowest. Such electron beam induced damage in ZnO nanostructures is suggested as a result of Zn ion diffusion driven by the temperature gradient induced pyroelectric field along c-axis. Our study shows a radiation damage caused by electron beam in transmission electron microscopy, especially when the electron energy is high.

  6. Study and conception of the decay ring of a neutrino facility using the {beta} decays of the helium 6 and neon 18 nuclei produced by an intense beam of protons hitting various targets; Etude et conception de l'anneau de desintegration d'une usine a neutrinos utilisant les decroissances {beta} des noyaux helium 6 et neon 18 produits par un faisceau intense de protons frappant diverses cibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, A

    2007-09-15

    The study of the neutrino oscillation between its different flavours needs pure and very intense flux of energetic, well collimated neutrinos with a well determined energy spectrum. So, a dedicated machine seems necessary nowadays. Among the different concepts of neutrino facilities, the one which will be studied here, called Beta-Beams, lies on the neutrino production by beta decay of radioactive ions after their acceleration. More precisely, the thesis is focused on the study and the design of the race-track-shaped storage ring of the high energy ions. Its aim is to store the ions until decaying. After a brief description of the neutrino oscillation mechanism and a review of the different experiments, an introduction to the neutrino facility concept and more precisely to the Beta-Beams will be given. Then, the issues linked to the Beta-Beams will be presented. After a description of the beam transport formalism, a first design and the optical properties of the ring will be then given. The effects of the misalignment and of the field errors in the dipoles have been studied. The dynamic aperture optimization is then realized. Handling of the decay losses or the energy collimation scheme will be developed. The off-momentum injection needed in presence of a circulating beam will be explained. Finally, the specific radiofrequency program needed by the beam merging will be presented. (author)

  7. Beam backgrounds in the ATLAS detector during LHC loss map tests at beta*=40cm and beta*=80cm at Ebeam=6.5 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In this note the beam-background measurements with the ATLAS detector during lossmap tests of the LHC are described. Loss maps taken at beta*=40 cm and the normal 2015 setting of beta*=80 cm are compared. In the first case several collimator settings were explored, resulting in significant changes of beam backgrounds in ATLAS. Besides the studies of the dependence of background on collimation, which are important for optimisation of the LHC performance, these tests provide a clean environment to study the relative importance of beam halo losses on the experiment. The results show that the halo-related component of beam background in ATLAS decreases exponentially with increasing aperture of the tertiary collimators, the slope in terms of nominal sigma being about -0.5. From the data it is also shown that in normal operation conditions of LHC run 2 the beam halo losses contribute at most at the percent level to the total background, the dominant part coming from beam-gas interactions. The data are also used to ...

  8. Evidence for high-energy and low-emittance electron beams using ionization injection of charge in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Clayton, C E; Joshi, C; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Welch, E C; Lu, W; Adli, E; Allen, J; Clarke, C I; Corde, S; Frederico, J; Gessner, S J; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Litos, M D; Yakimenko, V

    2015-01-01

    Ionization injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator was investigated experimentally using two lithium plasma sources of different lengths. The ionization of the helium gas, used to confine the lithium, injects electrons in the wake. After acceleration, these injected electrons were observed as a distinct group from the drive beam on the energy spectrometer. They typically have a charge of tens of pC, an energy spread of a few GeV, and a maximum energy of up to 30 GeV. The emittance of this group of electrons can be many times smaller than the initial emittance of the drive beam. The energy scaling for the trapped charge from one plasma length to the other is consistent with the blowout theory of the plasma wakefield.

  9. MgH2 → Mg phase transformation driven by a high-energy electron beam: An in situ transmission electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, B.; Jones, I. P.; Walton, A.; Mann, V.; Book, D.; Harris, I. R.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a phase change have been studied using the electron beam in a transmission electron microscope to transform MgH2 into Mg. The study involved selected-area diffraction and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The orientation relation ( ? and ? ), obtained from the electron diffraction study, has been used to propose a model for the movements of magnesium atoms during the phase change. The in situ EELS results have been compared with the existing H-desorption model. The study aims to describe the sorption dynamics of hydrogen in MgH2, which is a base material for a number of promising hydrogen storage systems.

  10. Beta-Decay Study of ^{150}Er, ^{152}Yb, and ^{156}Yb: Candidates for a Monoenergetic Neutrino Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Aguado, M. E. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Algora, A. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Rubio, B. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Bernabeu, J. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Nacher, E. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Tain, J. L. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Gadea, A. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Agramunt, J. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia; Burkard, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Hueller, W. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Doring, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Mukha, I. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Plettner, C. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Roeckl, E. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Grawe, H. [GSI-Hemholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany; Collatz, R. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Hellstrom, M. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany; Cano-Ott, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Gierlik, M. [University of Warsaw; Plochocki, A. [University of Warsaw; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Batist, L. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia; Moroz, F. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia; Wittman, V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Russia; Blazhev, A. [University of Cologne; Valiente, J. J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Espinoza, C. [CFPT-IST, Lisbon

    2011-01-01

    The beta decays of ^{150}Er, ^{152}Yb, and ^{156}Yb nuclei are investigated using the total absorption spectroscopy technique. These nuclei can be considered possible candidates for forming the beam of a monoenergetic neutrino beam facility based on the electron capture (EC) decay of radioactive nuclei. Our measurements confirm that for the cases studied, the EC decay proceeds mainly to a single state in the daughter nucleus.

  11. High energy astrophysical neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, H.

    2002-01-01

    High energy neutrinos with energy typically greater than tens of thousands of GeV may originate from several astrophysical sources. The sources may include, for instance, our galaxy, the active centers of nearby galaxies, as well as possibly the distant sites of gamma ray bursts. I briefly review some aspects of production and propagation as well as prospects for observations of these high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  12. Resonant antineutrino induced electron capture with low energy bound-beta beams

    CERN Document Server

    Oldeman, R G C; Saitta, B

    2009-01-01

    Antineutrino induced electron capture is a resonant process that can have a larg e cross-section for beams of monochromatic antineutrinos. We calculate the cross-section of this process and investigate an experimental setup where monochromatic antineutrinos are produced from the bound-beta decay of fully ionized radioactive atoms in a storage ring. If the energy between the source and the target is well matched, the cross-sections can be significantly larger than the cross-sections of commonly used non-resonant processes. The rate that can be achieved at a small distance between the source and two targets of $10^3$ kg is up to one interaction per $8 .3\\cdot10^{18}$ decaying atoms. For a source-target distance corresponding to the first atmospheric neutrino osc illation maximum, the largest rate is one interaction per $3.2\\cdot10^{21}$ decaying atoms.

  13. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E

    1998-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  14. SU-E-T-204: Comparison of Absorbed-Dose to Water in High-Energy Photon Beams Based On Addendum AAPM TG-51, IAEA TRS-398, and JSMP 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, N; Kita, A; Yoshioka, C; Sasamoto, K; Nishimoto, Y; Adachi, T [University of Fukui Hospital, Eiheiji, Fukui (Japan); Oguchi, H [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Shioura, H; Kimura, H [University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Several clinical reference dosimetry protocols for absorbed-dose to water have recently been published: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) published an Addendum to the AAPM’s TG-51 (Addendum TG-51) in April 2014, and the Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) published the Japan Society of Medical Physics 12 (JSMP12), a clinical reference dosimetry protocol, in September 2012. This investigation compared and evaluated the absorbed-dose to water of high-energy photon beams according to Addendum TG-51, International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Report Series No. 398 (TRS-398), and JSMP12. Methods: Differences in the respective beam quality conversion factors with Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12 were analyzed and the absorbed-dose to water using 6- and 10-MV photon beams was measured according to the protocols recommended in Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12. The measurements were conducted using two Farmer-type ionization chambers, Exradin A12 and PTW 30013. Results: The beam quality conversion factors for both the 6- and 10-MV photon beams with Addendum TG-51 were within 0.6%, in agreement with the beam quality conversion factors with TRS-398 and JSMP12. The Exradin A12 provided an absorbed-dose to water ratio from 1.003 to 1.006 with TRS-398 / Addendum TG-51 and from 1.004 to 1.005 with JSMP 12 / Addendum TG-51, whereas the PTW 30013 provided a ratio of 1.001 with TRS-398 / Addendum TG-51 and a range from 0.997 to 0.999 with JSMP 12 / Addendum TG-51. Conclusion: Despite differences in the beam quality conversion factor, no major differences were seen in the absorbed-dose to water with Addendum TG-51, TRS-398, and JSMP12. However, Addendum TG-51 provides the most recent data for beam quality conversion factors based on Monte Carlo simulation and greater detail for the measurement protocol. Therefore, the absorbed-dose to water measured with Addendum TG-51 is an estimate with less uncertainty.

  15. Quantitative assessment of scattering contributions in high energy cone-beam computed tomography; Quantitative Untersuchung der Streubeitraege in Hochenergie-Roentgencomputertomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stritt, Carina; Schuetz, Philipp; Plamondon, Mathieu; Hofmann, Juergen; Sennhauser, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Reliability Science and Technology Laboratory; Flisch, Alexander [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Reliability Science and Technology Laboratory; Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Center for X-Ray Analytics

    2016-02-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is an established method in the fields of failure analysis and quality control. The energy of the X-ray beam determines the penetration length of the radiation and hereby limits the size and the density of the object that is investigated. For the case of large, dense and heavy objects, X-ray energies exceeding one mega electronvolt (MeV) are needed to achieve measureable transmission values. An important factor for the quality of X-ray CT is the contribution of scattered radiation in the radiographies. X-ray photons can be scattered from the object as well as the instrumentation and the environment which leads to a distorted transmission image. Besides scattered radiation, the physical effect of pair production has to be taken into account for radiation in the range of MeV. This work investigates the impact of each of the scattering processes on the radiography. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations help to distinguish the physical interactions as well as scattered radiation from system components. In contrast to previous studies, not only a set of simple geometric objects made of different materials is examined, but also models of the components of a CT scanner are used to estimate the contribution of scattering of various system components.

  16. Effect of high energy electron beam (10MeV) on specific heat capacity of low-density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano-composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Z; Ziaie, F; Ghaffari, M; Beigzadeh, A M

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, thermal properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and its nano composites are investigated. For this purpose LDPE reinforced with different weight percents of hydroxyapatite (HAP) powder which was synthesized via hydrolysis method are produced. The samples were irradiated with 10MeV electron beam at doses of 75 to 250kGy. Specific heat capacity measurement have been carried out at different temperatures, i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100°C using modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) apparatus and the effect of three parameters include of temperature, irradiation dose and the amount of HAP nano particles as additives on the specific heat capacity of PE/HAP have been investigated precisely. The MTDSC results indicate that the specific heat capacity have decreased by addition of nano sized HAP as reinforcement for LDPE. On the other hand, the effect of radiation dose is reduction in the specific heat capacity in all materials including LDPE and its nano composites. The HAP nano particles along with cross-link junctions due to radiation restrain the movement of the polymer chains in the vicinity of each particle and improve the immobility of polymer chains and consequently lead to reduction in specific heat capacity. Also, the obtained results confirm that the radiation effect on the specific heat capacity is more efficient than the reinforcing effect of nano-sized hydroxyapatite.

  17. Generation of high-energy electron-positron pairs in the collision of a laser-accelerated electron beam with a multipetawatt laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, M.; Davoine, X.; d'Humières, E.; Gremillet, L.

    2017-04-01

    Generation of electron-positron pairs via the multiphoton Breit-Wheeler process in an all-optical scheme will be made possible on forthcoming high-power laser facilities through the collision of wakefield-accelerated GeV electrons with a counter-propagating laser pulse of 1 022- 1 023 W cm-2 peak intensity. By means of integrated 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the production of high-density sources of ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs is within the reach of soon-to-be-available laser systems. Under physical conditions accessible to the dual-beam CILEX-Apollon facility, we find that the generated positrons can carry a total charge of 0.05-1 nC, with a mean energy of 100-400 MeV and an angular divergence of 0.01-0.1 rad. The variations of the positron source's properties with respect to the laser parameters are also examined.

  18. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  19. High-Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Experimentalists in particle physics have long regarded computers as essential components of their apparatus. Theorists are now finding that significant advances in some areas can be accomplished only in partnership with a machine. Needs of experimentalists, interests of theorists, and specialized computers for high-energy experiments are…

  20. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  1. Setup and commissioning of a cryogenic system for the production of targets to be used in experiments with high energy lasers and heavy ion beams; Aufbau und Inbetriebnahme einer Kryoanlage zur Targeterzeugung fuer Experimente mit Hochenergielasern und Schwerionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jurij Alexander

    2010-02-10

    Part of this work was the development of a cryogenic system to produce solid state targets out of nitrogen and rare gases but also hydrogen and deuterium. For target optimization a portable cryogenic test and development chamber has been set up, which can be used offline at different experimental places. Cryogenic targets with different geometries have been produced. Targets with a high aspect ratio having a thickness of only a few micrometers and transverse sizes of millimeters are of special interest for the envisioned investigations. Such targets permit the generation of laser plasmas with a high degree of homogeneity, thus enabling the measurement of the ion energy loss under well defined conditions. Nevertheless, high aspect ratio targets are technologically demanding. Thus, in view of energy loss experiments a simpler geometry has also been considered. Therefore, cryogenic nitrogen targets with cm sizes have been produced and irradiated by the nhelix high energy laser system. The free electron density of the generated plasma has been measured in the range up to 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The measured electron temperature was about 200 eV. The experimental results have been compared to computer simulations and analyzed. It turned out that simulation and experiment are in good agreement, but the free electron density was too low and inhomogeneous for reliable energy loss experiments. Therefore, further deuterium targets with a high aspect ratio but varying geometries have been produced. These targets have been probed by the UNILAC ion beam and it has been shown that the ion beam can penetrate through them. The targets have also been simultaneously irradiated by the high energy laser systems nhelix and Phelix. The free electron density inside the deuterium plasma has been measured and compared with computer simulations. As in the case of nitrogen plasmas a good agreement has been observed. A new measurement technique has been developed to characterize the target

  2. Beam Based Measurements of Field Multipoles in the RHIC Low Beta Insertions and Extrapolation of the Method to the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Ptitsyn, V I

    2001-01-01

    The multipolar content of the dipoles and quadrupoles is known to limit the stability of the beam dynamics in super-conducting machines like RHIC and even more in LHC. The low-beta quadrupoles are thus equipped with correcting coils up to the dodecapole order. The correction is planned to rely on magnetic measurements. We show that a relatively simple method allows an accurate measurement of the multipolar field aberrations using the beam. The principle is to displace the beam in the non-linear fields by local closed orbit bumps and to measure the variation of sensitive beam observable. The resolution and robustness of the method are found appropriate. Experimentation at RHIC showed clearly the presence of normal and skew sextupolar field components in addition to a skew quadrupolar component in the interaction regions. Higher-order components up to decapole order appear as well.

  3. Duke University high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  4. Probing neutrino parameters with a Two-Baseline Beta-beam set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S K; Raychaudhuri, A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of exploring the neutrino mass parameters with a CERN based Beta-beam experiment using two different detectors at two different baselines. The proposed set-up consists of a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL@INO, and a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We take 8B and 8Li source ions with a boost factor $\\gamma$ of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider 18Ne and 6He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With $\\gamma=650$ for 8B/8Li and $\\gamma=575$ for 18Ne/6He and total luminosity corresponding to $5\\times (1.1\\times 10^{19})$ and $5\\times (2.9\\times 10^{19})$ useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that the two-detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the ne...

  5. Exceptional Sensitivity to Neutrino Parameters with a Two Baseline Beta-Beam Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2008-01-01

    We examine the reach of a Beta-beam experiment with two detectors at carefully chosen baselines for exploring neutrino mass parameters. Locating the source at CERN, the two detectors and baselines are: (a) a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL@INO, and (b) a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We choose 8B/8Li source ions with a boost factor \\gamma of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider 18Ne/6He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With \\gamma=650 for 8B/8Li and \\gamma=575 for 18Ne/6He and total luminosity corresponding to 5\\times (1.1 \\times 10^{18}) and 5\\times (2.9\\times 10^{18}) useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that our two detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the neu...

  6. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  7. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  8. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  9. Preliminary studies of the quickly pulsed synchrotron involved in the Beta-Beam project; Etudes preliminaires du synchrotron rapidement pulse du projet Beta-Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachaize, A

    2007-07-01

    This study presents a quickly-pulsed synchrotron able to accelerate He{sup 6} and Ne{sup 18} beams from 100 MeV/u till 3.5 GeV (proton equivalent) The accelerator is made up of 48 bending dipoles and 42 focusing quadrupoles. The design of the HF accelerating system, the bunch injection and the correction of errors in beam dynamics are dealt with.

  10. Crystal Deflectors for High Energy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W

    2013-01-01

    The motion of charged particles entering a crystal at small angles with respect to a crystalline plane is strongly influenced by the average electric field of the ordered nuclei. For sufficiently small angles the particles can be captured in channeling states, thus performing quasi-harmonic oscillations in the potential well between the crystal planes. Channeled particles in a bent crystal are deflected along the bent planes of the crystal. This provides a powerful method to steer and control particle trajectories that has been investigated and occasionally exploited for some decades already.

  11. High-contrast process using a positive-tone resist with antistatic coating and high-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography for fabricating diffractive optical elements (DOE) on quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Louis C.; Kondek, Christine A.; Shoop, Barry L.; McLane, George F.

    1995-06-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) are becoming important as optical signal processing elements in increasingly diverse applications. These elements, fabricated on quartz, may be used as phase shift type masks or as embedded components that implement a transfer function within a processing network. A process is under development for the fabrication of a DOE implementing a Jervis error diffusion kernel for research in half tone image processing. Dry etching is performed after lithography and pattern transfer through a nickel mask. This results in etched areal features on the substrate. An optical diffraction medium is thus created. Lithographic patterning is done by e-beam lithography (EBL) to realize small features, but also offers the important advantage of a large depth of field which relaxes the problem of complex surface topology. The recent availability of high energy (100 KeV) lithography tools provides a capability for precision overlay, small feature resolution, and enhanced image contrast through a lower induced proximity effect. Patterning by EBL on insulating substrates is complicated by the necessity of providing a vehicle for the avoidance of charge buildup on the surface. In a previously presented paper a methodology was shown for the use of TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) antistatic compound as a final spin on film for use with PMMA and SAL-601 (Shipley). In this current work, a process is described using EBL and a high performance positive resist working with a final film layer of antistatic TQV-501 on a nickel coated wafer. The process may then be reapplied to realize additional lithographic levels in registration, for multilevel DOE components. High energy (100 KeV) EBL is used to provide high quality pattern definition. The e-beam sensitive resist, ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) in dilution, together with a top film layer of TQV-501 serves as a bilevel resist system and is used for patterning the desired image before definition of the nickel mask through

  12. Status and Performance of New Silicon Stripixel Detector for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC Beta Source, Cosmic-rays and Proton Beam at 120 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    We are constructing a Silicon Vertex Tracker detector (VTX) for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Our main motivation is to enable measurements of heavy flavor production (charm and beauty) in p+p, p+d and A+A collisions. Such data will illuminate the properties of the matter created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The measurements also will reveal the distribution of gluons in protons from p+p collisions. The VTX detector consists of four layers of barrel detectors and covers |eta|< 1.2, and almost a 2pi in azimuth. The inner two silicon barrels consist of silicon pixel sensors; their technology accords with that of the ALICE1LHCB sensor-readout hybrid. The outer two barrels are silicon stripixel detectors with a new "spiral" design, and a single-sided sensor with 2-dimensional (X, U) readout. In this paper, we describe the silicon stripixel detector and discuss its performance, including its response to electrons from a beta source (90Sr), muons from cosmic-rays, and a 120 GeV proton beam. The results ...

  13. Stochastic cooling of a high energy collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Lee, R.C.; Mernick, K.

    2011-09-04

    Gold beams in RHIC revolve more than a billion times over the course of a data acquisition session or store. During operations with these heavy ions the event rates in the detectors decay as the beams diffuse. A primary cause for this beam diffusion is small angle Coloumb scattering of the particles within the bunches. This intra-beam scattering (IBS) is particularly problematic at high energy because the negative mass effect removes the possibility of even approximate thermal equilibrium. Stochastic cooling can combat IBS. A theory of bunched beam cooling was developed in the early eighties and stochastic cooling systems for the SPS and the Tevatron were explored. Cooling for heavy ions in RHIC was also considered.

  14. Measurement of Moments and Radii of Light Nuclei by Collinear Fast-Beam Laser Spectroscopy and $\\beta$-NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Marinova, K P

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Moments and radii of light unstable isotopes are investigated by applying different high-sensitivity and high-resolution techniques based on collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy. A study of nuclear structure in the sd shell is performed on neon isotopes in the extended chain of $^{17-28}$Ne, in particular on the proton-halo candidate $^{17}$Ne. Measurements of hyperfine structure and isotope shift have become possible by introducing an ultra-sensitive non-optical detection method which is based on optical pumping, state-selective collisional ionization and $\\beta$-activity counting. The small effect of nuclear radii on the optical isotope shifts of light elements requires very accurate measurements. The errors are dominated by uncertainties of the Doppler shifts which are conventionally determined from precisely measured acceleration voltages. These uncertainties are removed by measuring the beam energy with simultaneous excitation of two optical lines in parallel / antiparallel beam configuration. ...

  15. Photoelectric-calorimetric compound beam profile detector for near-infrared high energy laser%光电/量热复合式近红外高能激光光斑探测器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯国斌; 杨鹏翎; 王振宝; 王群书

    2013-01-01

    To measure the beam profile and power density distribution of a far field target in high energy system performance evaluation,a high energy laser detection method is proposed by combining photoelectric and calorimetric methods.In the method,the total energy of incident laser is measured by an absorber and the spatial and temporal distribution of laser profile measured by a photoelectric detector.The detector is developed,which is consisted of a graphite calorimeter,an InGaAs photoelectric detector array,a temperature and voltage amplifier,an analog to digital converter and a signal processor.The system with an effective sensitive area of 22 cm× 22 cm can offer a spatial resolution of 1.1 cm,a temporal resolution of 20 ms,and a low energy measurement uncertainty less than 10%.With the higher temporal resolution and lower energy measurement uncertainty,the system is suitable for high energy and large area near-infrared laser beam measurement.It has been used in field experiments successfully.%为了准确测量高能激光系统远场到靶总能量和功率密度时空分布等参数,本文提出了量热吸收法和光电探测阵列法相结合的复合式测量方法.该方法由热吸收体测量入射激光的总能量,由光电探测阵列测量光斑的时空分布.研制了用于大面积、长脉冲近红外高能激光测量的复合式光斑时空分布探测器.探测器主要由石墨热吸收体、近红外探测器阵列、测温单元和信号处理单元等组成,有效测量光斑面积达到22 cm×22 cm,光斑测量空间分辨力为1.1 cm,时间分辨力为20 ms.该测量系统同时兼顾了光电探测阵列法的高时空分辨能力和量热吸收法的低测量不确定度等优点,适合于高能量、大面积近红外高能激光光斑参数的综合测量,并已成功应用于外场实验.

  16. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  17. Theoretical study of the effect of the size of a high-energy proton beam of the Large Hadron Collider on the formation and propagation of shock waves in copper irradiated by 450-GeV proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A I; Vasilyev, Ya S; Ferrari, A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of 450GeV protons with copper, which is the material of the collimators of the Large Hadron Collider, has been theoretically studied. A theoretical model for the formation and propagation of shock waves has been proposed on the basis of the anal ysis of the energy released by a proton beam in the electronic subsystem of the material owing to the deceleration of secondary particles appearing in nuclear reactions induced by this beam on the electronic subsy stem of the material. The subsequent transfer of the energy from the excited electronic subsystem to the crystal lattice through the electron–phonon interaction has been described within the thermal spike model [I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, Sov. Phys. JETP 4 , 173 (1957); I.M. Lifshitz, M.I. Kaganov, and L.V. Tanatarov, At. Energ. 6 , 391 (1959); K. Yasui, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 90 , 409 (1994)]. The model of the formation of shock waves involves energy exchange processes between excited electronic an...

  18. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  19. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  20. Exceptional sensitivity to neutrino parameters with a two-baseline Beta-beam set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: sanjib@hri.res.in; Choubey, Sandhya [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)], E-mail: sandhya@hri.res.in; Raychaudhuri, Amitava [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)], E-mail: raychaud@hri.res.in

    2008-12-11

    We examine the reach of a Beta-beam experiment with two detectors at carefully chosen baselines for exploring neutrino mass parameters. Locating the source at CERN, the two detectors and baselines are: (a) a 50 kton iron calorimeter (ICAL) at a baseline of around 7150 km which is roughly the magic baseline, e.g., ICAL-INO, and (b) a 50 kton Totally Active Scintillator Detector at a distance of 730 km, e.g., at Gran Sasso. We choose {sup 8}B and {sup 8}Li source ions with a boost factor {gamma} of 650 for the magic baseline while for the closer detector we consider {sup 18}Ne and {sup 6}He ions with a range of Lorentz boosts. We find that the locations of the two detectors complement each other leading to an exceptional high sensitivity. With {gamma}=650 for {sup 8}B/{sup 8}Li and {gamma}=575 for {sup 18}Ne/{sup 6}He and total luminosity corresponding to 5x(1.1x10{sup 18}) and 5x(2.9x10{sup 18}) useful ion decays in neutrino and antineutrino modes respectively, we find that the two-detector set-up can probe maximal CP violation and establish the neutrino mass ordering if sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is 1.4x10{sup -4} and 2.7x10{sup -4}, respectively, or more. The sensitivity reach for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} itself is 5.5x10{sup -4}. With a factor of 10 higher luminosity, the corresponding sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} reach of this set-up would be 1.8x10{sup -5}, 4.6x10{sup -5} and 5.3x10{sup -5} respectively for the above three performance indicators. CP violation can be discovered for 64% of the possible {delta}{sub CP} values for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13}{>=}10{sup -3} ({>=}8x10{sup -5}), for the standard luminosity (10 times enhanced luminosity). Comparable physics performance can be achieved in a set-up where data from CERN to INO-ICAL is combined with that from CERN to the Boulby mine in United Kingdom, a baseline of 1050 km.

  1. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  2. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin, E-mail: djanders@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm{sup 3} lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm{sup 3} LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  3. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apreysan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bornheim, Adi [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Duarte, Javier [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Newman, Harvey [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pena, Cristian [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Trevor, Jason [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm3 lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  4. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  5. H-mode accelerating structures with PMQ focusing for low-beta ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, James F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olivas, Eric R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We are developing high-efficiency normal-conducting RF accelerating structures based on inter-digital H-mode (IH) cavities and the transverse beam focusing with permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ), for beam velocities in the range of a few percent of the speed of light. Such IH-PMQ accelerating structures following a short RFQ can be used in the front end of ion linacs or in stand-alone applications, e.g. a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the energy of several MeV. Results of combined 3-D modeling for a full IH-PMQ accelerator tank - electromagnetic computations, beam-dynamics simulations with high currents, and thermal-stress analysis - are presented. The accelerating field profile in the tank is tuned to provide the best beam propagation using coupled iterations of electromagnetic and beam-dynamics modeling. A cold model of the IH-PMQ tank is being manufactured.

  6. Flare physics at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy processes, involving a rich variety of accelerated particle phenomena, lie at the core of the solar flare problem. The most direct manifestation of these processes are high-energy radiations, gamma rays, hard X-rays and neutrons, as well as the accelerated particles themselves, which can be detected in interplanetary space. In the study of astrophysics from the moon, the understanding of these processes should have great importance. The inner solar system environment is strongly influenced by activity on the sun; the physics of solar flares is of great intrinsic interest; and much high-energy astrophysics can be learned from investigations of flare physics at high energies.

  7. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  8. Absorbed Dose and Collision Kerma Relationship for High-Energy Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibata, Claudio Hissao

    Historically, exposure has been used as an important quantity to specify X- or (gamma)- ray beams. For any photon beam the energy fluence is proportional to the exposure. Exposure can be calculated and/or measured if the spectrum of the beam is known and charged particle equilibrium (CPE) exists. For low energy photons (up to approximately 1 MeV), due to the existence of CPE, absorbed dose (D) is equal to the collision kerma (K(,c)). For megavoltage photons this equality is lost due to CPE failure, which also restricts the measurement of exposure. It is possible, though, to find a relationship between the absorbed dose and collision kerma when transient charged particle equilibrium (TCPE) exists. This basic idea was originally proposed by Roesch in 1958 and its refinement has been discussed by Attix in 1979 and 1983. The modified Roesch's formula which enables us to measure exposure even for high-energy photons is given by D = (beta) K(,c) (TURNEQ) K(,c) (1 + (mu)' ) where (mu)' is the effective linear attenuation coefficient and is the mean distance the secondary electrons carry kinetic energy in the direction of the photon beam while depositing it as absorbed dose. The symbol (beta) is the quotient of the absorbed dose and the collision kerma. The importance of Roesch's formula has been recognized and used implicitly in the recent dosimetry protocol of the AAPM (Task Group 21). However, the value used in the protocol is based on theoretical calculations which do not include photon scattering. As a result of the present effort the parameters (mu)' and have been determined experimentally, for the first time. The dependence of (beta) on several factors has been studied and (beta) has been obtained including the effects of scattering. Calculations were also performed for several photon energies and materials, using the Roesch method, which does not include photon scattering effects. Comparisons of measured and calculated values of show reasonable agreement.

  9. CP-Violation in Neutrino Oscillations from EC/{beta}{sup +} decaying ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Catalina [Centre for Theoretical Particle Physics, IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-08-15

    We discuss the separation of unknown neutrino properties by means of the energy dependence of the oscillation probability and we consider an hybrid setup which combines the electron capture and the {beta}{sup +} decay from the same radioactive proton-rich ion with the same boost. We conclude that the combination of the two decay channels, with different neutrino energies, achieves remarkable results.

  10. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  11. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  12. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  13. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  14. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S R [Convergent Computing Inc, PO Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States); Shatunov, Yu M [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Yokoya, K [National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  15. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the + charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  16. Beam patterns in an optical parametric oscillator set-up employing walk-off compensating beta barium borate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaucikas, M.; Warren, M.; Michailovas, A.; Antanavicius, R.; van Thor, J. J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the investigation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) set-up based on two beta barium borate (BBO) crystals, where the interplay between the crystal orientations, cut angles and air dispersion substantially influenced the OPO performance, and especially the angular spectrum of the output beam. Theory suggests that if two BBO crystals are used in this type of design, they should be of different cuts. This paper aims to provide an experimental manifestation of this fact. Furthermore, it has been shown that air dispersion produces similar effects and should be taken into account. An x-ray crystallographic indexing of the crystals was performed as an independent test of the above conclusions.

  17. Excitation of half-integer resonances by random quadrupole field errors in the BETA-BEAM RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaize, A

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron of the Beta-Beam facility has been designed to operatewith horizontal and vertical tunes between 6 and 7 in order to avoid systematicresonances up to the fourth order. Nevertheless, unavoidable magnet imperfections mayexcite non systematic second order resonances which may pertub particle motion.In this paper an Hamiltonian treatment based on a well established formalism [1-3] is used to analyze the resonance excitation and to suggest correction schemes minimizing their effects.[1] A. Schoch. Theory of linear and non linear perturbations of betatron oscillations inalternating gradient synchrotrons. CERN 52-21, 1958.[2] G. Guignard. A general treatment of resonances in accelerators. CERN 78-11, 1978.[3] J-L. Laclare, G. Leleux, and A. Tkatchenko. Resonnances quadrupolaires- aleatoiresquadrupolaires et corrections. DSS-GERS- 74-91/TP-06, 1974.

  18. H-mode Accelerating Structures with PMQ Focusing for Low-Beta Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, Sergey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, James F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olivas, Eric R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    We report on results of the project developing high-efficiency normal-conducting RF accelerating structures based on inter-digital H-mode (IH) cavities and the transverse beam focusing with permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ), for beam velocities in the range of a few percent of the speed of light. The shunt impedance of IH-PMQ structures is 10-20 times higher than that of a conventional drift-tube linac, while the transverse size is 4-5 times smaller. The H-PMQ accelerating structures following a short RFQ can be used both in the front end of ion linacs or in stand-alone applications. Results of the combined 3-D modeling -- electromagnetic computations, beam-dynamics simulations with high currents, and thermal-stress analysis -- for a full IH-PMQ accelerator tank are presented. The accelerating field profile in the tank is tuned to provide the best propagation of a 50-mA deuteron beam using coupled iterations of EM and beamdynamics modeling. Multi-particle simulations withParmela and CST Particle Studio have been used to confirm the design. Measurement results of a cold model of the IH-PMQ tank are presented.

  19. In-beam PET measurement of $^{7}Li^{3+}$ irradiation induced $\\beta^+}$-activity

    CERN Document Server

    Priegnitz, M; Parodi, K; Sommerer, F; Fiedler, F; Enghardt, W

    2008-01-01

    At present positron emission tomography (PET) is the only feasible method of an in situ and non-invasive monitoring of patient irradiation with ions. At the experimental carbon ion treatment facility of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt an in-beam PET scanner has been integrated into the treatment site and lead to a considerable quality improvement of the therapy. Since ions other than carbon are expected to come into operation in future patient treatment facilities, it is highly desirable to extend in-beam PET also to other therapeutic relevant ions, e.g. 7Li. Therefore, by means of the in-beam PET scanner at GSI the β+-activity induced by 7Li3+ ions has been investigated for the first time. Targets of PMMA, water, graphite and polyethylene were irradiated with monoenergetic, pencil-like beams of 7Li3+ with energies between 129.1 A MeV and 205.3 A MeV and intensities ranging from 3.0 × 107 to 1.9 × 108 ions s−1. This paper presents the measured β+-activity profiles as well as d...

  20. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  1. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  2. The AAVSO High Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2004-06-01

    The AAVSO is expanding its International Gamma-Ray Burst Network to incorporate other high energy objects such as blazars and magnetic cataclysmic variables (polars). The new AAVSO High Energy Network will be collaborating with the Global Telescope Network (GTN) to observe bright blazars in support of the upcoming GLAST mission. We also will be observing polars in support of the XMM mission. This new network will involve both visual and CCD obsrvers and is expected to last for many years.

  3. Ultra High Energy Nuclei Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ultra high energy nuclei propagation in astrophysical backgrounds. We present a new analytical computation scheme based on the hypothesis of continuos energy losses in a kinetic formulation of the particles propagation. This scheme enables the computation of the fluxes of ultra high energy nuclei as well as the fluxes of secondaries (nuclei and nucleons) produced by the process of photo-disintegration suffered by nuclei.

  4. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  5. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  6. High energy photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  7. Study of radiation detectors response in standard X, gamma and beta radiation standard beams; Estudo da resposta de monitores de radioprotecao em feixes padronizados de radiacao X, gama e beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda Beatrice Conceicao

    2010-07-01

    The response of 76 Geiger-Mueller detectors, 4 semiconductor detectors and 34 ionization chambers were studied. Many of them were calibrated with gamma radiation beams ({sup 37}Cs and {sup 60}Co), and some of them were tested in beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr+{sup 9'}0Y e {sup 204}Tl) and X radiation (N-60, N-80, N-100, N-150) beams. For all three types of radiation, the calibration factors of the instruments were obtained, and the energy and angular dependences were studied. For beta and gamma radiation, the angular dependence was studied for incident radiation angles of 0 deg and +- 45 deg. The curves of the response of the instruments were obtained over an angle interval of 0 deg to +- 90 deg, for gamma, beta and X radiations. The calibration factors obtained for beta radiation were compared to those obtained for gamma radiation. For gamma radiation, 24 of the 66 tested Geiger-Mueller detectors presented results for the energy dependence according to international recommendation of ISO 4037-2 and 56 were in accordance with the Brazilian ABNT 10011 recommendation. The ionization chambers and semiconductors were in accordance to national and international recommendations. All instruments showed angular dependence less than 40%. For beta radiation, the instruments showed unsatisfactory results for the energy dependence and angular dependence. For X radiation, the ionization chambers presented results for energy dependence according to the national recommendation, and the angular dependence was less than 40%. (author)

  8. High-energy astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, A

    2010-01-01

    In these three lectures I discuss the present status of high-energy astroparticle physics including Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), high-energy gamma rays, and neutrinos. The first lecture is devoted to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. After a brief introduction to UHECR I discuss the acceleration of charged particles to highest energies in the astrophysical objects, their propagation in the intergalactic space, recent observational results by the Auger and HiRes experiments, anisotropies of UHECR arrival directions, and secondary gamma rays produced by UHECR. In the second lecture I review recent results on TeV gamma rays. After a short introduction to detection techniques, I discuss recent exciting results of the H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Milagro experiments on the point-like and diffuse sources of TeV gamma rays. A special section is devoted to the detection of extragalactic magnetic fields with TeV gammaray measurements. Finally, in the third lecture I discuss Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos. I review t...

  9. Transverse Diagnostics For High Energy Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Castro Carballo, Maria Elena

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a circular synchrotron accelerator that will explore new Physics at the higher energies ever achieved, aiming to find the Higgs boson. The LHC is being built at CERN and by 2007 it will be ready to produce head-on collisions of protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The employment of superconducting magnets for achieving high energies, the high luminosity required for physics, the limited dynamic aperture and the large energy stored in the beams will make the machine very challenging to operate, especially during the injection process and the energy ramp. Two particular problems will be a high sensitivity to beam losses and a relatively poor field quality requiring the use of many types of magnetic correction elements. This may lead to the inclusion of certain beam measurements in feedback loops, making special demands on the control system. The injection and acceleration of the LHC proton beams without particle losses and emittance blow up will require an accurate co...

  10. Variance reduction technique in a beta radiation beam using an extrapolation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Ivón Oramas; Souza Santos, William; de Lara Antonio, Patrícia; Caldas, Linda V E

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims to show how the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" improves the statistical error and reduces uncertainties in the determination of the absorbed dose rate in tissue using an extrapolation chamber for beta radiation. The results show that the use of this technique can increase the number of events in the chamber cavity leading to a closer approximation of simulation result with the physical problem. There was a good agreement among the experimental measurements, the certificate of manufacture and the simulation results of the absorbed dose rate values and uncertainties. The absorbed dose rate variation coefficient using the variance reduction technique "Geometry splitting/Russian roulette" was 2.85%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  12. Irradiation of an IBL stave in a 10MeV beta beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bilbao de Mendizabal, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Nuiry, FX; Seez, W

    2013-01-01

    The new IBL detector (Insertable B-Layer), due to be integrated into the ATLAS detector as the closest Pixel layer to the beam pipe during the first LHC long-shutdown (2013), is composed of fourteen stave sub-assemblies. These staves have a triangular cross section carbon foam core, sandwiched between a triangular carbon fibre plate (omega) and a flat top plate (faceplate) onto which the silicon detector modules and services are glued. The assembly is strongly dependant on glue and thermal grease interfaces; high density amorphous materials prone to degradation under high radiation doses. In order to evaluate the mechanical stability and integrity of one of these staves it was decided to impose a very high radiation dose upon it, representative of the full dose IBL will receive in its life-cycle. Because of the lack of availability of proton beams - the closest approximation to the radiation received in operation - with a large enough sweep area and dose it was decided to undertake the experiment using an ind...

  13. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  14. Study of the time and space distribution of {beta}{sup +} emitters from 80MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agodi, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Collamati, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Napoli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Di Domenico, A.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Fiore, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Iarocci, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M., E-mail: michela.marafini@roma1.infn.it [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma Tre Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Paoloni, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2012-07-15

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear 511keV photons produced by positrons annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the 511keV photons emitted after the interactions of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the {beta}{sup +} rate was parametrized and the dominance of {sup 11}C emitters over the other species ({sup 13}N, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating {beta}{sup +} emitters to be (10.3{+-}0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters was also measured, D{sub {beta}{sup +}}=5.3{+-}1.1mm, to be compared to the expected Bragg peak depth D{sub Bragg}=11.0{+-}0.5mm obtained from simulations.

  15. Mexican High Energy Physics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Olivo, J. C.; Napsuciale, M.; Pérez-Angón, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican High Energy Physics Network is one of CONACYT's thematic research networks, created with the aim of increasing the communication and cooperation of the scientific and technology communities of Mexico in strategic areas. In this report we review the evolution, challenges, achievements and opportunities faced by the network.

  16. Organometallics in High Energy Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    various transition metals. Design and synthesis of energetic ligands for subsequent complexation based on the acetylacetone (AcAc) backbone...coordination of beta- diketones and beta-keto esters as oxygen-donor chelating ligands . 1- 9 These complexes are generally prepared as mixed ligand complexes of...this still attractive concept was halted, however, in favor of the work on the..". synthesis and reactions of energetic acetylacetone ligands . The

  17. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  18. Thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE irradiated with high energy electron beams; Caracteristicas termoluminiscentes del CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE irradiado con haces de electrones de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, R.; Rivera, T.; Calderon, J. A.; Jimenez, Y. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Rodriguez, J. [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Oviedo, O. [Centro Medico ABC, Sur 136 No. 116, Col. Las Americas, 01120 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J., E-mail: chagua@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    In the present work thermoluminescent response of dysprosium doped calcium sulfate embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE) under high electron beam irradiations from linear accelerator for clinical applications was investigated. The irradiations were carried out using high electron beams (6 to 18 MeV) from a linear accelerator Varian, C linac 2300C/D, for clinical practice purpose. The electron irradiations were obtained by using the water solid in order to guarantee electronic equilibrium conditions. Field shaping for electron beams was obtained with electron cones. Glow curve and other thermoluminescent characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE were conducted under high electron beams irradiations. The thermoluminescent response of the pellets showed and intensity peak centered at around 235 C. Thermoluminescent response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE as a function of high electron absorbed dose showed a linearity in a wide range. To obtain reproducibility characteristic, a set of pellets were exposed repeatedly for the same electron absorbed dose. The results obtained in this study can suggest the applicability of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy+PTFE pellets for high electron beam dosimetry, provided fading is correctly accounted for. (Author)

  19. Calibration of the EGRET high-energy gamma-ray telescope in the range 20-10,000 MeV with a tunable beam of quasi-monoenergetic gamma rays at SLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Favale, A.

    1987-01-01

    The EGRET telescope, one of the instruments to be carried on NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory, is designed to explore the high-energy portion (20-24,000 MeV) of the electromagnetic spectrum. A calibration source of gamma-rays over this wide energy range has been used together with an appropriate set of intensity-monitoring instruments, to conduct a calibration of the EGRET telescope over this energy range for the full telescope aperture. The calibration method and an overview of the results are described.

  20. Statistical analysis of the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance of the High Energy Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yi; Duan, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.

  1. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  2. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  3. A high energy physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  4. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  5. High-energy atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

    2010-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

  6. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  7. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1994-08-01

    Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet.

  8. Indexed compilation of experimental high energy physics literature. [Synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, C.P.; Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.

    1978-09-01

    An indexed compilation of approximately 12,000 experimental high energy physics documents is presented. A synopsis of each document is presented, and the documenta are indexed according to beam/target/momentum, reaction/momentum, final-state-particle, particle/particle-property, accelerator/detector, and (for a limited set of the documents) experiment. No data are given.

  9. Development of a low-energy and high-current pulsed neutral beam injector with a washer-gun plasma source for high-beta plasma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Toru; Gi, Keii; Umezawa, Toshiyuki; Asai, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a novel and economical neutral-beam injection system by employing a washer-gun plasma source. It provides a low-cost and maintenance-free ion beam, thus eliminating the need for the filaments and water-cooling systems employed conventionally. In our primary experiments, the washer gun produced a source plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 5 eV and an electron density of 5 × 10(17) m(-3), i.e., conditions suitable for ion-beam extraction. The dependence of the extracted beam current on the acceleration voltage is consistent with space-charge current limitation, because the observed current density is almost proportional to the 3/2 power of the acceleration voltage below approximately 8 kV. By optimizing plasma formation, we successfully achieved beam extraction of up to 40 A at 15 kV and a pulse length in excess of 0.25 ms. Its low-voltage and high-current pulsed-beam properties enable us to apply this high-power neutral beam injection into a high-beta compact torus plasma characterized by a low magnetic field.

  10. Lattice with Smaller Momentum Compaction Factor for PEP-II High Energy Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Y; Nosochkov, Yu M

    2003-01-01

    At present, the PEP-II bunch length and vertical beta function at the Interaction Point (IP) are about of the same size. To increase luminosity, it is planned to gradually reduce the IP beta function. For the maximum effect, bunch length has to be also reduced to minimize luminosity loss caused by the hourglass effect at IP. One of the methods to achieve a smaller bunch length is to reduce momentum compaction factor. This paper discusses a lattice option for the High Energy Ring, where the nominal 60 degree cells in four arcs are replaced by 90 degree cells to reduce momentum compaction factor by 30% and bunch length by 16%. The increased focusing in 90 degree cells results in 40% stronger arc quadrupoles and 150% stronger arc sextupoles due to reduced dispersion and larger chromaticity. Tracking simulations predict that dynamic aperture for this lattice will be more than 10 times the rms size of a fully coupled beam for a horizontal emittance of 30 nm and IP beta function of 1cm. The lattice modification and...

  11. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  12. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  13. A Proposal to the Department of Energy for The Fabrication of a Very High Energy Polarized Gama Ray Beam Facility and A Program of Medium Energy Physics Research at The National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1982-09-01

    This proposal requests support for the fabrication and operation of a modest facility that would provide relatively intense beams of monochromatic and polarized photons with energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV. These {gamma} rays would be produced by Compton backscattering laser light from the electrons circulating in the 2.5-3.0 GeV 'X-RAY' storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The excellent emittance, phase space, and high current of this state-of-the-art storage ring will allow the production of 2 x 10{sup 7} {gamma} rays per second. These photons would be tagged by detecting the scattered electrons, thereby determining the energy to 2.7 MeV for all {gamma}-ray energies. The efficiency of this tagging procedure is 100% and the {gamma}-ray beam would be essentially background free. Tagging will also allow the flexibility of operating with a dynamic range as large as 200 MeV in photon energy while still preserving high resolution and polarization. These beams will permit a fruitful study of important questions in medium-energy nuclear physics. The initial goals of this program are to reach reliable operation with photon energies up to 300 MeV and to develop {gamma}-ray beams with energies up to about 500 MeV. To demonstrate reliable operation, a modest physics program is planned that, for the most part, utilizes existing magnets and detector systems but nonetheless addresses several important outstanding problems. Gamma ray beams of the versatility, intensity, energy, and resolution that can be achieved at this facility are not currently available at any other world facility either existing or under construction. Furthermore, the proposed program would produce the first intense source of medium-energy {gamma} rays that are polarized. Because of the difficulties in producing such polarized beams, it is very unlikely that viable alternate sources can be developed in the near future; at

  14. Study of the time and space distribution of $\\beta^+$ emitters from $80\\ \\mega\\electronvolt/$u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C

    2012-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear $511\\ \\kilo\\electronvolt$ photons produced by positrons annihilation from $\\beta^+$ emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the $511\\ \\kilo\\electronvolt$ photons emitted after the interactions of a $80\\ \\mega\\electronvolt / u$ fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the $\\beta^+$ rate was parametrized and the dominance of $^{11}C$ emitters over the other species ($^{13}N$, $^{15}O$, $^{14}O$) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating $\\beta^+$ emitters $A_0=(10.3\\pm0.7)\\cdot10^{-3}$. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from $\\beta^+$ emitters was also meas...

  15. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  16. Comparison of build-up dose between Elekta and Varian linear accelerators for high-energy photon beams using radiochromic film and clinical implications for IMRT head and neck treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paelinck, L; De Wagter, C; Van Esch, A; Duthoy, W; Depuydt, T; De Neve, W

    2005-02-07

    Skin toxicity has been reported for IMRT of head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose in the build-up region delivered by a 6 MV treatment plan for which important skin toxicity was observed. We also investigated if the different designs of the treatment head of an Elekta and a Varian linear accelerator, especially the lower position of the Varian multi-leaf collimator, give rise to different build-up doses. For regular square open beams, the build-up dose along the central beam axis is higher for the Varian machine than for the Elekta machine, both for 6 MV and 18 MV. At the Elekta machine at 18 MV, the superficial dose of a diamond shaped 10 x 10 cm2 field is 3.6% lower than the superficial dose of a regular 10 x 10 cm2 field. This effect is not seen at 6 MV. At the Varian machine, the superficial dose of the diamond shaped field is respectively 3.5 and 14.2% higher than the superficial dose of the regular 10 x 10 cm2 field for 6 MV and 18 MV. Despite the differences measured in build-up dose for single beams between the Elekta and the Varian linear accelerator, there were no measurable differences in superficial dose when a typical IMRT dose plan of 6 MV for a head and neck tumour is executed at the two machines.

  17. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  18. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  19. Simulation of High Energy Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Mashtakov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Under the scope of a CERN summer student project, a Geant4 physical model has been developed and committed to the Geant4 repository to allow precise simulation of high-energy muons and hadrons transport inside a material. Resulted angular distributions produced by this model have small deviations from those that were obtained by the Geant4 model used by default. High-energetic muons energy losses inside the CMS tracker have also been estimated and may vary from 0.05% up to 2.5%.

  20. High-energy neutrino astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The chargeless, weakly interacting neutrinos are ideal astronomical messengers as they travel through space without scattering, absorption or deflection. But this weak interaction also makes them notoriously di cult to detect, leading to neutrino observatories requiring large-scale detectors. A few years ago, the IceCube experiment discovered neutrinos originating beyond the Sun with energies bracketed by those of the highest energy gamma rays and cosmic rays. I discuss how these high-energy neutrinos can be detected and what they can tell us about the origins of cosmic rays and about dark matter.

  1. Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2013-06-15

    We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.

  2. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  3. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  4. Dosimetric characterization of VIPARnd gel by optical analysis to high-energy photon beam used in external radiotherapy; Caracterizacao dosimetrica de gel tipo VIPARnd atraves de analise optica para feixes de fotons de alta energia usado em radioterapia externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Juliana R.; Lima, Renata S.; Lopes, Roseany de V. Vieira; Ceschin, Artemis Marti, E-mail: juliana_rdias@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymer gel dosimetry has been proposed as a possibility for measurements of dose distribution in radiotherapy. This work aims to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a VIPARnd for 6 MV photon beam used in radiotherapy using optical investigations. The absorbance spectrum of irradiated gel dosimeter was optical evaluated with spectrophotometer techniques and with CMOS camera readout for dose range of 0 to 50 Gy. Data shows that the VIPARnd has a maximum absorbance at 300 to 320 nm depending on the absorbed dose. The CMOS camera readouts were obtained in RGB color, the absorbance measurements suggest a major response of dose for blue matrix verified with data. The dose-response curve for blue component showed interval of linearity from 1 Gy to 20 Gy. (author)

  5. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Mukhi; Probir Roy

    2009-07-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics back-ground, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical paradigm of String Theory – have been made to go beyond the Standard Model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors.

  6. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  7. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  8. Generating Low Beta Regions with Quadrupoles for Final Muon Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. G. [Mississippi U.; Cremaldi, L. M. [Mississippi U.; Hart, T. L. [Mississippi U.; Oliveros, S. J. [Mississippi U.; Summers, D. J. [Mississippi U.; Neuffer, D. V. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    Muon beams and colliders are rich sources of new physics, if muons can be cooled. A normalized rms transverse muon emittance of 280 microns has been achieved in simulation with short solenoids and a betatron function of 3 cm. Here we use ICOOL, G4beamline, and MAD-X to explore using a 400 MeV/c muon beam and strong focusing quadrupoles to approach a normalized transverse emittance of 100 microns and finish 6D muon cooling. The low beta regions produced by the quadrupoles are occupied by dense, low Z absorbers, such as lithium hydride or beryllium, that cool the beam. Equilibrium transverse emittance is linearly proportional to the beta function. Reverse emittance exchange with septa and/or wedges is then used to decrease transverse emittance from 100 to 25 microns at the expense of longitudinal emittance for a high energy lepton collider. Work remains to be done on chromaticity correction.

  9. Characteristics of confinement and fusion reactivity in JT-60U high-{beta}{rho} and TFTR supershot regimes with deuterium neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Yamada, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high performance regimes achieved in JT-60U and TFTR have produced peak DD fusion neutron rates up to 5.6 {times} 10{sup 16}/s for similar heating beam powers, in spite of considerable differences in machine operation and plasma configuration. A common scaling for the DD fusion neutron rate (S{sub DD} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}{sup 2.0} H{sub ne} V{sub p}{sup {minus}0.9}) is obtained, where P{sub abs} and H{sub ne} are the absorbed beam power and beam fueling peaking factor, respectively, and V{sub p} is the plasma volume. The maximum stored energy obtained in each machine has been up to 5.4 MJ in TFTR and 8.7 MJ in JT-60U. Further improvements in the fusion neutron rate and the stored energy are limited by the {beta}-limit in Troyon range, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.0--2.5. A common scaling for the stored energy (W{sub tot} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}V{sub p}H{sub ne}{sup 0.2}) is also proposed.

  10. Molecular beam epitaxy of c-plane wurtzite GaN on nitridized a-plane {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villora, Encarnacion G. E-mail: villora.garcia@nims.go.jp; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Aoki, Kazuo [Koha Co., Ltd., 2-6-8 Kouyama, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176-0022 (Japan); Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2006-04-03

    Epitaxial growth of GaN on {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal substrates by the molecular beam epitaxy technique is demonstrated for the first time. Standard and in-plane X-ray diffraction evidence the growth of c-plane wurtzite GaN on a-plane {beta}-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the epitaxial relationship being <0 1 0>{sub Ga{sub 2}}{sub O{sub 3}}-parallel <1 1 2-bar 0>{sub GaN} and <0 0 1>{sub Ga{sub 2}}{sub O{sub 3}}-parallel <1-bar 1 0 0>{sub GaN}. Epitaxial growth without any buffer layer is achieved after an effective surface nitridation under NH{sub 3} gas.

  11. Dose Calculations for Lung Inhomogeneity in High-Energy Photon Beams and Small Beamlets: A Comparison between XiO and TiGRT Treatment Planning Systems and MCNPX Monte Carlo Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Mesbahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiotherapy with small fields is used widely in newly developed techniques. Additionally, dose calculation accuracy of treatment planning systems in small fields plays a crucial role in treatment outcome. In the present study, dose calculation accuracy of two commercial treatment planning systems was evaluated against Monte Carlo method. Materials and Methods Siemens Once or linear accelerator was simulated, using MCNPX Monte Carlo code, according to manufacturer’s instructions. Three analytical algorithms for dose calculation including full scatter convolution (FSC in TiGRT, along with convolution and superposition in XiO system were evaluated for a small solid liver tumor. This solid tumor with a diameter of 1.8 cm was evaluated in a thorax phantom, and calculations were performed for different field sizes (1×1, 2×2, 3×3 and4×4 cm2. The results obtained in these treatment planning systems were compared with calculations by MC method (regarded as the most reliable method. Results For FSC and convolution algorithm, comparison with MC calculations indicated dose overestimations of up to 120%and 25% inside the lung and tumor, respectively in 1×1 cm2field size, using an 18 MV photon beam. Regarding superposition, a close agreement was seen with MC simulation in all studied field sizes. Conclusion The obtained results showed that FSC and convolution algorithm significantly overestimated doses of the lung and solid tumor; therefore, significant errors could arise in treatment plans of lung region, thus affecting the treatment outcomes. Therefore, use of MC-based methods and super position is recommended for lung treatments, using small fields and beamlets.

  12. Probing QCD at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    We review recent experimental work on probing QCD at high $p_{T}$ at the Tevatron and at the LHC. The Tevatron has just finished a long and illustrious career at the forefront of high energy physics, while the LHC now has its physics program in full swing and is producing results at a quick rate in a new energy regime. Many of the LHC measurements extend well into the TeV range, with potential sensitivity to new physics. The experimental systematics at the LHC are also becoming competitive with the Tevatron, making precision measurements of QCD possible. Measurements of inclusive jet, dijet and isolated prompt photon production can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions, as well as to measure the strong coupling constant. More exclusive topologies are used to constrain aspects of parton shower modeling, initial and final state radiation. Interest in boosted heavy resonances has resulted in novel studies of jet mass and subjet structure that also test pertu...

  13. High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 815 Technical Report AREIS-TR-16006 HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF MUNITIONS...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) November 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED...otherwise be accomplished by other nondestructive testing methods. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiography High energy Computed tomography (CT

  14. High-Energy Neutrino Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment studies neutrino interactions in iron at the highest available energies using the narrow-band neutrino beam N3 and the wide-band neutrino beam N1. The basis of the detector is a massive target-calorimeter in which the energy deposited by a neutrino (or antineutrino) is measured by electronic techniques and the momentum of outgoing muons is determined by magnetic deflection. The detector is constructed in the form of a 20 m long iron-cored toroidal magnet, composed of modules of length 70~cm and 90~cm, and of 3.75~m diameter. Drift chambers placed in between each module measure the trajectory of muons from the neutrino interactions. The modules are of three types. The first ten modules are constructed of 2.5~cm iron plates with 20~scintillator planes inserted between the plates. The next five modules are constructed of 5~cm plates with 15~planes of scintillator and the last six modules are constructed of 15~cm plates with 5~planes of scintillators. The total mass of the detector is @=~1400 tons...

  15. Angular dependence of TL and OSL responses of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C commercial detectors in standard beta radiation beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Patricia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: patrilan@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The luminescent response of radiation detectors was evaluated by means of the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) phenomena, for verification of its application in radiation dosimetry. An angular dependence study was performed in this work, using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C commercial detectors, which were exposed to the radiation beams of a {sup 90}Sr +{sup 90}Y source from a beta radiation secondary standard system. The detectors were irradiated with an angle variation from -60° to +60°, and the results obtained using the TL and OSL techniques were within the international recommendation limits. (author)

  16. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  17. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  18. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  19. The KLOE-2 High Energy Tagger Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D; Iafolla, L; Iannarelli, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Saputi, A; Turri, E

    2012-01-01

    In order to fully reconstruct to the reaction e+e- to e+e- gamma-gamma in the energy region of the phi meson production, new detectors along the DAFNE beam line have to be installed in order to detect the scattered e+e-. The High Energy Tagger (HET) detector measures the deviation of leptons from their main orbit by determining their position and timing so to tag gamma-gamma physics events and disentangle them from background. The HET detectors are placed at the exit of the DAFNE dipole magnets, 11 m away from the IP, both on positron and electron lines. The HET sensitive area is made up of a set of 28 plastic scintillators. A dedicated DAQ electronics board based on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA have been developed for this detector. It provides a MultiHit TDC with a time resolution of the order of 500 ps and the possibility to acquire data any 2.5 ns, thus allowing to clearly identify the correct bunch crossing. First results of the commissioning run are presented.

  20. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  2. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, R.B. [University of Manchester, The Cockcroft Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom); Barlow, R.J.; Toader, A. [The University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Molson, J.G. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, LAL, Orsay (France); Serluca, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC. (orig.)

  3. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Barlow, R. J.; Molson, J. G.; Serluca, M.; Toader, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC.

  4. Preliminary experiments: High-energy alpha PIXE in archaeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, Thomas, E-mail: T.Dupuis@ulg.ac.b [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G.; Mathis, F. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Marchal, A.; Philippe, M.; Garnir, H.-P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Strivay, D. [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the work realized at the 'Centre Europeen d'Archeometrie' to highlight the utility of high-energy alpha PIXE in the particular field of archaeometry and to introduce the developments done and to be done to complete the knowledge of high-energy alpha PIXE. It starts with the comparison of the yield and the noise background between several alpha particle beams and the comparison between alpha particle and proton beams on different thick and thin references. After, this paper depicts the developments done at the 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie' to perform such high-energy experiments, first on standards and later on cultural heritage objects. Moreover, it introduces the problematics of such beams for the quantification in PIXE by the intermediary of the knowledge of the ionization and X-ray production cross-sections and also the developments done to answer to this serious lack in the databases.

  5. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Li, Huiyun [Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-04-01

    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  6. Vaporization front in the interaction of a high-energy laser with aerosols - A solitary wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. T.; Miller, T. G.

    1982-06-01

    If a high-energy laser beam were to propagate through highly absorbent aerosols, the aerosols might be subject to extinction by evaporation. This could occur, for instance, if a high-energy CO2 laser beam were to propagate through a medium containing a mist of water droplets. The incident energy would evaporate the droplets, thus increasing the transmission with time. In this paper, solitary waves are obtained as the asymptotic solution to the coupled nonlinear equations describing such an interaction.

  7. Prompt Beta Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Mix in Ignited NIF Capsules

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C; Solem, J C; Bradley, P A; Rundberg, R S

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) technology is designed to drive deuterium-tritium (DT) internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets to ignition using indirect radiation from laser beam energy captured in a hohlraum. Hydrodynamical instabilities at interfaces in the ICF capsule leading to mix between the DT fue l and the ablator shell material are of fundamental physical interest and can affect the performance characteristics of the capsule. In this Letter we describe new radiochemical diagnostics for mix processes in ICF capsules with plastic or Be (0.9%Cu) ablator shells. Reactions of high-energy tritons with shell material produce high-energy $\\beta$-emitters. We show that mix between the DT fuel and the shell material enhances high-energy prompt beta emission from these reactions by more than an order of magnitude over that expected in the absence of mix.

  8. Design and test of a scintillation dosimeter for dosimetry measurements of high energy radiotherapy beams; Conception et realisation d'un dosimetre a scintillation adapte a la dosimetrie de faisceaux de rayonnements ionisants en faisceaux de rayonnements ionisants en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontbonne, J.M

    2002-12-01

    This work describes the design and evaluation of the performances of a scintillation dosimeter developed for the dosimetry of radiation beams used in radiotherapy. The dosimeter consists in a small plastic scintillator producing light which is guided by means of a plastic optical fiber towards photodetectors. In addition to scintillation, high energy ionizing radiations produce Cerenkov light both in the scintillator and the optical fiber. Based on a wavelength analysis, we have developed a deconvolution technique to measure the scintillation light in the presence of Cerenkov light. We stress the advantages that are anticipated from plastic scintillator, in particular concerning tissue or water equivalence (mass stopping power, mass attenuation or mass energy absorption coefficients). We show that detectors based on this material have better characteristics than conventional dosimeters such as ionisation chambers or silicon detectors. The deconvolution technique is exposed, as well as the calibration procedure using an ionisation chamber. We have studied the uncertainty of our dosimeter. The electronics noise, the fiber transmission, the deconvolution technique and the calibration errors give an overall combined experimental uncertainty of about 0,5%. The absolute response of the dosimeter is studied by means of depth dose measurements. We show that absolute uncertainty with photons or electrons beams with energies ranging from 4 MeV to 25 MeV is less than {+-} 1 %. Last, at variance with other devices, our scintillation dosimeter does not need dose correction with depth. (author)

  9. Adaptation of penelope Monte Carlo code system to the absorbed dose metrology: characterization of high energy photon beams and calculations of reference dosimeter correction factors; Adaptation du code Monte Carlo penelope pour la metrologie de la dose absorbee: caracterisation des faisceaux de photons X de haute energie et calcul de facteurs de correction de dosimetres de reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurier, J

    1999-05-28

    This thesis has been performed in the framework of national reference setting-up for absorbed dose in water and high energy photon beam provided with the SATURNE-43 medical accelerator of the BNM-LPRI (acronym for National Bureau of Metrology and Primary standard laboratory of ionising radiation). The aim of this work has been to develop and validate different user codes, based on PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system, to determine the photon beam characteristics and calculate the correction factors of reference dosimeters such as Fricke dosimeters and graphite calorimeter. In the first step, the developed user codes have permitted the influence study of different components constituting the irradiation head. Variance reduction techniques have been used to reduce the calculation time. The phase space has been calculated for 6, 12 and 25 MV at the output surface level of the accelerator head, then used for calculating energy spectra and dose distributions in the reference water phantom. Results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements. The second step has been devoted to develop an user code allowing calculation correction factors associated with both BNM-LPRI's graphite and Fricke dosimeters thanks to a correlated sampling method starting with energy spectra obtained in the first step. Then the calculated correction factors have been compared with experimental and calculated results obtained with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code system. The good agreement, between experimental and calculated results, leads to validate simulations performed with the PENELOPE code system. (author)

  10. Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of (12)C-induced beta(+)-activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, F; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Enghardt, W; Moehrs, S; Parodi, K; Rosso, V; Vecchio, S

    2009-01-21

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  11. Theory of high-energy messengers

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.

  12. Theory of high-energy messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.

  13. High Energy Sources Observed with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Mas-Hesse, J M; Kuulkers, E

    2008-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Optical Monitoring Camera, OMC, has detected many high energy sources. We have obtained V-band fluxes and light curves for their counterparts. In the cases of previously unknown counterparts, we have searched for characteristic variations in optical sources around the high-energy target position. Results about the Galactic Bulge Monitoring, INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray sources (IGR), and other high energy sources are presented.

  14. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  15. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  16. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  17. Neutral-beam current-driven high-poloidal-beta operation of the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, T. C.; Matsuoka, M.; Bhadra, D. K.; Burrell, K. H.; Callis, R. W.; Chance, M. S.; Chu, M. S.; Greene, J. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Harvey, R. W.; Hill, D. N.; Kim, J.; Lao, L.; Petersen, P. I.; Porter, G. D.; St. John, H.; Stallard, B. W.; Stambaugh, R. D.; Strait, E. J.; Taylor, T. S.

    1988-10-01

    Neutral-beam current-drive experiments in the DIII-D tokamak with a single null poloidal divertor are described. A plasma current of 0.34 MA has been sustained by neutral beams alone, and the energy confinement is of H-mode quality. Poloidal β values reach 3.5 without disruption or coherent magnetic activity suggesting that these plasmas may be entering the second stability regime.

  18. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  19. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  20. High-Energy Astrophysics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics is the study of objects and phenomena in space with energy densities much greater than that found in normal stars and galaxies. These include black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, hypernovae and gamma-ray bursts. A history and an overview of high-energy astrophysics will be presented, including a description of the objects that are observed. Observing techniques, space-borne missions in high-energy astrophysics and some recent discoveries will also be described. Several entirely new types of astronomy are being employed in high-energy astrophysics. These will be briefly described, along with some NASA missions currently under development.

  1. A Phenomenological Cost Model for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Accelerator-based high-energy physics have been in the forefront of scientific discoveries for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of the colliders has progressed immensely, while the beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. In this paper we derive a simple scaling model for the cost of large accelerators and colliding beam facilities based on costs of 17 big facilities which have been either built or carefully estimated. Although this approach cannot replace an actual cost estimate based on an engineering design, this parameterization is to indicate a somewhat realistic cost range for consideration of what future frontier accelerator facilities might be fiscally realizable.

  2. PROGRESS OF HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FEDOTOV,A.V.

    2007-09-10

    The fundamental questions about QCD which can be directly answered at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) call for large integrated luminosities. The major goal of RHIC-I1 upgrade is to achieve a 10 fold increase in luminosity of Au ions at the top energy of 100 GeV/nucleon. Such a boost in luminosity for RHIC-II is achievable with implementation of high-energy electron cooling. The design of the higher-energy cooler for RHIC-II recently adopted a non-magnetized approach which requires a low temperature electron beam. Such electron beams will be produced with a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Detailed simulations of the electron cooling process and numerical simulations of the electron beam transport including the cooling section were performed. An intensive R&D of various elements of the design is presently underway. Here, we summarize progress in these electron cooling efforts.

  3. The KLOE-2 high energy taggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curciarello, F.

    2017-06-01

    The precision measurement of the π0 → γγ width allows to gain insights into the low-energy QCD dynamics. A way to achieve the precision needed (1%) in order to test theory predictions is to study the π0 production through γγ fusion in the e+e- → e+e-γ*γ* → e+e-π0 reaction. The KLOE-2 experiment, currently running at the DAΦNE facility in Frascati, aims to perform this measurement. For this reason, new detectors, which allow to tag final state leptons, have been installed along the DAΦNE beam line in order to reduce the background coming from phi-meson decays. The High Energy Tagger (HET) detector measures the deviation of leptons from their main orbit by determining their position and timing. The HET detectors are placed in roman pots just at the exit of the DAΦNE dipole magnets, 11 m away from the IP, both on positron and electron sides. The HET sensitive area is made up of a set of 28 plastic scintillators. A dedicated DAQ electronic board, based on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, has been developed for this detector. It provides a MultiHit TDC with a time resolution of 550(1) ps and the possibility to clearly identify the correct bunch crossing (ΔTbunch ~ 2.7 ns). The most relevant features of the KLOE-2 tagging system operation as time performance, stability and the techniques used to determine the time overlap between the KLOE and HET asynchronous DAQs will be presented.

  4. High energy accelerator and colliding beam user group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: OPAL experiment at LEP; D{phi} experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic muon interactions at TEV II; CYGNUS experiment; final results from {nu}{sub e}{sup {minus}e} elastic scattering; physics with CLEO detector at CESR; results from JADE at PETRA; rare kaon-decay experiment at BNL; search for top quark; and super conducting super collider activities.

  5. High Energy Colliding Beams; What Is Their Future?

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Burton

    2014-01-01

    The success of the first few years of LHC operations at CERN, and the expectation of more to come as the LHC performance improves, are already leading to discussions of what should be next for both proton-proton and electron-positron colliders. In this discussion I see too much theoretical desperation caused by the so far unsuccessful hunt for what is beyond the Standard Model, and too little of the necessary interaction of the accelerator, experimenter, and theory communities necessary for a scientific and engineering success. Here, I give my impressions of the problem, its possible solution, and what is needed to have both a scientifically productive and financially viable future.

  6. Polarization of high-energy electrons traversing a laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotkin, G.L.; Serbo, V.G. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation). Phys. Dept.; Perlt, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leipzig University, 04109, Leipzig, BRD (Germany)

    1998-02-21

    When polarized electrons traverse a region where the laser light is focused their polarization varies even if their energy and direction of motion are not changed. This effect is due to interference of the incoming electron wave and an electron wave scattered at zero angle. Equations are obtained which determine the variation of the electron-density matrix, and their solutions are given. The change in the electron polarization depends not only on the Compton cross section but on the real part of the forward Compton amplitude as well. It should be taken into account, for example, in simulations of the e{yields}{gamma} conversion for future {gamma}{gamma} colliders. (orig.). 16 refs.

  7. Polarization of high-energy electrons traversing a laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kotkin, G L; Serbo, V G

    1998-01-01

    When polarized electrons traverse a region where the laser light is focused their polarization varies even if their energy and direction of motion are not changed. This effect is due to interference of the incoming electron wave and an electron wave scattered at zero angle. Equations are obtained which determine the variation of the electron density matrix, and their solutions are given. The change in the electron polarization depends not only on the Compton cross section but on the real part of the forward Compton amplitude as well. It should be taken into account, for example, in simulations of the $e \\to \\gamma$ conversion for future $\\gamma \\gamma$ colliders.

  8. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, G.A.; Skuja, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: the study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions; Hadron collider physics at Fermilab; fixed target physics and particle physics of general interest; and, the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSCL.

  9. Limiting technologies for particle beams and high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1985-07-01

    Since 1930 the energy of accelerators had grown by an order of magnitude roughly every 7 years. Like all exponential growths, be they human population, the size of computers, or anything else, this eventually will have to come to an end. When will this happen to the growth of the energy of particle accelerators and colliders. Fortunately, as the energy of accelerators has grown the cost per unit energy has decreased almost as fast as has the increase in energy. The result is that while the energy has increased so dramatically the cost per new installation has increased only by roughly an order of magnitude since the 1930's (corrected for inflation), while the number of accelerators operating at the frontier of the field has shrunk. As is shown in the by now familiar Livingston chart this dramatic decrease in cost has been achieved largely by a succession of new technologies, in addition to the more moderate gains in efficiency due to improved design, economies of scale, etc. We are therefore facing two questions: (1) Is there good reason scientifically to maintain the exponential growth, and (2) Are there new technologies in sight which promise continued decreases in unit costs. The answer to the first question is definitely yes; the answer to the second question is maybe.

  10. Energy Efficient Beam Transfer Channels for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Gardlowski, Philipp; Ondreka, David

    2016-01-01

    conducting (NC) magnets or high current pulsed (HCP) magnets are an economic solution. For high repetition rates above 1.0 Hz, superconducting Cos(N) (SC) magnets or superferric (SF) magnets are more attractive; at least if they are operated in DC mode and if no dynamic losses occur in the cryogenic system. Unfortunately, a range between these values exist, in which no...

  11. Separated high-energy electron beams using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, F J M; Picasso, Emilio

    1972-01-01

    Electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 GeV range may be separated from other particles by using their energy-loss due to synchrotron radiation in a high-field magnet. In this paper the associated fluctuations in energy and angle are shown to be small enough for the method to be useful. Detailed design formulae are presented for several magnet configurations. (7 refs).

  12. High Energy Accelerator and Colliding Beam User Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, G.A.; Skuja, A.

    1992-05-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: the study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions; Hadron collider physics at Fermilab; fixed target physics and particle physics of general interest; and, the solenoidal detector collaboration at SSCL.

  13. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. [UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Charles D.; Cline, David B.; Byers, N.; Ferrara, S.; Peccei, R.; Hauser, Jay; Muller, Thomas; Atac, Muzaffer; Slater, William; Cousins, Robert; Arisaka, Katsushi

    1992-01-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R D.

  14. Evaluation of Monte Carlo tools for high energy atmospheric physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, Casper; Sarria, David; Broberg Skeltved, Alexander; Luque, Alejandro; Diniz, Gabriel; Østgaard, Nikolai; Ebert, Ute

    2016-11-01

    The emerging field of high energy atmospheric physics (HEAP) includes terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, electron-positron beams and gamma-ray glows from thunderstorms. Similar emissions of high energy particles occur in pulsed high voltage discharges. Understanding these phenomena requires appropriate models for the interaction of electrons, positrons and photons of up to 40 MeV energy with atmospheric air. In this paper, we benchmark the performance of the Monte Carlo codes Geant4, EGS5 and FLUKA developed in other fields of physics and of the custom-made codes GRRR and MC-PEPTITA against each other within the parameter regime relevant for high energy atmospheric physics. We focus on basic tests, namely on the evolution of monoenergetic and directed beams of electrons, positrons and photons with kinetic energies between 100 keV and 40 MeV through homogeneous air in the absence of electric and magnetic fields, using a low energy cutoff of 50 keV. We discuss important differences between the results of the different codes and provide plausible explanations. We also test the computational performance of the codes. The Supplement contains all results, providing a first benchmark for present and future custom-made codes that are more flexible in including electrodynamic interactions.

  15. High-energy neutron dosimetry with superheated drop detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, F.; Agosteo, S.; Sannikov, A.V.; Silari, M

    2002-07-01

    A systematic analysis of the response of dichlorodifluoromethane superheated drop detectors was performed in the 46-133 MeV energy range. Experiments with quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were performed at the Universite Catholique de Leuvain-la-Neuve, Belgium and the Svedberg Laboratory, Sweden, while tests in a broad field were performed at CERN. To determine the response of the detectors to the high-energy beams, the spectra of incident neutrons were folded over functions modelled after the cross sections for the production of heavy ions from the detector elements. The cross sections for fluorine and chlorine were produced in this work by means of the Monte Carlo high-energy transport code HADRON based on the cascade exciton model of nuclear interactions. The new response data permit the interpretation of measurements at high-energy accelerators and on high-altitude commercial flights, where a 30-50% under-response had been consistently recorded with respect to neutron dose equivalent. The introduction of a 1 cm lead shell around the detectors effectively compensates most of the response defect. (author)

  16. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...

  17. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...

  18. Overcoming High Energy Backgrounds at Pulsed Spallation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Scherzinger, Julius; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Ansell, Stuart; Iverson, Erik B.; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Filges, Uwe; Kittelmann, Thomas; Extegarai, Maddi; Santoro, Valentina; Kirstein, Oliver; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Instrument backgrounds at neutron scattering facilities directly affect the quality and the efficiency of the scientific measurements that users perform. Part of the background at pulsed spallation neutron sources is caused by, and time-correlated with, the emission of high energy particles when the proton beam strikes the spallation target. This prompt pulse ultimately produces a signal, which can be highly problematic for a subset of instruments and measurements due to the time-correlated properties, and different to that from reactor sources. Measurements of this background have been made at both SNS (ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN, USA) and SINQ (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland). The background levels were generally found to be low compared to natural background. However, very low intensities of high-energy particles have been found to be detrimental to instrument performance in some conditions. Given that instrument performance is typically characterised by S/N, improvements in backgrounds can both improve instrument pe...

  19. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  20. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  1. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  2. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  3. High energy physics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  4. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesmelis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC), this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  5. Quantitative comparison of suitability of various beams for range monitoring with induced beta+ activity in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Tomitani, Takehiro; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2005-03-21

    In radiation therapy with hadron beams, it is important to evaluate the range of incident ions and the deposited dose distribution in a patient body for the effective utilization of such properties as the dose concentration and the biological effect around the Bragg peak. However, there is some ambiguity in determining this range because of a conversion error from the x-ray CT number to the charged particle range. This is because the CT number is related to x-ray absorption coefficients, while the ion range is determined by the electron density of the substance. Using positron emitters produced in the patient body through fragmentation reactions during the irradiation has been proposed to overcome this problem. The activity distribution in the patient body can be deduced by detecting pairs of annihilation gamma rays emitted from the positron emitters, and information about the range of incident ions can be obtained. In this paper, we propose a quantitative comparison method to evaluate the mean range of incident ions and monitor the activity distribution related to the deposited dose distribution. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by evaluating the range of incident ions using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method and Fisher's information was calculated under realistic conditions for irradiations with several kinds of ions. From the calculated Fisher's information, we compared the relative advantages of initial beams to determine the range of incident ions. The (16)O irradiation gave the most information among the stable heavy ions when we measured the induced activity for 500 s and 60 s just after the irradiation. Therefore, under these conditions, we concluded that the (16)O beam was the optimum beam to monitor the activity distribution and to evaluate the range. On the other hand, if the positron emitters were injected directly as a therapeutic beam, the (15)O irradiation gave the most information. Although the relative advantages of

  6. Central Exclusive Particle Production at High Energy Hadron Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M.G.; /Fermilab; Coughlin, T.D.; /University Coll. London; Forshaw, J.R.; /Manchester U.

    2010-06-01

    We review the subject of central exclusive particle production at high energy hadron colliders. In particular we consider reactions of the type A + B {yields} A + X + B, where X is a fully specified system of particles that is well separated in rapidity from the outgoing beam particles. We focus on the case where the colliding particles are strongly interacting and mainly they will be protons (or antiprotons) as at the ISR, Sp{bar p}S, Tevatron and LHC. The data are surveyed and placed within the context of theoretical developments.

  7. PRaVDA: High Energy Physics towards proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, T., E-mail: t.price@bham.ac.uk

    2016-07-11

    Proton radiotherapy is an increasingly popular modality for treating cancers of the head and neck, and in paediatrics. To maximise the potential of proton radiotherapy it is essential to know the distribution, and more importantly the proton stopping powers, of the body tissues between the proton beam and the tumour. A stopping power map could be measured directly, and uncertainties in the treatment vastly reduce, if the patient was imaged with protons instead of conventional x-rays. Here we outline the application of technologies developed for High Energy Physics to provide clinical-quality proton Computed Tomography, in so reducing range uncertainties and enhancing the treatment of cancer.

  8. Searching for cavities of various densities in the Earth's crust with a low-energy electron-antineutrino beta-beam

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, C A; Gago, A M

    2012-01-01

    We propose searching for deep underground cavities of different densities in the Earth's crust using a long-baseline electron-antineutrino disappearance experiment, realised through a low-energy beta-beam with highly enhanced luminosity. We focus on four real-world cases: water-filled cavities, iron-banded formations, heavier mineral deposits, and regions of abnormal charge accumulation that, supposedly, appear prior to the occurrence of an intense earthquake. The sensitivity to identify cavities attains confidence levels higher than 3$\\sigma$ and 5$\\sigma$ for exposures times of 3 months and 1.5 years, respectively, and cavity densities below 1 g cm$^{-3}$ or above 5 g cm$^{-3}$, with widths greater than 200 km. We reconstruct the cavity density, width, and position, assuming one of them known while keeping the other two free, in each of the aforementioned cases. Finally, we introduce an observable to quantify the presence of a cavity by changing the orientation of the electron-antineutrino beam.

  9. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  10. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  11. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  12. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  13. Organisation of high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluyver, J C

    1981-01-01

    Tabulates details of major accelerator laboratories in western Europe, USA, and USSR, and describes the various organisations concerned with high-energy physics. The Dutch organisation uses the NIKHEF laboratory in Amsterdam and cooperates with CERN. (0 refs).

  14. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  15. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  16. On high energy tails in inelastic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiotte, R.; Brenig, L.; Salazar, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of high energy tails in a one-dimensional kinetic model for granular gases, the so-called Inelastic Maxwell Model. We introduce a time- discretized version of the stochastic process, and show that continuous time implies larger fluctuations of the particles energies. This is due to a statistical relation between the number of inelastic collisions undergone by a particle and its average energy. This feature is responsible for the high energy tails in the model, as shown ...

  17. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  18. Future of high energy physics some aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  19. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Hladik, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[SAP AG, Berlin (Germany); Ostapchenko, S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees

    1999-11-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author) 19 refs.

  20. ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEINBERG,P.

    2006-07-03

    The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

  1. Design and construction of a high-energy photon polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Sparks, N.; Moriya, K.; Tucker, R. J.; Lee, R. J.; Thorpe, B. N.; Hodges, T.; Barbosa, F. J.; Sandoval, N.; Jones, R. T.

    2017-09-01

    We report on the design and construction of a high-energy photon polarimeter for measuring the degree of polarization of a linearly-polarized photon beam. The photon polarimeter uses the process of pair production on an atomic electron (triplet production). The azimuthal distribution of scattered atomic electrons following triplet production yields information regarding the degree of linear polarization of the incident photon beam. The polarimeter, operated in conjunction with a pair spectrometer, uses a silicon strip detector to measure the recoil electron distribution resulting from triplet photoproduction in a beryllium target foil. The analyzing power ΣA for the device using a 75 μm beryllium converter foil is about 0.2, with a relative systematic uncertainty in ΣA of 1.5%.

  2. 16th Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Workshop will cover a wide range of spin phenomena at high and intermediate energies such as: recent experimental data on spin physics the nucleon spin structure and GPD's spin physics and QCD spin physics in the Standard Model and beyond T-odd spin effects polarization and heavy ion physics spin in gravity and astrophysics the future spin physics facilities spin physics at NICA polarimeters for high energy polarized beams acceleration and storage of polarized beams the new polarization technology related subjects The Workshop will be held in the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. The program of the workshop will include plenary and parallel (if necessary) sessions. Plenary sessions will be held in the Conference Hall. Parallel sections will take place in the same building. There will be invited talks (up to 40 min) and original reports (20 min). The invited speakers will present new experimental and theoretical re...

  3. Collapsing Bubble in Metal for High Energy Density Physics Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S F; Barnard, J J; Leung, P T; Yu, S S

    2011-04-13

    This paper presents a new idea to produce matter in the high energy density physics (HEDP) regime in the laboratory using an intense ion beam. A gas bubble created inside a solid metal may collapse by driving it with an intense ion beam. The melted metal will compress the gas bubble and supply extra energy to it. Simulations show that the spherical implosion ratio can be about 5 and at the stagnation point, the maximum density, temperature and pressure inside the gas bubble can go up to nearly 2 times solid density, 10 eV and a few megabar (Mbar) respectively. The proposed experiment is the first to permit access into the Mbar regime with existing or near-term ion facilities, and opens up possibilities for new physics gained through careful comparisons of simulations with measurements of quantities like stagnation radius, peak temperature and peak pressure at the metal wall.

  4. Research in High Energy Physics at Duke University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshaw, Alfred; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kruse, Mark; Oh, Seog; Scholberg, Kate; Walter, Chris

    2013-07-29

    This is the Closeout Report for the research grant in experimental elementary particle physics, carried out by the Duke University High Energy Physics (HEP) group. We re- port on physics results and detector development carried out under this grant, focussing on the recent three-year grant period (2010 to 2013). The Duke HEP group consisted of seven faculty members, two senior scientists, five postdocs and eight graduate students. There were three thrusts of the research program. Measurements at the energy frontier at CDF and ATLAS were used to test aspects of elementary particle theory described by the Stan- dard Model (SM) and to search for new forces and particles beyond those contained within the SM. The neutrino sector was explored using data obtained from a large neutrino detector located in Japan, and R & D was conducted on new experiments to be built in the US. The measurements provided information about neutrino masses and the manner in which neutri- nos change species in particle beams. Two years ago we have started a new research program in rare processes based on the Mu2E experiment at Fermilab. This research is motivated by the search for the {mu} {yields} e transition with unprecedented sensitivity, a transition forbidden in the standard model but allowed in supersymmetric and other models of new physics. The high energy research program used proton and antiproton colliding beams. The experiments were done at the Fermilab Tevatron (proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (proton-proton collisions at 7-8 TeV). The neutrino program used data obtained from the Super-Kamiokande detector. This water-filled Cherenkov counter was used to detect and measure the properties of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers, and from neutrino beams produced from acceler- ators in Japan. The Mu2E experiment will use a special stopped muon beam to be built at Fermilab.

  5. Research in High Energy Physics at Duke University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V. [PI; Goshaw, Al [Co-PI; Kruse, Mark [Co-PI; Oh, Seog [Co-PI; Scholberg, Kate [Co-PI; Walter, Chris [Co-PI

    2013-07-29

    This is the Closeout Report for the research grant in experimental elementary particle physics, carried out by the Duke University High Energy Physics (HEP) group. We re- port on physics results and detector development carried out under this grant, focussing on the recent three-year grant period (2010 to 2013). The Duke HEP group consisted of seven faculty members, two senior scientists, ve postdocs and eight graduate students. There were three thrusts of the research program. Measurements at the energy frontier at CDF and ATLAS were used to test aspects of elementary particle theory described by the Stan- dard Model (SM) and to search for new forces and particles beyond those contained within the SM. The neutrino sector was explored using data obtained from a large neutrino detector located in Japan, and R & D was conducted on new experiments to be built in the US. The measurements provided information about neutrino masses and the manner in which neutri- nos change species in particle beams. Two years ago we have started a new research program in rare processes based on the Mu2E experiment at Fermilab. This research is motivated by the search for the ! e transition with unprecedented sensitivity, a transition forbidden in the standard model but allowed in supersymmetric and other models of new physics. The high energy research program used proton and antiproton colliding beams. The experiments were done at the Fermilab Tevatron (proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (proton-proton collisions at 7-8 TeV). The neutrino program used data obtained from the Super-Kamiokande detec- tor. This water- lled Cherenkov counter was used to detect and measure the properties of neutrinos produced in cosmic ray showers, and from neutrino beams produced from acceler- ators in Japan. The Mu2E experiment will use a special stopped muon beam to be built at Fermilab.

  6. The Practical Pomeron for High Energy Proton Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108501; Molson, J. G; Serluca, M.; Toader, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation n high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer~$t$,as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus ...

  7. Response of high-energy particle precipitation to substorm onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, A. C.; Makarevich, R. A.

    2008-12-01

    The process of extra-terrestrial radiowave absorption by ionospheric electrons is known as cosmic noise absorption (CNA) and is routinely detected by ground-based relative opacity meters or riometers, which are sensitive to high-energy particle precipitation (>10 keV). In this study, we investigate the response of high- energy particle precipitation to substorm onset by employing a 7×7-beam imaging riometer system in Northern Scandinavia, IRIS, and the substorm onset database from the IMAGE satellite. The CNA response is investigated with respect to substorm location relative to IRIS. Instantaneous responses are mostly observed when IRIS is located on the same magnetic parallel as the substorm onset region. We investigate dispersionless injections (DIs) associated with substorm onsets as detected by the imaging riometer. It is shown that an auroral absorption signature is present predominantly for DIs located westward of IRIS, which is consistent with high-energy particles propagating eastward from substorm injection location. Superposed epoch analysis of CNA relative to substorm onset timing shows a strong dependence on the azimuthal sector in which the onset is located relative to IRIS. Rapid responses are observed in 90-135 deg geographic azimuths indicating fast westward and poleward propagation from onset location. Responses to onsets located between -90 to -180 deg show a monotonic decrease in rise time. The results are examined in the context of the geosynchronous LANL and GOES satellite data in order to investigate the two propagation mechanisms: expansion of injection region and particle drift.

  8. Channeling of high-energy particles in bent crystals - Experiments at the CERN SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Biino, C.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Fidecaro, G.; Freund, A.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Gyr, M.; Hage-Ali, M.; Herr, W.; Keppler, P.; Kirsebom, K.; Klem, J.; Major, J.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Siffert, P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.; Weisse, E.

    2000-04-01

    During the latest decade, experiments have been performed at the CERN SPS to investigate the use of high-energy channeled nuclei in bent crystals for extraction, beam splitting and beam bending. An understanding of channeling in a bent crystal with extraction and deflection efficiencies for different energies, crystal types and ions has been developed. Furthermore, the long-standing question of radiation damage has been addressed with encouraging outcome. This makes extrapolations possible for the construction of, e.g., an extraction device for the LHC at CERN, RHIC at Brookhaven or new splitting elements in high-energy beams.We present the main results obtained and discuss existing and future applications of bent crystals in high-energy physics.

  9. Induced radioactivity in and around high-energy particle accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincke, Helmut; Theis, Chris; Roesler, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Particle accelerators and their surroundings are locations of residual radioactivity production that is induced by the interaction of high-energy particles with matter. This paper gives an overview of the principles of activation caused at proton accelerators, which are the main machines operated at Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire. It describes the parameters defining radio-nuclide production caused by beam losses. The second part of the paper concentrates on the analytic calculation of activation and the Monte Carlo approach as it is implemented in the FLUKA code. Techniques used to obtain, on the one hand, estimates of radioactivity in Becquerel and, on the other hand, residual dose rates caused by the activated material are discussed. The last part of the paper focuses on experiments that allow for benchmarking FLUKA activation calculations and on simulations used to predict activation in and around high-energy proton machines. In that respect, the paper addresses the residual dose rate that will be induced by proton-proton collisions at an energy of two times 7 TeV in and around the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. Besides activation of solid materials, the air activation expected in the CMS cavern caused by this beam operation is also discussed.

  10. Introduction to High-Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Stephan; Bruggen, Marcus

    2003-04-01

    High-energy astrophysics covers cosmic phenomena that occur under the most extreme physical conditions. It explores the most violent events in the Universe: the explosion of stars, matter falling into black holes, and gamma-ray bursts - the most luminous explosions since the Big Bang. Driven by a wealth of new observations, the last decade has seen a large leap forward in our understanding of these phenomena. Exploring modern topics of high-energy astrophysics, such as supernovae, neutron stars, compact binary systems, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei, this textbook is ideal for undergraduate students in high-energy astrophysics. It is a self-supporting, timely overview of this exciting field of research. Assuming a familiarity with basic physics, it introduces all other concepts, such as gas dynamics or radiation processes, in an instructive way. An extended appendix gives an overview of some of the most important high-energy astrophysics instruments, and each chapter ends with exercises.• New, up-to-date, introductory textbook providing a broad overview of high-energy phenomena and the many advances in our knowledge gained over the last decade • Written especially for undergraduate teaching use, it introduces the necessary physics and includes many exercises • This book fills a valuable niche at the advanced undergraduate level, providing professors with a new modern introduction to the subject

  11. Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the limits on propagation of ultra high energy particles in the Universe, set up by their interactions with cosmic background of photons and neutrinos. By taking into account cosmic evolution of these backgrounds and considering appropriate interactions we derive the mean free path for ultra high energy photons, protons and neutrinos. For photons the relevant processes are the Breit-Wheeler process as well as the double pair production process. For protons the relevant reactions are the photopion production and the Bethe-Heitler process. We discuss the interplay between the energy loss length and mean free path for the Bethe-Heitler process. Neutrino opacity is determined by its scattering off the cosmic background neutrino. We compute for the first time the high energy neutrino horizon as a function of its energy.

  12. High Energy Processes in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2006-01-01

    Young pulsars produce relativistic winds which interact with matter ejected during the supernova explosion and the surrounding interstellar gas. Particles are accelerated to very high energies somewhere in the pulsar winds or at the shocks produced in collisions of the winds with the surrounding medium. As a result of interactions of relativistic leptons with the magnetic field and low energy radiation (of synchrotron origin, thermal, or microwave background), the non-thermal radiation is produced with the lowest possible energies up to $\\sim$100 TeV. The high energy (TeV) gamma-ray emission has been originally observed from the Crab Nebula and recently from several other objects. Recent observations by the HESS Cherenkov telescopes allow to study for the first time morphology of the sources of high energy emission, showing unexpected spectral features. They might be also interpreted as due to acceleration of hadrons. However, theory of particle acceleration in the PWNe and models for production of radiation ...

  13. A High Energy Nuclear Database Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D A; Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interace. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from the Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for intertial confinement fusion and target a...

  14. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, D A B R

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and ...

  15. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Institute for Theoretical Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  16. [High Energy Physics: Research in high energy physics]. Annual report, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, B C

    1982-12-31

    This report discusses high energy physics research on: Quantum chromodynamics; neutrinos; multiparticle spectrometers; inclusive scattering; Mark III detector; and cascade decays of phi resonances. (LSP)

  17. High Energy Sources Monitored with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Mas-Hesse, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera on-board INTEGRAL (OMC) provides Johnson V band photometry of any potentially variable source within its field of view. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL capabilities allowing the simultaneous observation of different kind of objects in the optical, X and gamma rays bands, we have performed a study of the optical counterparts of different high-energy sources. Up to now, OMC has detected the optical counterpart for more than 100 sources from the High Energy Catalog (Ebisawa et al., 2003). The photometrically calibrated light curves produced by OMC can be accessed through our web portal at: http://sdc.laeff.inta.es/omc

  18. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Lee [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Greenwood, Zeno [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Wobisch, Marcus [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  19. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  20. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.