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Sample records for high-charge high-energy hze

  1. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, G.A.; Slater, J.M.; Pearlstein, R.D. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center; Vazquez, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Laskowitz, D.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    2002-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  2. Theoretical nuclear database for high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical methods for estimating high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) particle absorption and fragmentation cross-sections are described and compared with available experimental data. Differences between theory and experiment range from several percent for absorption cross-sections up to about 25%-50% for fragmentation cross-sections.

  3. Health Risks of Space Exploration: Targeted and Nontargeted Oxidative Injury by High-Charge and High-Energy Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Gonon, Géraldine; Buonanno, Manuela; Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Pain, Debkumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: During deep space travel, astronauts are often exposed to high atomic number (Z) and high-energy (E) (high charge and high energy [HZE]) particles. On interaction with cells, these particles cause severe oxidative injury and result in unique biological responses. When cell populations are exposed to low fluences of HZE particles, a significant fraction of the cells are not traversed by a primary radiation track, and yet, oxidative stress induced in the targeted cells may spread to nearby bystander cells. The long-term effects are more complex because the oxidative effects persist in progeny of the targeted and affected bystander cells, which promote genomic instability and may increase the risk of age-related cancer and degenerative diseases. Recent Advances: Greater understanding of the spatial and temporal features of reactive oxygen species bursts along the tracks of HZE particles, and the availability of facilities that can simulate exposure to space radiations have supported the characterization of oxidative stress from targeted and nontargeted effects. Critical Issues: The significance of secondary radiations generated from the interaction of the primary HZE particles with biological material and the mitigating effects of antioxidants on various cellular injuries are central to understanding nontargeted effects and alleviating tissue injury. Future Directions: Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the cellular responses to HZE particles, particularly under reduced gravity and situations of exposure to additional radiations, such as protons, should be useful in reducing the uncertainty associated with current models for predicting long-term health risks of space radiation. These studies are also relevant to hadron therapy of cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1501–1523. PMID:24111926

  4. High atomic weight, high-energy radiation (HZE induces transcriptional responses shared with conventional stresses in addition to a core DSB response specific to clastogenic treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eMissirian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the suppression of transcripts that promote cell cycle progression. Various DNA damaging agents induce different spectra of DNA damage as well as collateral damage to other cellular components and therefore are not expected to provoke identical responses by the cell. Here we study the effects of two different types of ionizing radiation (IR treatment, HZE (1 GeV Fe26+ high mass, high charge, and high energy relativistic particles and gamma photons, on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Both types of IR induce small clusters of radicals that can result in the formation of double strand breaks (DSBs, but HZE also produces linear arrays of extremely clustered damage. We performed these experiments across a range of time points (1.5 to 24 hours after irradiation in both wild-type plants and in mutants defective in the DSB-sensing protein kinase ATM. The two types of IR exhibit a shared double strand break-repair-related damage response, although they differ slightly in the timing, degree, and ATM-dependence of the response. The ATM-dependent, DNA metabolism-related transcripts of the DSB response were also induced by other DNA damaging agents, but were not induced by conventional stresses. Both Gamma and HZE irradiation induced, at 24 hours post-irradiation, ATM-dependent transcripts associated with a variety of conventional stresses; these were overrepresented for pathogen response, rather than DNA metabolism. In contrast, only HZE-irradiated plants, at 1.5 hr after irradiation, exhibited an additional and very extensive transcriptional response, shared with plants experiencing extended night. This response was not apparent in gamma-irradiated plants.

  5. High atomic weight, high-energy radiation (HZE) induces transcriptional responses shared with conventional stresses in addition to a core "DSB" response specific to clastogenic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missirian, Victor; Conklin, Phillip A; Culligan, Kevin M; Huefner, Neil D; Britt, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the suppression of transcripts that promote cell cycle progression. Various DNA damaging agents induce different spectra of DNA damage as well as "collateral" damage to other cellular components and therefore are not expected to provoke identical responses by the cell. Here we study the effects of two different types of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, HZE (1 GeV Fe(26+) high mass, high charge, and high energy relativistic particles) and gamma photons, on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Both types of IR induce small clusters of radicals that can result in the formation of double strand breaks (DSBs), but HZE also produces linear arrays of extremely clustered damage. We performed these experiments across a range of time points (1.5-24 h after irradiation) in both wild-type plants and in mutants defective in the DSB-sensing protein kinase ATM. The two types of IR exhibit a shared double strand break-repair-related damage response, although they differ slightly in the timing, degree, and ATM-dependence of the response. The ATM-dependent, DNA metabolism-related transcripts of the "DSB response" were also induced by other DNA damaging agents, but were not induced by conventional stresses. Both Gamma and HZE irradiation induced, at 24 h post-irradiation, ATM-dependent transcripts associated with a variety of conventional stresses; these were overrepresented for pathogen response, rather than DNA metabolism. In contrast, only HZE-irradiated plants, at 1.5 h after irradiation, exhibited an additional and very extensive transcriptional response, shared with plants experiencing "extended night." This response was not apparent in gamma-irradiated plants.

  6. The interactions of high-energy, highly charged Xe ions with buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1994-12-31

    Ionization and fragmentation have been measured for C{sub 60} molecules bombarded by highly charged (up to 35+) xenon ions with energies ranging up to 625 MeV. The observed mass distribution of positively charged fragments is explained in terms of a theoretical model indicating that the total interaction cross section contains roughly equal contributions from (a) excitation of the giant plasmon resonance, and (b) large-energy-transfer processes that lead to multiple fragmentation of the molecule. Preliminary results of measurements on VUV photons emitted in these interactions are also presented.

  7. The interactions of high-energy, highly-charged ions with fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, R.; Berry, H.G.; Cheng, S. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1985, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley discovered a new form of carbon, the fullerene, C{sub 60}, which consists of 60 carbon atoms in a closed cage resembling a soccer ball. In 1990, Kritschmer et al. were able to make macroscopic quantities of fullerenes. This has generated intense activity to study the properties of fullerenes. One area of research involves collisions between fullerenes and atoms, ions or electrons. In this paper we describe experiments involving interactions between fullerenes and highly charged ions in which the center-of-mass energies exceed those used in other work by several orders of magnitude. The high values of projectile velocity and charge state result in excitation and decay processes differing significantly from those seen in studies 3 at lower energies. Our results are discussed in terms of theoretical models analogous to those used in nuclear physics and this provides an interesting demonstration of the unity of physics.

  8. Surface and structure modification induced by high energy and highly charged uranium ion irradiation in monocrystal spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yitao, E-mail: yangyt@impcas.ac.cn [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Chonghong; Song, Yin; Gou, Jie; Zhang, Liqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Meng, Yancheng; Zhang, Hengqing [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Yizhun [Materials Research Center, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Due to its high temperature properties and relatively good behavior under irradiation, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) is considered as a possible material to be used as inert matrix for the minor actinides burning. In this case, irradiation damage is an unavoidable problem. In this study, high energy and highly charged uranium ions (290 MeV U{sup 32+}) were used to irradiate monocrystal spinel to the fluence of 1.0 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} to study the modification of surface and structure. Highly charged ions carry large potential energy, when they interact with a surface, the release of potential energy results in the modification of surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed the occurrence of etching on surface after uranium ion irradiation. The etching depth reached 540 nm. The surprising efficiency of etching is considered to be induced by the deposition of potential energy with high density. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the (4 4 0) diffraction peak obviously broadened after irradiation, which indicated that the distortion of lattice has occurred. After multi-peak Gaussian fitting, four Gaussian peaks were separated, which implied that a structure with different damage layers could be formed after irradiation.

  9. Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W.

    1988-01-01

    High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.

  10. Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W

    1988-06-01

    High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.

  11. HZE dosimetry in space using plastic track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kopp, J; Reitz, G; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    Plastic nuclear track detectors were used to measure the contribution of High charge Z and energy E (HZE) particles to the radiation exposure of manned space missions. Results from numerous space missions in the orbit planned for the International Space Station are compared. The measurements cover the declining phase of the last solar cycle during the past 7 years and various shielding conditions inside the US Space Shuttle and the Russian MIR-station.

  12. Effect of HZE particles and space hadrons on bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurov, S.S.; Akoev, I.G.; Leonteva, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of particle radiation of the type encountered in space flight on bacteriophages are investigated. Survival and mutagenesis were followed in dry film cultures or liquid suspensions of T4Br(+) bacteriophage exposed to high-energy (HZE) particles during orbital flight, to alpha particles and accelerator-generated hardrons in the laboratory, and to high-energy cosmic rays at mountain altitudes. The HZE particles and high-energy hadrons are found to have a greater relative biological efficiency than standard gamma radiation, while exhibiting a highly inhomogeneous spatial structure in the observed biological and genetic effects. In addition, the genetic lesions observed are specific to the type of radiation exposure, consisting primarily of deletions and multiple lesions of low revertability, with mode of action depending on the linear energy transfer. 18 references.

  13. Effect of HZE particles and space hadrons on bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, S. S.; Akoev, I. G.; Leont'eva, G. A.

    The effect of high energy (HZE) particles and high energy hadrons on T4Br+ bacteriophage was analyzed. The experiments were done in orbital flight, on high mountains, on an accelerator, and with an alpha particle source. We studied the survival rate of the bacteriophage, the mutation frequency, the mutation spectrum and the revertability under the action of chemical mutagens with a known mechanism of action on DNA. It was found that the biological efficiency of HZE particles and high energy hadrons is greater than that of γ radiation. The spectra of mutations produced by these mutations and the mechanisms of their action are also different. These effects were local, because of the mode of interaction of the radiant energy with biological objects, and depended on the linear energy transfer (LET). The modes have now been experimentally defined.

  14. Effect of HZE particles and space hadrons on bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, S S; Akoev, I G; Leont'eva, G A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of high energy (HZE) particles and high energy hadrons on T4Br+ bacteriophage was analyzed. The experiments were done in orbital flight, on high mountains, on an accelerator, and with an alpha particle source. We studied the survival rate of the bacteriophage, the mutation frequency, the mutation spectrum and the revertability under the action of chemical mutagens with a known mechanism of action on DNA. It was found that the biological efficiency of HZE particles and high energy hadrons is greater than that of gamma radiation. The spectra of mutations produced by these mutations and the mechanisms of their action are also different. These effects were local, because of the mode of interaction of the radiant energy with biological objects, and depended on the linear energy transfer (LET). The modes have now been experimentally defined.

  15. HZE Radiation Leukemogenesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin

    Radiation exposure is a risk factor for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Leukemogenesis NSCOR was developed to compare this risk for low LET vs HZE radiations as a means to better assess the leukemia risk to astronauts posed by space radiation. Individual projects within the NSCOR explore HZE radiation leukemogenesis in murine model systems and extend the findings to AML in humans. AML sensitive CBA/CaJ mice have been irradiated with 1 GeV 56 Fe particles at NSRL and with 137 Cs gamma-rays at Colorado State University and followed to 800 days of age for the development of AML. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses of HZE- and gamma-induced AML, including assays for chromosomal aberrations, PU.1 deletion, gene expression, array CGH and microsatellite instability are ongoing. Preliminary data indicate that 56 Fe particles are no more effective in inducing AML or shortening lifespan than gamma-rays. Studies designed to address the individual molecular steps in leukemogenesis and determine the effects of radiation and genetic background on each step have been initiated using knockout mice. Deletion of the PU.1 gene on mouse chromosome 2 is a critical step in this murine model of radiation leukemogenesis. Two of the three HZE-induced AMLs that could be assayed and thirteen of fourteen γ-induced AMLs had PU.1 loss as determined by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH). We have found that AML sensitive CBA/CaJ mice have a higher incidence of Chr. 2 deletion in bone marrow cells following 56 Fe irradiation than AML resistant C57BL/6 mice. This study is being extended to proton irradiated mice. Our preliminary results indicate that microsatellite instability may be common in HZE irradiated progenitor cells. To determine if these cytogenetic changes can be induced in human myeloid progenitor cells by gamma, proton or HZE irradiation we are generating NOD/SCID mice that have been "humanized" by being transplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells. We are currently

  16. 3D visualisation of the stochastic patterns of the radial dose in nano-volumes by a Monte Carlo simulation of HZE ion track structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2011-02-01

    The description of energy deposition by high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei is of importance for space radiation risk assessment and due to their use in hadrontherapy. Such ions deposit a large fraction of their energy within the so-called core of the track and a smaller proportion in the penumbra (or track periphery). We study the stochastic patterns of the radial dependence of energy deposition using Monte Carlo track structure codes RITRACKS and RETRACKS, that were used to simulate HZE tracks and calculate energy deposition in voxels of 40 nm. The simulation of a (56)Fe(26+) ion of 1 GeV u(-1) revealed zones of high-energy deposition which maybe found as far as a few millimetres away from the track core in some simulations. The calculation also showed that ∼43 % of the energy was deposited in the penumbra. These 3D stochastic simulations combined with a visualisation interface are a powerful tool for biophysicists which may be used to study radiation-induced biological effects such as double strand breaks and oxidative damage and the subsequent cellular and tissue damage processing and signalling.

  17. Computation Molecular Kinetics Model of HZE Induced Cell Cycle Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ren, Lei

    2004-01-01

    Cell culture models play an important role in understanding the biological effectiveness of space radiation. High energy and charge (HZE) ions produce prolonged cell cycle arrests at the G1/S and G2/M transition points in the cell cycle. A detailed description of these phenomena is needed to integrate knowledge of the expression of DNA damage in surviving cells, including the determination of relative effectiveness factors between different types of radiation that produce differential types of DNA damage and arrest durations. We have developed a hierarchical kinetics model that tracks the distribution of cells in various cell phase compartments (early G1, late G1, S, G2, and M), however with transition rates that are controlled by rate-limiting steps in the kinetics of cyclin-cdk's interactions with their families of transcription factors and inhibitor molecules. The coupling of damaged DNA molecules to the downstream cyclin-cdk inhibitors is achieved through a description of the DNA-PK and ATM signaling pathways. For HZE irradiations we describe preliminary results, which introduce simulation of the stochastic nature of the number of direct particle traversals per cell in the modulation of cyclin-cdk and cell cycle population kinetics. Comparison of the model to data for fibroblast cells irradiated photons or HZE ions are described.

  18. Nonperturbative methods in HZE propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shavers, M. R.; Badavi, F. F.; Miller, J.; Shinn, J. L.; Costen, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical solution to the perturbative multiple collision series of a fragmenting HZE ion beam has limited usefulness since the first collision term has several hundred contributions, the second collision term has tens of thousands of contributions, and each successive collision term progresses to unwieldy computational proportions. Our previous work has revealed the multiple collision terms in the straight-ahead approximation to be simple products of a spatially dependent factor times a linear energy-dependent factor of limited domain and unit normalization. The properties of these forms allow the development of the nonperturbative summation of the series to all orders assuming energy-independent nuclear cross sections as matrix products of a scaled Green's function described herein. This nonperturbative Green's function with multiple scattering correction factors compares well with experiments using 670 MeV/u neon-20 ion beams in thick water targets.

  19. Accelerated Hematopoietic Toxicity by High Energy 56Fe Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Kamal; Suman, Shubhankar; Trani, Daniela; Doiron, Kathryn; Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Kallakury, Bhaskar V. S.; Kolesnick, Richard; Cole, Michael F.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is little information on the relative toxicity of highly charged (Z) high-energy (HZE) radiation in animal models compared to γ or x-rays, and the general assumption based on in vitro studies has been that acute toxicity is substantially greater. Methods C57BL/6J mice were irradiated with 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon), and acute (within 30 d) toxicity compared to that of γ rays or protons (1 GeV). To assess relative hematopoietic and gastrointestinal toxicity, the effects of 56Fe ions were compared to γ rays using complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage colony forming unit (GM-CFU), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for apoptosis in bone marrow, and intestinal crypt survival. Results Although onset was more rapid, 56Fe ions were only slightly more toxic than γ rays or protons with lethal dose (LD)50/30 (a radiation dose at which 50% lethality occurs at 30-day) values of 5.8, 7.25, and 6.8 Gy respectively with relative biologic effectiveness for 56Fe ions of 1.25 and 1.06 for protons. Conclusions 56Fe radiation caused accelerated and more severe hematopoietic toxicity. Early mortality correlated with more profound leukopenia and subsequent sepsis. Results indicate that there is selective enhanced toxicity to bone marrow progenitor cells, which are typically resistant to γ rays, and bone marrow stem cells, because intestinal crypt cells did not show increased HZE toxicity. PMID:22077279

  20. Handbook for highly charged ion spectroscopic research

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, Roger; Currell, Fred; Martinson, Indrek; Hagmann, Siegbert

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged ions are key research objects in atomic physics. Precision spectroscopy of such ions provides a powerful tool for exploring relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects. Additionally, the interaction of high-energy heavy-ions with matter is itself a topic of importance in many areas of applied physics, including fusion and plasma physics, accelerator physics, materials science and semiconductor device preparation and behavior. This work provides a complete overview of modern methods of studying highly charged ions. With chapters covering everything from the essential backgro

  1. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed. PMID:27111667

  2. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliedonna Cacao

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE's using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE's are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10 are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE's against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed.

  3. A review and comparative analysis of the biological damage induced during space flight by HZE particles and space hadrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoev, I G; Yurov, S S; Akoev, B I

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the somatic and genetic effects of heavy ions (HZE particles) and the very high energy hadrons of space radiation on various organisms ranging in complexity from bacteriophage to man. Experimental data were obtained in space, on high mountains and in a proton accelerator at energies of 76 GeV. In all these experiments local micro- and macroradiational damage was observed. This damage was characterized by severity over large local regions and for the most part was due to cascades of secondary particle bundles resulting from the collision of very high energy space hadrons with atomic nuclei rather than from cellular hits from relatively low energy single HZE particles. At present there does not appear to be any effective way to provide shielding against these cosmic hadrons.

  4. Biological Effects of Particles with Very High Energy Deposition on Mammalian Cells Utilizing the Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wang, Minli

    2013-01-01

    High LET radiation from GCR (Galactic Cosmic Rays) consisting mainly of high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and secondary protons and neutrons, and secondaries from protons in SPE (Solar Particle Event) pose a major health risk to astronauts due to induction of DNA damage and oxidative stress. Experiments with high energy particles mimicking the space environment for estimation of radiation risk are being performed at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at BNL. Experiments with low energy particles comparing to high energy particles of similar LET are of interest for investigation of the role of track structure on biological effects. For this purpose, we report results utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at BNL. The primary objective of our studies is to elucidate the influence of high vs low energy deposition on track structure, delta ray contribution and resulting biological responses. These low energy ions are of special relevance as these energies may occur following absorption through the spacecraft and shielding materials in human tissues and nuclear fragments produced in tissues by high energy protons and neutrons. This study will help to verify the efficiency of these low energy particles and better understand how various cell types respond to them.

  5. NASA space cancer risk model-2014: Uncertainties due to qualitative differences in biological effects of HZE particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis

    Uncertainties in estimating health risks from exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) — comprised of protons and high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei are an important limitation to long duration space travel. HZE nuclei produce both qualitative and quantitative differences in biological effects compared to terrestrial radiation leading to large uncertainties in predicting risks to humans. Our NASA Space Cancer Risk Model-2012 (NSCR-2012) for estimating lifetime cancer risks from space radiation included several new features compared to earlier models from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) used at NASA. New features of NSCR-2012 included the introduction of NASA defined radiation quality factors based on track structure concepts, a Bayesian analysis of the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) and its uncertainty, and the use of a never-smoker population to represent astronauts. However, NSCR-2012 did not include estimates of the role of qualitative differences between HZE particles and low LET radiation. In this report we discuss evidence for non-targeted effects increasing cancer risks at space relevant HZE particle absorbed doses in tissue (Mars exploration will be described, and compared to those of our earlier NSCR-2012 model.

  6. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  7. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  8. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gammino, S

    2013-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

  9. Enhanced intestinal tumor multiplicity and grade in vivo after HZE exposure: mouse models for space radiation risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Daniela; Datta, Kamal; Doiron, Kathryn; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Fornace, Albert J

    2010-08-01

    Carcinogenesis induced by space radiation is considered a major risk factor in manned interplanetary and other extended missions. The models presently used to estimate the risk for cancer induction following deep space radiation exposure are based on data from A-bomb survivor cohorts and do not account for important biological differences existing between high-linear energy transfer (LET) and low-LET-induced DNA damage. High-energy and charge (HZE) radiation, the main component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), causes highly complex DNA damage compared to low-LET radiation, which may lead to increased frequency of chromosomal rearrangements, and contribute to carcinogenic risk in astronauts. Gastrointestinal (GI) tumors are frequent in the United States, and colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer accounting for 10% of all cancer deaths. On the basis of the aforementioned epidemiological observations and the frequency of spontaneous precancerous GI lesions in the general population, even a modest increase in incidence by space radiation exposure could have a significant effect on health risk estimates for future manned space flights. Ground-based research is necessary to reduce the uncertainties associated with projected cancer risk estimates and to gain insights into molecular mechanisms involved in space-induced carcinogenesis. We investigated in vivo differential effects of gamma-rays and HZE ions on intestinal tumorigenesis using two different murine models, ApcMin/+ and Apc1638N/+. We showed that gamma- and/or HZE exposure significantly enhances development and progression of intestinal tumors in a mutant-line-specific manner, and identified suitable models for in vivo studies of space radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis.

  10. Surface nanostructures by single highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, S; Heller, R; El-Said, A S; Meissl, W; Aumayr, F

    2009-06-03

    It has recently been demonstrated that the impact of individual, slow but highly charged ions on various surfaces can induce surface modifications with nanometer dimensions. Generally, the size of these surface modifications (blisters, hillocks, craters or pits) increases dramatically with the potential energy of the highly charged ion, while the kinetic energy of the projectile ions seems to be of little importance. This paper presents the currently available experimental evidence and theoretical models and discusses the circumstances and conditions under which nanosized features on different surfaces due to the impact of slow highly charged ions can be produced.

  11. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs...

  12. Increased mutagenic joining of enzymatically-induced DNA double-strand breaks in high-charge and energy particle irradiated human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhentian; Hudson, Farlyn Z; Wang, Huichen; Wang, Ya; Bian, Zhuan; Murnane, John P; Dynan, William S

    2013-07-01

    The carcinogenic risk of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle exposure arises from its ability to both induce complex DNA damage and from its ability to evoke deleterious, non-DNA targeted effects. We investigate here whether these nontargeted effects involve dysregulation of double-strand break repair, such that a history of HZE exposure heightens the risks from future injury. We used a new human cell reporter line, in which expression of the I-SceI meganuclease stimulates both translocations on different chromosomes, and deletions on the same chromosome. Exposure to 1.0 Gy of 600 MeV/u (56)Fe ions led to a doubling in the frequency of I-SceI-mediated translocations and a smaller, but nevertheless significant, increase in the frequency of I-SceI-mediated deletions. This mutagenic repair phenotype persisted for up to two weeks and eight population doublings. The phenotype was not induced by low-linear energy transfer radiation or by a lower dose of HZE-particle radiation (0.3 Gy) indicating that the effect is radiation quality and dose dependent. The mutagenic repair phenotype was associated with the presence of micronuclei and persistent DSB repair foci, consistent with a hypothesis that genomic stress is a causative factor.

  13. Chromosomal and carcinogenic effects of sequential HZE and low-LET irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Dustin Mark

    All persons are exposed to a natural background of ionizing radiations with different spatial patterns of energy deposition resulting in differential biologic response. Astronauts, aircrew and radioactive contamination clean-up personnel are exposed to particularly complex radiation spectra. The current method for calculating radiation-induced exposure limits in mixed radiation environments is based on the linear summation of non-threshold risks, a methodology grounded in the premise that each component of the radiation field acts independently of the presence of other components. The assumption of effect independence of in-vitro exposed samples was tested by evaluating the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by sequential irradiation of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells with 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions and 137Cs gamma-rays. Experimental response was found to be significantly less than calculated on the basis of effect independence, but only when 56Fe ions preceded the photon exposure. That there was order dependence is interpreted as evidence that response may not simply be a result of interactions between similar sublesions but rather may involve qualitatively different time-ordered parameters. The presence of this sub-additive response is phenomenologically similar to adaptive response, which had not been previously reported as a consequence to high-energy heavy ion irradiation. Calculations based on effect independence predict a significantly greater average number and lifetime cumulative incidence of breast cancers in female Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated with both 56Fe ions and 250 MeV protons than was experimentally observed. This finding supports the hypothesis that the presence of non-additive response is not exclusively an in vitro phenomenon. Results from an evaluation of mammary epithelial cell response induced in a rat cancer model are marginally consistent with the use of in vivo induced chromosome aberrations as a biomarker of breast

  14. High energy astrophysical neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Athar, H.

    2002-01-01

    High energy neutrinos with energy typically greater than tens of thousands of GeV may originate from several astrophysical sources. The sources may include, for instance, our galaxy, the active centers of nearby galaxies, as well as possibly the distant sites of gamma ray bursts. I briefly review some aspects of production and propagation as well as prospects for observations of these high energy astrophysical neutrinos.

  15. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  16. The effect of high energy (HZE) particle radiation (Ar-40) on aging parameters of mouse hippocampus and retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Corbett, R.; Stevenson, J.; Black, S.; Sapp, W.; Miquel, J.; Lindseth, K. A.; Benton, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Eight month old C57BL6 mice were exposed (head only) to 0.5 rad or 50 rads of Argon particles at the Lawrence Berkeley Radiation Facility, CA. Neuromotor performance was assessed monthly for six months beginning twelve weeks post-irradiation using a 'string test'. The decline in motor performance was dose-related and none of the animals was able to complete the task after four months of testing. Morphological changes were monitored six and twelve months post-irradiation by light and electron microscopy. The synaptic density in the CA-1 area of the hippocampus decreased six and twelve months after irradiation. The decrease after twelve months was less than after six months. The width of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) of the retina increased with increasing dose. The number of blood vessels between the ONL and the ganglion layer decreased twelve months after irradiation and this area did not show significant accumulation of age pigment.

  17. A high charge state multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Keller, R. (Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (US))

    1990-01-01

    Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (GSI) to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam. Results demonstrate that charge state as high as +7 can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. The brightness of a 11-mA xenon ion beam is found to be 26 A/({pi} mm mrad){sup 2}.

  18. Experimental recombination rates for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold Schuch [Dept. of Atomic Physics, Stockholm Univ., Frescativ., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies of recombination between free electrons and highly charged ions using electron coolers of heavy-ion storage rings have produced accurate rate coefficients of interest for plasma modeling and diagnostics. Some surprises were discovered which can lead to revisions of recombination models. With bare ions one finds at low energy a strong and puzzling deviation from radiative recombination theory. Dielectronic recombination with C3+, N4+ show that jj coupling gives essential contributions to the cross section also for light ions. (author)

  19. Biological characterization of low-energy ions with high-energy deposition on human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Janapriya; Wilson, Paul; Thieberger, Peter; Lowenstein, Derek; Wang, Minli; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-09-01

    During space travel, astronauts are exposed to cosmic radiation that is comprised of high-energy nuclear particles. Cancer patients are also exposed to high-energy nuclear particles when treated with proton and carbon beams. Nuclear interactions from high-energy particles traversing shielding materials and tissue produce low-energy (energy (HZE) particles and low-energy secondary ions of similar LET will have distinct biological effects for cellular and tissue damage endpoints. We investigated the biological effects of low-energy ions of high LET utilizing the Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and compared these to experiments with HZE particles, that mimic the space environment produced at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL. Immunostaining for DNA damage response proteins was carried out after irradiation with 5.6 MeV/n boron (LET 205 keV/μm), 5.3 MeV/n silicon (LET 1241 keV/μm), 600 MeV/n Fe (LET 180 keV/μm) and 77 MeV/n oxygen (LET 58 keV/μm) particles. Low-energy ions caused more persistent DNA damage response (DDR) protein foci in irradiated human fibroblasts and esophageal epithelial cells compared to HZE particles. More detailed studies comparing boron ions to Fe particles, showed that boron-ion radiation resulted in a stronger G2 delay compared to Fe-particle exposure, and boron ions also showed an early recruitment of Rad51 at double-strand break (DSB) sites, which suggests a preference of homologous recombination for DSB repair in low-energy albeit high-LET particles. Our experiments suggest that the very high-energy radiation deposition by low-energy ions, representative of galactic cosmic radiation and solar particle event secondary radiation, generates massive but localized DNA damage leading to delayed DSB repair, and distinct cellular responses from HZE particles. Thus, low-energy heavy ions provide a valuable probe for studies of homologous recombination repair in radiation responses.

  20. High-Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Experimentalists in particle physics have long regarded computers as essential components of their apparatus. Theorists are now finding that significant advances in some areas can be accomplished only in partnership with a machine. Needs of experimentalists, interests of theorists, and specialized computers for high-energy experiments are…

  1. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  2. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  3. Atomic physics with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  4. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  5. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  6. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2015-03-13

    Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy.

  7. Radioactive decays of highly-charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Access to stored and cooled highly-charged radionuclides offers unprecedented opportunities to perform high-precision investigations of their decays. Since the few-electron ions, e.g. hydrogen- or helium-like ions, are quantum mechanical systems with clear electronic ground state configurations, the decay studies of such ions are performed under well-defined conditions and allow for addressing fundamental aspects of the decay process. Presented here is a compact review of the relevant experiments conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring ESR of GSI. A particular emphasis is given to the investigations of the two-body beta decay, namely the bound-state β-decay and its time-mirrored counterpart, orbital electron-capture.

  8. Electronic transitions in highly charged ion-atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Ullrich, J.; Schuch, R.; Olson, R. E.; Dörner, R.

    1989-09-01

    Three different aspects of electronic transitions in fast, highly charged ion-atom collisions are discussed. First, experimental data and n-CTMC calculations for differential multiple ionization cross sections of 1.4 {MeV}/{u} U 32+on rare gas atoms are presented. It is shown that the electronic motion has a dramatic influence on the kinematics of the emitted particles (in particular the nuclei). The possibility is discussed to measure in fast ionizing processes by a recoil ion-projectile coincidence technique the internal sum momentum of "electron clusters" in atoms. This new "technique" opens a new field of atomic structure research at high-energy heavy-ion accelerators. Second, the use of the H-like heavy ions as projectiles is discussed to measure, through observable interference structures, static and dynamic properties of transiently formed superheavy quasimolecular systems. Third, the "ancient" gas target-solid target difference in the impact-parameter dependence of K-shell ionization in nearly symmetric ion-atom collisions is presented. This severe discrepancy between gas and solid still remains an unsolved fundamental problem in the field of inner-shell ionization in the MO regime.

  9. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  10. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  11. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  12. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger

    2001-01-01

    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  13. Frequency metrology using highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Due to the scaling laws of relativistic fine structure splitting, many forbidden optical transitions appear within the ground state configurations of highly charged ions (HCI). In some hydrogen-like ions, even the hyperfine splitting of the 1s ground state gives rise to optical transitions. Given the very low polarizability of HCI, such laser-accessible transitions are extremely impervious to external perturbations and systematics that limit optical clock performance and arise from AC and DC Stark effects, such as black-body radiation and light shifts. Moreover, AC and DC Zeeman splitting are symmetric due to the much larger relativistic spin-orbit coupling and corresponding fine-structure splitting. Appropriate choice of states or magnetic sub-states with suitable total angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers can lead to a cancellation of residual quadrupolar shifts. All these properties are very advantageous for the proposed use of HCI forbidden lines as optical frequency standards. Extremely magnified relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, and nuclear size contributions to the binding energies of the optically active electrons make HCI ideal tools for fundamental research, as in proposed studies of a possible time variation of the fine structure constant. Beyond this, HCI that cannot be photoionized by vacuum-ultraviolet photons could also provide frequency standards for future lasers operating in that range.

  14. LMO dielectronic resonances in highly charged bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiga, Joseph; Gillaspy, John; Podpaly, Yuri; Ralchenko, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Dielectronic resonances from high-Z elements are important for the analysis of high temperature plasmas. Thus, the extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly charged bismuth were measured using the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at beam energies ranging from 8.7 keV to 9.2 keV. The measured intensity ratios between forbidden magnetic-dipole lines in Bi64+ and Bi63+ show strong resonance features. The experimental data were compared to theoretical predictions from a large-scale collisional-radiative model with the code NOMAD, and good agreement was found that allowed the identification of observed resonance features as the LMO inner-shell dielectronic resonances. It is common practice in EBIT experiments that ions are periodically dumped from the trap and replaced. However, in this particular experiment, the contents of the trap were not dumped for the duration of each 10 minute sampling. The effects of trap stability were studied and a small but noticeable shift in beam energy over time was observed. Potential explanations for this are considered.

  15. Precision mass measurements of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Bale, J. C.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Ettenauer, S.; Frekers, D.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Lennarz, A.; Mane, E.; MacDonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Simon, M. C.; Simon, V. V.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    The reputation of Penning trap mass spectrometry for accuracy and precision was established with singly charged ions (SCI); however, the achievable precision and resolving power can be extended by using highly charged ions (HCI). The TITAN facility has demonstrated these enhancements for long-lived (T1/2>=50 ms) isobars and low-lying isomers, including ^71Ge^21+, ^74Rb^8+, ^78Rb^8+, and ^98Rb^15+. The Q-value of ^71Ge enters into the neutrino cross section, and the use of HCI reduced the resolving power required to distinguish the isobars from 3 x 10^5 to 20. The precision achieved in the measurement of ^74Rb^8+, a superallowed β-emitter and candidate to test the CVC hypothesis, rivaled earlier measurements with SCI in a fraction of the time. The 111.19(22) keV isomeric state in ^78Rb was resolved from the ground state. Mass measurements of neutron-rich Rb and Sr isotopes near A = 100 aid in determining the r-process pathway. Advanced ion manipulation techniques and recent results will be presented.

  16. (The physics of highly charged ions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1990-10-12

    The Fifth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions drew more than 200 participants, providing an excellent overview of this growing field. Important technical developments and experimental results in electron-ion collisions were reported. The merging of fast ion beams from accelerators or storage rings with advanced high-intensity electron-beam targets has yielded data of unprecedented quality on radiative and dielectronic recombination, providing stringent tests of theory. Long-awaited technical innovations in electron-impact excitation measurements were also reported. The level of activity in multicharged ion-surface interactions has increased. More sophisticated experimental studies of the neutralization process have shown the inadequacy of previously accepted mechanisms, and theoretical activity in this area is just being initiated. The IAEA meetings addressed atomic and molecular data needs for fusion research, with ITER providing a key focus. Such data are especially critical to modeling and diagnostics of the edge plasma. The ALADDIN data base system has been universally accepted and has streamlined the exchange of numerical data among data centers and the fusion community. The IAEA continues to play a pivotal role in the identification of data needs, and in the coordination of data compilation and research activities for fusion applications.

  17. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  18. Bacterial spore survival after exposure to HZE particle bombardment -implication for the lithopanspermia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Kitamura, H.; Reitz, Guenther

    transcriptional response during spore germination" (Moeller et al., 2008 [3]). To simulate the interplanetary journey of a meteorite, stacks of spore-samples on gabbro slides in different depths were exposed. Spore survival and the rate of the induced mutations (i.e., sporulation-deficiency (Spo-)) depended on the LET of the applied species of ions as well as on the location (and depth) of the irradiated spores in the artificial meteorite. The exposure to high LET iron ions led to a low level of spore survival and increased frequency of mutation to Spo-compared to low-energy charged particles compared to the low LET helium ions. In order to obtain insights on the role of DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR) and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases in B. subtilis spore resistance to high-energy charged particles has been studied in parallel. Spores deficient in NHEJ and AP endonucleases were significantly more sensitive to HZE particle bombardment than were the HR-mutant and wild-type spores, indicating that NHEJ and AP endonucleases provide DNA break repair pathways during spore germination. ((References: [1] Arrhenius, S. 1903. Die Verbreitung des Lebens im Weltenraum. Umschau 7:481-485.; [2] Nicholson, W. L. 2009. Ancient micronauts: interplanetary transport of microbes by cosmic impacts. Trends Mi-crobiol. 17:243-250.; [3] Moeller, R., P. Setlow, G. Horneck, T. Berger, G. Reitz, P. Rettberg, A. J. Doherty, R. Okayasu, and W. L. Nicholson. 2008. Roles of the major, small, acid-soluble spore proteins and spore-specific and universal DNA repair mechanisms in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to ionizing radiation from X-rays and high-energy charged-particle bombardment. J. Bacteriol. 190:1134-1140.))

  19. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  20. High energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  1. Flare physics at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy processes, involving a rich variety of accelerated particle phenomena, lie at the core of the solar flare problem. The most direct manifestation of these processes are high-energy radiations, gamma rays, hard X-rays and neutrons, as well as the accelerated particles themselves, which can be detected in interplanetary space. In the study of astrophysics from the moon, the understanding of these processes should have great importance. The inner solar system environment is strongly influenced by activity on the sun; the physics of solar flares is of great intrinsic interest; and much high-energy astrophysics can be learned from investigations of flare physics at high energies.

  2. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  3. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  4. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  5. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  6. The AAVSO High Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron

    2004-06-01

    The AAVSO is expanding its International Gamma-Ray Burst Network to incorporate other high energy objects such as blazars and magnetic cataclysmic variables (polars). The new AAVSO High Energy Network will be collaborating with the Global Telescope Network (GTN) to observe bright blazars in support of the upcoming GLAST mission. We also will be observing polars in support of the XMM mission. This new network will involve both visual and CCD obsrvers and is expected to last for many years.

  7. Ultra High Energy Nuclei Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ultra high energy nuclei propagation in astrophysical backgrounds. We present a new analytical computation scheme based on the hypothesis of continuos energy losses in a kinetic formulation of the particles propagation. This scheme enables the computation of the fluxes of ultra high energy nuclei as well as the fluxes of secondaries (nuclei and nucleons) produced by the process of photo-disintegration suffered by nuclei.

  8. High-energy astroparticle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Semikoz, A

    2010-01-01

    In these three lectures I discuss the present status of high-energy astroparticle physics including Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR), high-energy gamma rays, and neutrinos. The first lecture is devoted to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. After a brief introduction to UHECR I discuss the acceleration of charged particles to highest energies in the astrophysical objects, their propagation in the intergalactic space, recent observational results by the Auger and HiRes experiments, anisotropies of UHECR arrival directions, and secondary gamma rays produced by UHECR. In the second lecture I review recent results on TeV gamma rays. After a short introduction to detection techniques, I discuss recent exciting results of the H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Milagro experiments on the point-like and diffuse sources of TeV gamma rays. A special section is devoted to the detection of extragalactic magnetic fields with TeV gammaray measurements. Finally, in the third lecture I discuss Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) neutrinos. I review t...

  9. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  10. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; Barthelmy, Scott; Palmer, David; Mitchell, John; Esposito, Joseph; Sreekumar, P.; Hua, Xin-Min; Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Chan, Kai-Wing; Soong, Yang; Barrett, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  11. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is preferent

  12. Collision phenomena involving highly-charged ions in astronomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.

    2001-01-01

    A description of the role of highly charged ions in various astronomical objects; includes the use of critical quantities such as cross sections for excitation, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR); and lifetimes, branching ratios, and A-values.

  13. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Djekic, S. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Haeffner, H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Hermanspahn, N. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Moore, R. [McGill University (Canada); Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Weber, C. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Werth, G. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy.

  14. State selective capture by highly charged Xe ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, V. G.; Knoop, S.; Morgenstern, R.; Hoekstra, R.; McCullough, RW; Currell, FJ; Greenwood, J; Gribakin, G; Scott, MP

    2007-01-01

    Single-electron capture in collisions of highly charged ions Xe18+ and Xe24+ with Na atoms is investigated by measuring the momenta of the Na recoil ions. The Q-value spectrum in Xe18+ + Na collisions shows capture into lower n states compared with Classical over-barrier model (CBM) calculations.

  15. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is

  16. EBIT spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions relevant to hot plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is a versatile device for studying highly charged ions. We have been using two types of EBITs for the spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions. One is a high-energy device called the Tokyo-EBIT, and another is a compact low-energy device called CoBIT. Complementary use of them enables us to obtain spectroscopic data for ions over a wide charge-state range interacting with electrons over a wide energy range. In this talk, we present EBIT spectra of highly charged ions for tungsten, iron, bismuth, etc., which are relevant to hot plasmas. Tungsten is considered to be the main impurity in the ITER (the next generation nuclear fusion reactor) plasma, and thus its emission lines are important for diagnosing and controlling the ITER plasma. We have observed many previously unreported lines to supply the lack of spectroscopic data of tungsten ions. Iron is one of the main components of the solar corona, and its spectra are used to diagnose temperature, density, etc. The diagnostics is usually done by comparing observed spectra with model calculations. An EBIT can provide spectra under a well-defined condition; they are thus useful to test the model calculations. Laser-produced bismuth plasma is one of the candidates for a soft x-ray source in the water window region. An EBIT has a narrow charge state distribution; it is thus useful to disentangle the spectra of laser-produced plasma containing ions with a wide charge-state range. Performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS09KOAJ003) and JSPS KAKENHI Number 23246165, and partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics.

  17. Mexican High Energy Physics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Olivo, J. C.; Napsuciale, M.; Pérez-Angón, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican High Energy Physics Network is one of CONACYT's thematic research networks, created with the aim of increasing the communication and cooperation of the scientific and technology communities of Mexico in strategic areas. In this report we review the evolution, challenges, achievements and opportunities faced by the network.

  18. Ionisation from the 3s sub-level of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, L. B.; Sampson, D. H.; Omidvar, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scaled electron-impact cross sections are calculated for ionization from the 3s sublevel of hydrogenic ions with Z equal infinity by use of the Born exchange or the Coulomb-Born Oppenheimer approximation (which is exact, apart from relativistic corrections, in this limit). The results are fitted to an analytic expression which goes into the correct Bethe approximation result at high energies and which can readily be integrated over a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution to obtain collision rates. These results permit calculation of the approximate cross section and collision rate for ionization from the 3s sublevel of any highly charged ion with Z/N larger than approximately 2. Results obtained by the described procedure for Fe-14(+) and Fe-15(+) are compared with results obtained by other procedures.

  19. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  20. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  1. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  2. A high energy physics perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  3. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  4. High-energy atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

    2010-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons that were produced through the cosmic rays collisions with air nuclei, form unavoidable background noise in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. The atmospheric neutrino flux above 1 PeV should be supposedly dominated by the contribution of charmed particle decays. These (prompt) neutrinos originated from decays of massive and shortlived particles, $D^\\pm$, $D^0$, $\\bar{D}{}^0$, $D_s^\\pm$, $\\Lambda^+_c$, form the most uncertain fraction of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux because of poor explored processes of the charm production. Besides, an ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. There is the energy region where above flux uncertainties superimpose. A new calculation presented here reveals sizable differences, up to the factor of 1.8 above 1 TeV, in muon neutrino flux predictions obtained with usage of known...

  5. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  6. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  7. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M; Versolato, O O; Windberger, A; Brunner, F R; Ballance, T; Eberle, S N; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; Hansen, A K; Gingell, A D; Drewsen, M; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2012-08-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H(2) partial pressure of about 10(-15) mbar (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been set up to provide cold Be(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions.

  8. Highly Charged Clusters of Fullerenes: Charge Mobility and Appearance Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manil, B.; Maunoury, L.; Huber, B. A.; Jensen, J.; Schmidt, H. T.; Zettergren, H.; Cederquist, H.; Tomita, S.; Hvelplund, P.

    2003-11-01

    Clusters of fullerenes (C60,C70)n are produced in a gas aggregation source and are multiply ionized in collisions with highly charged Xe20+,30+ ions. Their stabilities and decay processes are analyzed with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Fullerene clusters in charge states up to q=5 have been observed and appearance sizes are found to be as small as napp=5, 10, 21, and 33 for q=2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The analysis of the multicoincident fragmentation spectra indicates a high charge mobility. This is in contrast to charge localization effects which have been reported for Arq+n rare gas clusters. Clusters of fullerenes are found to be conducting when multiply charged.

  9. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...... (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been...... set up to provide cold Be+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions....

  10. Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions

    OpenAIRE

    S. GamminoINFN, LNS, Catania

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyc...

  11. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  12. Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...

  13. Polarized beams in high energy circular accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1979-05-01

    In recent years, high energy physicists have become increasingly interested in the possible spin effects at high energies. To study those spin effects, it is desirable to have beams with high energy, high intensity and high polarization. In this talk, we briefly review the present status and the prospects for the near future of high energy polarized beams. 30 refs.

  14. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  15. Simulation of High Energy Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Mashtakov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Under the scope of a CERN summer student project, a Geant4 physical model has been developed and committed to the Geant4 repository to allow precise simulation of high-energy muons and hadrons transport inside a material. Resulted angular distributions produced by this model have small deviations from those that were obtained by the Geant4 model used by default. High-energetic muons energy losses inside the CMS tracker have also been estimated and may vary from 0.05% up to 2.5%.

  16. High-energy neutrino astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis

    2017-03-01

    The chargeless, weakly interacting neutrinos are ideal astronomical messengers as they travel through space without scattering, absorption or deflection. But this weak interaction also makes them notoriously di cult to detect, leading to neutrino observatories requiring large-scale detectors. A few years ago, the IceCube experiment discovered neutrinos originating beyond the Sun with energies bracketed by those of the highest energy gamma rays and cosmic rays. I discuss how these high-energy neutrinos can be detected and what they can tell us about the origins of cosmic rays and about dark matter.

  17. Duke University high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and {sub {Chi}} meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report.

  18. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-11

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu{sup -1} for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar{sup 17+} and Ar{sup 18+} ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu{sup -1}, charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar{sup 16+} and Xe{sup 44+} and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  19. Transfer ionization in collisions with a fast highly charged ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitkiv, A B

    2013-07-26

    Transfer ionization in fast collisions between a bare ion and an atom, in which one of the atomic electrons is captured by the ion whereas another one is emitted, crucially depends on dynamic electron-electron correlations. We show that in collisions with a highly charged ion a strong field of the ion has a very profound effect on the correlated channels of transfer ionization. In particular, this field weakens (strongly suppresses) electron emission into the direction opposite (perpendicular) to the motion of the ion. Instead, electron emission is redirected into those parts of the momentum space which are very weakly populated in fast collisions with low charged ions.

  20. Measurement of Metastable Lifetimes of Highly-Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven J.; Chutjian, A.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is part of a series of measurements of metastable lifetimes of highly-charged ions (HCIs) which contribute to optical absorption, emission and energy balance in the Interstellar Medium (ISM), stellar atmospheres, etc. Measurements were carried out using the 14-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at the JPL HCI facility. The ECR provides useful currents of charge states such as C(sup(1-6)+), Mg(sup(1-6)+) and Fe(sup(1-17)+). In this work the HCI beam is focused into a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap for measuring lifetimes via optical decays.

  1. Peripheral collisions of highly charged ions with metal clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Cheng-Jun; Hu Bi-Tao; Luo Xian-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the dynamical classical over-barrier model,the soft collisions between slow highly charged ions(SHCIs)Ar17+ and the large copper clusters under large impact parameters have been studied in this paper.We present the dominant mechanism of the electron transfer between SHCls and a large metal cluster by computational simulation.The evolution of the occupation of projectile ions,KLχ satellite lines,X-ray yields,Auger electron spectrum and scattering angles are provided.

  2. High-Intensity, High Charge-State Heavy Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J

    2004-01-01

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions will be reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. The benefits and limitations for these type sources will be described, for both dc and pulsed applications. Possible future improvements in these type sources will also be discussed.

  3. Modelling surface restructuring by slow highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, G.; Tőkési, K.; Betz, G.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2013-12-01

    We theoretically investigate surface modifications on alkaline earth halides due to highly charged ion impact, focusing on recent experimental evidence for both etch pit and nano-hillock formation on CaF2 (A.S. El-Said et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, (2012) 117602 [1]). We discuss mechanisms for converting the projectile potential and kinetic energies into thermal energy capable of changing the surface structure. A proof-of-principle classical molecular dynamics simulation suggests the existence of two thresholds which we associate with etch pit and nano-hillock formation in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  4. Modelling surface restructuring by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, G., E-mail: georg.wachter@tuwien.ac.at [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Tőkési, K. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Science (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Betz, G. [Institute for Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstraße 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-15

    We theoretically investigate surface modifications on alkaline earth halides due to highly charged ion impact, focusing on recent experimental evidence for both etch pit and nano-hillock formation on CaF{sub 2} (A.S. El-Said et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, (2012) 117602 [1]). We discuss mechanisms for converting the projectile potential and kinetic energies into thermal energy capable of changing the surface structure. A proof-of-principle classical molecular dynamics simulation suggests the existence of two thresholds which we associate with etch pit and nano-hillock formation in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  5. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Mukhi; Probir Roy

    2009-07-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics back-ground, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the Standard Model, and proposals – including the radical paradigm of String Theory – have been made to go beyond the Standard Model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors.

  6. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  7. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  8. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions on Al oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, R E; Pomeroy, J M; Sosolik, C E

    2010-03-03

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) carry a large amount of potential energy that can be dissipated within femtoseconds upon interaction with a surface. HCI-insulator collisions result in high sputter yields and surface nanofeature creation due to strong coupling between the solid's electronic system and lattice. For HCIs interacting with Al oxide, combined experiments and theory indicate that defect mediated desorption can explain reasonably well preferential O atom removal and an observed threshold for sputtering due to potential energy. These studies have relied on measuring mass loss on the target substrate or probing craters left after desorption. Our approach is to extract highly charged ions onto the Al oxide barriers of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions and measure the increased conductance in a finished device after the irradiated interface is buried under the top metal layer. Such transport measurements constrain dynamic surface processes and provide large sets of statistics concerning the way individual HCI projectiles dissipate their potential energy. Results for Xe(q +) for q = 32, 40, 44 extracted onto Al oxide films are discussed in terms of postirradiation electrical device characteristics. Future work will elucidate the relationship between potential energy dissipation and tunneling phenomena through HCI modified oxides.

  9. Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postavaru, Octavian

    2010-12-08

    In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)

  10. Electron impact ionization of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K L

    1992-10-01

    Electron impact ionization cross sections can provide valuable information about the charge-state and power balance of highly charged ions in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the present work, a novel technique based on x-ray measurements has been used to infer the ionization cross section of highly charged lithiumlike ions on the Livermore electron beam ion trap. In particular, a correspondence is established between an observed x ray and an ionization event. The measurements are made at one energy corresponding to approximately 2.3 times the threshold energy for ionization of lithiumlike ions. The technique is applied to the transition metals between Z=22 (titanium, Ti[sup 19+]) and Z=26 (iron, Fe[sup 23+]) and to Z=56 (barium, Ba[sup 53+]). The results for the transition metals, which have an estimated 17-33% uncertainty, are in good overall agreement with a relativistic distorted-wave calculation. However, less good agreement is found for barium, which has a larger uncertainty. Methods for properly accounting for the polarization in the x-ray intensities and for inferring the charge-state abundances from x-ray observations, which were developed for the ionization measurements, as well as an x-ray model that assists in the proper interpretation of the data are also presented.

  11. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1994-08-01

    The study of inelastic collision phenomena with highly charged projectile ions and the interpretation of spectral features resulting from these collisions remain as the major focal points in the atomic physics research at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas. The title of the research project, ``Atomic Physics with Highly Charged Ions,`` speaks to these points. The experimental work in the past few years has divided into collisions at high velocity using the primary beams from the tandem and LINAC accelerators and collisions at low velocity using the CRYEBIS facility. Theoretical calculations have been performed to accurately describe inelastic scattering processes of the one-electron and many-electron type, and to accurately predict atomic transition energies and intensities for x rays and Auger electrons. Brief research summaries are given for the following: (1) electron production in ion-atom collisions; (2) role of electron-electron interactions in two-electron processes; (3) multi-electron processes; (4) collisions with excited, aligned, Rydberg targets; (5) ion-ion collisions; (6) ion-molecule collisions; (7) ion-atom collision theory; and (8) ion-surface interactions.

  12. Probing QCD at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Voutilainen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    We review recent experimental work on probing QCD at high $p_{T}$ at the Tevatron and at the LHC. The Tevatron has just finished a long and illustrious career at the forefront of high energy physics, while the LHC now has its physics program in full swing and is producing results at a quick rate in a new energy regime. Many of the LHC measurements extend well into the TeV range, with potential sensitivity to new physics. The experimental systematics at the LHC are also becoming competitive with the Tevatron, making precision measurements of QCD possible. Measurements of inclusive jet, dijet and isolated prompt photon production can be used to test perturbative QCD predictions and to constrain parton distribution functions, as well as to measure the strong coupling constant. More exclusive topologies are used to constrain aspects of parton shower modeling, initial and final state radiation. Interest in boosted heavy resonances has resulted in novel studies of jet mass and subjet structure that also test pertu...

  13. High Energy Computed Tomographic Inspection of Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 815 Technical Report AREIS-TR-16006 HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC INSPECTION OF MUNITIONS...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) November 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGH ENERGY COMPUTED...otherwise be accomplished by other nondestructive testing methods. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiography High energy Computed tomography (CT

  14. The Effects of HZE Particles, γ and X-ray Radiation on the Survival and Genetic Integrity of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus hamelinensis, and Halococcus morrhuae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, Stefan; Rettberg, Petra

    2017-02-01

    Three halophilic archaea, Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus hamelinensis, and Halococcus morrhuae, have been exposed to different regimes of simulated outer space ionizing radiation. Strains were exposed to high-energy heavy ion (HZE) particles, namely iron and argon ions, as well as to γ radiation (60Co) and X-rays, and the survival and the genetic integrity of the 16S rRNA gene were evaluated. Exposure to 1 kGy of argon or iron ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility at the National Institute for Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Japan did not lead to a detectable loss in viability; only after exposure to 2 kGy of iron ions a decline in survival was observed. Furthermore, a delay in growth was manifested following exposure to 2 kGy iron ions. DNA integrity of the 16S rRNA was not compromised up to 1 kGy, with the exception of Hcc. hamelinensis following exposure to argon particles. All three strains showed a high resistance toward X-rays (exposed at the DLR in Cologne, Germany), where Hcc. hamelinensis and Hcc. morrhuae displayed better survival compared to Hbt. salinarum NRC-1. In all three organisms the DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner. To determine a biological endpoint for survival following exposure to γ radiation, strains were exposed to up to 112 kGy at the Beta-Gamma-Service GmbH (BGS) in Germany. Although all strains were incubated for up to 4 months, only Hcc. hamelinensis and Hcc. morrhuae recovered from 6 kGy of γ radiation. In comparison, Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 did not recover. The 16S rRNA gene integrity stayed remarkably well preserved up to 48 kGy for both halococci. This research presents novel data on the survival and genetic stability of three halophilic archaea following exposure to simulated outer space radiation.

  15. An electrostatic deceleration lens for highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, J; Roy, A; Kanjilal, D; Ahuja, R; Safvan, C P

    2010-04-01

    The design and implementation of a purely electrostatic deceleration lens used to obtain beams of highly charged ions at very low energies is presented. The design of the lens is such that it can be used with parallel as well as diverging incoming beams and delivers a well focused low energy beam at the target. In addition, tuning of the final energy of the beam over a wide range (1 eV/q to several hundred eV/q, where q is the beam charge state) is possible without any change in hardware configuration. The deceleration lens was tested with Ar(8+), extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, having an initial energy of 30 keV/q and final energies as low as 70 eV/q have been achieved.

  16. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  17. Exposure to low doses (20 cGy) of Hze results in spatial memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Richard; Johnson, Angela; Davis, Leslie; Green-Mitchell, Shamina; Chabriol, Olivia; Sanford, Larry; Drake, Richard

    INTRODUCTION. Current models predict that the astronauts on a mission to a deep space destination, such as Mars, will be exposed to 25 cGy of Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The long-term consequence of exposure to such doses is largely unknown, but given that 1.3 Gy of X-rays has been reported to lead to long-term cognitive deficits (Shore et al, 1976) and that CGR have an RBE of 2-5, it is likely that the predicted 25 cGy of GCR will lead to defects in the cognitive ability of the astronauts during and after the mission. Our studies are designed to help define the GCR dose that will lead to defects in complex working memory, and also to elucidate the mechanisms whereby hadronic radiation diminishes neurocognitive function. The identification of such processes would provide an opportunity for post-mission surveillance, and hopefully will lead to intervention strategies that will ameliorate or attenuate GCR-induced neurocognitive deficits. MATERIALS METHODS. Four-week old male Wistar rats were exposed to either X-rays or 1 GeV 56Fe. At three or six months post exposure the performance of the rats in the Barnes' Maze (Spatial memory) was established. The duration and frequency of REM sleep was also monitored to determine if the neurocognitive deficits arose due to reduced memory consolidation as a result of diminished REM sleep. We used a novel, but maturing technique, called MALDI-MS imaging (or MALDI-MSI), to identify specific regions of the brain where the neuroproteome differs in rats that have developed spatial memory impairments. RESULTS. 11.5 Gy of X-rays led to reduced performance in the Barnes's maze. In contrast, exposure to 20 cGy of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe) resulted in a significant impairment of spatial memory performance as measured in the Barnes' Maze, which was manifested by an increase in relative escape latency REL over a 5 day testing period. Such an increase in REL could arise from the rats becoming less able, or perhaps less willing, to locate the

  18. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  19. Theory of high-energy messengers

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.

  20. Theory of high-energy messengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the distant high-energy universe comes from photons, ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), high-energy neutrinos, and gravitational waves. The theory of high-energy messengers reviewed here focuses on the extragalactic background light at all wavelengths, cosmic rays and magnetic fields in intergalactic space, and neutrinos of extragalactic origin. Comparisons are drawn between the intensities of photons and UHECRs in intergalactic space, and the high-energy neutrinos recently detected with IceCube at about the Waxman-Bahcall flux. Source candidates for UHECRs and high-energy neutrinos are reviewed, focusing on star-forming and radio-loud active galaxies. HAWC and Advanced LIGO are just underway, with much anticipation.

  1. Two-photon processes in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahrsetz, Thorsten

    2015-03-05

    Two-photon processes are atomic processes in which an atom interacts simultaneously with two photons. Such processes describe a wide range of phenomena, such as two-photon decay and elastic or inelastic scattering of photons. In recent years two-photon processes involving highly charged heavy ions have become an active area of research. Such studies do not only consider the total transition or scattering rates but also their angular and polarization dependence. To support such examinations in this thesis I present a theoretical framework to describe these properties in all two-photon processes with bound initial and final states and involving heavy H-like or He-like ions. I demonstrate how this framework can be used in some detailed studies of different two-photon processes. Specifically a detailed analysis of two-photon decay of H-like and He-like ions in strong external electromagnetic fields shows the importance of considering the effect of such fields for the physics of such systems. Furthermore I studied the elastic Rayleigh as well as inelastic Raman scattering by heavy H-like ions. I found a number of previously unobserved phenomena in the angular and polarization dependence of the scattering cross-sections that do not only allow to study interesting details of the electronic structure of the ion but might also be useful for the measurement of weak physical effects in such systems.

  2. Irradiation of graphene field effect transistors with highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, P.; Kozubek, R.; Madauß, L.; Sonntag, J.; Lorke, A.; Schleberger, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, graphene field-effect transistors are used to detect defects due to irradiation with slow, highly charged ions. In order to avoid contamination effects, a dedicated ultra-high vacuum set up has been designed and installed for the in situ cleaning and electrical characterization of graphene field-effect transistors during irradiation. To investigate the electrical and structural modifications of irradiated graphene field-effect transistors, their transfer characteristics as well as the corresponding Raman spectra are analyzed as a function of ion fluence for two different charge states. The irradiation experiments show a decreasing mobility with increasing fluences. The mobility reduction scales with the potential energy of the ions. In comparison to Raman spectroscopy, the transport properties of graphene show an extremely high sensitivity with respect to ion irradiation: a significant drop of the mobility is observed already at fluences below 15 ions/μm2, which is more than one order of magnitude lower than what is required for Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Highly Charged Protein Ions: The Strongest Organic Acids to Date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Leeming, Michael G; Zhang, Fangtong; Funston, Toby T; Donald, William A

    2017-07-10

    The basicity of highly protonated cytochrome c (cyt c) and myoglobin (myo) ions were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry, ion-molecule reactions (IMRs), and theoretical calculations as a function of charge state. Surprisingly, highly charged protein ions (HCPI) can readily protonate non-polar molecules and inert gases, including Ar, O2 , and N2 in thermal IMRs. The most HCPIs that can be observed are over 130 kJ mol(-1) less basic than the least basic neutral organic molecules known (tetrafluoromethane and methane). Based on theoretical calculations, it is predicted that protonated cyt c and myo ions should spontaneously lose a proton to vacuum for charge states in which every third residue is protonated. In this study, HCPIs are formed where every fourth residue on average is protonated. These results indicate that protein ions in higher charge states can be formed using a low-pressure ion source to reduce proton-transfer reactions between protein ions and gases from the atmosphere. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High Energy Sources Observed with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Mas-Hesse, J M; Kuulkers, E

    2008-01-01

    The INTEGRAL Optical Monitoring Camera, OMC, has detected many high energy sources. We have obtained V-band fluxes and light curves for their counterparts. In the cases of previously unknown counterparts, we have searched for characteristic variations in optical sources around the high-energy target position. Results about the Galactic Bulge Monitoring, INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray sources (IGR), and other high energy sources are presented.

  5. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  6. Fast Electronics in High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, Clyde

    1958-08-08

    A brief review of fast electronics is given, leading up to the present state of the art. Cherenkov counters in high-energy physics are discussed, including an example of a velocity-selecting Cherenkov counter. An electronic device to aid in aligning external beams from high-energy accelerators is described. A scintillation-counter matrix to identify bubble chamber tracks is discussed. Some remarks on the future development of electronics in high-energy physics experiments are included.

  7. The ANSTO high energy heavy ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegele, Rainer; Cohen, David D.; Dytlewski, Nick

    1999-10-01

    Recently the construction of the ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe (HIMP) at the 10 MV ANTARES tandem accelerator has been completed. The high energy heavy ion microprobe focuses not only light ions at energies of 2-3 MeV, but is also capable of focusing heavy ions at high energies with ME/ q2 values up to 150 MeV amu and greater. First performance tests and results are reported here.

  8. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  10. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  11. High-Energy Astrophysics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics is the study of objects and phenomena in space with energy densities much greater than that found in normal stars and galaxies. These include black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, hypernovae and gamma-ray bursts. A history and an overview of high-energy astrophysics will be presented, including a description of the objects that are observed. Observing techniques, space-borne missions in high-energy astrophysics and some recent discoveries will also be described. Several entirely new types of astronomy are being employed in high-energy astrophysics. These will be briefly described, along with some NASA missions currently under development.

  12. The molecular and cellular response of normal and progressed human bronchial epithelial cells to HZE particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Larsen, Jill

    We have used a model of non-oncogenically immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells to determine the response of such cells to particles found outside the protection of the earth’s electromagnetic field. We have identified an enhanced frequency of cellular transformation, as measured by growth in soft agar, for both 56Fe and 28Si (1 GeV/n) that is maximal (4-6 fold) at 0.25 Gy and 0.40 Gy, respectively. At 4 months post-irradiation 38 individual soft agar clones were isolated. These clones were characterized extensively for cellular and molecular changes. Gene expression analysis suggested that these clones had down-regulated several genes associated with anti-oxidant pathways including GLS2, GPX1 and 4, SOD2, PIG3, and NQO1 amongst others. As a result, many of these transformed clones were exposed to high levels of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS), although there appeared not to be any enhanced mitochondrial ROS. DNA repair pathways associated with ATM/ATR signaling were also upregulated. However, these transformants do not develop into tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice, suggesting that they have not progressed sufficiently to become oncogenic. Therefore we chose 6 soft agar clones for continuous culture for an additional 14 months. Amongst the 6 clones, only one clone showed any significant change in phenotype. Clone 3kt-ff.2a, propagated for 18 months, were 2-fold more radioresistant, had a shortened doubling time and the background rate of transformation more than doubled. Furthermore, the morphology of transformed clones changed. Clones from this culture are being compared to the original clone as well as the parental HBEC3KT and will be injected into immune-compromised mice for oncogenic potential. Oncogenically progressed HBECs, HBEC3KT cells that overexpress a mutant RAS gene and where p53 has been knocked down, designated HBEC3KTR53, responded quite differently to HZE particle exposure. First, these cells are more

  13. QED corrections to atomic wavefunctions in highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Johan

    2015-11-18

    Bound electron states in highly charged ions are strongly influenced by the effects of relativity and quantum electrodynamics (QED). These effects induce shifts of the binding energies as well as corrections to observables related to atomic processes. In this work a numerical procedure is described and implemented in which the QED effects are treated as corrections to relativistic bound-state wavefunctions. This approach, which is based on the recently developed covariant evolution-operator formalism, allows for a merging of QED with the standard methods of many-body perturbation theory. In particular, it enables an evaluation of the combined effect of QED and electron correlation in few-electron systems. Numerical results for this effect are presented for the ground state energy of helium-like ions. A detailed analysis of the contribution from the electron self-energy is carried out in both the Feynman and Coulomb gauge. It is found that the Feynman gauge suffers from large numerical cancellations and acquires significant contributions from terms involving multiple interactions with the nuclear potential (the so-called many-potential terms), while the Coulomb gauge is well suited for an approximate treatment based on terms involving only freely propagating electrons (the zero-potential terms). With the help of QED-corrected wavefunctions it is also possible to compute corrections to observables in basic atomic processes. In this work some of the one-loop QED corrections (those derivable from perturbed wavefunctions and energies) to the differential cross section and distribution of polarization in radiative recombination of initially bare uranium nuclei are evaluated, as well as the corresponding corrections to the ratio τ{sub E1}/τ{sub M2} of the electric dipole and magnetic quadrupole transition amplitudes in the 2p{sub 3/2}→1s radiative decay of hydrogenlike uranium. The results from these calculations are all of the expected magnitude, namely on the order

  14. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...

  15. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...

  16. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  17. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And we saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is proving to

  18. New accelerators in high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    First, I should like to mention a few new ideas that have appeared during the last few years in the accelerator field. A couple are of importance in the design of injectors, usually linear accelerators, for high-energy machines. Then I shall review some of the somewhat sensational accelerator projects, now in operation, under construction or just being proposed. Finally, I propose to mention a few applications of high-energy accelerators in fields other than high-energy physics. I realize that this is a digression from my title but I hope that you will find it interesting.

  19. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsesmelis Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC, this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  20. High energy hadrons in extensive air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on the high energy hadronic component in extensive air showers of energies approx. 10 to the 14 to 10 to the 16 eV when compared with expectations from Monte Carlo simulations have shown the observed showers to be deficient in high energy hadrons relative to simulated showers. An attempt is made to understand these anomalous features with more accurate comparison of observations with expectations, taking into account the details of the experimental system. Results obtained from this analysis and their implications for the high energy physics of particle interactions at energy approx. 10 to the 15 eV are presented.

  1. High energy physics in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1985-10-16

    The US program in high energy physics from 1985 to 1995 is reviewed. The program depends primarily upon work at the national accelerator centers, but includes a modest but diversified nonaccelerator program. Involvement of universities is described. International cooperation in high energy physics is discussed, including the European, Japanese, USSR, and the People's Republic of China's programs. Finally, new facilities needed by the US high energy physics program are discussed, with particular emphasis given to a Superconducting Super Collider for achieving ever higher energies in the 20 TeV range. (LEW)

  2. CERN and the high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsesmelis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the particle physics programme at CERN at the high-energy frontier. Starting from the key open questions in particle physics and the large-scale science facilities existing at CERN, concentrating on the Large Hadron Collider(LHC), this paper goes on to present future possibilities for global projects in high energy physics. The paper presents options for future colliders, all being within the framework of the recently updated European Strategy for Particle Physics, and all of which have a unique value to add to experimental particle physics. The paper concludes by outlining key messages for the way forward for high-energy physics research.

  3. Research in High Energy Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, John S.

    2013-08-09

    This final report details the work done from January 2010 until April 2013 in the area of experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics and cosmology at the University of California, Davis.

  4. 1570 nm High Energy Fiber Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy fiber laser for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all features of...

  5. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1989-10-01

    In this lecture I would like to trace how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to gigantic projects being hotly debated in Congress as well as in the scientific community.

  6. Organisation of high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kluyver, J C

    1981-01-01

    Tabulates details of major accelerator laboratories in western Europe, USA, and USSR, and describes the various organisations concerned with high-energy physics. The Dutch organisation uses the NIKHEF laboratory in Amsterdam and cooperates with CERN. (0 refs).

  7. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  8. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  9. On high energy tails in inelastic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiotte, R.; Brenig, L.; Salazar, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation of high energy tails in a one-dimensional kinetic model for granular gases, the so-called Inelastic Maxwell Model. We introduce a time- discretized version of the stochastic process, and show that continuous time implies larger fluctuations of the particles energies. This is due to a statistical relation between the number of inelastic collisions undergone by a particle and its average energy. This feature is responsible for the high energy tails in the model, as shown ...

  10. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  11. Future of high energy physics some aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prokofiev, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises 26 carefully edited articles with well-referenced and up-to-date material written by many of the leading experts. These articles originated from presentations and dialogues at the second HKUST Institute for Advanced Study Program on High Energy Physics are organized into three aspects, Theory, Accelerator, and Experiment, focusing on in-depth analyses and technical aspects that are essential for the developments and expectations for the future high energy physics.

  12. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Hladik, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees]|[SAP AG, Berlin (Germany); Ostapchenko, S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees

    1999-11-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author) 19 refs.

  13. Highly charged ions as a basis of optical atomic clockwork of exceptional accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevianko, Andrei; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V

    2012-11-02

    We propose a novel class of atomic clocks based on highly charged ions. We consider highly forbidden laser-accessible transitions within the 4f(12) ground-state configurations of highly charged ions. Our evaluation of systematic effects demonstrates that these transitions may be used for building exceptionally accurate atomic clocks which may compete in accuracy with recently proposed nuclear clocks.

  14. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high charg

  15. Introduction to High-Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosswog, Stephan; Bruggen, Marcus

    2003-04-01

    High-energy astrophysics covers cosmic phenomena that occur under the most extreme physical conditions. It explores the most violent events in the Universe: the explosion of stars, matter falling into black holes, and gamma-ray bursts - the most luminous explosions since the Big Bang. Driven by a wealth of new observations, the last decade has seen a large leap forward in our understanding of these phenomena. Exploring modern topics of high-energy astrophysics, such as supernovae, neutron stars, compact binary systems, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei, this textbook is ideal for undergraduate students in high-energy astrophysics. It is a self-supporting, timely overview of this exciting field of research. Assuming a familiarity with basic physics, it introduces all other concepts, such as gas dynamics or radiation processes, in an instructive way. An extended appendix gives an overview of some of the most important high-energy astrophysics instruments, and each chapter ends with exercises.• New, up-to-date, introductory textbook providing a broad overview of high-energy phenomena and the many advances in our knowledge gained over the last decade • Written especially for undergraduate teaching use, it introduces the necessary physics and includes many exercises • This book fills a valuable niche at the advanced undergraduate level, providing professors with a new modern introduction to the subject

  16. Cosmic absorption of ultra high energy particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G. V.; Xue, S.-S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the limits on propagation of ultra high energy particles in the Universe, set up by their interactions with cosmic background of photons and neutrinos. By taking into account cosmic evolution of these backgrounds and considering appropriate interactions we derive the mean free path for ultra high energy photons, protons and neutrinos. For photons the relevant processes are the Breit-Wheeler process as well as the double pair production process. For protons the relevant reactions are the photopion production and the Bethe-Heitler process. We discuss the interplay between the energy loss length and mean free path for the Bethe-Heitler process. Neutrino opacity is determined by its scattering off the cosmic background neutrino. We compute for the first time the high energy neutrino horizon as a function of its energy.

  17. High Energy Processes in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Bednarek, W

    2006-01-01

    Young pulsars produce relativistic winds which interact with matter ejected during the supernova explosion and the surrounding interstellar gas. Particles are accelerated to very high energies somewhere in the pulsar winds or at the shocks produced in collisions of the winds with the surrounding medium. As a result of interactions of relativistic leptons with the magnetic field and low energy radiation (of synchrotron origin, thermal, or microwave background), the non-thermal radiation is produced with the lowest possible energies up to $\\sim$100 TeV. The high energy (TeV) gamma-ray emission has been originally observed from the Crab Nebula and recently from several other objects. Recent observations by the HESS Cherenkov telescopes allow to study for the first time morphology of the sources of high energy emission, showing unexpected spectral features. They might be also interpreted as due to acceleration of hadrons. However, theory of particle acceleration in the PWNe and models for production of radiation ...

  18. A High Energy Nuclear Database Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D A; Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interace. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from the Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for intertial confinement fusion and target a...

  19. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, D A B R

    2005-01-01

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac, AGS and SPS to RHIC and LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and ...

  20. Future high energy colliders symposium. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Institute for Theoretical Physics]|[Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A `Future High Energy Colliders` Symposium was held October 21-25, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP) in Santa Barbara. This was one of the 3 symposia hosted by the ITP and supported by its sponsor, the National Science Foundation, as part of a 5 month program on `New Ideas for Particle Accelerators`. The long term program and symposia were organized and coordinated by Dr. Zohreh Parsa of Brookhaven National Laboratory/ITP. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the future direction of high energy physics by bringing together leaders from the theoretical, experimental and accelerator physics communities. Their talks provided personal perspectives on the physics objectives and the technology demands of future high energy colliders. Collectively, they formed a vision for where the field should be heading and how it might best reach its objectives.

  1. [High Energy Physics: Research in high energy physics]. Annual report, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, B C

    1982-12-31

    This report discusses high energy physics research on: Quantum chromodynamics; neutrinos; multiparticle spectrometers; inclusive scattering; Mark III detector; and cascade decays of phi resonances. (LSP)

  2. High Energy Sources Monitored with OMC

    CERN Document Server

    Risquez, D; Caballero-Garcia, M D; Alfonso-Garzon, J; Mas-Hesse, J M

    2008-01-01

    The Optical Monitoring Camera on-board INTEGRAL (OMC) provides Johnson V band photometry of any potentially variable source within its field of view. Taking advantage of the INTEGRAL capabilities allowing the simultaneous observation of different kind of objects in the optical, X and gamma rays bands, we have performed a study of the optical counterparts of different high-energy sources. Up to now, OMC has detected the optical counterpart for more than 100 sources from the High Energy Catalog (Ebisawa et al., 2003). The photometrically calibrated light curves produced by OMC can be accessed through our web portal at: http://sdc.laeff.inta.es/omc

  3. High Energy Physics Research at Louisiana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Lee [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Greenwood, Zeno [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Wobisch, Marcus [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2013-06-28

    The goal of this project was to create, maintain, and strengthen a world-class, nationally and internationally recognized experimental high energy physics group at Louisiana Tech University, focusing on research at the energy frontier of collider-based particle physics, first on the DØ experiment and then with the ATLAS experiment, and providing leadership within the US high energy physics community in the areas of jet physics, top quark and charged Higgs decays involving tau leptons, as well as developing leadership in high performance computing.

  4. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  5. On the Future High Energy Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir [Fermilab

    2015-09-28

    High energy particle colliders have been in the forefront of particle physics for more than three decades. At present the near term US, European and international strategies of the particle physics community are centered on full exploitation of the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). A number of the next generation collider facilities have been proposed and are currently under consideration for the medium and far-future of accelerator-based high energy physics. In this paper we offer a uniform approach to evaluation of various accelerators based on the feasibility of their energy reach, performance potential and cost range.

  6. Testing spatial α-variation with optical atomic clocks based on highly charged ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berengut J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review recent works illustrating the potential use of highly charged ions as the basis of optical atomic clocks of exceptional accuracy and very high sensitivity to variation of the fine structure constant, α. The tendency towards large transition energies in highly charged ions can be overcome using level crossings, which allow transitions between different orbitals to be within the range of usual lasers. We present simple scaling laws that demonstrate reduced systematics that could be realised in highly charged ion clocks. Such clocks could allow us to corroborate astronomical studies that suggest a spatial gradient in values of α across the Universe.

  7. Density Estimation Trees in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Density Estimation Trees can play an important role in exploratory data analysis for multidimensional, multi-modal data models of large samples. I briefly discuss the algorithm, a self-optimization technique based on kernel density estimation, and some applications in High Energy Physics.

  8. Detecting ultra high energy neutrinos with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevius, M.; Buitink, S.; Falcke, H.; Horandel, J.; James, C. W.; McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; ter Veen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The NuMoon project aims to detect signals of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Cosmic Rays with radio telescopes on Earth using the Lunar Cherenkov technique at low frequencies (similar to 150 MHz). The advantage of using low frequencies is the much larger effective detecting volume, with as trade-off the cut

  9. Technology arising from High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    An exibition was held as a part of the Meeting on Technology arising from High- Energy Physics (24-26 April 1974). The Proceedings (including a list of stands) were published as Yellow Report, CERN 74-9, vol. 1-2.

  10. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  11. High-Energy Physics: Exit America?

    CERN Multimedia

    Seife, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Budget cuts and cancellations threaten to end U.S. exploration of the particle frontier. Fermilab's Tevatron, due to shut down around 200, could be the last large particle accelerator in the United States; the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva should ensure European dominance of high-energy physics (3 pages)

  12. Beamline for low-energy transport of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andelkovic, Z., E-mail: z.andelkovic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); König, K.; Maaß, B.; Murböck, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Schmidt, S. [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz (Germany); Steinmann, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Vogel, M.; Vorobjev, G. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    A beamline for transport of highly charged ions with energies as low as a few keV/charge has been constructed and commissioned at GSI. Complementary to the existing infrastructure of the HITRAP facility for deceleration of highly charged ions from the GSI accelerator, the new beamline connects the HITRAP ion decelerator and an EBIT with the associated experimental setups. Therefore, the facility can now transport the decelerated heavy highly charged ions to the experiments or supply them offline with medium-heavy highly charged ions from the EBIT, both at energies as low as a few keV/charge. Here we present the design of the 20 m long beamline with the corresponding beam instrumentation, as well as its performance in terms of energy and transport efficiency.

  13. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  14. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  15. 3D Visualization of Monte-Carlo Simulation's of HZE Track Structure and Initial Chemical Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy ions biophysics is important for space radiation risk assessment [1] and hadron-therapy [2]. The characteristic of heavy ions tracks include a very high energy deposition region close to the track (1000 Gy are found in the penumbra, some located 0.1 mm from the track core. In computational models, the DSB induction probability is calculated with radial dose [6], which may not take into account the higher RBE of electron track ends for DSB induction. Therefore, these simulations should help improve models of DSB induction and our understanding of heavy ions biophysics.

  16. High Energy Neutrino Astronomy: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Spiering, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The year 2008 has witnessed remarkable steps in developing high energy neutrino telescopes. IceCube at the South Pole has been deployed with 40 of its planned 80 strings and reached half a cubic kilometer instrumented volume, in the Mediterranean Sea the "first-stage" neutrino telescope ANTARES has been completed and takes data with 12 strings. The next years will be key years for opening the neutrino window to the high energy universe. IceCube is presently entering a region with realistic discovery potential. Early discoveries (or non-discoveries) with IceCube will strongly influence the design and the estimated discovery chances of the Northern equivalent KM3NeT. Following theoretical estimates, cubic kilometer telescopes may just scratch the regions of discovery. Therefore detectors presently planned should reach sensitivities substantially beyond those of IceCube.

  17. Why is High Energy Physics Lorentz Invariant?

    CERN Document Server

    Afshordi, Niayesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous empirical success of equivalence principle, there are several theoretical motivations for existence of a preferred reference frame (or aether) in a consistent theory of quantum gravity. However, if quantum gravity had a preferred reference frame, why would high energy processes enjoy such a high degree of Lorentz symmetry? While this is often considered as an argument against aether, here I provide three independent arguments for why perturbative unitarity (or weak coupling) of the Lorentz-violating effective field theories put stringent constraints on possible observable violations of Lorentz symmetry at high energies. In particular, the interaction with the scalar graviton in a consistent low-energy theory of gravity and a (radiatively and dynamically) stable cosmological framework, leads to these constraints. The violation (quantified by the relative difference in maximum speed of propagation) is limited to $\\lesssim 10^{-10} E({\\rm eV})^{-4}$ (superseding all current empirical bound...

  18. Cosmic ray antiprotons at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Cosmic ray antiprotons provide a powerful tool to probe dark matter annihilations in our galaxy. The sensitivity of this important channel is, however, diluted by sizable uncertainties in the secondary antiproton background. In this work, we improve the calculation of secondary antiproton production with a particular focus on the high energy regime. We employ the most recent collider data and identify a substantial increase of antiproton cross sections with energy. This increase is driven by the violation of Feynman scaling as well as by an enhanced strange hyperon production. The updated antiproton production cross sections are made publicly available for independent use in cosmic ray studies. In addition, we provide the correlation matrix of cross section uncertainties for the AMS-02 experiment. At high energies, the new cross sections improve the compatibility of the AMS-02 data with a pure secondary origin of antiprotons in cosmic rays.

  19. High-energy ion implantation for ULSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Komori, S.; Kuroi, T.; Akasaka, Y. (LSI R and D Lab., Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Itami (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The ''well engineering'' of a retrograde twin well formed by high-energy ion implantation for 0.5 {mu}m CMOS is demonstrated to be quite useful in improving many device characteristics, such as leakage current reduction, soft-error immunity, low latchup susceptibility, smaller device isolation dimensions, etc. In forming a heavily doped buried layer by high-energy ion implantation, a drastic reduction in leakage current has been found. This would be caused by gettering of impurities or microdefects by secondary defects which are induced either by implantation of dopant itself (''self-gettering'') or by an additional implantation of oxygen, carbon or fluorine (''proximity gettering''). (orig.).

  20. High Energy Particles in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2008-01-01

    Collective Ampere law interactions producing magnetic flux tubes piercing through sunspots into and then out of the solar corona allow for low energy nuclear reactions in a steady state and high energy particle reactions if a magnetic flux tube explodes in a violent event such as a solar flare. Filamentous flux tubes themselves are vortices of Ampere currents circulating around in a tornado fashion in a roughly cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field lines are parallel to and largely confined within the core of the vortex. The vortices may thereby be viewed as long current carrying coils surrounding magnetic flux and subject to inductive Faraday and Ampere laws. These laws set the energy scales of (i) low energy solar nuclear reactions which may regularly occur and (ii) high energy electro-weak interactions which occur when magnetic flux coils explode into violent episodic events such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections.

  1. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Karen Salomé Caballero

    2016-01-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray, gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (up to $10^{20}$ eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  2. Cosmic Physics: The High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies $10^8$ times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violation of Lorentz invariance, as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity.

  3. High energy electron-positron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    1988-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e+e- physics has come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way most useful to any high energy physicists, in particular to newcomers in the e+e- field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of

  4. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given.

  5. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays: Strangelets?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐仁新; 吴飞

    2003-01-01

    The conjecture that ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are actually strangelets is discussed. Besides the reason that strangelets can do as cosmic rays beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin-cutoff, another argument to support the conjecture is addressed by the study of formation of Te V-scale microscopic black holes when UHECRs bombarding bare strange stars. It is proposed that the exotic quark surface of a bare strange star could be an effective astro-laboratory in the investigations of the extra dimensions and of the detection of ultra-high-energy neutrino fluxes. The flux of neutrinos (and other point-like particles) with energy larger than 2.3 × 1020 eV could be expected to be smaller than 10-26 cm-2 s-1 if there are two extra spatial dimensions.

  6. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  7. Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Dova, M T

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with energies above E > 10 17 eV, is still unknown. The discovery of their sources will reveal the engines of the most energetic astrophysical accelerators in the universe. This is a written version of a series of lectures devoted to UHECR at the 2013 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics. We present anintroduction to acceleration mechanisms of charged particles to the highest energies in astrophysical objects, their propagation from the sources to Earth, and the experimental techniques for their detection. We also discuss some of the relevant observational results from Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Observatory. These experiments deal with particle interactions at energies orders of magnitude higher than achieved in terrestrial accelerators.

  8. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  9. Semiconductor High-Energy Radiation Scintillation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kastalsky, A; Spivak, B

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new scintillation-type detector in which high-energy radiation produces electron-hole pairs in a direct-gap semiconductor material that subsequently recombine producing infrared light to be registered by a photo-detector. The key issue is how to make the semiconductor essentially transparent to its own infrared light, so that photons generated deep inside the semiconductor could reach its surface without tangible attenuation. We discuss two ways to accomplish this, one based on doping the semiconductor with shallow impurities of one polarity type, preferably donors, the other by heterostructure bandgap engineering. The proposed semiconductor scintillator combines the best properties of currently existing radiation detectors and can be used for both simple radiation monitoring, like a Geiger counter, and for high-resolution spectrography of the high-energy radiation. The most important advantage of the proposed detector is its fast response time, about 1 ns, essentially limited only by the recombi...

  10. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  11. Data Unfolding Methods in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A selection of unfolding methods commonly used in High Energy Physics is compared. The methods discussed here are: bin-by-bin correction factors, matrix inversion, template fit, Tikhonov regularisation and two examples of iterative methods. Two procedures to choose the strength of the regularisation are tested, namely the L-curve scan and a scan of global correlation coefficients. The advantages and disadvantages of the unfolding methods and choices of the regularisation strength are discussed using a toy example.

  12. Surface spectroscopy using high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, B.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Gray, T.J.; Justiniano, E.; Peercy, P.S.

    1983-04-01

    Surface atoms ionized by high energy heavy ions have been detected by time-of-flight and quadrupole mass spectroscopic techniques. The experimental arrangements are described and potential applications are suggested. Both techniques are demonstrated to produce significant improvements in the detection of atomic hydrogen, with the TOF method producing a nine order of magnitude increase in the sensitivity of atomic hydrogen compared to standard nuclear analysis methods.

  13. High energy bosons do not propagate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkov, M.A., E-mail: Kurkov@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Lizzi, Fedele, E-mail: fedele.lizzi@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Departament de Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria, Institut de Ciéncies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Vassilevich, Dmitri, E-mail: dvassil@gmail.com [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, S.P. (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    We discuss the propagation of bosons (scalars, gauge fields and gravitons) at high energy in the context of the spectral action. Using heat kernel techniques, we find that in the high-momentum limit the quadratic part of the action does not contain positive powers of the derivatives. We interpret this as the fact that the two-point Green functions vanish for nearby points, where the proximity scale is given by the inverse of the cutoff.

  14. Proposal for a High Energy Nuclear Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David A.; Vogt, Ramona

    2005-03-31

    We propose to develop a high-energy heavy-ion experimental database and make it accessible to the scientific community through an on-line interface. This database will be searchable and cross-indexed with relevant publications, including published detector descriptions. Since this database will be a community resource, it requires the high-energy nuclear physics community's financial and manpower support. This database should eventually contain all published data from Bevalac and AGS to RHIC to CERN-LHC energies, proton-proton to nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as other relevant systems, and all measured observables. Such a database would have tremendous scientific payoff as it makes systematic studies easier and allows simpler benchmarking of theoretical models to a broad range of old and new experiments. Furthermore, there is a growing need for compilations of high-energy nuclear data for applications including stockpile stewardship, technology development for inertial confinement fusion and target and source development for upcoming facilities such as the Next Linear Collider. To enhance the utility of this database, we propose periodically performing evaluations of the data and summarizing the results in topical reviews.

  15. High energy photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-07-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at a electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions and extensions of the standard model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly {gamma}{gamma} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}}, {gamma}{gamma} {yields} Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}, Z{gamma} and ZZ. Since each photon can be resolved into a W{sup +}W{sup minus} pair, high energy photon-photon collisions can also provide a remarkably background-free laboratory for studying WW collisions and annihilation. We also review high energy {gamma}{gamma} tests of quantum chromodynamics, such as the scaling of the photon structure function, t{bar t} production, mini-jet processes, and diffractive reactions.

  16. High energy cosmic ray and neutrino astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2011-01-01

    Cosmic-rays with energies exceeding 10^{19} eV are referred to as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs). The sources of these particles and their acceleration mechanism are unknown, and for many years have been the issue of much debate. The first part of this review describes the main constraints, that are implied by UHECR observations on the properties of candidate UHECR sources, the candidate sources, and the related main open questions. In order to address the challenges of identifying the UHECR sources and of probing the physical mechanisms driving them, a "multi-messenger" approach will most likely be required, combining electromagnetic, cosmic-ray and neutrino observations. The second part of the review is devoted to a discussion of high energy neutrino astronomy. It is shown that detectors, which are currently under construction, are expected to reach the effective mass required for the detection of high energy extra-Galactic neutrino sources, and may therefore play a key role in the near future in re...

  17. Advances in High Energy Materials (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. R. Nair

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research and development efforts for realizing higher performance levels of high energy materials (HEMs are continued unabated all over the globe. Of late, it is becoming increasingly necessary to ensure that such materials are also eco-friendly. This has provided thrust to research in the area of force multiplying HEMs and compounds free from pollution causing components. Enhancement of the performance necessitates introduction of strained structure or increase in oxygen balance to achieve near stoichiometry. The search for environment friendly molecules is focused on chlorine free propellant compositions and lead free primary explosives. Energetic polymers offer added advantage of partitioning of energy and thus not necessitating the concentration of only solid components (HEMs and metal fuels in the formulations, to achieve higher performance, thereby leading to improvement in energetics without adversely affecting the processability and mechanical properties. During recent times, research in the area of insensitive explosives has received impetus particularly with the signature of STANAG. This paper gives a review of the all-round advances in the areas of HEMs encompassing oxidizers, high-energy dense materials, insensitive high-energy materials, polymers and plasticizers. Selected formulations based on these materials are also included.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(2, pp.137-151, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.327

  18. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogler, Roman; Steder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and pre...

  19. High-energy fluxes of atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovskaya, T S; Sinegovsky, S I

    2013-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos from decays of mesons, produced in collisions of cosmic ray particles with air nuclei, form unavoidable background for detection of astrophysical neutrinos. More precise calculations of the high-energy neutrino spectrum are required since measurements in the IceCube experiment reach the intriguing energy region where a contribution of the prompt neutrinos and/or astrophysical ones should be discovered. Basing on the referent hadronic models QGSJET II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, we calculate high-energy spectra, both of the muon and electron atmospheric neutrinos, averaged over zenith-angles. The computation is made using three parameterizations of cosmic ray spectra which include the knee region. All calculations are compared with the atmospheric neutrino measurements by Frejus and IceCube. The prompt neutrino flux predictions obtained with thequark-gluon string model (QGSM) for the charm production by Kaidalov & Piskunova do not contradict to the IceCube measurements and upper limit on the astr...

  20. Observation of Nano-Dots on HOPG Surface Induced by Highly Charged Arq+Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tie-Shan; YANG Xiu-Yu; B. E. O'Rourke; XU He; CHEN Liang; CHENG Rui; PENG Hai-Bo; Y. Mitsuda; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-01-01

    Highly charged ions (HCIs) have huge potential energy due to their high charge state. When a HCI reaches a solid surface, its potential energy is released immediately on the surface to cause a nano-scale defect. Thus, HCIs are expected to be useful for solid-surface modifications on the nano-seale. We investigate the defects on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface induced by slow highly charged Arq+ ions with impact energy of 20-2000qeV with scanning probe microscopy (SPM). In order to clarify the role of kinetic and potential energies in surface modification, the nano-defects are characterized in lateral size and height corresponding to the kinetic energy and charge state of the HCIs. Both the potential energy and kinetic energy of the ions may influence the size of nano-defect. Since potential energy increases dramatically with increasing charge state, the potential energy effect is expected to be much larger than the kinetic energy effect in the case of extremely high charge states. This implies that pure surface modification on the nano-scale could be carried out by slow highly charged ions. The mean size of nano-defect region could also be controlled by selecting the charge state and kinetic energy of HCI.

  1. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pavlidou, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Fields, B. D. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  2. The evolution of high energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, E.D.

    1994-08-01

    Accelerators have been devised and built for two reasons: In the first place, by physicists who needed high energy particles in order to have a means to explore the interactions between particles that probe the fundamental elementary forces of nature. And conversely, sometimes accelerator builders produce new machines for higher energy than ever before just because it can be done, and then challenge potential users to make new discoveries with the new means at hand. These two approaches or motivations have gone hand in hand. This lecture traces how high energy particle accelerators have grown from tools used for esoteric small-scale experiments to the gigantic projects of today. So far all the really high-energy machines built and planned in the world--except the SLC--have been ring accelerators and storage rings using the strong-focusing method. But this method has not removed the energy limit, it has only pushed it higher. It would seem unlikely that one can go beyond the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)--but in fact a workshop was held in Sicily in November 1991, concerned with the question of extrapolating to 100 TeV. Other acceleration and beam-forming methods are now being discussed--collective fields, laser acceleration, wake-field accelerators etc., all aimed primarily at making linear colliders possible and more attractive than with present radiofrequency methods. So far it is not entirely clear which of these schemes will dominate particle physics in the future--maybe something that has not been thought of as yet.

  3. 14 CFR 27.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 27... Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must be able to...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 29... § 29.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 25... § 25.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment containing high energy rotors must meet paragraph (b), (c), or (d) of this section. (b) High energy rotors contained in equipment must...

  6. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  7. GEM applications outside high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge

    2013-01-01

    From its invention in 1997, the Gas Electron Multiplier has been applied in nuclear and high energy physics experiments. Over time however, other applications have also exploited the favorable properties of GEMs. The use of GEMs in these applications will be explained in principle and practice. This paper reviews applications in research, beam instrumentation and homeland security. The detectors described measure neutral radiations such as photons, x-rays, gamma rays and neutrons, as well as all kinds of charged radiation. This paper provides an overview of the still expanding range of possibilities of this versatile detector concept.

  8. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  9. Computing support for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This computing proposal (Task S) is submitted separately but in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and Theory tasks. The authors have built a very strong computing base at Florida over the past 8 years. In fact, computing has been one of the main contributions to their experimental collaborations, involving not just computing capacity for running Monte Carlos and data reduction, but participation in many computing initiatives, industrial partnerships, computing committees and collaborations. These facts justify the submission of a separate computing proposal.

  10. The High Energy Radiation Pattern from BFKLex

    CERN Document Server

    Chachamis, G

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a recent study on high-energy jet production in the multi-Regge limit done with the use of the Monte Carlo event generator BFKLex which includes collinear improvements in the form of double-log contributions. We will show results for the average transverse momentum and azimuthal angle of the final state jets when at least one of them is very forward in rapidity and another one is very backward. We also discuss the introduction of a new observable which accounts for the average rapidity ratio among subsequent emissions.

  11. Symbolic modeling of high energy beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Autin, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    A classical problem of computational physics consists of finding the minimum of a chi /sup 2/ like function of many variables. Powerful optimization algorithms have been developed but do not guarantee convergence towards an absolute minimum. Analytical methods can improve the insight into a physical problem but calculations quickly exceed the power of a human brain. There comes the interest of optical design of high energy particle accelerators. The physics background is sketched and emphasis is put on the methodology. In practice, algebraic models may not be precise enough but they usually provide excellent initial conditions for a final numerical optimization. (4 refs).

  12. Siberian Snakes in high-energy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mane, S R [Convergent Computing Inc, PO Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States); Shatunov, Yu M [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Yokoya, K [National Laboratory for High-Energy Physics (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    We review modern techniques to accelerate spin-polarized beams to high energy and to preserve their polarization in storage rings. Crucial to the success of such work is the use of so-called Siberian Snakes. We explain these devices and the reason for their necessity. Closely related to Snakes is the concept of 'spin rotators'. The designs and merits of several types of Snakes and spin rotators are examined. Theoretical work with Snakes and spin rotators, and experimental results from several storage rings, are reviewed, including the so-called Snake resonances. (topical review)

  13. High-energy cosmic-ray acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Bustamante, M; de Paula, W; Duarte Chavez, J A; Gago, A M; Hakobyan, H; Jez, P; Monroy Montañez, J A; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Padilla Cabal, F; Pino Rozas, M; Rodriguez Patarroyo, D J; Romeo, G L; Saldaña-Salazar , U J; Velasquez, M; von Steinkirch, M

    2010-01-01

    We briefly review the basics of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray acceleration. The Hillas criterion is introduced as a geometrical criterion that must be fulfilled by potential acceleration sites, and energy losses are taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic scenario. The different available acceleration mechanisms are presented, with special emphasis on Fermi shock acceleration and its prediction of a power-law cosmic-ray energy spectrum. We conclude that first-order Fermi acceleration, though not entirely satisfactory, is the most promising mechanism for explaining the ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray flux.

  14. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  15. Reclustering of high energy physics data

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, M

    1999-01-01

    The coming high energy physics experiments will store Petabytes of data into object databases. Analysis jobs will frequently traverse collections containing millions of stored objects. Clustering is one of the most effective means $9 to enhance the performance of these applications. The paper presents a reclustering algorithm for independent objects contained in multiple possibly overlapping collections on secondary storage. The algorithm decomposes the stored $9 objects into a number of independent chunks and then maps these chunks to a traveling salesman problem. Under a set of realistic assumptions, the number of disk seeks is reduced almost to the theoretical minimum. Experimental results $9 obtained from a prototype are included. (17 refs).

  16. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  17. Horndeski/Galileon in High Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Latosh, B N

    2016-01-01

    Horndeski/Galileons may be considered as a proper generalization of General Relativity in high energy regime. Thus one may search for manifestation of Galileons interaction in collision experiments. In this paper we give arguments supporting this thesis. Galileon scalar field do not interact with matter via Standard Model interactions, we discuss a mechanism that allows Galileons to have influence on particle collisions. We give reasons to narrow the whole class of Horndeski/Galileons models to one particular term - John term from Fab Four subclass - for this particular issue. We were able to establish the constraint on the model coupling constant.

  18. Energy spectra of high energy atmospheric neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, K.; Minorikawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Focusing on high energy neutrinos ( or = 1 TeV), a new calculation of atmospheric neutrino intensities was carried out taking into account EMC effects observed in P-A collisions by accelerator, recent measurement of primary cosmic ray spectrum and results of cosmic ray muon spectrum and charge ratio. Other features of the present calculation are (1) taking into account kinematics of three body decays of kaons and charm particles in diffusion equations and (2) taking into account energy dependence of kaon production.

  19. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  20. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the + charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  1. Exposure to O-16 particle irradiation causes age-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to these highly charged particles occurs at low fluence rates, p...

  2. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ayman S; Wilhelm, Richard A; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-16

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (^{129}Xe^{Q+}) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q=15 to Q=36, the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  3. Tuning the Fabrication of Nanostructures by Low-Energy Highly Charged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ayman S.; Wilhelm, Richard A.; Heller, Rene; Sorokin, Michael; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-09-01

    Slow highly charged ions have been utilized recently for the creation of monotype surface nanostructures (craters, calderas, or hillocks) in different materials. In the present study, we report on the ability of slow highly charged xenon ions (129Xe Q+ ) to form three different types of nanostructures on the LiF(100) surface. By increasing the charge state from Q =15 to Q =36 , the shape of the impact induced nanostructures changes from craters to hillocks crossing an intermediate stage of caldera structures. A dimensional analysis of the nanostructures reveals an increase of the height up to 1.5 nm as a function of the potential energy of the incident ions. Based on the evolution of both the geometry and size of the created nanostructures, defect-mediated desorption and the development of a thermal spike are utilized as creation mechanisms of the nanostructures at low and high charge states, respectively.

  4. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  5. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  6. High-energy astrophysics with neutrino telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarusi, T.; Spurio, M. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers new perspectives on the Universe investigation: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos with respect to photons. While the small interaction cross section of neutrinos allows them to come from the core of astrophysical objects, it is also a drawback, as their detection requires a large target mass. This is why it is convenient to put huge cosmic neutrino detectors in natural locations, like deep underwater or under-ice sites. In order to supply for such extremely hostile environmental conditions, new frontier technologies are under development. The aim of this work is to review the motivations for high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the present status of experimental results and the technologies used in underwater/ice Cherenkov experiments, with a special focus on the efforts for the construction of a km{sup 3}-scale detector in the Mediterranean Sea. (orig.)

  7. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  8. High Energy Polarization of Blazars : Detection Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Fields, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (wit...

  9. Tibiofibula Transposition in High-Energy Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Loughenbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of failed attempts at closed reduction of high-energy tibial fractures with an associated fibula fracture. The first case was a 39-year-old male involved in high-speed motorbike collision, while the second was a 14-year-old male who injured his leg following a fall of three metres. Emergency medical services at the scenes of the accidents reported a 90-degree valgus deformity of the injured limb and both limbs were realigned on scene and stabilized. Adequate alignment of the tibia could not be achieved by manipulation under sedation or anaesthesia. Open reduction and exposure of the fracture sites revealed that the distal fibula fragment was “transposed” and entrapped in the medulla of the proximal tibial fragment. Reduction required simulation of the mechanism of injury in order to disengage the fragments and allow reduction. Tibiofibula transposition is a rare complication of high-energy lower limb fractures which has not previously been reported and may prevent adequate closed reduction. Impaction of the distal fibula within the tibial medulla occurs as the limb is realigned by paramedic staff before transfer to hospital. We recommend that when this complication is identified the patient is transferred to the operating room for open reduction and stabilization of the fracture.

  10. High energy laser demonstrators for defense applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, M.; Riesbeck, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Ludewigt, K.; Graf, A.

    2017-01-01

    Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has worked since 30 years in the area of High Energy Laser (HEL) for defence applications, starting from pulsed CO2 to pulsed glass rods lasers. In the last decade Rheinmetall Waffe Munition changed to diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology and has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile HEL weapon demonstrators for air- and ground defence scenarios like countering rocket, artillery, mortar, missile (RAMM), unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and unexploded ordnances clearing. By employing beam superimposing technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms, military vehicles and naval platforms have been equipped with high energy laser effectors. The contribution gives a summary of the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls HEL weapon program. In addition to the stationary 30 kW laser weapon demonstrator, we present vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L and the latest 10 kW HEL effector integrated in the naval weapon platform MLG 27. We describe the capabilities of these demonstrators against different potential targets. Furthermore, we will show the capability of the 30 kW stationary Laser Weapon Demonstrator integrated into an existing ground based air defence system to defeat saturated attacks of RAMM and UAS targets.

  11. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin, E-mail: djanders@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Apreysan, Artur; Bornheim, Adi; Duarte, Javier; Newman, Harvey; Pena, Cristian [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm{sup 3} lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm{sup 3} LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  12. Precision timing measurements for high energy photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Apreysan, Artur [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bornheim, Adi [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Duarte, Javier [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Newman, Harvey [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Pena, Cristian [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, Maria [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Trevor, Jason [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Xie, Si [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhu, Ren-Yuan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-11-21

    Particle colliders operating at high luminosities present challenging environments for high energy physics event reconstruction and analysis. We discuss how timing information, with a precision on the order of 10 ps, can aid in the reconstruction of physics events under such conditions. We present calorimeter based timing measurements from test beam experiments in which we explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons or electrons of 10 GeV and above. Using a prototype calorimeter consisting of a 1.7×1.7×1.7 cm3 lutetium–yttrium oxyortho-silicate (LYSO) crystal cube, read out by micro-channel plate photomultipliers, we demonstrate a time resolution of 33.5±2.1 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV. In a second measurement, using a 2.5×2.5×20 cm3 LYSO crystal placed perpendicularly to the electron beam, we achieve a time resolution of 59±11 ps using a beam energy of 4 GeV. We also present timing measurements made using a shashlik-style calorimeter cell made of LYSO and tungsten plates, and demonstrate that the apparatus achieves a time resolution of 54±5 ps for an incoming beam energy of 32 GeV.

  13. PASOTRON high-energy microwave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Schumacher, Robert W.; Butler, Jennifer M.; Hyman, Jay, Jr.; Santoru, Joseph; Watkins, Ron M.; Harvey, Robin J.; Dolezal, Franklin A.; Eisenhart, Robert L.; Schneider, Authur J.

    1992-04-01

    A unique, high-energy microwave source, called PASOTRON (Plasma-Assisted Slow-wave Oscillator), has been developed. The PASOTRON utilizes a long-pulse E-gun and plasma- filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce high-energy pulses from a simple, lightweight device that utilizes no externally produced magnetic fields. Long pulses are obtained from a novel E-gun that employs a low-pressure glow discharge to provide a stable, high current- density electron source. The electron accelerator consists of a high-perveance, multi-aperture array. The E-beam is operated in the ion-focused regime where the plasma filling the SWS space-charge neutralizes the beam, and the self-pinch force compresses the beamlets and increases the beam current density. A scale-model PASOTRON, operating as a backward- wave oscillator in C-band with a 100-kV E-beam, has produced output powers in the 3 to 5 MW range and pulse lengths of over 100 microsecond(s) ec, corresponding to an integrated energy per pulse of up to 500 J. The E-beam to microwave-radiation power conversion efficiency is about 20%.

  14. X-ray resonant photoexcitation: linewidths and energies of Kα transitions in highly charged Fe ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J K; Bernitt, S; Epp, S W; Steinbrügge, R; Beilmann, C; Brown, G V; Eberle, S; Graf, A; Harman, Z; Hell, N; Leutenegger, M; Müller, A; Schlage, K; Wille, H-C; Yavaş, H; Ullrich, J; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R

    2013-09-06

    Photoabsorption by and fluorescence of the Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions are essential mechanisms for x-ray radiation transfer in astrophysical environments. We study photoabsorption due to the main Kα transitions in highly charged iron ions from heliumlike to fluorinelike (Fe24+ to Fe17+) using monochromatic x rays around 6.6 keV at the PETRA III synchrotron photon source. Natural linewidths were determined with hitherto unattained accuracy. The observed transitions are of particular interest for the understanding of photoexcited plasmas found in x-ray binary stars and active galactic nuclei.

  15. Novel aspects on the irradiation of HOPG surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, R. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shen, Q. [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Wilhelm, R.A. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heller, R. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ginzel, R.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J.R. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Facsko, S. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, C. [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Aumayr, F., E-mail: aumayr@iap.tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    As a continuation of our previous work, we present new results regarding the interaction of slow highly charged ions with HOPG. Lateral atomic force microscopy measurements with calibrated cantilevers were performed to investigate in more detail the locally enhanced friction at ion impact sites, which has been reported earlier. For very high charge states, apart from ever-present changes in frictional and electronic properties, we find evidence for true topographic surface modifications (hillocks). In complementary studies, we have investigated these structures regarding their conductivity by employing high-resolution conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, we demonstrate the possibility to etch ion-induced surface structures by thermal annealing.

  16. High precision wavelength measurements of QED-sensitive forbidden transitions in highly charged argon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganić, I; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; DuBois, R; Fritzsche, S; Shabaev, V M; Orts, R Soria; Tupitsyn, I I; Zou, Y; Ullrich, J

    2003-10-31

    We present the results of an experimental study of magnetic dipole (M1) transitions in highly charged argon ions (Ar X, Ar XI, Ar XIV, Ar XV) in the visible spectral range using an electron beam ion trap. Their wavelengths were determined with, for highly charged ions, unprecedented accuracy up to the sub-ppm level and compared with theoretical calculations. The QED contributions, calculated in this Letter, are found to be 4 orders of magnitude larger than the experimental error and are absolutely indispensable to bring theory and experiment to a good agreement. This method shows great potential for the study of QED effects in relativistic few-electron systems.

  17. Generation of annular, high-charge electron beams at the Argonne wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, E. E.; Li, C.; Gai, W.; Power, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the results from the experimental generation of high-charge annular(ring-shaped)electron beams at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). These beams were produced by using laser masks to project annular laser profiles of various inner and outer diameters onto the photocathode of an RF gun. The ring beam is accelerated to 15 MeV, then it is imaged by means of solenoid lenses. Transverse profiles are compared for different solenoid settings. Discussion includes a comparison with Parmela simulations, some applications of high-charge ring beams,and an outline of a planned extension of this study.

  18. Simulation of the low-Earth-orbit dose rates using secondary radiations from the HZE particles at NIRS-HIMAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, H; Suzuki, M; Ando, K; Fujitaka, K

    2001-01-01

    In order to study biological effects from cyclic dose rates encountered at the low-Earth orbit (LEO), an experimental facility was designed in the Biology room of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (NIRS-HIMAC). An incubator placed in this facility is irradiated repeatedly by secondary radiations from HZE-particle beams supplied for independent users. The daily-average dose rate (1.4 mGy d-1) measured for 223 days and short-term dose rates measured for selected beam conditions were comparable to the dose rates observed in past LEO missions. Severe solar particle events can be simulated with hourly maximum dose rate of 2.8 mGy h-1. Preliminary measurements using CR-39 and TLD indicated that the dominant LET range is less than 5 keV micrometers-1. These results demonstrate the possibility of this facility for radiobiology studies of the effects of low dose rates comparable to the LEO environment.

  19. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI-96)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaya, Yohko; Kambara, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI-96) which was held on September 23-26, 1996 in Omiya, Saitama, Japan, hosted by the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN). The first conference of this series was held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982. The subject was the "Production and Physics of Highly Charged Ions". The conference has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992) and Vienna, Austria (1994). When the first conference of this series was held, various highly charged ions were available from many heavy ion accelerators, which had been constructed since the 1960's, and ion sources such as EBIS and ECRIS, which were then new facilities. Subsequently, many other experimental techniques have been developed to study or to control highly charged ions, such as ion traps, EBIT's, storage rings, high-brilliance synchrotron radiation, and so forth. Now the properties of highly charged ions themselves and their interactions with various kinds of materials can be studied systematically using ions of any element at various collision energies. These studies will result in a deeper insight into their nature as well as giving us important basic data for use in the fields closely related to atomic physics. About 190 scientists from 18 countries registered at the HCI-96. The number of invited talks was 21 and that of contrib- uted papers 215. In these proceedings, 20 papers of invited talks and 116 papers on contributions are included. They are classified into categories of "Structure and Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions and Fundamental Aspects", "Highly Charged Ions in Plasmas and Strong Fields", "Interactions of Highly Charged Ions with Atoms and Ions", "Dynamic Processes Related to Molecules and Clusters", "Interactions of Highly Charged Ions with

  20. Transverse Lambda polarization at high energy colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of transverse polarization of Lambda hyperons produced in high energy pp collisions may help to address several open issues about Lambda production and polarization mechanisms, such as the amount of SU(3) breaking, the importance of gluons and sea quarks, and the origin of spontaneous Lambda polarization. The process p + p -> Lambda^\\uparrow + jet + X at midrapidity is ideally suited for this purpose, for instance at LHC's ALICE experiment. New expressions and predictions are presented for the transverse Lambda polarization in this process, within a factorized description which involves transverse momentum and spin dependence in the fragmentation process. Uncertainties from the unpolarized Lambda fragmentation functions, due to the unknown magnitude of SU(3) breaking and the apparent inconsistency between pp and e^+ e^- data, are investigated.

  1. Dipoles for High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; De Rijk, G; Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    For the High Energy LHC, a study of a 33 TeV center of mass collider in the LHC tunnel, main dipoles of 20 T operational field are needed. In this paper we first review the conceptual design based on block coil proposed in the Malta workshop, addressing the issues related to coil fabrication and assembly. We then propose successive simplifications of this design, associating a cost estimate of the conductor. We then analyse a block layout for a 15 T magnet. Finally, we consider two layouts based on the D20 and HD2 short models built by LBL. A first analysis of the aspects related to protection of these challenging magnets is given.

  2. Interdisciplinary Aspects of High-Energy Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Sigl, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    Modern astrophysics, especially at GeV energy scales and above is a typical example where several disciplines meet: The location and distribution of the sources is the domain of astronomy. At distances corresponding to significant redshift cosmological aspects such as the expansion history come into play. Finally, the emission mechanisms and subsequent propagation of produced high energy particles is at least partly the domain of particle physics, in particular if new phenomena beyond the Standard Model are probed that require base lines and/or energies unattained in the laboratory. In this contribution we focus on three examples: Highest energy cosmic rays, tests of the Lorentz symmetry and the search for new light photon-like states in the spectra of active galaxies.

  3. High energy physics, past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Hirotaka

    2017-03-01

    At the beginning of last century we witnessed the emergence of new physics, quantum theory and gravitational theory, which gave us correct understanding of the world of atoms and deep insight into the structure of universe we live in. Towards the end of the century, string theory emerged as the most promising candidate to unify these two theories. In this talk, I would like to assert that the understanding of the origin of physical constants, ℏ (Planck constant) for quantum theory, and G (Newton’s gravitational constant) for gravitational theory within the framework of string theory is the key to understanding string theory. Then, I will shift to experimental high energy physics and discuss the necessity of world-wide collaboration in the area of superconducting technology which is essential in constructing the 100 TeV hadron collider.

  4. Grid computing in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, P

    2004-01-01

    Over the next two decades, major high energy physics (HEP) experiments, particularly at the Large Hadron Collider, will face unprecedented challenges to achieving their scientific potential. These challenges arise primarily from the rapidly increasing size and complexity of HEP datasets that will be collected and the enormous computational, storage and networking resources that will be deployed by global collaborations in order to process, distribute and analyze them. Coupling such vast information technology resources to globally distributed collaborations of several thousand physicists requires extremely capable computing infrastructures supporting several key areas: (1) computing (providing sufficient computational and storage resources for all processing, simulation and analysis tasks undertaken by the collaborations); (2) networking (deploying high speed networks to transport data quickly between institutions around the world); (3) software (supporting simple and transparent access to data and software r...

  5. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  6. Experimental Facilities at the High Energy Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, P

    2016-01-01

    The main theme of the lectures covered the experimental work at hadron colliders, with a clear focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on the roadmap that led finally to the discovery of the Higgs boson. The lectures were not a systematic course on machine and detector technologies, but rather tried to give a physics-motivated overview of many experimental aspects that were all relevant for making the discovery. The actual lectures covered a much broader scope than what is documented here in this write- up. The successful concepts for the experiments at the LHC have benefitted from the experience gained with previous generations of detectors at lower- energy machines. The lectures included also an outlook to the future experimental programme at the LHC, with its machine and experiments upgrades, as well as a short discussion of possible facilities at the high energy frontier beyond LHC.

  7. High Energy Cosmic Rays From Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays are charged relativistic particles that reach the Earth with extremely high energies, providing striking evidence of the existence of effective accelerators in the Universe. Below an energy around $\\sim 10^{17}$ eV cosmic rays are believed to be produced in the Milky Way while above that energy their origin is probably extragalactic. In the early '30s supernovae were already identified as possible sources for the Galactic component of cosmic rays. After the '70s this idea has gained more and more credibility thanks to the the development of the diffusive shock acceleration theory, which provides a robust theoretical framework for particle energization in astrophysical environments. Afterwards, mostly in recent years, much observational evidence has been gathered in support of this framework, converting a speculative idea in a real paradigm. In this Chapter the basic pillars of this paradigm will be illustrated. This includes the acceleration mechanism, the non linear effects produced by accelerate...

  8. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  9. Photoproduction at High Energy and High Intensity

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photon beam used for this programme is tagged and provides a large flux up to very high energies (150-200 GeV). It is also hadron-free, since it is obtained by a two-step conversion method. A spectrometer is designed to exploit this beam and to perform a programme of photoproduction with a high level of sensitivity (5-50 events/picobarn).\\\\ \\\\ Priority will be given to the study of processes exhibiting the point-like behaviour of the photon, especially deep inelastic Compton scattering. The spectrometer has two magnets. Charged tracks are measured by MWPC's located only in field-free regions. Three calorimeters provide a large coverage for identifying and measuring electrons and photons. An iron filter downstream identifies muons. Most of the equipment is existing and recuperated from previous experiments.

  10. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  11. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  12. High energy flare physics group summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The contributions of the High Energy Flare Physics Special Session in the American Astronomical Society Solar Physics Division Meeting are reviewed. Oral and poster papers were presented on observatories and instruments available for the upcoming solar maximum. Among these are the space-based Gamma Ray Observatory, the Solar Flare and Cosmic Burst Gamma Ray Experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, the Soft X Ray Telescope on the spacecraft Solar-A, and the balloon-based Gamma Ray Imaging Device. Ground based observatories with new capabilities include the BIMA mm-wave interferometer (Univ. of California, Berkeley; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Maryland), Owens Valley Radio Observatory and the Very Large Array. The highlights of the various instrument performances are reported and potential data correlations and collaborations are suggested.

  13. High energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources

    CERN Document Server

    Perrone, L

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. High energy muon neutrinos coming from astrophysical sources could be detected as upward-going muons produced in charged-current interactions of nu /sub mu /'s with the matter surrounding the detector. About 1300 events have been analyzed. We present the results of a search for either a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux or a point-like source of neutrinos in the sample of upward-going muons gathered by MACRO. We find no evidence for either type of signal. The muon flux upper limit for the diffuse signal has been set at the level of 1.5*10/sup -14/cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ sr/sup -1/. (1 refs).

  14. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  15. Stochastic cooling of a high energy collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J.M.; Lee, R.C.; Mernick, K.

    2011-09-04

    Gold beams in RHIC revolve more than a billion times over the course of a data acquisition session or store. During operations with these heavy ions the event rates in the detectors decay as the beams diffuse. A primary cause for this beam diffusion is small angle Coloumb scattering of the particles within the bunches. This intra-beam scattering (IBS) is particularly problematic at high energy because the negative mass effect removes the possibility of even approximate thermal equilibrium. Stochastic cooling can combat IBS. A theory of bunched beam cooling was developed in the early eighties and stochastic cooling systems for the SPS and the Tevatron were explored. Cooling for heavy ions in RHIC was also considered.

  16. High energy reactions and string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    2002-01-01

    String theory has long ago been initiated by the quest for a theoretical explanation of the observed high-energy ``Reggeization'' of strong interaction amplitudes. In terms of quantum field theory, it is the so-called ``soft'' regime, where the coupling constant is expected to be large and thus perturbative calculations inadequate. However, since then, no convincing derivation of the link between gauge field theory at strong coupling and string theory has come out. This 35-years-old puzzle is thus still unsolved. We discuss how modern tools like the AdS/CFT correspondence give a new insight on the problem by applying it to two-body elastic and inelastic scattering amplitudes. We obtain a geometrical interpretation of Reggeization and its relation with confinement in gauge theory.

  17. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, Hector [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2014-10-31

    This year the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) High Energy Physics (HEP) group continued with the ongoing research program outlined in the grant proposal. The program is centered on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the proton-proton (pp) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The main research focus is on data analysis and on the preparation for the High Luminosity (HL) LHC or experiment detector upgrade. The physics data analysis included Higgs Doublet Search and measurement of the (1) Λ0b branching fraction, (2) B meson mass, and (3) hyperon θ-b lifetime. The detector upgrade included work on the preparations for the Forward Pixel (FPIX) detector Silicon Sensor Testing in a production run at Fermilab. In addition, the group has taken responsibilities on the Software Release through our former research associate Dr. Eric Brownson who acted until last December as a Level Two Offline Manager for the CMS Upgrade. In support of the CMS data analysis activities carried out locally, the UPRM group has built and maintains an excellent Tier3 analysis center in Mayaguez. This allowed us to analyze large data samples and to continue the development of algorithms for the upgrade tracking robustness we started several years ago, and we plan to resume in the near future. This project involves computer simulation of the radiation damage to be suffered at the higher luminosities of the upgraded LHC. This year we continued to serve as a source of outstanding students for the field of high energy physics. Three of our graduate students finished their MS work in May, 2014, Their theses research were on data analysis of heavy quark b-physics. All of them are currently enrolled at Ph.D. physics program across the nation. One of them (Hector Moreno) at New Mexico University (Hector Moreno), one at University of New Hampshire (Sandra Santiesteban) and one at University of

  18. High-energy evolution to three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Caron-Huot, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The Balitsky-Kovchegov equation describes the high-energy growth of gauge theory scattering amplitudes as well as nonlinear saturation effects which stop it. We obtain the three-loop corrections to this equation in planar $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory. Our method exploits a recently established equivalence with the physics of soft wide-angle radiation, so-called non-global logarithms, and thus yields at the same time the three-loop evolution equation for non-global logarithms. As a by-product of our analysis, we develop a Lorentz-covariant method to subtract infrared and collinear divergences in cross-section calculations in the planar limit. We compare our result in the linear regime with a recent prediction for the so-called Pomeron trajectory, and compare its collinear limit with predictions from the spectrum of twist-two operators.

  19. Non-collinearity in high energy processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P J Mulders

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the treatment of intrinsic transverse momenta in high energy scattering processes. Within the field theoretical framework of QCD, the process is described in terms of correlators containing quark and gluon fields. The correlators, parametrized in terms of distribution and fragmentation functions, contain matrix elements of nonlo-cal field configurations requiring a careful treatment to assure colour gauge invariance. It leads to nontrivial gauge links connecting the parton fields. For the transverse momentum- dependent correlators the gauge links give rise to time reversal odd phenomena, showing up as single spin and azimuthal asymmetries. The gauge links, arising from multi-gluon initial and final state interactions, depend on the colour flow in the process, challenging universality.

  20. Experiments with high-energy neutrino beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, J

    1989-09-15

    Experiments in which high-energy neutrinos were used as projectiles have made substantial contributions to our understanding of both weak and strong interactions, as well as the structure of hadrons. This article offers some illustrations. It recalls the discovery of the neutral weak current and some experiments on its nature. The sections on charged-current inclusive scattering recall the important role of these experiments in the understanding of the quark structure of the nucleon and the validity of quantum chromodynamics. The section on dimuon production illustrates the role of neutrino experiments in establishing the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani current as well as the measurement of the structure function of the strange quark in the nucleon.

  1. New High-Energy Nanofiber Anode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiangwu; Fedkiw, Peter; Khan, Saad; Huang, Alex; Fan, Jiang

    2013-11-15

    The overall goal of the proposed work was to use electrospinning technology to integrate dissimilar materials (lithium alloy and carbon) into novel composite nanofiber anodes, which simultaneously had high energy density, reduced cost, and improved abuse tolerance. The nanofiber structure allowed the anodes to withstand repeated cycles of expansion and contraction. These composite nanofibers were electrospun into nonwoven fabrics with thickness of 50 μm or more, and then directly used as anodes in a lithium-ion battery. This eliminated the presence of non-active materials (e.g., conducting carbon black and polymer binder) and resulted in high energy and power densities. The nonwoven anode structure also provided a large electrode-electrolyte interface and, hence, high rate capacity and good lowtemperature performance capability. Following are detailed objectives for three proposed project periods. • During the first six months: Obtain anodes capable of initial specific capacities of 650 mAh/g and achieve ~50 full charge/discharge cycles in small laboratory scale cells (50 to 100 mAh) at the 1C rate with less than 20 percent capacity fade; • In the middle of project period: Assemble, cycle, and evaluate 18650 cells using proposed anode materials, and demonstrate practical and useful cycle life (750 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade) in 18650 cells with at least twice improvement in the specific capacity than that of conventional graphite electrodes; • At the end of project period: Deliver 18650 cells containing proposed anode materials, and achieve specific capacities greater than 1200 mAh/g and cycle life longer than 5000 cycles of ~70% state of charge swing with less than 20% capacity fade.

  2. High energy density in multisoliton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand, Danial; Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.

    2015-09-01

    Solitons are very effective in transporting energy over great distances and collisions between them can produce high energy density spots of relevance to phase transformations, energy localization and defect formation among others. It is then important to study how energy density accumulation scales in multisoliton collisions. In this study, we demonstrate that the maximal energy density that can be achieved in collision of N slowly moving kinks and antikinks in the integrable sine-Gordon field, remarkably, is proportional to N2, while the total energy of the system is proportional to N . This maximal energy density can be achieved only if the difference between the number of colliding kinks and antikinks is minimal, i.e., is equal to 0 for even N and 1 for odd N and if the pattern involves an alternating array of kinks and antikinks. Interestingly, for odd (even) N the maximal energy density appears in the form of potential (kinetic) energy, while kinetic (potential) energy is equal to zero. The results of the present study rely on the analysis of the exact multisoliton solutions for N =1 ,2 , and 3 and on the numerical simulation results for N =4 ,5 ,6 , and 7. The effect of weak Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian perturbations on the maximal energy density in multikink collisions is also discussed as well as that of the collision relative phase. Based on these results one can speculate that the soliton collisions in the sine-Gordon field can, in principle, controllably produce very high energy density. This can have important consequences for many physical phenomena described by the Klein-Gordon equations.

  3. High energy ion beam analysis at ARRONAX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France); GIP ARRONAX, Saint-Herblain (France); Guertin, A.; Metivier, V.; Michel, N.; Ragreb, D.; Servagent, N. [Subatech, Nantes (France)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: ARRONAX, acronym for 'Accelerator for Research in Radiochemistry and Oncology at Nantes' is a high energy cyclotron. It is characterized by the acceleration of several types of particle beams: 68 MeV alpha, 15-35 MeV deuterons and 30-68 MeV protons. A platform was implemented on ARRONAX to perform non-destructive materials analysis with X and gamma rays emission (PIXE-PIGE). A proper selection of the projectile type and beam energy allows to analyze heavy and light elements in thin and thick samples. Our research activities are oriented along three axes: 1) Measurements of K X-ray production cross section for various elements to complement the databases at high energy. A first experiment has been conducted to measure these cross sections for copper and gold with protons energy between 34 and 68 MeV. 2) Study of the detection sensitivity which depends on the nuclear background and the Bremsstrahlung radiations. A dedicated shielding has been developed and detection limits below tens of μg/g/μC have been assessed using different referenced samples from IAEA. 3) Determination of concentration profile as function of the depth in a thick target. Using layered samples, we have showed for a target consisting of three different layers, the possibility to determine the sequence and thickness of each layer by using X and gamma rays measured respectively during and after irradiation. During this talk, I will present the characteristics and the capabilities of our platform. In the near future we intend to install the PIGE technique and use it with 15 MeV deuterons to analyze lightweight elements. (author)

  4. Highly-charged-ion-induced electron emission from C-60 thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewits, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Kowarik, G.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    The secondary electron yields as a result of highly charged ions impinging on clean Au(111) and thin films of C-60 on Au have been measured. This has been done for film thicknesses of one to five monolayers and several charge states of Ar and Xe ions. For all ions an increase of 35% in the secondary

  5. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    2003-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  6. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; A. Schäfer; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  7. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  8. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  9. Prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, Martin; Schäfer, Andreas; Greiner, Walter; Indelicato, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity-nonconservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with 2–5 electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon transitions and the possibility of observing interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  10. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  11. Highly charged ions interacting with carbon surfaces : An influence of surface structure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, R; Winters, D; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R

    Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to investigate the reaction of various carbon surfaces - including fullerene covered metal surfaces - on the impact of highly charged ions. An influence of the electronic surface structure on the interaction is clearly observed. However, the goal of

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF ANGULAR-MOMENTUM ON DOUBLE ELECTRON-CAPTURE BY HIGHLY CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTHUMUS, JH; LUKEY, P; MORGENSTERN, R

    1992-01-01

    Double electron capture during collisions of highly charged ions with H-2 or He is studied by measuring and analysing energy spectra of the resulting autoionization electrons and by comparing the experimentally determined population probabilities for the various states with those calculated from a

  13. Potential Effects in the Interaction of Highly Charged Ions with Solid Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakurai, Makotoi; Sasaki, Kouji; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Kato, Daiji; A. Sakaue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    .... It is known that the luminescence of Er2O3 provides information on its crystallinity. We observed luminescence of various samples including Er2O3 during the irradiation with highly charged ions produced by an electron beam ion source (EBIS...

  14. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  15. Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-09-26

    This is the final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0006389, "Interpreting New Data from the High Energy Frontier", describing research accomplishments by the PI in the field of theoretical high energy physics.

  16. Optics of High-Energy Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, Owen

    1960-05-01

    Many of the experiments now being conducted on high-energy accelerators requires the use of beams of charged secondary particles. It is worth while at this time to attempt to summarize information about some of the most useful methods of setting up such beams. We are not concerned here with the primary beam of the accelerator. Rather, they assume that a target is struck by the primary beam and that it is desired to form a beam from the secondary charged particles that emerge from collisions within the target. The simplest system of forming this beam of secondary particles involves the use of magnetic fields only. In most cases it is desirable to obtain a beam of particles of known magnetic rigidity, or momentum. The bulk of this article is addressed to this problem. Some comments are also made about the use of electric fields in conjunction with magnetic fields. The inclusion of electric fields allows the separation of a beam of known momentum into its various components according to the velocities of the particles, hence according to the masses of the particles. These are referred to as ''separated beams''.

  17. High Energy Emissions from Young Stellar Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. C. Das; Ashok Ambastha

    2012-03-01

    X-ray emissions from Young Stellar Objects (YSO) are detected by many X-ray missions that are providing important information about their properties. However, their emission processes are not fully understood. In this research note, we propose a model for the generation of emissions from a YSO on the basis of a simple interaction between the YSO and its surrounding circumstellar accretion disc containing neutral gas and charged dust. It is assumed that the YSO has a weak dipole type magnetic field and its field lines are threaded into the circumstellar disc. Considering the motion of ions and charged dust particles in the presence of neutral gas, we show that the sheared dust-neutral gas velocities can lead to a current along the direction of ambient magnetic field. Magnitude of this current can become large and is capable of generating an electric field along the magnetic field lines. It is shown how the particles can gain energy up to MeV range and above, which can produce high-energy radiations from the YSO.

  18. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  19. Automatic keywording of High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter

    1999-01-01

    Bibliographic databases were developed from the traditional library card catalogue in order to enable users to access library documents via various types of bibliographic information, such as title, author, series or conference date. In addition these catalogues sometimes contained some form of indexation by subject, such as the Universal (or Dewey) Decimal Classification used for books. With the introduction of the eprint archives, set up by the High Energy Physics (HEP) Community in the early 90s, huge collections of documents in several fields have been made available on the World Wide Web. These developments however have not yet been followed up from a keywording point of view. We will see in this paper how important it is to attribute keywords to all documents in the area of HEP Grey Literature. As libraries are facing a future with less and less manpower available and more and more documents, we will explore the possibility of being helped by automatic classification software. We will specifically menti...

  20. High-energy astroparticle physics with CALET

    CERN Document Server

    Maestro, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) will be installed on the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014 where it will measure the cosmic-ray fluxes for five years. Its main scientific goals are to search for dark matter, investigate the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation in the Galaxy and discover possible astrophysical sources of high-energy electrons nearby the Earth. The instrument, under construction, consists of two layers of segmented plastic scintillators for the cosmic-ray charge identification (CHD), a 3 X$_0$-thick tungsten-scintillating fiber imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a 27 X$_0$-thick lead-tungstate calorimeter (TASC). The CHD can provide single-element separation in the interval of atomic number Z from 1 to 40, while IMC and TASC can measure the energy of cosmic-ray particles with excellent resolution in the range from few GeV up to several hundreds of TeV. Moreover, IMC and TASC provide the longitudin...

  1. Phenomenology of hard diffraction at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Magno V T

    2016-01-01

    We present some of the topics covered in two lectures under the same title that was given at the "Summer School on High Energy Physics at the LHC: New trends in HEP" in Natal, Brazil. In this contribution we give a brief review on the application of perturbative QCD to the hard diffractive processes. Such reactions involving a hard scale can be understood in terms of quarks and gluons degrees of freedom and have become an useful tool for investigating the low-$x$ structure of the proton and the behavior of QCD in the high-density regime. We start using the information from the $ep$ collisions at HERA concerned to the inclusive diffraction to introduce the concept of diffractive parton distributions. Their interpretation in the resolved pomeron model is addressed and we discuss the limits of diffractive hard-scattering factorization for hadron-hadron collisions. Some examples of phenomenology for the diffractive production of $W/Z$, heavy $Q\\bar{Q}$ and quarkonium in hadron-hadron reactions are presented. We a...

  2. High Energy Density aluminum/oxygen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, E. J.; Gibbons, D. W.

    An alternative to a secondary battery as the power source for vehicle propulsion is a fuel cell, an example of which is the metal/air cell using metals such as aluminum, zinc, or iron. Aluminum is a particularly attractive candidate, with high energy and power densities, environmentally acceptable and having a large, established industrial base for production and distribution. An aluminum/oxygen system is currently under development for a prototype unmanned, undersea vehicle (UUV) for the US navy and recent work has focussed upon low corrosion aluminum alloys, and an electrolyte management system for processing the by-products of the energy-producing reactions. This paper summarizes the progress made in both areas. Anode materials capable of providing high utilization factors over current densities ranging from 5 to 150 mA/cm 2 have been identified, such materials being essential to realize mission life for the UUV. With respect to the electrolyte management system, a filter/precipitator unit has been successfully operated for over 250 h in a large scale, half-cell system.

  3. Transverse Diagnostics For High Energy Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Castro Carballo, Maria Elena

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a circular synchrotron accelerator that will explore new Physics at the higher energies ever achieved, aiming to find the Higgs boson. The LHC is being built at CERN and by 2007 it will be ready to produce head-on collisions of protons at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The employment of superconducting magnets for achieving high energies, the high luminosity required for physics, the limited dynamic aperture and the large energy stored in the beams will make the machine very challenging to operate, especially during the injection process and the energy ramp. Two particular problems will be a high sensitivity to beam losses and a relatively poor field quality requiring the use of many types of magnetic correction elements. This may lead to the inclusion of certain beam measurements in feedback loops, making special demands on the control system. The injection and acceleration of the LHC proton beams without particle losses and emittance blow up will require an accurate co...

  4. Ultra-High Energy Probes of Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2012-01-01

    Classicalizing theories are characterized by a rapid growth of the scattering cross section. This growth converts these sort of theories in interesting probes for ultra-high energy experiments even at relatively low luminosity, such as cosmic rays or Plasma Wakefield accelerators. The microscopic reason behind this growth is the production of N-particle states, classicalons, that represent self-sustained lumps of soft Bosons. For spin-2 theories this is the quantum portrait of what in the classical limit are known as black holes. We emphasize the importance of this quantum picture which liberates us from the artifacts of the classical geometric limit and allows to scan a much wider landscape of experimentally-interesting quantum theories. We identify a phenomenologically-viable class of spin-2 theories for which the growth of classicalon production cross section can be as efficient as to compete with QCD cross section already at 100 TeV energy, signaling production of quantum black holes with graviton occupat...

  5. High-energy radiation from old pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we study nonthermal high energy radiation from old rotation-powered pulsars with ages greater than 106 yr based on the revised outer gap model.In this model,the inclination angle and geometry of the magnetic field have been taken into account,and the fractional size f of the outer gap is determined by the electron/positron pair production process.The cascade process caused by the back-flowing particles moving from the outer gap to the star will produce the observed nonthermal X-ray emission,and the relativistic particles accelerated in the outer gap will produce gamma-rays via curvature radiation.For nine old pulsars which have been detected to have nonthermal X-rays,we first use the observed nonthermal X-ray emission to estimate reasonable inclination angles,and then estimate their gamma-ray emissions.We also study the possibilities of gamma-ray emissions from other old rotation-powered pulsars.We compare our predicted gamma-ray flux with the sensitivities of AGILE and Fermi.

  6. The KLOE-2 High Energy Tagger Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D; Iafolla, L; Iannarelli, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Moricciani, D; Saputi, A; Turri, E

    2012-01-01

    In order to fully reconstruct to the reaction e+e- to e+e- gamma-gamma in the energy region of the phi meson production, new detectors along the DAFNE beam line have to be installed in order to detect the scattered e+e-. The High Energy Tagger (HET) detector measures the deviation of leptons from their main orbit by determining their position and timing so to tag gamma-gamma physics events and disentangle them from background. The HET detectors are placed at the exit of the DAFNE dipole magnets, 11 m away from the IP, both on positron and electron lines. The HET sensitive area is made up of a set of 28 plastic scintillators. A dedicated DAQ electronics board based on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA have been developed for this detector. It provides a MultiHit TDC with a time resolution of the order of 500 ps and the possibility to acquire data any 2.5 ns, thus allowing to clearly identify the correct bunch crossing. First results of the commissioning run are presented.

  7. High energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clifford, J.R. [Titan Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide layer.

  8. Very-high energy emission from pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Breed, M; Harding, A K

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of pulsars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) display exponentially cutoff spectra with cutoffs falling in a narrow band around a few GeV. Early spectral modelling predicted spectral cutoffs at energies of up to 100 GeV, assuming curvature radiation. It was therefore not expected that pulsars would be visible in the very-high energy (VHE) regime (>100 GeV). The VERITAS announcement of the detection of pulsed emission from the Crab pulsar at energies up to 400 GeV (and now up to 1.5 TeV as detected by MAGIC) therefore raised important questions about our understanding of the electrodynamics and local environment of pulsars. H.E.S.S. has now detected pulsed emission from the Vela pulsar down to tens of GeV, making this the second pulsar detected by a ground-based Cherenkov telescope. Deep upper limits have also been obtained by VERITAS and MAGIC for the Geminga pulsar. We will review the latest developments in VHE pulsar science, including an overview of the latest observations, ...

  9. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guainazzi, Matteo

    2017-08-01

    Athena (the Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is a next generation X-ray observatory currently under study by ESA for launch in 2028. Athena is designed to address the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme, which addresses two key questions: 1) How did ordinary matter evolve into the large scale structures we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe. To address these topics Athena employs an innovative X-ray telescope based on Silicon Pore Optics technology to deliver extremely light weight and high throughput, while retaining excellent angular resolution. The mirror can be adjusted to focus onto one of two focal place instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) which provides spatially-resolved, high resolution spectroscopy, and the Wide Field Imager (WFI) which provides spectral imaging over a large field of view, as well as high time resolution and count rate tolerance. Athena is currently in Phase A and the study status will be reviewed, along with the scientific motivations behind the mission.

  10. High Energy Activation Data Library (HEAD-2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Korovin, Yury A; Konobeyev, Alexander Yu; Stankovskiy, Alexey Yu; Mashnik, Stepan G

    2010-01-01

    A proton activation data library for 682 nuclides from 1-H to 210-Po in the energy range from 150 MeV up to 1 GeV was developed. To calculate proton activation data, the MCNPX 2.6.0 and CASCADE/INPE codes were chosen. Different intranuclear cascade, preequilibrium, and equilibrium nuclear reaction models and their combinations were used. The optimum calculation models have been chosen on the basis of statistical correlations for calculated and experimental proton data taken from the EXFOR library of experimental nuclear data. All the data are written in ENDF-6 format. The library is called HEPAD-2008 (High-Energy Proton Activation Data). A revision of IEAF-2005 neutron activation data library has been performed: A set of nuclides for which the cross-section data can be (and were) updated using more modern and improved models is specified, and the corresponding calculations have been made in the present work. The new version of the library is called IEAF-2009. The HEPAD-2008 and IEAF-2009 are merged to the fin...

  11. Perspectives on future high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samios, N.P.

    1996-12-31

    The author states two general ways in which one must proceed in an attempt to forecast the future of high energy physics. The first is to utilize the state of knowledge in the field and thereby provide theoretical and experimental guidance on future directions. The second approach is technical, namely, how well can one do in going to higher energies with present techniques or new accelerator principles. He concludes that the future strategy is straightforward. The present accelerator facilities must be upgraded and run to produce exciting and forefront research. At the same time, the theoretical tools should be sharpened both extrapolating from lower energies (100 GeV) to high (multi TeV) and vice versa. The US should be involved in the LHC, both in the accelerator and experimental areas. There should be an extensive R and D program on accelerators for a multi-TeV capability, emphasizing e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}} colliders. Finally, the international cooperative activities should be strengthened and maintained.

  12. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bornheim, Adolf, E-mail: bornheim@hep.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ronzhin, Anatoly [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-07-11

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm{sup 3} sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  13. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Spin structure in high energy processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePorcel, L.; Dunwoodie, C. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    This report contains papers as the following topics: Spin, Mass, and Symmetry; physics with polarized Z{sup 0}s; spin and precision electroweak physics; polarized electron sources; polarization phenomena in quantum chromodynamics; polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; polarized targets in high energy physics; spin dynamics in storage rings and linear accelerators; spin formalism and applications to new physics searches; precision electroweak physics at LEP; recent results on heavy flavor physics from LEP experiments using 1990--1992 data; precise measurement of the left-right cross section asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions; preliminary results on heavy flavor physics at SLD; QCD tests with SLD and polarized beams; recent results from TRISTAN at KEK; recent B physics results from CLEO; searching for the H dibaryon at Brookhaven; recent results from the compton observatory; the spin structure of the deuteron; spin structure of the neutron ({sup 3}HE) and the Bjoerken sum rule; a consumer`s guide to lattice QCD results; top ten models constrained by b {yields} sy; a review of the Fermilab fixed target program; results from the D0 experiment; results from CDF at FNAL; quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung; report from the ZEUS collaboration at HERA; physics from the first year of H1 at HERA, and hard diffraction. These papers have been cataloged separately elsewhere.

  15. 14 CFR 23.1461 - Equipment containing high energy rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment containing high energy rotors. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1461 Equipment containing high energy rotors. (a) Equipment, such as Auxiliary Power Units (APU) and constant speed drive units, containing high energy rotors must...

  16. Prospects for laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions with high-harmonic XUV and soft x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, J.; Hädrich, S.; Demmler, S.; Krebs, M.; Winters, D. F. A.; Kühl, Th; Stöhlker, Th; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-11-01

    We present novel high photon flux XUV and soft x-ray sources based on high harmonic generation (HHG). The sources employ femtosecond fiber lasers, which can be operated at very high (MHz) repetition rate and average power (>100 W). HHG with such lasers results in ˜1013 photons s-1 within a single harmonic line at ˜40 nm (˜30 eV) wavelength, a photon flux comparable to what is typically available at synchrotron beam lines. In addition, resonant enhancement of HHG can result in narrow-band harmonics with high spectral purity—well suited for precision spectroscopy. These novel light sources will enable seminal studies on electronic transitions in highly-charged ions. For example, at the experimental storage ring 2s1/2-2p1/2 transitions in Li-like ions can be excited up to Z = 47 (˜100 eV transition energy), which provides unique sensitivity to quantum electro-dynamical effects and nuclear corrections. We estimate fluorescence count rates of the order of tens per second, which would enable studies on short-lived isotopes as well. In combination with the Doppler up-shift available in head-on excitation at future heavy-ion storage rings, such as the high energy storage ring, even multi-keV transitions can potentially be excited. Pump-probe experiments with femtosecond resolution could also be feasible and access the lifetime of short-lived excited states, thus providing novel benchmarks for atomic structure theory.

  17. Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S; Strauss, M J; Snow, J; Rizatdinova, F; Abbott, B; Babu, K; Gutierrez, P; Kao, C; Khanov, A; Milton, K A; Neaman, H; H Severini, P Skubic

    2012-02-29

    The DOE EPSCoR implementation grant, with the support from the State of Oklahoma and from the three universities, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma and Langston University, resulted in establishing of the Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics (OCHEP) in 2004. Currently, OCHEP continues to flourish as a vibrant hub for research in experimental and theoretical particle physics and an educational center in the State of Oklahoma. All goals of the original proposal were successfully accomplished. These include foun- dation of a new experimental particle physics group at OSU, the establishment of a Tier 2 computing facility for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Tevatron data analysis at OU and organization of a vital particle physics research center in Oklahoma based on resources of the three universities. OSU has hired two tenure-track faculty members with initial support from the grant funds. Now both positions are supported through OSU budget. This new HEP Experimental Group at OSU has established itself as a full member of the Fermilab D0 Collaboration and LHC ATLAS Experiment and has secured external funds from the DOE and the NSF. These funds currently support 2 graduate students, 1 postdoctoral fellow, and 1 part-time engineer. The grant initiated creation of a Tier 2 computing facility at OU as part of the Southwest Tier 2 facility, and a permanent Research Scientist was hired at OU to maintain and run the facility. Permanent support for this position has now been provided through the OU university budget. OCHEP represents a successful model of cooperation of several universities, providing the establishment of critical mass of manpower, computing and hardware resources. This led to increasing Oklahoma's impact in all areas of HEP, theory, experiment, and computation. The Center personnel are involved in cutting edge research in experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of High Energy Physics with the research areas ranging

  18. UPR/Mayaguez High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Angel M. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)

    2015-10-27

    For the period of sixteen years covered by this report (June 1, 1997 - July 31, 2013) the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez Campus (UPRM) carried out an extensive research program that included major experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), the Cornell Electron-positron Collider and CERN. In particular, these were E831 (FOCUS) at Fermilab, CLEOc at Cornell and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The group’s history is one of successful execution and growth. Beginning with one faculty researcher in 1985, it eventually included four faculty researchers, one post-doctoral research associate, two undergraduates and as many as six graduate students at one time working on one of the experiments that discovered the Higgs boson. Some of this expansion was due to the group’s leveraging of funds from the Department of Energy’s core grant to attract funds from National Science Foundation programs not targeted to high energy physics. Besides the group’s research productivity, its other major contribution was the training of a large number of MS students who later went on to successful technical careers in industry as well as academia including many who obtained PhD degrees at US universities. In an attempt to document this history, this final report gives a general description of the Group’s work prior to June 1, 2010, the starting date for the last grant renewal period. Much more detail can, of course, be found in the annual reports submitted up to that date. The work during the last grant period is discussed in detail in a separate section. To summarize the group’s scientific accomplishments, one can point to the results of the experiments. Both FOCUS and CLEOc were designed to carry out precise measurements of processes involving the heavy quarks, charm and bottom. Heavy quarks are particularly interesting because, due to their mass, theoretical calculations

  19. High Energy Laser for Space Debris Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Beach, R; Rubenchik, A

    2009-10-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Photon Science Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has substantial relevant experience in the construction of high energy lasers, and more recently in the development of advanced high average power solid state lasers. We are currently developing new concepts for advanced solid state laser drivers for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) application, and other high average power laser applications that could become central technologies for use in space debris removal. The debris population most readily addressed by our laser technology is that of 0.1-10 cm sized debris in low earth orbit (LEO). In this application, a ground based laser system would engage an orbiting target and slow it down by ablating material from its surface which leads to reentry into the atmosphere, as proposed by NASA's ORION Project. The ORION concept of operations (CONOPS) is also described in general terms by Phipps. Key aspects of this approach include the need for high irradiance on target, 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, which favors short (i.e., picoseconds to nanoseconds) laser pulse durations and high energy per pulse ({approx} > 10 kJ). Due to the target's orbital velocity, the potential duration of engagement is only of order 100 seconds, so a high pulse repetition rate is also essential. The laser technology needed for this application did not exist when ORION was first proposed, but today, a unique combination of emerging technologies could create a path to enable deployment in the near future. Our concepts for the laser system architecture are an extension of what was developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), combined with high repetition rate laser technology developed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and heat capacity laser technology developed for military applications. The 'front-end' seed pulse generator would be fiber-optics based, and would generate a temporally, and

  20. Magnetic-dipole transitions in highly charged ions as a basis of ultraprecise optical clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, V I; Taichenachev, A V; Derevianko, A

    2014-12-05

    We evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic-dipole (M1) transitions in highly charged ions as a basis of an optical atomic clockwork of exceptional accuracy. We consider a range of possibilities, including M1 transitions between clock levels of the same fine-structure and hyperfine-structure manifolds. In highly charged ions these transitions lie in the optical part of the spectra and can be probed with lasers. The most direct advantage of our proposal comes from the low degeneracy of clock levels and the simplicity of atomic structure in combination with negligible quadrupolar shift. We demonstrate that such clocks can have projected fractional accuracies below the 10^{-20}-10^{-21} level for all common systematic effects, such as blackbody radiation, Zeeman, ac-Stark, and quadrupolar shifts.

  1. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  2. Laser acceleration of electrons to giga-electron-volt energies using highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S X; Starace, Anthony F

    2006-06-01

    The recent proposal to use highly charged ions as sources of electrons for laser acceleration [S. X. Hu and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245003 (2002)] is investigated here in detail by means of three-dimensional, relativistic Monte Carlo simulations for a variety of system parameters, such as laser pulse duration, ionic charge state, and laser focusing spot size. Realistic laser focusing effects--e.g., the existence of longitudinal laser field components-are taken into account. Results of spatial averaging over the laser focus are also presented. These numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme for laser acceleration of electrons from highly charged ions is feasible with current or near-future experimental conditions and that electrons with GeV energies can be obtained in such experiments.

  3. Highly charged ions in a dilute plasma: an exact asymptotic solution involving strong coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lowell S; Dooling, David C; Preston, Dean L

    2006-05-01

    The ion sphere model introduced long ago by Salpeter is placed in a rigorous theoretical setting. The leading corrections to this model for very highly charged but dilute ions in thermal equilibrium with a weakly coupled, one-component background plasma are explicitly computed, and the subleading corrections shown to be negligibly small. This is done using the effective field theory methods advocated by Brown and Yaffe. Thus, corrections to nuclear reaction rates that such highly charged ions may undergo can be computed precisely. Moreover, their contribution to the equation of state can also be computed with precision. Such analytic results for very strong coupling are rarely available, and they can serve as benchmarks for testing computer models in this limit.

  4. Electroweak Decay Studies of Highly Charged Radioactive Ions with TITAN at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Leach, K G; Klawitter, R; Leistenschneider, E; Lennarz, A; Brunner, T; Frekers, D; Andreiou, C; Kwiatkowski, A A; Dilling, J

    2016-01-01

    Several modes of electroweak radioactive decay require an interaction between the nucleus and bound electrons within the constituent atom. Thus, the probabilities of the respective decays are not only influenced by the structure of the initial and final states in the nucleus, but can also depend strongly on the atomic charge. Conditions suitable for the partial or complete ionization of these rare isotopes occur naturally in hot, dense astrophysical environments, but can also be artificially generated in the laboratory to selectively block certain radioactive decay modes. Direct experimental studies on such scenarios are extremely difficult due to the laboratory conditions required to generate and store radioactive ions at high charge states. A new electron-beam ion trap (EBIT) decay setup with the TITAN experiment at TRIUMF has successfully demonstrated such techniques for performing spectroscopy on the radioactive decay of highly charged ions.

  5. Cooling of highly charged ions—the HITRAP facility and Cooler trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, S.; Boulton, E.; Brantjes, N. P. M.; Herfurth, F.; Kotovskiy, N.; Krantz, C.; Neidherr, D.; Steinmann, J.; Vorobjev, G.; HITRAP Collaboration

    2013-09-01

    HITRAP is a facility at GSI in Darmstadt for decelerating, cooling and storing heavy, highly charged ions. It is designed to decelerate a beam of A/q cold ions to the experiments. The linac has shown to decelerate ions down to 500 keV per nucleon on-line and to 6 keV per nucleon off-line. Recent tests with electrons and ions injected into the trap showed the necessity of a more careful electric and magnetic field alignment. An installed test ion source as well as a system of apertures and position sensitive diagnostics will be used to align the fields. A highly charged ion beam from a small room temperature electron beam ion trap was used for commissioning the VBL.

  6. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  7. Defining High-Energy Calibration Standards: IACHEC (International Astronomical Consortium for High-Energy Calibration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembay, S.; Guainazzi, M.; Plucinsky, P.; Nevalainen, J.

    2010-07-01

    The International Astronomical Consortium for High-Energy Calibration (IACHEC) aims to provide standards for high energy calibration and supervise cross-calibration between different X-ray and Gamma-ray observatories. This goal is reached through Working Groups, involving around 40 astronomers worldwide. In these Groups, IACHEC members co-operate to define calibration standards and procedures. Their scope is primarily a practical one: a set of astronomical sources, data and results (eventually published in refereed journals) will be the outcome of a co-ordinated and standardized analysis of reference sources (``high-energy standard candles''). We briefly describe here just two of the many studies undertaken by the IACHEC; a cross-calibration analysis of O and Ne line fluxes from the thermal SNR 1E0102.2-7219, and at higher energies a comparison study of a sample of cluster temperatures and fluxes. A more detailed picture of the activities of the IACHEC is available via the information portal at http://web.mit.edu/iachec/.

  8. Physics of intense, high energy radiation effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Hartman, E. Frederick; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Crozier, Paul Stewart

    2011-02-01

    This document summarizes the work done in our three-year LDRD project titled 'Physics of Intense, High Energy Radiation Effects.' This LDRD is focused on electrical effects of ionizing radiation at high dose-rates. One major thrust throughout the project has been the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) produced by the ionizing radiation. Another important consideration has been the electrical effect of dose-enhanced radiation. This transient effect can produce an electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The unifying theme of the project has been the dielectric function. This quantity contains much of the physics covered in this project. For example, the work on transient electrical effects in radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) has been a key focus for the work on the EMP effects. This physics in contained in the dielectric function, which can also be expressed as a conductivity. The transient defects created during a radiation event are also contained, in principle. The energy loss lead the hot electrons and holes is given by the stopping power of ionizing radiation. This information is given by the inverse dielectric function. Finally, the short time atomistic phenomena caused by ionizing radiation can also be considered to be contained within the dielectric function. During the LDRD, meetings about the work were held every week. These discussions involved theorists, experimentalists and engineers. These discussions branched out into the work done in other projects. For example, the work on EMP effects had influence on another project focused on such phenomena in gases. Furthermore, the physics of radiation detectors and radiation dosimeters was often discussed, and these discussions had impact on related projects. Some LDRD-related documents are now stored on a sharepoint site (https://sharepoint.sandia.gov/sites/LDRD-REMS/default.aspx). In the remainder of this document the work is described in catergories but there is much overlap between the atomistic

  9. Alternative Approaches to High Energy Density Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper explores selected approaches to High Energy Density (HED) fusion, beginning with discussion of ignition requirements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The needed improvements to achieve ignition are closely tied to the ability to concentrate energy in the implosion, manifested in the stagnation pressure, Pstag. The energy that must be assembled in the imploded state to ignite varies roughly as Pstag-2, so among other requirements, there is a premium on reaching higher Pstag to achieve ignition with the available laser energy. The U.S. inertial confinement fusion program (ICF) is pursuing higher Pstag on NIF through improvements to capsule stability and symmetry. One can argue that recent experiments place an approximate upper bound on the ultimate ignition energy requirement. Scaling the implosions consistently in spatial, temporal and energy scales shows that implosions of the demonstrated quality ignite robustly at 9-15 times the current energy of NIF. While lasers are unlikely to reach that bounding energy, it appears that pulsed-power sources could plausibly do so, giving a range of paths forward for ICF depending on success in improving energy concentration. In this paper, I show the scaling arguments then discuss topics from my own involvement in HED fusion. The recent Viewfactor experiments at NIF have shed light on both the observed capsule drive deficit and errors in the detailed modelling of hohlraums. The latter could be important factors in the inability to achieve the needed symmetry and energy concentration. The paper then recounts earlier work in Fast Ignition and the uses of pulsed-power for HED and fusion applications. It concludes with a description of a method for improving pulsed-power driven hohlraums that could potentially provide a factor of 10 in energy at NTF-like drive conditions and reach the energy bound for indirect drive ICF.

  10. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  11. Radio Detection of Ultra High Energy Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, James J.

    2011-05-01

    Ultra high energy cosmic rays interact with the cosmic microwave background radiation, resulting in the production of energetic pions. These interactions result in energy loss by the incident cosmic ray leading to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) feature in the cosmic ray spectrum at about 4×10^19 eV, and the decay of the charged pions produced in these interactions results in neutrinos known as Berezinskii-Zatsepin (BZ) neutrinos. These neutrinos interact only via the weak interaction, with negligible absorption over cosmic distances but interaction lengths in the Earth of a few hundred kilometers. When these neutrinos interact in a dense medium, the electromagnetic component of the resulting shower develops a negative charge excess due to Compton scattering of the electrons from the medium and depletion of positrons by in-flight annihilation. This macroscopic charge excess moves at nearly the speed of light, and its passage through a dielectric medium results in coherent Cherenkov radiation at radio wavelengths longer than the size of the radiating region. This process is known as the Askaryan mechanism, and has been observed in accelerator experiments. The radio pulse is impulsive, and can be detected over large volumes in materials with long radio attenuation lengths, most notably the cold ice in the Antarctic ice sheet. Upper limits on the neutrino flux obtained by the balloon-borne instrument ANITA are now approaching the expected flux, and prototype in-ice antenna arrays are now being deployed. Prospects for large detectors capable of detecting hundreds of these neutrinos will be discussed. This work is supported by NASA under grants NNX08AC17G and NNX11AC45G, by the NSF under grant PHY-0758082, and by the Ohio State Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (CCAPP).

  12. The KLOE-2 high energy taggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curciarello, F.

    2017-06-01

    The precision measurement of the π0 → γγ width allows to gain insights into the low-energy QCD dynamics. A way to achieve the precision needed (1%) in order to test theory predictions is to study the π0 production through γγ fusion in the e+e- → e+e-γ*γ* → e+e-π0 reaction. The KLOE-2 experiment, currently running at the DAΦNE facility in Frascati, aims to perform this measurement. For this reason, new detectors, which allow to tag final state leptons, have been installed along the DAΦNE beam line in order to reduce the background coming from phi-meson decays. The High Energy Tagger (HET) detector measures the deviation of leptons from their main orbit by determining their position and timing. The HET detectors are placed in roman pots just at the exit of the DAΦNE dipole magnets, 11 m away from the IP, both on positron and electron sides. The HET sensitive area is made up of a set of 28 plastic scintillators. A dedicated DAQ electronic board, based on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, has been developed for this detector. It provides a MultiHit TDC with a time resolution of 550(1) ps and the possibility to clearly identify the correct bunch crossing (ΔTbunch ~ 2.7 ns). The most relevant features of the KLOE-2 tagging system operation as time performance, stability and the techniques used to determine the time overlap between the KLOE and HET asynchronous DAQs will be presented.

  13. An experimental high energy physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, J. A.; Loeffler, F. J.; McIlwain, R. L.; Miller, D. H.; Palfrey, T. R.; Shibata, E. I.

    1989-05-01

    The CLEO detector accumulated, (approximately 480,000 B-mesons) the world's largest sample of B decays, before being shutdown in May 1988 for the installation of CLEO II. This data sample came from 335 pb(-1) accumulated at the upsilon (4S). The Cornell Electron Storage Ring set new luminosity records, reaching 3.5 pb(-1) in a single day. These data are being intensively analyzed and 21 papers were given at the Baltimore APS meeting. Among the highlights are: confirmation of B(sup 0)(bar B)(sup 0) mixing; discovery of the charm-strange baryon xi (sub c)(sup 0); limits on b yields u decay; and non-observation of B yields p(bar p)pi(pi), which was reported by the ARGUS collaboration. The construction of CLEO II is proceeding on schedule. The new 1.5 T superconducting magnet has passed all tests and all of the detector elements have been installed. This includes a 7800 CsI crystals electromagnetic shower calorimeter. The data from the Gamma Ray Astrophysics experiment show a significant signal for high energy gamma ray emission from Cygnus X-3 and also confirm the previously reported anomalous period from Her X-1. Meanwhile, the old 6 mirror telescope has been refitted with 26 high resolution mirrors and improved fast electronics. GRANDE, the next generation detector based on the water Cherenkov technique, has been formally proposed to HEPAP. The detector will search for neutrino emission in the Southern Hemisphere and gamma radiation in the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford

    2012-04-03

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  15. K-Vacancy Production in the Collision of Highly Charged Relativistic Ions With Heavy Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibullaev, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A general expression for the cross section of the inelastic collision of relativistic highly charged ion with heavy (relativistic) atoms is obtained using the generalized eikonal approximation. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the obtained formula coincides with a known exact one. As an application of the obtained result, probability and cross section of the K-vacany production in the U92+ - U91+ collision are calculated.

  16. Highly charged ions for atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, M S; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Safronova, U I; Porsev, S G; Kozlov, M G

    2014-07-18

    We propose 10 highly charged ions as candidates for the development of next generation atomic clocks, quantum information, and search for α variation. They have long-lived metastable states with transition wavelengths to the ground state between 170-3000 nm, relatively simple electronic structure, stable isotopes, and high sensitivity to α variation (e.g., Sm(14+), Pr(10+), Sm(13+), Nd(10+)). We predict their properties crucial for the experimental exploration and highlight particularly attractive systems for these applications.

  17. Measurements of excitation spectra and level lifetimes for highly charged neon ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友德; 马新文; 杨治虎; 杜一飞; 刘惠萍; 赵孟春; 郭天瑞; 王春芳

    1997-01-01

    Beam foil experiments were carried out for 47 MeV Ne ions passing through C (39 μg/cm2) and Al (3 4mg/cm2) foils. Highly charged H-, He-, Li-, and Be-like ions were obtained after the foils. The excitation spectra and level lifetimes for these ions were measured, and transition configurations for most measured lines were identified

  18. Hydrogenlike highly charged ions for tests of the time independence of fundamental constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, S

    2007-05-04

    Hyperfine transitions in the electronic ground state of cold, trapped hydrogenlike highly charged ions have attractive features for use as frequency standards because the majority of systematic frequency shifts are smaller by orders of magnitude compared to many microwave and optical frequency standards. Frequency measurements of these transitions hold promise for significantly improved laboratory tests of local position invariance of the electron and quark masses.

  19. Crystal optics for hard-X-ray spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, H. F.; Attia, D.; Banas, D; Bigot, E. -O. Le; Bosch, F.; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Förster, E.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Heß, S.; J. Hoszowska; Indelicato, P.; Jagodzinski, P.; Kozhuharov, Chr.; Krings, Th.

    2009-01-01

    A twin crystal-spectrometer assembly, operated in the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue geometry has been developed for accurate spectroscopy of fast highly charged heavy ions in the hard-X-ray region. Coupled to the focusing crystal optics is a specially developed two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector which is necessary for retaining spectral resolution also for fast moving sources. We summarize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrument for spectrosco...

  20. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap): An experimental realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Absolute cross sections for charge capture from Rydberg targets by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaola, B.D.; Huang, M.; Winecki, S.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Kanai, Y. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lundeen, S.R.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Arko, S.A. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A crossed beam experiment has been used to measure absolute charge capture cross sections in collisions of slow highly charged xenon ions with laser excited Rydberg atoms. The cross sections were measured for scaled projectile velocities {ital nv}{sub {ital p}} from 1.0 to 6.0, for projectile charges of 8, 16, 32, and 40, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number of the target electron. Experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of classical models.

  2. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, L., E-mail: sunlt@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω{sup 2} scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE{sub 01} and HE{sub 11} modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar{sup 12+}, 0.92 emA Xe{sup 27+}, and so on, will be presented.

  3. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Yang, Y.; Qian, C.; Fang, X.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE01 and HE11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar12+, 0.92 emA Xe27+, and so on, will be presented.

  4. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  5. K-Vacancy Production in the Collision of Highly Charged Relativistic Ions With Heavy Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    KHABIBULLAEV, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A general expression for the cross section of the inelastic collision of relativistic highly charged ion with heavy (relativistic) atoms is obtained using the generalized eikonal approximation. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the obtained formula coincides with a known exact one. As an application of the obtained result, probability and cross section of the K-vacany production in the U92+ - U91+ collision are calculated.

  6. Single ion induced surface nanostructures: a comparison between slow highly charged and swift heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumayr, Friedrich; Facsko, Stefan; El-Said, Ayman S; Trautmann, Christina; Schleberger, Marika

    2011-10-05

    This topical review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the formation of surface nanostructures, an intriguing phenomenon in ion-surface interaction due to the impact of individual ions. In many solid targets, swift heavy ions produce narrow cylindrical tracks accompanied by the formation of a surface nanostructure. More recently, a similar nanometric surface effect has been revealed for the impact of individual, very slow but highly charged ions. While swift ions transfer their large kinetic energy to the target via ionization and electronic excitation processes (electronic stopping), slow highly charged ions produce surface structures due to potential energy deposited at the top surface layers. Despite the differences in primary excitation, the similarity between the nanostructures is striking and strongly points to a common mechanism related to the energy transfer from the electronic to the lattice system of the target. A comparison of surface structures induced by swift heavy ions and slow highly charged ions provides a valuable insight to better understand the formation mechanisms.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on opportunities for atomic physics using slow, highly-charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The study of atomic physics with highly-charged ions is an area of intense activity at the present time because of a convergence of theoretical interest and advances in experimental techniques. The purpose of the Argonne ''Workshop on Opportunities for Atomic Physics Using Slow, Highly-Charged Ions'' was to bring together atomic, nuclear, and accelerator physicists in order to identify what new facilities would be most useful for the atomic physics community. The program included discussion of existing once-through machines, advanced ion sources, recoil ion techniques, ion traps, and cooler rings. One of the topics of the Workshop was to discuss possible improvement to the ANL Tandem-Linac facility (ATLAS) to enhance the capability for slowing down ions after they are stripped to a high-charge state (the Accel/Decel technique). Another topic was the opportunity for atomic physics provided by the ECR ion source which is being built for the Uranium Upgrade of ATLAS. 18 analytics were prepared for the individual papers in this volume.

  8. University of Oklahoma - High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubic, Patrick L. [University of Oklahoma

    2013-07-31

    The High Energy Physics program at the University of Oklahoma, Pat Skubic, Principal Investigator, is attempting to understand nature at the deepest level using the most advanced experimental and theoretical tools. The four experimental faculty, Brad Abbott, Phil Gutierrez, Pat Skubic, and Mike Strauss, together with post-doctoral associates and graduate students, are finishing their work as part of the D0 collaboration at Fermilab, and increasingly focusing their investigations at the Large Hadron Collidor (LHC) as part of the ATLAS Collaboration. Work at the LHC has become even more exciting with the recent discovery by ATLAS and the other collaboration, CMS, of the long-sought Higgs boson, which plays a key role in generating masses for the elementary constituents of matter. Work of the OUHEP group has been in the three areas of hardware, software, and analysis. Now that the Higgs boson has been discovered, completing the Standard Model of fundamental physics, new efforts will focus on finding hints of physics beyond the standard model, such as supersymmetry. The OUHEP theory group (Kim Milton, PI) also consists of four faculty members, Howie Baer, Chung Kao, Kim Milton, and Yun Wang, and associated students and postdocs. They are involved in understanding fundamental issues in formulating theories of the microworld, and in proposing models that carry us past the Standard Model, which is an incomplete description of nature. They therefore work in close concert with their experimental colleagues. One also can study fundamental physics by looking at the large scale structure of the universe; in particular the ``dark energy'' that seems to be causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate, effectively makes up about 3/4 of the energy in the universe, and yet is totally unidentified. Dark energy and dark matter, which together account for nearly all of the energy in the universe, are an important probe of fundamental physics at the very shortest

  9. Reversible Electrochemical Sensor for Detection of High-Charge Density Polyanion Contaminants in Heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jacob; Chandler, Timothy; Gemene, Kebede L

    2015-11-17

    We present a simple, rapid, and inexpensive electrochemical sensor based on a reversible pulsed chronopotentiometric polyanion-selective membrane electrode for the detection and quantification of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) and other high charge-density polyanions that could potentially be used to adulterate heparin. The membrane is free of ion exchanger and is formulated with plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and an inert lipophilic salt, tridodecylmethylammonium-dinonylnaphthaline sulfonate (TDMA-DNNS). The neutral salt is used to reduce membrane resistance and to ensure reversibility of the sensor. More importantly, TDMA(+) is used as the recognition element for the polyanions. Here an anodic galvanostatic current pulse is applied across the membrane to cause the extraction of the polyanions from the sample into the membrane and potential is measured at the sample-membrane interface. The measured electromotive force (emf) is proportional to the concentration and the charge density of the polyanions. High charge-density polyanion contaminants and impurities in heparin can be detected using this method since the overall equilibrium potential response of polyions increases with increasing charge density of the polyions. Here, first the potential response of pure heparin is measured at a saturation concentration, the concentration beyond which further addition of heparin does not produce a change in potential response. Then the potential response of heparin tainted with different quantities of the high charge-density contaminant is measured at a fixed total polyion concentration (heparin concentration + contaminant concentration). The latter gives a greater negative potential response due to the presence of the high charge-density contaminant. The increase in the negative potential response can be used for detection and quantification of high charge-density contaminants in heparin. We demonstrate here that 0.3% (w/w) OSCS as well as 0.1% (w

  10. High-Energy Neutrons from the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. E.; Gasnault, O.; dUston, C.; Lucey, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays that impact the lunar soil produce neutrons with energies from fractions of eV's to about 100 MeV. The high-energy band from 0.6 to 8.0 MeV is referred as the "fast neutron" band, which is measured by Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma Ray Spectrometer. Fast neutrons play an important role in neutron spectroscopy that may be summarized as follows: Fast neutrons define the total neutron input to the moderating process toward low-energy populations, so that epithermal and thermal neutron leakage currents must be normalized to the leakage of fast neutrons; they allow the determination of the burial depth of H, a measure necessary to understand characteristics of water deposits; they provide information on the surface content in heavy elements, such as Ti and Fe; and they provide a direct insight into the evaporation process. As discussed hereafter, fast neutrons may yield information on other oxides, such as Si02. missing data. Mare have numerous features, that are resolved in fast neutrons. For instance, the region extending northwest of Aristarchus (23.7 deg N, 47.4 W) is clearly separated from Montes Harbinger (27.0N, 41.0W) by a high-emission channel, and Mare Vaporum (13.3 N, 3.6 E) is separated from Sinus Aestuun (10.9N, 8.8W) by a low-emission area. We present a new technique to extract information on soil composition from the fast-neutron measurements. The analysis is applied to the central mare region. There are two steps for the development of the technique. 1. For the first step, which has been fully completed, we assume that variations of fast-neutron counting rates are due solely to TiO. and FeO. Upon this assumption, we correlate Clementine Spectral Reflectance Fe and Ti oxide maps with fast measurements. Above 16.5% of FeO, effects of Ti02 variations show in LP data. Below 6.5% of FeO, Fe cannot be discriminated; this is the region of most highland terrains. Under assumption of only two oxides to modulate the signal, we show that fast

  11. High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    high energy density energy storage capacitors. High efficency capacitors are available with energy densities as high as 3 J/cc for 1000 shots or...GENERAL ATOMICS ENERGY PRODUCTS Engineering Bulletin HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CAPACITORS FOR PULSED POWER APPLICATIONS Fred MacDougall, Joel...00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  12. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  13. Future scientific applications for high-energy lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.W. [comp.

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses future applications for high-energy lasers in the areas of astrophysics and space physics; hydrodynamics; material properties; plasma physics; radiation sources; and radiative properties.

  14. HELIX: The High Energy Light Isotope Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakely, Scott

    This is the lead proposal for a new suborbital program, HELIX (High-Energy Light Isotope eXperiment), designed to make measurements of the isotopic composition of light cosmic-ray nuclei from ~200 MeV/nuc to ~10 GeV/nuc. Past measurements of this kind have provided profound insights into the nature and origin of cosmic rays, revealing, for instance, information on acceleration and confinement time scales, and exposing some conspicuous discrepancies between solar and cosmic-ray abundances. The most detailed information currently available comes from the ACE/CRIS mission, but is restricted to energies below a few 100 MeV/nuc. HELIX aims at extending this energy range by over an order of magnitude, where, in most cases, no measurements of any kind exist, and where relativistic time dilation affects the apparent lifetime of radioactive clock nuclei. The HELIX measurements will provide essential information for understanding the propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy. This is crucial for properly interpreting several intriguing anomalies reported in recent cosmic-ray measurements, pertaining to the energy spectra of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei, and to the anomalous rise in the positron fraction at higher energy. HELIX employs a high-precision magnet spectrometer to provide measurements which are not achievable by any current or planned instrument. The superconducting magnet originally used for the HEAT payload in five successful high-altitude flights will be combined with state-of-the-art detectors to measure the charge, time-of-flight, magnetic rigidity, and velocity of cosmic-ray particles with high precision. The instrumentation includes plastic scintillators, silicon-strip detectors repurposed from Fermilab's CDF detector, a high-performance gas drift chamber, and a ring-imaging Cherenkov counter employing aerogel radiators and silicon photomultipliers. To reduce cost and technical risk, the HELIX program will be structured in two stages. The first

  15. X-ray characterization of surfaces irradiated with highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, J.P. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France); Ion Surface Advanced Processes (ISAP) muE., 2 Square Francois Couperin, 92160 Antony (France)], E-mail: jpbriand920@aol.com; Benhachoum, M. [Universite P. et M. Curie, Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    Highly charged ions (HCI) approaching, touching or penetrating dielectric surfaces extract many electrons of the solid leading to the formation of permanent surface modifications. The ions which capture the electrons in their outermost shells form hollow atoms which emit X-rays during their decay to the ground state. In this paper one presents experiments showing that these X-rays) allow diagnosing the electric nature of the surfaces. HCI while modifying the structure of surfaces may then also be used to diagnose these changes on line or off line.

  16. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  17. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  18. Creation of nanohillocks on CaF2 surfaces by single slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A S; Heller, R; Meissl, W; Ritter, R; Facsko, S; Lemell, C; Solleder, B; Gebeshuber, I C; Betz, G; Toulemonde, M; Möller, W; Burgdörfer, J; Aumayr, F

    2008-06-13

    Upon impact on a solid surface, the potential energy stored in slow highly charged ions is primarily deposited into the electronic system of the target. By decelerating the projectile ions to kinetic energies as low as 150 x q eV, we find first unambiguous experimental evidence that potential energy alone is sufficient to cause permanent nanosized hillocks on the (111) surface of a CaF(2) single crystal. Our investigations reveal a surprisingly sharp and well-defined threshold of potential energy for hillock formation which can be linked to a solid-liquid phase transition.

  19. The role of effective charges in the electrophoresis of highly charged colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Apratim; Horbach, Jürgen

    2010-12-15

    We study the variation of electrophoretic mobility μ of highly charged spherical colloidal macroions for varying surface charge density σ on the colloid using computer simulations of the primitive model for charged colloids. Hydrodynamic interactions between ions are incorporated by coupling the primitive model of charged colloids to the lattice Boltzmann model (LB) of the fluid. In the highly charged regime, the mobility μ of the colloid is known to decrease with the increase of bare charge Q of the colloid; the aim of this paper is to investigate the cause of this. We have identified that the two main factors contributing to the decrease of μ are counterion charge condensation on the highly charged colloid and an increase in effective friction of the macroion-counterion complex due to the condensed counterions. Thus the established O'Brien and White theory, which identified the dipolar force originating from distortion of the electric double layer as the cause of decreasing μ, seems to break down for the case of highly charged colloids with σ in the range of 30-400 µC cm (- 2). To arrive at our conclusions, we counted the number of counterions q0 moving along with the spherical macroion. We observe in our simulations that q0 increases with the increase of bare charge Q, such that the effective charge Qeff = Q - q0 remains approximately constant. Interestingly for our nanometer-sized charged colloid, we observe that, if surface charge density σ of the colloid is increased by decreasing the radius RM of the colloid but fixed bare charge Q, the effective charge Q - q0 decreases with the increase of σ. This behavior is qualitatively different when σ is increased by increasing Q keeping RM fixed. Our observations address a controversy about the effective charge of a strongly charged macroion: some studies claim that effective charge is independent of the bare charge (Alexander et al 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 80 5776; Trizac et al 2003 Langmuir 19 4027) whereas

  20. Production of highly charged argon ions from a room temperature electron beam ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tie-Shan; PENG Hai-Bo; Ovsyannikov V P; Kentsch U; Ullmann F; CHENG Rui; Zschornack G

    2008-01-01

    In this work.highly charged ions have been extracted from the advanced Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS-A) developed in a scientific cooperation between the Dresden University of Technology and the DREEBIT GmbH Dresden.The charge state distributions of ions extracted from the EBIS-A are measured in and extracted in the leaky mode.3×105 Ar18+ ions per pulse are extracted in the pulse mode.The ion charge state distribution is a function of the ionization time.

  1. Strongly Enhanced Effects of Lorentz-Symmetry Violation in Yb$^+$ and Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S

    2016-01-01

    A Lorentz-symmetry test with Ca$^+$ ions demonstrated the potential of using quantum information inspired technology for tests of fundamental physics. A systematic study of atomic-system sensitivities to Lorentz violation identified the ytterbium ion as an ideal system with high sensitivity as well as excellent experimental controllability. A test of Lorentz-violating physics in the electron-photon sector with Yb$^+$ ions has the potential to reach levels of 10$^{-23}$, five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current best bounds. Similar sensitivities may be also reached with highly charged ions.

  2. High-precision metrology of highly charged ions via relativistic resonance fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postavaru, O; Harman, Z; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-21

    Resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions is investigated with regard to precisely measuring atomic properties. For this purpose an ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation is employed that allows for studying relativistic ions. These systems provide a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying x-ray lasers. We show how the narrowing of sidebands in the x-ray fluorescence spectrum by interference due to an additional optical driving can be exploited to determine atomic dipole or multipole moments to unprecedented accuracy.

  3. ECR Ion Source of High Charge States%高电荷态ECR离子源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子民; 刘占稳; 赵红卫

    2000-01-01

    介绍了目前ECR离子源的发展状况和国际上几台典型的ECR离子源.%Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is the most efficient facility for producing highly charged ions.So far more than 1 emA of O6+ and 0.02eμA of U55+ have been delivered by ECR ion source. In this paper the latest develop-ment of ECR ion source is presented and several typical ECR ion sources in the world is introduced.

  4. Highly charged ion X-rays from Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Boucard, S.; Covita, D. S.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Schlesser, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simons, L.M.; Stingelin, L.; Trassinelli, Martino; Veloso, J.; Wasser, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation from the highly-charged ions contained in the plasma of Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources constitutes a very bright source of X-rays. Because the ions have a relatively low kinetic energy ($\\approx 1$~eV) transitions can be very narrow, containing only small Doppler broadening. We describe preliminary accurate measurements of two and three-electron ions with $Z=16$--18. We show how these measurement can test sensitively many-body relativistic calculations or can be used as X-...

  5. Collision of highly charged ion with clusters. Simulation study for electronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabana, Kazuhiro [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Collision of highly charged ion with cluster, for example, collision of C{sub 60}-Ar{sup 8+} at E=80 KeV, was simulated by the time-dependence Kohn-Shame equation. The distribution of electron densities and the self-consistent potential were obtained. A part of C{sub 60} potential curve became depressed by the Coulomb force of ion, so that the saddle point was produced on the potential. The behavior of electron transfer on the saddle point was agreed with the classical barrier model. Time-dependent density functional method was explained. (S.Y.)

  6. Possibility of resonant capture of antiprotons by highly charged hydrogenlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkin, M.; Lindroth, E.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, an experimental setup was proposed by Lapierre et al. [ Physics with ultra slow antiproton beams, AIP Conference Proceedings (2005), Vol. 793, p. 361] which would allow antiprotons and highly charged ions to collide repeatedly in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) due to a nested trap configuration. As mentioned by the authors, such a setup may open the possibility to study antiproton capture into well-defined states through a resonant process which involves simultaneous electron excitation. In the present work, we give some theoretical estimations of the feasibility of that process.

  7. Relativistic calculations of the isotope shifts in highly charged Li-like ions

    CERN Document Server

    Zubova, N A; Shabaev, V M; Tupitsyn, I I; Volotka, A V; Plunien, G; Brandau, C; Stöhlker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic calculations of the isotope shifts of energy levels in highly charged Li-like ions are performed. The nuclear recoil (mass shift) contributions are calculated by merging the perturbative and large-scale configuration-interaction Dirac-Fock-Sturm (CI-DFS) methods. The nuclear size (field shift) contributions are evaluated by the CI-DFS method including the electron-correlation, Breit, and QED corrections. The nuclear deformation and nuclear polarization corrections to the isotope shifts in Li-like neodymium, thorium, and uranium are also considered. The results of the calculations are compared with the theoretical values obtained with other methods.

  8. Interaction of slow and highly charged ions with surfaces: formation of hollow atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Grether, M.; Spieler, A.; Niemann, D. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Arnau, A.

    1997-03-01

    The method of Auger spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of highly charged ions with Al and C surfaces. The formation of hollow Ne atoms in the first surface layers was evaluated by means of a Density Functional theory including non-linear screening effects. The time-dependent filling of the hollow atom was determined from a cascade model yielding information about the structure of the K-Auger spectra. Variation of total intensities of the L- and K-Auger peaks were interpreted by the cascade model in terms of attenuation effects on the electrons in the solid. (author)

  9. Microcalorimeter/EBIT measurements of X-ray spectra of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kink, I.; Porto, J.V.; Gillaspy, J.D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Laming, J.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Takacs, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Bandler, S.R.; Brickhouse, N.; Murray, S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Barbera, M. [Osservatorio Astronomico G.S. Vaiana, Palermo (Italy); Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Spectra of highly charged Ar, Kr, Xe and Fe ions, produced in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT), have been recorded in a broad X-ray energy band (0.2 keV to 10 keV) with a microcalorimeter detector. The first analysis of the Kr spectra has been completed and most of the spectral lines have been identified as transitions of B- to Al-like Kr. Line intensity ratios of Fe XVII have been measured and compared with theoretical models. (orig.)

  10. X-ray spectra induced in highly charged 40Arq+ interacting with Au surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By use of optical spectrum technology, the spectra of X-ray induced by highly charged 40Arq+ ions interacting with Au surface have been studied. The results show that the argon Kα X-ray were emitted from the hollow atoms formed below the surface. There is a process of multi-electron exciting in neutralization of the Ar16+ion, with electronic configuration 1s2 in its ground state below the solid surface. The yield of the projectile Kα X-ray is related to its initial electronic configuration, and the yield of the target X-ray is related to the projectile kinetic energy.

  11. Correlated double electron capture in slow, highly charged ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Havener, C.C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Shafroth, S.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent measurements of autoionization electrons produced in slow, highly charged ion-atom collisions are reviewed. Mechanisms for double electron capture into equivalent and nonequivalent configurations are analyzed by comparing the probabilities for the creation of L/sub 1/L/sub 23/X Coster Kronig electrons and L-Auger electrons. It is shown that the production of the Coster-Kronig electrons is due to electron correlation effects whose analysis leads beyond the independent-particle model. The importance of correlation effects on different capture mechanisms is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higurashi, Y.; Ohnishi, J.; Nakagawa, T.; Haba, H.; Fujimaki, M.; Komiyama, M.; Kamigaito, O. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tamura, M.; Aihara, T.; Uchiyama, A. [SHI Accelerator Service Ltd., 1-17-6 Osaki, Shinagawa, Tokyo 141-0032 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U{sup 35+} for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power.

  13. Fragmentation of amino acids induced by collisions with low-energy highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, D. G.; Maclot, S.; Domaracka, A.; Adoui, L.; Alcamí, M.; Rousseau, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Huber, B. A.; Martín, F.

    2014-04-01

    Fragmentation of amino acids NH2-(CH2)n-COOH (n=1 glycine; n=2 β-alanine and n=3 γ-aminobutyric acid GABA) following collisions with slow highly charged ions has been studied in the gas phase by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. In the experiments, a multi-coincidence detection method was used to deduce the charge state of the molecules before fragmentation. Quantum chemistry calculations have been carried out in the basis of the density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics. The combination of both methodologies is essential to unambiguously unravel the different fragmentation pathways.

  14. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany) and Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: t.stoehlker@gsi.de; Beyer, H.F. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning-Demian, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Brandau, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Kozhuharov, C. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kluge, H.J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Kuehl, Th. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Liesen, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Mann, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Quint, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Schramm, U. [LMU, Munich (Germany); Schuch, R. [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and set-ups required to reach the physics goals is given.

  15. Atomic physics with highly-charged ions at the future FAIR facility. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehlker, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Beyer, H.F.; Braeuning, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (DE)] (and others)

    2006-11-15

    The key features of the future international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) offer a range of new and challenging opportunities for atomic physics research in the realm of highly-charged heavy ions and exotic nuclei. Centred on use of FAIR, the Stored Particle Atomic Physics Research Collaboration (SPARC), organized in working groups, has been formed. A short report on the tasks and activities of the various SPARC working groups, devoted to the realization of experimental equipments and setups required to reach the physics goals is given. (orig.)

  16. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  17. High energy physics advisory panel`s subpanel on vision for the future of high-energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report was requested by the Secretary of Energy to (1) define a long-term program for pursuing the most important high-energy physics goals since the termination of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) project, (2) assess the current US high-energy physics program, and (3) make recommendations regarding the future of the field. Subjects on which recommendations were sought and which the report addresses were: high-energy physics funding priorities; facilitating international collaboration for future construction of large high-energy physics facilities; optimizing uses of the investment made in the SSC; how to encourage displaced scientists and engineers to remain in high-energy physics and to attract young scientists to enter the field in the future. The report includes a description of the state of high-energy physics research in the context of history, a summary of the SSC project, and documentation of the report`s own origins and development.

  18. Potential and Kinetic Electron Emissions from HOPG Surface Irradiated by Highly Charged Xenon and Neon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Yu; ZHAO Yong-Tao; SUN Jian-Rong; LI De-Hui; QAYYUM Abdul; LI Jin-Yu; WANG Ping-Zhi; XIAO Guo-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged 129 Xeq+ (q =10-30) and 40Neq+ (q =4-8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are reported. The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions. The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields. Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xeq+-HOPG and Neq+-HOPG combinations. A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission.%@@ Highly charged 129 Xeq+(q =10-30) and 40Neq+(q =4-8) ion-induced secondary electron emissions on the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite(HOPG) are reported.The total secondary electron yield is measured as a function of the potential energy of incident ions.The experimental data are used to separate contributions of kinetic and potential electron yields.Our results show that about 4.5% and 13.2% of ion's potential energies are consumed in potential electron emission due to different Xeq+-HOPG and Neq+-HOPG combinations.A simple formula is introduced to estimate the fraction of ion's potential energy for potential electron emission.

  19. Measurements of atomic parameters of highly charged ions for interpreting astrophysical spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Utter, S.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Boyce, K.R.; Gendreau, K.C.; Kelley, R.; Porter, F.S. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Gu, M.F.; Kahn, S.M.; Savin, D.W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Gygax, J. [Swales and Associates, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    High-resolution X-ray spectra obtained by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission put new demands on atomic data including line positions, excitation cross sections, and radiative rates of cosmically-abundant highly-charged ions. To address this need, we are performing measurements of the line emission from ions of cosmically abundant elements. The data are obtained at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap and focus on cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, and resonance excitation as well as atomic structure measurements. We find that ratios of the electron-impact excitation cross sections of singlet and triplet levels are systematically different from the calculated values in the case of many highly charged ions. This, for example, has a profound impact on inferring optical depths from solar and stellar atmospheres. Moreover, new line identifications are presented that resolve some long-standing puzzles in the interpretation of solar data, and the importance of resonance contributions to the spectral emission is assessed. (orig.)

  20. High intensity high charge state ion beam production with an evaporative cooling magnet ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, W., E-mail: luwang@impcas.ac.cn; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhan, W. L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); Fang, X.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 73000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiong, B.; Ruan, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Xie, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou ECR ion source No. 4) is a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ion beams for the SSC-LINAC injector (a new injector for sector separated cyclotron) at the Institute of Modern Physics. LECR4 also serves as a PoP machine for the application of evaporative cooling technology in accelerator field. To achieve those goals, LECR4 ECR ion source has been optimized for the operation at 18 GHz. During 2014, LECR4 ion source was commissioned at 18 GHz microwave of 1.6 kW. To further study the influence of injection stage to the production of medium and high charge state ion beams, in March 2015, the injection stage with pumping system was installed, and some optimum results were produced, such as 560 eμA of O{sup 7+}, 620 eμA of Ar{sup 11+}, 430 eμA of Ar{sup 12+}, 430 eμA of Xe{sup 20+}, and so on. The comparison will be discussed in the paper.

  1. Laboratory measurements of K-shell transitions in highly charged iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrügge, René; Rudolph, Jan K.; Bernitt, Sven; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.

    2016-09-01

    The x-ray spectra of celestial sources show a plethora of features originating from highly charged ions. These can be used to determine the flow, temperatures, and abundances of elements in the star, which are needed to benchmark-stellar evolution models. However, the underlying atomic transition data of the ions are often only known by theoretical calculations, thus testing them in laboratory measurements is crucial. We present our measurements of energies, natural linewidths, radiative and Auger decay rates for K-shell transitions in He-like to F-like iron ions. In this experiments, an electron beam ion trap was used to create a target of highly charged ions, which were resonantly excited by monochromatic light from the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. Fluorescence was observed while simultaneously detecting photoionization by the change in the ionic charge state. This method, combined with the high resolution of the monochromator used, yields uncertainties on the ppm-level for the excitation energies and below 10% for the linewidths and transition rates, thus providing a valuable benchmark for atomic theory.

  2. Studies of highly charged iron ions using electron beam ion traps for interpreting astrophysical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Clementson, J.; Eberle, S.; Epp, S. W.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kubiček, K.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Mäckel, V.; Porter, F. S.; Rudolph, J. K.; Simon, M. C.; Steinbrügge, R.; Träbert, E.; Ullrich, J.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-09-01

    For over a decade, the x-ray astrophysics community has enjoyed a fruitful epoch of discovery largely as a result of the successful launch and operation of the high resolution, high sensitivity spectrometers on board the Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku x-ray observatories. With the launch of the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer on the Astro-H x-ray observatory in 2014, the diagnostic power of high resolution spectroscopy will be extended to some of the hottest, largest and most exotic objects in our Universe. The diagnostic utility of these spectrometers is directly coupled to, and often limited by, our understanding of the x-ray production mechanisms associated with the highly charged ions present in the astrophysical source. To provide reliable benchmarks of theoretical calculations and to address specific problems facing the x-ray astrophysics community, electron beam ion traps have been used in laboratory astrophysics experiments to study the x-ray signatures of highly charged ions. A brief overview of the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik's FLASH-EBIT operated at third and fourth generation advanced light sources, including a discussion of some of the results are presented.

  3. Electron Impact Excitation and Dielectronic Recombination of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwen Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electron impact excitation (EIE and dielectronic recombination (DR of tungsten ions are basic atomic processes in nuclear fusion plasmas of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER tokamak. Detailed investigation of such processes is essential for modeling and diagnosing future fusion experiments performed on the ITER. In the present work, we studied total and partial electron-impact excitation (EIE and DR cross-sections of highly charged tungsten ions by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method. The degrees of linear polarization of the subsequent X-ray emissions from unequally-populated magnetic sub-levels of these ions were estimated. It is found that the degrees of linear polarization of the same transition lines, but populated respectively by the EIE and DR processes, are very different, which makes diagnosis of the formation mechanism of X-ray emissions possible. In addition, with the help of the flexible atomic code on the basis of the relativistic configuration interaction method, DR rate coefficients of highly charged W37+ to W46+ ions are also studied, because of the importance in the ionization equilibrium of tungsten plasmas under running conditions of the ITER.

  4. Tau Air-Showers Signature of Ultra High Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D

    2001-01-01

    The discover of Ultra High Energy Neutrino of astrophysical nature may be already reached. Indeed upward and horizontal tau Air-showers emerging from the Earth crust or mountain chains offer the best and most powerful signal of Ultra High Energy UHE neutrinos nu_tau}, bar\

  5. Participation in High Energy Physics at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinec, Emil J. [University of Chicago

    2013-06-27

    This report covers research at the University of Chicago in theoretical high energy physics and its connections to cosmology, over the period Nov. 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. This research is divided broadly into two tasks: Task A, which covers a broad array of topics in high energy physics; and task C, primarily concerned with cosmology.

  6. The Role of Computing in High-Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines present and future applications of computers in high-energy physics. Areas considered include high-energy physics laboratories, accelerators, detectors, networking, off-line analysis, software guidelines, event sizes and volumes, graphics applications, event simulation, theoretical studies, and future trends. (JN)

  7. Search for high-energy neutrinos from dust obscured Blazars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos by the IceCube neutrino observatory opens up a new field in physics, the field of neutrino astronomy. Using the IceCube neutrino detector we plan to search for high-energy neutrinos emitted from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), since AGN are believed

  8. High-energy diffraction microscopy at the advanced photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lienert, U.; Li, S. F.; Hefferan, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The status of the High Energy Diffraction Microscopy (HEDM) program at the 1-ID beam line of the Advanced Photon Source is reported. HEDM applies high energy synchrotron radiation for the grain and sub-grain scale structural and mechanical characterization of polycrystalline bulk materials in situ...

  9. 75 FR 17701 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory...

  10. 78 FR 50405 - High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Intent... hereby given that the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel will be renewed for a two-year period beginning...-range planning and priorities in the national high-energy physics program. Additionally, the renewal...

  11. The early high-energy afterglow emission from short GRBs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the high energy afterglow emission from short Gamma-Ray Bursts(SGRBs) in the external shock model.There are two possible components contributing to the high energy afterglow:electron synchrotron emission and synchrotron self-Compton(SSC) emission.We find that for typical parameter values of SGRBs,the early high-energy afterglow emission in 10 MeV-10 GeV is dominated by synchrotron emission.For a burst occurring at redshift z = 0.1,the high-energy emission can be detectable by Fermi LAT if the blast wave has energy E ≥ 1051 ergs and the fraction of electron energy εe≥ 0.1.This provides a possible explanation for the high energy tail of SGRB 081024B.

  12. Atomic physics with highly charged ions. Progress report, FY 1989--91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.

    1991-08-01

    This report discusses: One electron outer shell processes in fast ion-atom collisions; role of electron-electron interaction in two-electron processes; multi-electron processes at low energy; multi-electron processes at high energy; inner shell processes; molecular fragmentation studies; theory; and, JRM laboratory operations.

  13. EUV spectra of highly-charged ions W$^{54+}$-W$^{63+}$ relevant to ITER diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Ralchenko, Yu; Tan, J N; Gillaspy, J D; Pomeroy, J M; Reader, J; Feldman, U; Holland, G E

    2008-01-01

    We report the first measurements and detailed analysis of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra (4 nm to 20 nm) of highly-charged tungsten ions W$^{54+}$ to W$^{63+}$ obtained with an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). Collisional-radiative modelling is used to identify strong electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole transitions in all ionization stages. These lines can be used for impurity transport studies and temperature diagnostics in fusion reactors, such as ITER. Identifications of prominent lines from several W ions were confirmed by measurement of isoelectronic EUV spectra of Hf, Ta, and Au. We also discuss the importance of charge exchange recombination for correct description of ionization balance in the EBIT plasma.

  14. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, Douglas H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang Honglin [Applied Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: zhang@lanl.gov; Fontes, Christopher J. [Applied Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: cjf@lanl.gov

    2009-07-15

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  15. Measurements and identifications of extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly-charged Sm and Er

    CERN Document Server

    Podpaly, Y A; Reader, J; Ralchenko, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We report spectroscopic measurements of highly charged samarium and erbium performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT). These measurements are in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) range, and span electron beam energies from 0.98 keV to 3.00 keV. We observed 71 lines from Kr-like Sm$^{26+}$ to Ni-like Sm$^{34+}$, connecting 83 energy levels, and 64 lines from Rb-like Er$^{32+}$ to Ni-like Er$^{40+}$, connecting 78 energy levels. Of these lines, 64 in Sm and 60 in Er are new. Line identifications are performed using collisional-radiative modeling of the EBIT plasma. All spectral lines are assigned individual uncertainties, most in the $\\sim$0.001 nm range. Energy levels are derived from the wavelength measurements.

  16. Ionization and single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fei; Gou Bing-Cong

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method to study the ionization and the single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with He atoms in the velocity range of 1.2-1.9 a.u.. The relative importance of single ionization (SI) to single capture (SC) is explored. The comparison between the calculation and experimental data shows that the SI/SC cross section ratios from this work are in good agreement with experimental data. The total single electron ionization cross sections and the total single electron capture cross sections are also given for this collision. The investigation of the partial electron capture cross section shows a general tendency of capture to larger n and l with increasing velocity from 1.2 to 1.9 a.u..

  17. Phase diagram for nanostructuring CaF(2) surfaces by slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A S; Wilhelm, R A; Heller, R; Facsko, S; Lemell, C; Wachter, G; Burgdörfer, J; Ritter, R; Aumayr, F

    2012-09-14

    The impact of individual slow highly charged ions (HCI) on alkaline earth halide and alkali halide surfaces creates nano-scale surface modifications. For different materials and impact energies a wide variety of topographic alterations have been observed, ranging from regularly shaped pits to nanohillocks. We present experimental evidence for the creation of thermodynamically stable defect agglomerations initially hidden after irradiation but becoming visible as pits upon subsequent etching. A well defined threshold separating regions with and without etch-pit formation is found as a function of potential and kinetic energies of the projectile. Combining this novel type of surface defects with the previously identified hillock formation, a phase diagram for HCI induced surface restructuring emerges. The simulation of the energy deposition by the HCI in the crystal provides insight into the early stages of the dynamics of the surface modification and its dependence on the kinetic and potential energies.

  18. X-ray Emission Induced by Interaction of Highly Charged Ions with Solid Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoYongtao; XiaoGuoqing; ZhangXiaoan; YangZhihu; ChenXimeng; ZhangYanping

    2003-01-01

    The X-rays with energy from 1 keV to 60 keV in the interaction of highly charged ions (HCI) with a variety of solid surfaces were investigated at the research platform for atomic physics with the electron cyclone resonance (ECR) ion resource at IMP. We altered the projectile kinetic energy from 150 keV to about 400 keV. The X-ray excited by the projectile with the surface is shown in Fig.l, and a threshold of the projectile kinetic energy for this excitation is observed. Combining the colliding theory of classic electrodynamics with the concept of quantized orbits, we crudely give this threshold energy Tm as follows,

  19. X-ray spectra induced by slow highly charged Arq+ ions in collision with Nb surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of Nb surface induced by Arq+ (q =16,17) ions with the energy range from 10 to 20 keV/q were studied by the optical spectrum technology. The experimental results indicate that the multi-electron excitation occurred as a highly charged Ar16+ ion was neutralized below the metal surface. The K shell electron of Ar16+ was excited and then de-excited cascadly to emit K X-ray. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from K shell of the hollow Ar atom decreased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from L shell of the target atom Nb increased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The X-ray yield of Ar17+ is three magnitude orders larger than that of Ar16+.

  20. Soft x-ray laser spectroscopy on trapped highly charged ions at FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, S W; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Brenner, G; Mäckel, V; Mokler, P H; Treusch, R; Kuhlmann, M; Yurkov, M V; Feldhaus, J; Schneider, J R; Wellhöfer, M; Martins, M; Wurth, W; Ullrich, J

    2007-05-04

    In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate high-resolution resonant laser excitation in the soft x-ray region at 48.6 eV of the 2 (2)S(1/2) to 2 (2)P(1/2) transition of Li-like Fe23+ ions trapped in an electron beam ion trap by using ultrabrilliant light from Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). High precision spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions at this and upcoming x-ray lasers with an expected accuracy gain up to a factor of a thousand, become possible with our technique, thus potentially yielding fundamental insights, e.g., into basic aspects of QED.

  1. Laser spectroscopy on forbidden transitions in trapped highly charged Ar(13+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäckel, V; Klawitter, R; Brenner, G; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; Ullrich, J

    2011-09-30

    We demonstrate resonant fluorescence laser spectroscopy in highly charged ions (HCI) stored in an electron beam ion trap by investigating the dipole-forbidden 1s(2)2s(2)2p (2)P(3/2)-(2)P(1/2) transition in boronlike Ar(13+) ions. Forced evaporative cooling yielded a high resolving power, resulting in an accurate wavelength determination to λ=441.255 68(26)  nm. By applying stronger cooling and two-photon excitation, new optical frequency standards based upon ultrastable transitions in such HCI could be realized in the future, e.g., for the search of time variations of the fine-structure constant.

  2. Surface Erosion of GaN Bombarded by Highly Charged 208Pbq+-Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Qing; ZHANG Chong-Hong; YANG Yi-Tao; YAO Cun-Feng; LI Bing-Sheng; JIN Yun-Fan; SUN You-Mei; SONG Shu-Jian

    2008-01-01

    Surface change of gallium nitride specimens after bombardment by highly charged Pbq+-ions (q=25, 35) at room temperature is studied by means of atomic force microscopy. The experimental results reveal that the surface of GaN specimens is significantly etched and erased. An unambiguous step-up is observed. The erosion depth not only strongly depends on the charge state of ions, but also is related to the incident angle of Pbq+ -ions and the ion dose. The erosion depth of the specimens in 60°incidence (tilted incidence) is significantly deeper than that of the normal incidence. The erosion behaviour of specimens has little dependence on the kinetic energy of ion (E,k=360, 700keV). On the other hand, surface roughness of the irradiated area is obviously decreased due to erosion compared with the un-irradiated area. A flat terrace is formed.

  3. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-04-18

    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  4. Radiation properties and hydrodynamics evolution of highly charged ions in laser-produced silicon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Qi; Su, Maogen; Cao, Shiquan; Sun, Duixiong; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Dong, Chenzhong

    2016-11-15

    We present a simplified radiation hydrodynamic model based on the fluid dynamic equations and the radiative transfer equation, which can be used to investigate the radiation properties and dynamics evolution of highly charged ions in a laser-produced plasma in vacuum. The outputs of the model consist of the evolution of the electron temperature, atom, and ion density, and the temporal and spatial evolution of various transient particles in plasma, as well as the simulated spectrum related to certain experimental conditions in a specified spectral window. In order to test the model and provide valuable experimental feedback, a series of EUV emission spectra of silicon plasmas have been measured using the spatio-temporally resolved laser produced plasma technique. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma is reliably reconstructed by using this model.

  5. Note: Multi channel Doppler tuned spectrometer to study highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Ranjeet K; Mishra, C N; Ahmad, Nissar; Saini, S K; Safvan, C P; Nandi, T

    2014-06-01

    We describe the design and implementation of a multi channel Doppler tuned spectrometer setup to study physics of highly charged ions at high resolution in a direct way. A unique Soller slit assembly coupled with a long one dimensional position sensitive proportional counter enables us to get distinct x-ray peaks at different angles, which allows us to cover large number of angle in one shot. By using this setup, 1s2s (3)S1 - 1s(2) (1)S0 M1 transition in He-like Fe has been resolved from its satellite line 1s2s2p ⁴P(5/2)⁰ - 1s(2)2s (2)S(1/2) M2 transition in Li-like Fe and measured the lifetime of their respective upper levels with high precision.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and atomic models of highly charged heavy ions in the Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, C.; Murakami, I.; Koike, F.; Tamura, N.; Sakaue, H. A.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Kato, D.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Sudo, S.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent results of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy of highly charged heavy ions in plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The LHD is an ideal source of experimental databases of EUV spectra because of high brightness and low opacity, combined with the availability of pellet injection systems and reliable diagnostic tools. The measured heavy elements include tungsten, tin, lanthanides and bismuth, which are motivated by ITER as well as a variety of plasma applications such as EUV lithography and biological microscopy. The observed spectral features drastically change between quasicontinuum and discrete depending on the plasma temperature, which leads to some new experimental identifications of spectral lines. We have developed collisional-radiative models for some of these ions based on the measurements. The atomic number dependence of the spectral feature is also discussed.

  7. A Laser System for the Spectroscopy of Highly-Charged Bismuth Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, S; Siegel, C; Herschbach, N; Birkl, G

    2011-01-01

    We present and characterize a laser system for the spectroscopy on highly-charged ^209Bi^82+ ions at a wavelength of 243.87 nm. For absolute frequency stabilization, the laser system is locked to a near-infra-red laser stabilized to a rubidium transition line using a transfer cavity based locking scheme. Tuning of the output frequency with high precision is achieved via a tunable rf offset lock. A sample-and-hold technique gives an extended tuning range of several THz in the UV. This scheme is universally applicable to the stabilization of laser systems at wavelengths not directly accessible to atomic or molecular resonances. We determine the frequency accuracy of the laser system using Doppler-free absorption spectroscopy of Te_2 vapour at 488 nm. Scaled to the target wavelength of 244 nm, we achieve a frequency uncertainty of \\sigma_{244nm} = 6.14 MHz (one standard deviation) over six days of operation.

  8. A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Douglas H [PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.

  9. Modifications of gallium phosphide single crystals using slow highly charged ions and swift heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Akhmadaliev, Sh.; Schumann, E.; Sorokin, M.; Facsko, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2016-09-01

    GaP single crystals were irradiated with slow highly charged ions (HCI) using 114 keV 129Xe(33-40)+ and with various swift heavy ions (SHI) of 30 MeV I9+ and 374 MeV-2.2 GeV 197Au25+. The irradiated surfaces were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). The irradiations with SHI lead to nanohillocks protruding from the GaP surfaces, whereas no changes of the surface topography were observed after the irradiation with HCI. This result indicates that a potential energy above 38.5 keV is required for surface nanostructuring of GaP. In addition, strong coloration of the GaP crystals was observed after irradiation with SHI. The effect was stronger for higher energies. This was confirmed by measuring an increased extinction coefficient in the visible light region.

  10. Crystal optics for precision x-ray spectroscopy on highly charged ions—conception and proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, H. F.; Gassner, T.; Trassinelli, M.; Heß, R.; Spillmann, U.; Banaś, D.; Blumenhagen, K.-H.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, W.; Dimopoulou, Chr; Förster, E.; Grisenti, R. E.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Indelicato, P.; Jagodzinski, P.; Kämpfer, T.; Kozhuharov, Chr; Lestinsky, M.; Liesen, D.; Litvinov, Yu A.; Loetzsch, R.; Manil, B.; Märtin, R.; Nolden, F.; Petridis, N.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schulze, K. S.; Schwemlein, M.; Simionovici, A.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Szabo, C. I.; Trotsenko, S.; Uschmann, I.; Weber, G.; Wehrhan, O.; Winckler, N.; Winters, D. F. A.; Winters, N.; Ziegler, E.

    2015-07-01

    The experimental investigation of quantum-electrodydamic contributions to the binding energies of inner shells of highly charged heavy ions requires an accurate spectroscopy in the region of hard x-rays suitable at a limited source strength. For this purpose the focusing compensated asymmetric Laue crystal optics has been developed and a twin-spectrometer assembly has been built and commissioned at the experimental storage ring of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum Darmstadt. We characterize the crystal optics and demonstrate the usefulness of the instrumentation for accurate spectroscopy of both stationary and fast moving x-ray sources. The experimental procedures discussed here may also be applied for other spectroscopic studies where a transition from conventional germanium x-ray detectors to crystal spectrometers seems too demanding because of low source intensity.

  11. Properties of Laser-Produced Highly Charged Heavy Ions for Direct Injection Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ito, Taku; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    To accelerate highly charged intense ion beam, we have developed the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with laser ion source. In this scheme an ion beam from a laser ion source is injected directly to a RFQ linac without a low energy beam transport (LEBT) and the beam loss in the LEBT can be avoided. We achieved high current acceleration of carbon ions (60mA) by DPIS with the high current optimized RFQ. As the next setp we will use heavier elements like Ag, Pb, Al and Cu as target in LIS (using CO2, Nd-YAG or other laser) for DPIS and will examine properties of laser-produced plasma (the relationship of between charge state and laser power density, the current dependence of the distance from the target, etc).

  12. X-ray spectra induced by slow highly charged Arq+ ions in collision with Nb surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG ZhiHu; GAO ZhiMing; ZHANG XiaoAn; ZHU KeXin; YU DeYang; CAI XiaoHong; CUI Ying; CHEN XiMeng; SONG ZhangYong; SHAO JianXiong; RUAN FangFang; ZHANG HongQiang; DU Juan; LIU YuWen

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of Nb surface induced by Arq+ (q = 16,17) ions with the energy range from 10 to 20 keV/q were studied by the optical spectrum technology. The experimental results indicate that the multi-electron excitation occurred as a highly charged Ar16+ ion was neutralized below the metal surface. The K shell electron of Ar16+ was excited and then de-excited cascadly to emit K X-ray. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from K shell of the hollow Ar atom decreased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from L shell of the target atom Nb increased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The X-ray yield of Ar17+ is three magnitude orders larger than that of Ar16+.

  13. Nanostructuring CaF2 surfaces with slow highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, A. S.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Ritter, R.; Wachter, G.; Facsko, S.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.; Aumayr, F.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years the potential of slow highly charged ions (HCI) as tools for nanostructuring purposes has received considerable attention and a wide range of material classes, from insulating ionic crystals, polymers and ultrathin films, to semiconducting and conducting substrates have been investigated regarding their response to individual HCI impact. For the majority of investigated materials, however, consistent theoretical modeling to supplement with experimental evidence and to satisfactorily explain the complete physical process from ion approach and impact to the formation of an individual nanostructure is still lacking. CaF2, from both an experimental and theoretical point of view, might be considered the most thoroughly investigated material. Combining results from numerous studies has allowed for the generation of a "phase diagram" for nanostructuring of CaF2 in dependence of ion beam parameters. This paves the way for a first unified picture, as implications from this phase diagram should be applicable to similar materials as well.

  14. Surface modification of oxide layer on Si using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, M., E-mail: msakurai@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Liu, S.; Sakai, S. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Terui, T. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Iwaoka, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2492 (Japan); Sakaue, H.A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Surface modification using highly charged ions is presented. The surface of a Si wafer which is covered with a native oxide layer is used as a sample. The sample was irradiated with Ar{sup 11+} ions at a fluence of 10{sup 13}–10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2}. The Ar{sup 11+} ions were obtained from an electron beam ion source (Kobe EBIS). The surface was investigated using secondary electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that the native oxide layer is sputtered by the irradiation of Ar{sup 11+} ions and that the structural modification makes the density of the oxide layer lower and the electric conductivity higher.

  15. Polarization measurement of dielectronic recombination transitions in highly charged krypton ions

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Bernitt, Sven; Dobrodey, Stepan; Steinbrügge, René; Beilmann, Christian; Amaro, Pedro; Hu, Zhimin; Weber, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Tashenov, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    We report linear polarization measurements of x rays emitted due to dielectronic recombination into highly charged krypton ions. The ions in the He-like through O-like charge states were populated in an electron beam ion trap with the electron beam energy adjusted to recombination resonances in order to produce $K\\alpha$ x rays. The x rays were detected with a newly developed Compton polarimeter using a beryllium scattering target and 12 silicon x-ray detector diodes sampling the azimuthal distribution of the scattered x rays. The extracted degrees of linear polarization of several dielectronic recombination transitions agree with results of relativistic distorted--wave calculations. We also demonstrate a high sensitivity of the polarization to the Breit interaction, which is remarkable for a medium-$Z$ element like krypton. The experimental results can be used for polarization diagnostics of hot astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas.

  16. HITRAP - a facility for experiments on heavy highly charged ions and on antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andjelkovic, Z; Barth, W; Brantjes, N P M; Braeuning-Demian, A; Dahl, L; Herfurth, F; Kester, O; Kluge, H J; Koszudowski, S; Kozhuharov, C; Maero, G; Noertershaeuser, W [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Birkl, G [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Blank, I; Goetz, S [Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Blaum, K [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bodewits, E; Hoekstra, R [KVI Groningen (Netherlands); Church, D [Texas AM University, Texas (United States); Pfister, J, E-mail: w.quint@gsi.d [Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2009-11-01

    HITRAP is a facility for very slow highly-charged heavy ions at GSI. HITRAP uses the GSI relativistic ion beams, the Experimental Storage Ring ESR for electron cooling and deceleration to 4 MeV/u, and consists of a combination of an interdigital H-mode (IH) structure with a radiofrequency quadrupole structure for further deceleration to 6 keV/u, and a Penning trap for accumulation and cooling to low temperatures. Finally, ion beams with low emittance will be delivered to a large variety of atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Presently, HITRAP is in the commissioning phase. The deceleration of heavy-ion beam from the ESR storage ring to an energy of 500 keV/u with the IH structure has been demonstrated and studied in detail. The commissioning of the RFQ structure and the cooler trap is ongoing.

  17. Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    I -RI90 634 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY 1/1 r CONTENTCU) COLUMBIA UNIV MENd YORK N J TURRO 26 JAN GO I RFOSR-TR-88-0168...Bolling Air Force Base, D.C. 2 61102F_ 2303 I B2 11 T,TL.E (Inciuoe Security Classification) Molecular Dynamics of Materials Possessing High Energy...York 10027 (212) 280-2175 TITLE: MOLECULAR DYNAMICS OF MATERIALS POSSESSING HIGH ENERGY CONTENT .. 0 0 88 2 ... "" ’% ,i u , . .. .. ....... ŝ" ;! ,i

  18. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Penin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.

  19. High-energy limit of quantum electrodynamics beyond Sudakov approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Alexander A., E-mail: penin@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    We study the high-energy behavior of the scattering amplitudes in quantum electrodynamics beyond the leading order of the small electron mass expansion in the leading logarithmic approximation. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic radiative corrections are induced by a soft electron pair exchange and result in enhancement of the power-suppressed contribution, which dominates the amplitudes at extremely high energies. Possible applications of our result to the analysis of the high-energy processes in quantum chromodynamics is also discussed.

  20. Numerical Relativity and High Energy Physics: Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis C B; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the application of numerical relativity techniques to astrophysics and high-energy physics. We focus on some developments that took place within the "Numerical Relativity and High Energy Physics" network, a Marie Curie IRSES action that we coordinated, namely: spin evolution in black hole binaries, high-energy black hole collisions, compact object solutions in scalar-tensor gravity, superradiant instabilities and hairy black hole solutions in Einstein's gravity coupled to fundamental fields, and the possibility to gain insight into these phenomena using analog gravity models.

  1. Fundamental Physics With Cosmic High-Energy Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    High-energy photons (above the MeV) are a powerful probe for astrophysics and for fundamental physics under extreme conditions. During the recent years, our knowledge of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has impressively progressed thanks to the advent of new detectors for cosmic gamma rays, at ground (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS, HAWC) and in space (AGILE, Fermi). This presentation reviews the present status of the studies of fundamental physics problems with high-energy gamma rays, and discusses the expected experimental developments.

  2. New supercharging reagents produce highly charged protein ions in native mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Catherine C; Xia, Zijie; Williams, Evan R

    2015-11-07

    The effectiveness of two new supercharging reagents for producing highly charged ions by electrospray ionization (ESI) from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and reactivities were investigated. In aqueous solution, 2-thiophenone and 4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (HD) at a concentration of 2% by volume can increase the average charge of cytochrome c and myoglobin by up to 163%, resulting in even higher charge states than those that are produced from water/methanol/acid solutions in which these proteins are denatured. The greatest extent of supercharging occurs in pure water, but these supercharging reagents are also highly effective in aqueous solutions containing 200 mM ammonium acetate buffer commonly used in native mass spectrometry (MS). These reagents are less effective supercharging reagents than m-nitrobenzyl alcohol (m-NBA) and propylene carbonate (PC) when ions are formed from water/methanol/acid. The extent to which loss of the heme group from myoglobin occurs is related to the extent of supercharging. Results from guanidine melts of cytochrome c monitored with tryptophan fluorescence show that the supercharging reagents PC, sulfolane and HD are effective chemical denaturants in solution. These results provide additional evidence for the role of protein structural changes in the electrospray droplet as the primary mechanism for supercharging with these reagents in native MS. These results also demonstrate that for at least some proteins, the formation of highly charged ions from native MS is no longer a significant barrier for obtaining structural information using conventional tandem MS methods.

  3. Measurement of short lifetimes in highly-charged ions using a two-foil target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.; Gemmell, D.S. [and others

    1995-08-01

    One of the frontiers in the study of the atomic physics of highly-charged ions is the measurement of lifetimes in the 100 fs to 10 ps regime. The standard technique for measuring lifetimes of states in highly-charged ions is the beam-foil time-of-flight method in which the intensity of an emission line is monitored as a function of the separation between the exciting foil and the portion of the beam being viewed by the detector. This method becomes increasingly difficult as the decay lengths of the states of interest become shorter. At a typical beam velocity of 10% of the speed of light, the beam travels 30 microns in a picosecond. The standard beam-foil time-of-flight method necessitates observation of the decay radiation within one or two decay lengths from the foil while preventing the detectors from observing the beam spot at the foil. For short-lived states this requires tight collimation of the detector with a resulting loss in solid angle. We are developing a method for measuring ultrashort atomic lifetimes utilizing a two-foil target. As a specific case to demonstrate the feasibility of our method, we are studying the decay of the 2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} level in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. This level has a calculated lifetime of 9.5 ps which corresponds to a decay length of 380 {mu}m. For krypton, theory predicts that 90% of the 2 {sup 3}P{sub 2} states decay via M2 radiation to the ground state. A measurement of the lifetime of this state would contribute to an important current problem which concerns the understanding of atomic structure when both electron correlations and relativistic effects are simultaneously important.

  4. Relativistic coupled-cluster calculations of transition properties in highly charged inert-gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, D. K.

    2016-11-01

    We have carried out an extensive investigation of various spectroscopic properties of highly charged inert-gas ions using a relativistic coupled-cluster method through a one-electron detachment procedure. In particular, we have calculated the atomic states 2 s22 p53/2 2P, 2 s22 p51/2 2P, and 2 s 2 p61/2 2S in F-like inert-gas ions; 3 s23 p53/2 2P, 3 s23 p51/2 2P, and 3 s 3 p61/2 2S states in Cl-like Kr, Xe, and Rn; and 4 s24 p53/2 2P, 4 s24 p51/2 2P, and 4 s 4 p61/2 2S states in Br-like Xe and Rn. Starting from a single-reference Dirac-Hartree-Fock wave function, we construct our exact atomic states by including the dynamic correlation effects in an all-order perturbative fashion. Employing this method, we estimate the ionization potential energies of three low-lying orbitals present in their respective closed-shell configurations. Since the considered highly charged inert-gas ions exhibit huge relativistic effects, we have taken into account the corrections due to Breit interaction as well as from the dominant quantum electrodynamic correction such as vacuum polarization and self-energy effects in these systems. Using our calculated relativistic atomic wave functions and energies, we accurately determine various transition properties such as wavelengths, line strengths, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and lifetimes of the excited states.

  5. Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.

  6. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  7. University of Virginia experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.

    1991-01-10

    This report discusses research being done in high energy physics at the University of Virginia in the following areas: charmonium; B mesons decay; B physics at the SCC; and symmetry and field theory. (LSP)

  8. Mathematics of complexity in experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eggers, H C

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical ideas and approaches common in complexity-related fields have been fruitfully applied in experimental high energy physics also. We briefly review some of the cross-pollination that is occurring.

  9. Overview. Department of High Energy Physics. Section 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghen, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The activities of Department of High Energy Physics in 1994 have been presented. They cover a variety of problems of experimental and theoretical high energy elementary particle physics: hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (mainly characteristics of particle production , including heavy quark physics), e{sup +} e{sup -} interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluations of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles.Research on detectors and development of apparatus for high energy physics experiments at future accelerators such as LHC or RHIC were also carried out. The short information about personnel employed in the Department, seminars, publication, conferences and reports is also given.

  10. Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses research being done at the University of Chicago in High Energy Physics. Some topic covered are: CP violation; intermediate vector bosons; string models; supersymmetry; and rare decay of kaons. (LSP)

  11. Space and Astrophysical Plasmas : High energy universe – Satellite missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinod Krishan

    2000-11-01

    A variety of satellite missions to observe the high energy universe are currently operating and some more with more versatility and capability are on the anvil. In this paper, after giving a brief introduction to the constituents of the high energy universe and the related plasma physical problems, general as well as specific features of the current and future x-ray and gamma-ray satellite missions are described.

  12. AGNs and microquasars as high energy gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, J M

    2004-01-01

    The extragalactic analogs of the microquasars, the quasars, are strong gamma-ray emitters at GeV energies. It is expected that microquasars are also gamma-ray sources, because of the analogy with quasars and because theoretical models predict the high-energy emission. There are two microquasars that appear as the possible counterparts for two unidentified high-energy gamma-ray sources.

  13. 11th Latin American Symposium on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    SILAFAE is one of the premier series of international meetings – High energy physics in Latin America. The present edition will be held in the city of Antigua Guatemala, from November 14 - 18th 2016. The program contains plenary talks aimed at reviewing the status of the recent advances in frontier topics in High Energy Physics, both theoretical and experimental. It also includes parallel sessions of specialized talks.

  14. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  15. Is the electron radiation length constant at high energies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H D; Uggerhøj, U I; Biino, C; Ballestrero, S; Mangiarotti, A; Sona, P; Ketel, T J; Vilakazi, Z Z

    2003-07-04

    Experimental results for the radiative energy loss of 149, 207, and 287 GeV electrons in a thin Ir target are presented. From the data we conclude that at high energies the radiation length increases in accordance with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) theory and thus electrons become more penetrating the higher the energy. The increase of the radiation length as a result of the LPM effect has a significant impact on the behavior of high-energy electromagnetic showers.

  16. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  17. Summaries of FY 1977, research in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the Office of Energy Research and the Division of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, provides approximately 90% of the total federal support for high energy physics research effort in the United States. The High Energy Physics Program primarily utilizes four major U.S. high energy accelerator facilities and over 50 universities under contract to do experimental and theoretical investigations on the properties, structure and transformation of matter and energy in their most basic forms. This compilation of research summaries is intended to present a convenient report of the scope and nature of high energy physics research presently funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. The areas covered include conception, design, construction, and operation of particle accelerators; experimental research using the accelerators and ancillary equipment; theoretical research; and research and development programs to advance accelerator technology, particle detector systems, and data analysis capabilities. Major concepts and experimental facts in high energy physics have recently been discovered which have the promise of unifying the fundamental forces and of understanding the basic nature of matter and energy. The summaries contained in this document were reproduced in essentially the form submitted by contractors as of January 1977.

  18. Evaluation of a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer for highly charged ion plasma emission in soft x-ray spectral region from 1 to 10 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Thanh Hung; Kondo, Yoshiki; Tamura, Toshiki; Ono, Yuichi; Hara, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Ishino, Masahiko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Makimura, Tetsuya; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitano, Ken; Ejima, Takeo; Tadashi, Hatano; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer operating on the spectral region from 1 to 10 nm was built for research on physics of high temperature and high energy density plasmas. It consists of a flat-field grating with 2400 lines/mm as a dispersing element and an x-ray charged coupled device (CCD) camera as the detector. The diffraction efficiency of the grating and the sensitivity of the CCD camera were directly measured by use of synchrotron radiation at the BL-11D beamline of the Photon Factory (PF). The influence of contamination to the spectrometer also was characterized. This result enables us to evaluate the absolute number of photons in a wide range wavelength between 1 and 10 nm within an acquisition. We obtained absolutely calibrated spectra from highly charged ion plasmas of Gd, from which a maximum energy conversion efficiency of 0.26% was observed at a Nd:YAG laser intensity of 3 × 1012 W/cm2.

  19. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces; Energieeintrag langsamer hochgeladener Ionen in Festkoerperoberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.

    2006-07-01

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO{sub 2}. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 {+-} 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO{sub 2} targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar{sup 7+} was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 {+-} 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO{sub 2} and for charge states below q=7. For Ar{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 9+}, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO{sub 2}. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric

  20. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  1. AHEAD: Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Ahead Consortium

    2015-09-01

    AHEAD (Integrated Activities in the High Energy Astrophysics Domain) is a forthcoming project approved in the framework of the European Horizon 2020 program (Research Infrastructures for High Energy Astrophysics). The overall objective of AHEAD is to integrate national efforts in high-energy Astrophysics and to promote the domain at the European level, to keep its community at the cutting edge of science and technology and ensure that space observatories for high-energy astrophysics, with particular regard to Athena, are at the state of the art. AHEAD will integrate key research infrastructures for on-ground test and calibration of space-based sensors and electronics and promote their coordinated use. In parallel, the best facilities for data analysis of high-energy astrophysical observatories will be made available to the European community. The technological development will focus on the improvement of selected critical technologies, background modeling, cross calibration, and feasibility studies of space-based instrumentation for the benefit of future high energy missions like Athena, and the best exploitation of existing observatories. AHEAD will support the community via grants for collaborative studies, dissemination of results, and promotion of workshops. A strong public outreach package will ensure that the domain is well publicized at national, European and International level. Networking, joint research activities and access to infrastructures as devised in AHEAD, will serve to establish strong connections between institutes and industry to create the basis for a more rapid advancement of high-energy astrophysical science, space oriented instrumentation and cutting-edge sensor technology in Europe. This enables the development of new technologies and the associated growth of the European technology market with a dedicated technology innovation package, as well as the creation of a new generation of researchers.

  2. X-ray resonant photoexcitation: line widths and energies of K{\\alpha} transitions in highly charged Fe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, J K; Epp, S W; Steinbrügge, R; Beilmann, C; Brown, G V; Eberle, S; Graf, A; Harman, Z; Hell, N; Leutenegger, M; Müller, A; Schlage, K; Wille, H -C; Yavas, H; Ullrich, J; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Photoabsorption by and fluorescence of the K{\\alpha} transitions in highly charged iron ions are essential mechanisms for X-ray radiation transfer in astrophysical environments. We study photoabsorption due to the main K{\\alpha} transitions in highly charged iron ions from heliumlike to fluorinelike (Fe 24+...17+) using monochromatic X-rays around 6.6 keV at the PETRA III synchrotron photon source. Natural linewidths were determined with hitherto unattained accuracy. The observed transitions are of particular interest for the understanding of photoexcited plasmas found in X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei.

  3. Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on High Energy Nuclear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, Tokio

    1992-03-01

    This report consists of the Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting on High Energy Nuclear Data. The meeting was held on October 3-4, 1991, at the Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute with the participation of forty-odd specialists, who were the evaluators, theorists, experimentalists, and users of high energy nuclear data including the members of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. The need of the nuclear data in the high energy region up to a few GeV was stressed in the meeting for many applications, such as spallation neutron sources for radioactive waste treatment, accelerator shielding design, medical isotope production, radiation therapy, the effects of space radiation on astronauts and their equipment, and the cosmic history of meteorites and other galactic substances. Although the neutron nuclear data below 20 MeV have been well evaluated for fission and fusion reactor applications, the nuclear data in the high energy region have never been prepared in Japan. With the view of producing an evaluated high energy nuclear data file, theoretical models and codes, available and necessary measurements, needs of nuclear data, and various applications were reviewed and discussed. The consensus, that the wide collaboration was necessary to produce the evaluated file and should be established, has been obtained.

  4. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  5. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  6. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkov, G. Yu., E-mail: gyushkov@mail.ru; Nikolaev, A. G.; Frolova, V. P. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  7. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions.

  8. Exploring relativistic many-body recoil effects in highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orts, R Soria; Harman, Z; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Artemyev, A N; Bruhns, H; Martínez, A J González; Jentschura, U D; Keitel, C H; Lapierre, A; Mironov, V; Shabaev, V M; Tawara, H; Tupitsyn, I I; Ullrich, J; Volotka, A V

    2006-09-08

    The relativistic recoil effect has been the object of experimental investigations using highly charged ions at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap. Its scaling with the nuclear charge Z boosts its contribution to a measurable level in the magnetic-dipole (M1) transitions of B- and Be-like Ar ions. The isotope shifts of 36Ar versus 40Ar have been detected with sub-ppm accuracy, and the recoil effect contribution was extracted from the 1s(2)2s(2)2p 2P(1/2) - 2P(3/2) transition in Ar13+ and the 1s(2)2s2p 3P1-3P2 transition in Ar14+. The experimental isotope shifts of 0.00123(6) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00120(10) nm (Ar14+) are in agreement with our present predictions of 0.00123(5) nm (Ar13+) and 0.00122(5) nm (Ar14+) based on the total relativistic recoil operator, confirming that a thorough understanding of correlated relativistic electron dynamics is necessary even in a region of intermediate nuclear charges.

  9. How accurate is Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions near highly charged interfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Vaknin, David; Travesset, Alex

    2006-06-20

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface. A lipid phosphate (dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate) was spread as a monolayer at the air-water interface to control surface charge density. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. Five decades in bulk concentrations are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. The increase of Cs+ concentration modifies the contact value potential, thereby causing proton release. This process effectively modifies surface charge density and enables exploration of ion distributions as a function of effective surface charge-density. The experimentally obtained ion distributions are compared to distributions calculated by Poisson-Boltzmann theory accounting for the variation of surface charge density due to proton release and binding. We also discuss the accuracy of our experimental results in discriminating possible deviations from Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

  10. On the formation of highly charged gaseous ions from unfolded proteins by electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Lars; Rodriguez, Antony D; Liu, Jiangjiang

    2012-08-07

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of native proteins results in a narrow distribution of low protonation states. ESI for these folded species proceeds via the charged residue mechanism. In contrast, ESI of unfolded proteins yields a wide distribution of much higher charge states. The current work develops a model that can account for this effect. Recent molecular dynamics simulations revealed that ESI for unfolded polypeptide chains involves protein ejection from nanodroplets, representing a type of ion evaporation mechanism (IEM). We point out the analogies between this IEM, and the dissociation of gaseous protein complexes after collisional activation. The latter process commences with unraveling of a single subunit, in concert with Coulombically driven proton transfer. The subunit then separates from the residual complex as a highly charged ion. We propose that similar charge equilibration events accompany the IEM of unfolded proteins, thereby causing the formation of high ESI charge states. A bead chain model is used for examining how charge is partitioned as protein and droplet separate. It is shown that protein ejection from differently sized ESI droplets generates a range of protonation states. The predicted behavior agrees well with experimental data.

  11. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  12. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  13. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  14. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  15. Status of deceleration and laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions at HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andelkovic, Zoran, E-mail: z.andelkovic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Birkl, Gerhard [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Fedotova, Svetlana [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Hannen, Volker [Universität Münster (Germany); Herfurth, Frank [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); König, Kristian [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Kotovskiy, Nikita [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Maaß, Bernhard [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Vollbrecht, Jonas [Universität Münster (Germany); Murböck, Tobias [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Neidherr, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Schmidt, Stefan; Vogel, Manuel [Technische Universität Darmstadt (Germany); Vorobjev, Gleb [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Weinheimer, Christian [Universität Münster (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Heavy few-electron ions are relatively simple systems in terms of electron structure and offer unique opportunities to conduct experiments under extremely large electromagnetic fields that exist around their nuclei. However, the preparation of highly charged ions (HCI) has remained the major challenge for experiments. As an extension of the existing GSI accelerator facility, the HITRAP facility was conceived as a multi-stage decelerator for HCI produced at high velocity. It is designed to prepare bunches of around 10{sup 5} HCI and to deliver them at low energies to various experiments. One of these experiments is SpecTrap, aiming for laser spectroscopy of trapped, cold HCI. We present the latest results on deceleration of ions in a radio-frequency quadrupole, synchrotron cooling of electrons in a trap as a preparation step for the prospective electron cooling of the HCI decelerated in HITRAP, as well as laser cooling of singly charged Mg ions for sympathetic cooling of HCI in SpecTrap.

  16. Highly charged ions in Penning traps, a new tool for resolving low lying isomeric states

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Ettenauer, S; Simon, V V; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Andreoiu, C; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly charged ions greatly increases the precision and resolving power, in particular for short-lived species produced at on-line radio-isotope beam facilities, achievable with Penning trap mass spectrometers. This increase in resolving power provides a new and unique access to resolving low-lying long-lived ($T_{1/2} > 50$ ms) nuclear isomers. Recently, the $111.19(22)$ keV (determined from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy) isomeric state in $^{78}$Rb has been resolved from the ground state, in a charge state of $q=8+$ with the TITAN Penning trap at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The energy level of the isomer was measured to be $108.7(6.4)$ keV above the ground state. The extracted masses for both the ground and isomeric states, and their difference, agree with the AME2003 and Nuclear Data Sheet values. This proof of principle measurement demonstrates the feasibility of using Penning trap mass spectrometers coupled to charge breeders to study nuclear isomers and opens a new route for isomer searches.

  17. Two-electron and one-photon transitions in highly charged nickel-like ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Lu-You; Dong Chen-Zhong; Jiang Jun; Wan Jian-Jie; Yan Jun

    2008-01-01

    This paper calculates the transition wavelengths and probabilities of the two-electron and one-photon(TEOP) transition from the(38-11/24dj)J:1,2 to(3p-13/24s1/2)J=1 and the(3p-11/2481/2)J=1 to(3d-1j4dj1)J=1,2 for highly charged Ni-like ions with atomic number Z in the range 47≤Z≤92.In the calculations,the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method and corresponding program packages GRASP92 and REOS99 were used,and the relativistic effects,correlation effects and relaxation effects were considered systematically.It is found that the TEOP transitions are very sensitive to the correlation of electrons,and the probabilities will be enhanced sharply in some special Z regions along the isoelectronic sequence.The present TEOP transition wavelengths are compared with the available data from some previous publications,good agreement is obtained.

  18. Reliable operation of the Brookhaven EBIS for highly charged ion production for RHIC and NSRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, E., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Alessi, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Binello, S., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Kanesue, T., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; McCafferty, D., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Morris, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Okamura, M., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Pikin, A., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Ritter, J., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov; Schoepfer, R., E-mail: beebe@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    An Electron Beam Ion Source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC EBIS) was commissioned at Brookhaven in September 2010 and since then it routinely supplies ions for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) as the main source of highly charged ions from Helium to Uranium. Using three external primary ion sources for 1+ injection into the EBIS and an electrostatic injection beam line, ion species at the EBIS exit can be switched in 0.2 s. A total of 16 different ion species have been produced to date. The length and the capacity of the ion trap have been increased by 20% by extending the trap by two more drift tubes, compared with the original design. The fraction of Au{sup 32+} in the EBIS Au spectrum is approximately 12% for 70-80% electron beam neutralization and 8 pulses operation in a 5 Hertz train and 4-5 s super cycle. For single pulse per super cycle operation and 25% electron beam neutralization, the EBIS achieves the theoretical Au{sup 32+} fractional output of 18%. Long term stability has been very good with availability of the beam from RHIC EBIS during 2012 and 2014 RHIC runs approximately 99.8%.

  19. The beam commissioning of a CW high charge state heavy ion RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, K. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lu, Y.R., E-mail: yrlu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yin, X.J.; Yang, Y.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, S.L.; Wang, Z. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, X.H.; Yuan, Y.J.; Zhao, H.W.; Xia, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, C.E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-09-11

    The SSC-LINAC project is launched at Institute of Modern Physics in China to develop one new linear accelerator (LINAC) injector for separated sector cyclotron (SSC). It includes a high charge state ion source, a CW RFQ and a DTL section, and is designed to accelerate ions up to 580 keV/u. Now the ion source and the RFQ cavity have been installed in the main hall and the beam commissioning has been carried out. Two kinds of ions have been tested, {sup 16}O{sup 5+} and {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}. The experiment result of {sup 16}O{sup 5+} is: the measured beam current is 180 μA at entrance of RFQ and 150 μA at exit of RFQ. The output energy of {sup 16}O{sup 5+} is 141.89 keV/u. The measured beam current is 210 μA at entrance of RFQ and 198 μA at exit of RFQ for {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}. The output energy of {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+} is 142.78 keV/u. The experiment results agree with the design parameters of RFQ very well. This paper presents: the design consideration of beam dynamics, RF and cooling structure design; measurement of the cold model; high power test of RFQ and beam commissioning result.

  20. Reliable operation of the Brookhaven EBIS for highly charged ion production for RHIC and NSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, E.; Alessi, J.; Binello, S.; Kanesue, T.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Ritter, J.; Schoepfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC EBIS) was commissioned at Brookhaven in September 2010 and since then it routinely supplies ions for RHIC and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) as the main source of highly charged ions from Helium to Uranium. Using three external primary ion sources for 1+ injection into the EBIS and an electrostatic injection beam line, ion species at the EBIS exit can be switched in 0.2 s. A total of 16 different ion species have been produced to date. The length and the capacity of the ion trap have been increased by 20% by extending the trap by two more drift tubes, compared with the original design. The fraction of Au32+ in the EBIS Au spectrum is approximately 12% for 70-80% electron beam neutralization and 8 pulses operation in a 5 Hertz train and 4-5 s super cycle. For single pulse per super cycle operation and 25% electron beam neutralization, the EBIS achieves the theoretical Au32+ fractional output of 18%. Long term stability has been very good with availability of the beam from RHIC EBIS during 2012 and 2014 RHIC runs approximately 99.8%.

  1. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  2. The beam commissioning of a CW high charge state heavy ion RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K.; Lu, Y. R.; Yin, X. J.; Yang, Y. Q.; Gao, S. L.; Wang, Z.; He, Y.; Liu, G.; Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.; Chen, C. E.

    2015-09-01

    The SSC-LINAC project is launched at Institute of Modern Physics in China to develop one new linear accelerator (LINAC) injector for separated sector cyclotron (SSC). It includes a high charge state ion source, a CW RFQ and a DTL section, and is designed to accelerate ions up to 580 keV/u. Now the ion source and the RFQ cavity have been installed in the main hall and the beam commissioning has been carried out. Two kinds of ions have been tested, 16O5+ and 40Ar8+. The experiment result of 16O5+ is: the measured beam current is 180 μA at entrance of RFQ and 150 μA at exit of RFQ. The output energy of 16O5+ is 141.89 keV/u. The measured beam current is 210 μA at entrance of RFQ and 198 μA at exit of RFQ for 40Ar8+. The output energy of 40Ar8+ is 142.78 keV/u. The experiment results agree with the design parameters of RFQ very well. This paper presents: the design consideration of beam dynamics, RF and cooling structure design; measurement of the cold model; high power test of RFQ and beam commissioning result.

  3. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  4. Precision Wavelength Measurements And Identifications Of EUV Lines From Highly Charged L-Shell yttrium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Gillaspy, John; Takacs, Endre; Ralchenko, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    We present the measurements of extreme-ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y29+- Y36+) created and trapped in the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Few Na-like, Mg-like and Al-like yttrium lines (Y26+- Y28+) are reported as well. In order to reach the desired ionization stages, the beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV to 6 keV during the experiment. A flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer was used to record the spectra in the wavelength range of 4.022 nm to 19.957 nm. The wavelength calibration was provided by the previously measured lines of neon, xenon, oxygen and iron. A total of 63 new spectral lines (allowed and forbidden) corresponding to the Δn = 0 transitions within n = 2 and 3 have been identified using collisional-radiative simulations of the non-Maxwellian EBIT plasma. The total uncertainties assigned to the measured wavelengths vary between 0.001 nm to 0.003 nm and include contributions from calibration uncertainties, statistical uncertainties from the line fits, and estimated systematic uncertainties.

  5. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  6. Identification and Plasma Diagnostics Study of Extreme Ultraviolet Transitions in Highly Charged Yttrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshani Silwal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme ultraviolet spectra of the L-shell ions of highly charged yttrium (Y 26 + –Y 36 + were observed in the electron beam ion trap of the National Institute of Standards and Technology using a flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometer in the wavelength range of 4 nm-20 nm. The electron beam energy was systematically varied from 2.3 keV–6.0 keV to selectively produce different ionization stages. Fifty-nine spectral lines corresponding to Δ n = 0 transitions within the n = 2 and n = 3 shells have been identified using detailed collisional-radiative (CR modeling of the non-Maxwellian plasma. The uncertainties of the wavelength determinations ranged between 0.0004 nm and 0.0020 nm. Li-like resonance lines, 2s– 2 p 1 / 2 and 2s–2 p 3 / 2 , and the Na-like D lines, 3s– 3 p 1 / 2 and 3s– 3 p 3 / 2 , have been measured and compared with previous measurements and calculations. Forbidden magnetic dipole (M1 transitions were identified and analyzed for their potential applicability in plasma diagnostics using large-scale CR calculations including approximately 1.5 million transitions. Several line ratios were found to show strong dependence on electron density and, hence, may be implemented in the diagnostics of hot plasmas, in particular in fusion devices.

  7. Multiple electron capture from isolated protein poly-anions in collision with slow highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, A R; Rousseau, P; Domaracka, A; Huber, B A; Giuliani, A

    2017-08-02

    Collisions of 375 keV Xe(25+) ions with trapped mass/charge selected poly-anions of the cytochrome C protein (∼12.5 kDa) were studied by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with low-energy ion beam facility. Tandem mass spectra were recorded for the protein precursor charge states ranging from -9 to -17. The present work reports the first study of slow highly charged ion collisions with poly-anions. A high signal to noise ratio allowed the study of the intensity of single and multiple electron removal by a projectile, as well as associated neutral losses, as a function of the target charge state. Relative single and double electron detachment cross sections were found to increase with increasing charge state of the precursor anion. The experimental findings are supported by the calculations of the total electron capture cross sections, based on the classical over-the-barrier model, restricted to a simple uniformly charged linear protein structure and a near-end electron capture.

  8. Polar Cap Model for Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K; Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.

    2002-01-01

    The study of physical processes associated with particle acceleration in the open field line region above the polar cap (PC) of an isolated neutron star (NS) plays a fundamental role in our understanding and interpretation of high-energy emission from pulsars. The systematic study of particle acceleration and formation of electron-positron pair fronts above the PCs of NSs was initiated two decades ago. The detailed analysis of these processes is now possible with the development of pair cascade codes that enables us to calculate the spectra and pulse profiles of high-energy emission from pulsars. The calculation of pair formation and gamma-ray production is being improved to include new results on the PC physics. We briefly outline the current status of the PC model for pulsar high-energy emission, focusing on some of our most recent results on the theoretical modeling of the PC acceleration and gamma-ray emission.

  9. High-energy neutrinos in the context of multimessenger physics

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Julia K

    2007-01-01

    The field of astroparticle physics is currently developing rapidly, since new experiments challenge our understanding of the investigated processes. Three messengers can be used to extract information on the properties of astrophysical sources: photons, charged Cosmic Rays and neutrinos. This review focuses on high-energy neutrinos (E>100 GeV) with the main topics as follows. The production mechanism of high-energy neutrinos in astrophysical shocks. The connection between the observed photon spectra and charged Cosmic Rays is described and the source properties as they are known from photon observations and from charged Cosmic Rays are presented. High-energy neutrino detection. Current detection methods are described and the status of the next generation neutrino telescopes are reviewed. In particular, water and ice Cherenkov detectors as well as radio measurements in ice and with balloon experiments are presented. In addition, future perspectives for optical, radio and acoustic detection of neutrinos are rev...

  10. (-p)p and pp Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the eikonalized Glauber representation of hadron-hadron scattering, we study the diffractive processes of -pp and pp elastic scattering at high energies. From our theoretical calculations and fits to the corresponding experimental data at high energies and all available momentum transfer, we find that the Pomeron exchange contributions play a significant role in description of differential cross section dσ/dt in the whole experimental domain. The Pomeron exchange contributions are related to multi-gluon exchanges in QCD, which are color singlet bound state of Reggeized gluons, such as tensor glueball and Odderon. Accordingly, we may claim that the -pp and pp diffractive processes at high energies s and moderate momentum transfer t would be a good tool to verify the existence of the color singlet multigluon bound states and to test QCD since QCD theory does predict the existence of these states. Therefore, we believe that the experimental measurement should be done for these diffractive processes.

  11. Spectral shape variation of interstellar electrons at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The high energy electron spectrum analysis has shown that the electron intensity inside the H2 cloud region, or in a spiral arm, should be much lower than that outside it and the observed electron energy spectrum should flatten again at about 1 TeV. In the framework of the leady box model the recently established rigidity dependence of the escape pathlength of cosmic rays would predict a high energy electron spectrum which is flatter than the observed one. This divergence is explained by assuming that the leaky box model can only apply to cosmic ray heavy nuclei, and light nuclei and electrons in cosmic rays may have different behaviors in the interstellar propagation. Therefore, the measured data on high energy electrons should be analyzed based on the proposed nonuniform galactic disk (NUGD) mode.

  12. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  13. High-energy neutrinos from sources in clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays can be accelerated in clusters of galaxies, by mega-parsec scale shocks induced by accretion of gas during the formation of large-scale structure, or by powerful sources harbored in clusters. Once accelerated, the highest energy particles leave the cluster via almost rectilinear trajectories, while lower energy ones can be confined by the cluster magnetic field up to cosmological time and interact with the intracluster gas. Using a realistic model of the baryon distribution and the turbulent magnetic field in clusters, we studied the propagation and hadronic interaction of high-energy protons in the intracluster medium. We report the cumulative cosmic ray and neutrino spectra generated by galaxy clusters including embedded sources, and demonstrate that clusters can contribute a significant fraction of the observed IceCube neutrinos above 30 TeV while remaining undetected in high-energy cosmic rays and $\\gamma$ rays for reasonable choices of parameters and source scenarios.

  14. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D; and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative...

  15. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  16. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRASHORT HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION AND MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A J

    2004-01-15

    The workshop is intended as a forum to discuss the latest experimental, theoretical and computational results related to the interaction of high energy radiation with matter. High energy is intended to mean soft x-ray and beyond, but important new results from visible systems will be incorporated. The workshop will be interdisciplinary amongst scientists from many fields, including: plasma physics; x-ray physics and optics; solid state physics and material science; biology ; quantum optics. Topics will include, among other subjects: understanding damage thresholds for x-ray interactions with matter developing {approx} 5 keV x-ray sources to investigate damage; developing {approx} 100 keV Thomsom sources for material studies; developing short pulse (100 fs and less) x-ray diagnostics; developing novel X-ray optics; and developing models for the response of biological samples to ultra intense, sub ps x-rays high-energy radiation.

  17. A Deep Sea Telescope for High Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Aslanides, Elie; Basa, S; Bernard, F; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blanc, P E; Brunner, J; Calzas, A; Cassol, F; Carr, J; Cârloganu, C; Destelle, J J; Duval, P Y; Hubaut, F; Kajfasz, E; Jaquet, M; Laugier, D; Le Van-Suu, A; Liotard, P L; Martin, L; Montanet, François; Navas, S; Olivetto, C; Payre, P; Pohl, A; Potheau, R; Raymond, M; Talby, M; Tao, Charling; Vigeolas, E; Anvar, S; Azoulay, R; Bland, R; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Bottu, N; Carton, H; Deck, P; Desages, F E; Dispau, G; Feinstein, F; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, F; Hubbard, John R; Karolak, M; Kouchner, A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laugier, J P; Le Provost, H; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Magnier, P; Mazeau, B; Mols, P; Moscoso, L; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrin, P; Poinsignon, J; Queinec, Y; Sacquin, Yu; Schuller, P; Stolarczyk, T; Tabary, A; Tayalati, Y; Vernin, P; Vignaud, D; Vilanova, D; Benhammou, Ya; Drouhin, F; Huss, D; Pallarès, A; Tzvetanov, T; Danilov, M V; Kagan, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Carmona, F E; Cases, R; Hernández, J J; Zúñiga, J; Racca, C; Zghiche, A; Van Dantzig, R; Engelen, J; Heijboer, A; De Jong, M; Kok, E; Kooijman, P M; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Evans, D; Mahout, G; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Jovanovic, P; Newman, P; McMahon, T; Cooper, S; Fopma, J; Jelley, N A; Schuster, W; Tilav, S; Kudryavtsev, V A; McMillan, J; Spooner, N J C; Thompson, L; Wark, D; Cartwright, S L; Triay, R; Mazure, A; Amram, P; Boulesteix, J; Marcelin, M; Blanc, F; Coustillier, G; Fuda, J L; Millot, C; Drogou, J F; Festy, D; Herrouin, G; Le Guen, Y; Lemoine, L; Massol, A; Mazéas, F; Morel, J P; Rolin, J F; Valdy, P; Brooks, B; Compere, C

    2001-01-01

    The ANTARES Collaboration proposes to construct a large area water Cherenkov detector in the deep Mediterranean Sea, optimised for the detection of muons from high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. This paper presents the scientific motivation for building such a device, along with a review of the technical issues involved in its design and construction. The observation of high energy neutrinos will open a new window on the universe. The primary aim is to study particle acceleration mechanisms in energetic astrophysical objects such as AGN's and GRB's, which may also shed light on the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. At lower energies, non-baryonic dark matter may be detected through the neutrinos produced when gravitationally captured WIMPs annihilate in the cores of the Earth and the Sun. Neutrino oscillations can be measured by studying distortions in the energy spectrum of upward-going atmospheric nu's. The characteristics of the proposed site are an important consideration in detector design. Water...

  18. Identification of biomarkers of radioresponse and subsequent progression towards lung cancer in normal human bronchial epithelial cells after HZE particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Park, Seongmi; Minna, John

    Using variants of a non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line HBEC3-KT, we have examined global gene expression patterns after low and high LET irradiation up to 24h post-IR. Using supervised analyses we have identified 427 genes whoes expression can be used to discriminate the cellular response to γ-vs Si or Fe particles even when the biological outcome, cell death, is equivalent. Furthermore, genetic background also determines gene expression response. When HBEC3-KT is compared to the HBEC3-KT cells line where mutant k-RAS is over-expressed and p53 has been knocked down, HBEC-3KTr53, principal component analysis clearly shows that the response of each cell resides in a different 3-D space, that is, basal gene expression patterns as well as the gene expression response are unique to each cell type. Using regression analysis to examine these 427 genes show clusters of genes whose temporal expression patterns are the same and which are unique to a given radiation type. Ultimately, this approach will allow for the interrogation of gene promoters to identify response elements that drive how cells respond to different radiation types. We are extending our examination to O particles and are now examining gene expression as a function of beam quality. We have made substantial progress in the determination of cellular transformation by HZE particles for these cell lines. (Transformation as defined by the ability to grow in soft agar.) For HBEC-3KT, the spontaneous transformation frequency is about 10- 7.ExposuretoeitherF eorSiparticlesinc KT r53celllinedidnotshowanyincreaseintransf ormationf requencyaf terdosesof upto1Gy, however, thesp 3KT.W ehavenowisolatedover160individualf ocithatf ormedinsof tagarf romcellculturesthatwereirradia termcultureandthenre-introducedintosof tagartoassurethattheabilitytogrowinsof tagarisclonal.T odatew 30 With these cell isolates in hand we will begin to determine tumorigenicity by subcutaneous injections in nude

  19. Range fluctuations of high energy muons passing through matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minorikawa, Y.; Mitsui, K.

    1985-01-01

    The information about energy spectrum of sea level muons at high energies beyond magnetic spectrographs can be obtained from the underground intensity measurements if the fluctuations problems are solved. The correction factor R for the range fluctuations of high energy muons were calculated by analytical method of Zatsepin, where most probable energy loss parameter are used. It is shown that by using the R at great depth together with the slope, lambda, of the vertical depth-intensity (D-I) curve in the form of exp(-t/lambda), the spectral index, gamma, in the power law energy spectrum of muons at sea level can be obtained.

  20. Task force for integral test of High Energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    According to completion of the JENDL-High Energy file for neutron nuclear cross sections up to 50 MeV, a task force for integral test of high energy nuclear data was organized to discuss a guide line for integral test activities. A status of existing differential and integral experiments and how to perform such a test were discussed in the task force. Here the purpose and outline of the task force is explained with some future problems raised in discussion among the task member. (author)

  1. High energy beta rays and vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.J.; Akpa, T.C.; Dim, L.A.; Ogunsusi, R.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of the effects of high energy beta rays on Lymnea natalensis, the snail vector of Schistosoma haematobium have been conducted. Results show that in both stream and tap water, about 70% of the snails die when irradiated for up to 18 hours using a 15m Ci Sr-90 beta source. The rest of the snails die without further irradiation in 24 hours. It may then be possible to control the vectors of Bilharzia and Fasciola by using both the direct and indirect effects of high energy betas.

  2. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

  3. Cross section to multiplicity ratios at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-06-27

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio σ{sup el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  4. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: CERN Link Breathes Life Into Russian Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R

    2000-10-13

    Without fanfare, 600 Russian scientists here at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, are playing key roles in building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a machine that will explore fundamental questions such as why particles have mass, as well as search for exotic new particles whose existence would confirm supersymmetry, a popular theory that aims to unify the four forces of nature. In fact, even though Russia is not one of CERN's 20 member states, most top high-energy physicists in Russia are working on the LHC. Some say their work could prove the salvation of high-energy physics back home.

  5. Searching for ultra-high energy cosmic rays with smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteson, Daniel; Mulhearn, Michael; Shimmin, Chase; Cranmer, Kyle; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy (>1018 eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

  6. LHCf and connection to high energy cosmic rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itow Yoshitaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An extensive air shower is only the method to observe ultra high energy cosmic rays. Implications of air showers always rely on hadron interactions at such high energy. Hadron collider data can give an unique opportunity to verify and to improve knowledge on hadron interactions relevant for air showers. The LHCf experiment provides data for particle productions at very forward region in LHC to verify the forward energy spectra from the collisions. Recent results of LHCf and its connection to air shower experiments are overviewd.

  7. The Telescope Array Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Obsrevatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, John

    2016-07-01

    The Telescope Array measures the properties of ultra high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We do this using a variety of techniques including an array of scintillator detectors to sample the footprint of the air shower when it reaches the Earth's surface and telescopes to measure the fluorescence and Cerenkov light of the air shower. From this we determine the energy spectrum and chemical composition of the primary particles. We also search for sources of cosmic rays and anisotropy. We have found evidence of a possible source of ultra high energy cosmic rays in the northern sky. The experiment and its most recent measurements will be discussed.

  8. Mercuric iodide dosimeter response to high energy electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewinger, E.; Nissenbaum, J.; Schieber, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mercuric iodide solid state dosimeter response to high energy electron beams of up to 35 MeV is reported. High sensitivity of up to 1.5 V/cGy was observed with a 200 V external bias, as well as several mV/cGy, with no external bias for small volume (approx. 10 mm/sup 3/) detectors. The physical characteristics of the detector response are discussed, showing the feasibility of mercuric iodide as a reliable dosimeter for high energy electron beams.

  9. High-energy, high-rate materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.

    1987-12-01

    The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

  10. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.

  11. A Water Tank Cerenkov Detector for Very High Energy Astroparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Bauleo, P; Niello, J O F; Ferrero, A M J; Filevich, A; Guérard, C K; Hasenbalg, F; Mostafa, M A; Ravignani, D; Martino, J

    1998-01-01

    Extensive airshower detection is an important issue in current astrophysics endeavours. Surface arrays detectors are a common practice since they are easy to handle and have a 100% duty cycle. In this work we present an experimental study of the parameters relevant to the design of a water Cerenkov detector for high energy airshowers. This detector is conceived as part of the surface array of the Pierre Auger Project, which is expected to be sensitive to ultra high energy cosmic rays. In this paper we focus our attention in the geometry of the tank and its inner liner material, discussing pulse shapes and charge collections.

  12. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what exten

  13. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what

  14. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what exten

  15. Impact of electrostatics on the chemodynamics of highly charged metal-polymer nanoparticle complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Farinha, José Paulo S; Pinheiro, José P

    2013-11-12

    In this work, the impact of electrostatics on the stability constant, the rate of association/dissociation, and the lability of complexes formed between Cd(II), Pb(II), and carboxyl-modified polymer nanoparticles (also known as latex particles) of radius ∼ 50 nm is systematically investigated via electroanalytical measurements over a wide range of pHs and NaNO3 electrolyte concentrations. The corresponding interfacial structure and key electrostatic properties of the particles are independently derived from their electrokinetic response, successfully interpreted using soft particle electrohydrodynamic formalism, and complemented by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. The results underpin the presence of an ∼0.7-1 nm thick permeable and highly charged shell layer at the surface of the polymer nanoparticles. Their electrophoretic mobility further exhibits a minimum versus NaNO3 concentration due to strong polarization of the electric double layer. Integrating these structural and electrostatic particle features with recent theory on chemodynamics of particulate metal complexes yields a remarkable recovery of the measured increase in complex stability with increasing pH and/or decreasing solution salinity. In the case of the strongly binding Pb(II), the discrepancy at pH > 5.5 is unambiguously assigned to the formation of multidendate complexes with carboxylate groups located in the particle shell. With increasing pH and/or decreasing electrolyte concentration, the theory further predicts a kinetically controlled formation of metal complexes and a dramatic loss of their lability (especially for lead) on the time-scale of diffusion toward a macroscopic reactive electrode surface. These theoretical findings are again shown to be in agreement with experimental evidence.

  16. Monodisperse TiO2 Spheres with High Charge Density and Their Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongbo; Wu, Suli; Su, Xin; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-01-03

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) spheres are potential candidates to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals owing to their high refractive index and low absorption in the visible and near-infrared regions. Here, TiO2 spheres with both high surface charge density and uniform size, which are necessary for the self-assembly of TiO2 spheres, have been prepared by means of sol-gel methods in ethanol in the presence of thioglycolic acid as ligand. Thioglycolic acid, which contains two functional groups, not only acts as coordinating ligand for stabilizing and controlling the growth of TiO2 spheres but also endows the resulting TiO2 spheres with high charge density as based on ζ-potential analysis when the pH of the TiO2 aqueous dispersion was 6.5 or higher. The SEM images illustrate that the diameter of the prepared TiO2 spheres can be tuned from 100 to 300 nm by simply controlling the concentration of H2 O. FTIR spectra confirm that thioglycolic acid bonded to the surface of TiO2 spheres through carboxylic groups. As anticipated, the obtained TiO2 spheres could self-assemble to form a 3D opal photonic crystal structure by means of a simple gravity sedimentation method. Then the TiO2 spheres in the 3D opal photonic crystal structure were able to transform into a pure anatase phase by annealing at different temperatures.

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Chikashi

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the Physics of Highly Charged Ions (HCI2008), held at the University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo, Japan from 1-5 September 2008. This series of conferences began in Stockholm, Sweden in 1982 and has since been held every other year; in Oxford, UK (1984), Groningen, the Netherlands (1986), Grenoble, France (1988), Giessen, Germany (1990), Manhattan, Kansas, USA (1992), Vienna, Austria (1994), Omiya, Japan (1996), Bensheim, Germany (1998), Berkeley, USA (2000), Caen, France (2002), Vilnius, Lithuania (2004) and Belfast, UK (2006). Highly charged ions (HCI), which are defined as highly ionized (i.e. positively charged atomic) ions here, mainly exist in hot plasmas such as the solar corona and fusion plasmas. It is true that its importance in plasma physics has driven researchers to the spectroscopic studies of HCIs, but the spectroscopy of few-electron ions is not only important for plasmas but also interesting for fundamental atomic physics. Electrons moving fast near a heavy nucleus give a suitable system to test the fundamental atomic theory involving relativistic and quantum electro-dynamic effects in a strong field. Also, the huge potential energy of a HCI induces drastic reaction in the interaction with matter. This unique property of HCIs, coupled with the recent development of efficient ion sources, is opening the possibility to utilize them in new technologies in the field such as nano-fabrication, surface analysis, medical physics, and so on. Hence, this conference is recognized as a valuable gathering place for established practitioners and also for newcomers; we exchange information, we are introduced to the subject itself, and to unexpected interfaces with other fields. On 31 August, the day before the opening of HCI2008, we welcomed the delegates at the university's restaurant—and we were greeted with an unusually heavy summer shower! The conference then opened on

  18. Production of heavy charged Higgs particles at very high energies

    OpenAIRE

    Grifols, Josep Antoni; Solà Peracaula, Joan

    1981-01-01

    The production of heavy charged Higgs bosons at very high energies (LEP) is investigated. It turns out that, in favorable circumstances, charged scalars of mass 50-100 GeV could be detected and be even more copiously produced than the standard neutral Weinberg-Salam-type Higgs particle of the same mass.

  19. Some Intensive and Extensive Quantities in High-Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2013-01-01

    We review the evolution of some statistical and thermodynamical quantities measured in difference sizes of high-energy collisions at different energies. We differentiate between intensive and extensive quantities and discuss the importance of their distinguishability in characterizing possible critical phenomena of nuclear collisions at various energies with different initial conditions.

  20. High energy heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, S L; Guo, H Y; Tu, C Q; Wang, Y L; Doke, T; Kato, T; Ozaki, K; Kyan, A; Piao, Y; Murakami, T

    1999-01-01

    Bubble detectors which are commonly used as neutron detectors have been demonstrated through this study to be good detectors for registration of high energy heavy ion tracks. Large size bubble detectors made in China Institute of Atomic Energy were irradiated to heavy ions Ar and C up to 650 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u, respectively. Very clear features of stringy tracks of high energy heavy ions and their fragmentations are manifested and distinguishable. A single track created by a specific high energy heavy ion is composed of a line of bubbles, which is visible by naked eyes and retained for months without reduction in size. The creation of heavy ion tracks in bubble detectors is governed by a threshold whose essence is approximately a critical value of energy loss rate (dE/dX) sub c similar to that of etch track detectors. Ranges of heavy ions in bubble detectors are apparent and predictable by existing formulas. Identification of high energy heavy ions and the applications to heavy ion physics, cosmic rays, exot...

  1. Rapid variability at very high energies in Mrk 501

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Kastendieck, Max Anton; Rieger, Frank; Romoli, Carlo; Wagner, Stefan J; Jacholkowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    A major flaring state of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 was observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in June, 2014. Flux levels higher than one Crab unit were recorded and rapid variability at very high energies ($\\sim$2-20 TeV) was revealed. The high statistics afforded by the flares allowed us to probe the presence of minutes timescale variability and study its statistical characteristics exclusively at TeV energies owing to the high energy threshold of approximately 2 TeV. Doubling times of a few minutes are estimated for fluxes greater than 2 TeV. Statistical tests on the light curves show interesting temporal structure in the variations including deviations from a normal flux distribution similar to those found in the PKS 2155-304 flare of July 2006, at nearly an order of magnitude higher threshold energy. Rapid variations at such high energies put strong constraints on the physical mechanisms in the blazar jet.

  2. Radiative Corrections to High Energy Lepton Bremsstrahlung on Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, A B

    2008-01-01

    One-loop radiative corrections to the leptonic tensor in high energy bremsstrahlung on heavy nuclei are calculated. Virtual and real photon radiation is taken into account. Double bremsstrahlung is simulated by means of Monte Carlo. Numerical results are presented for the case of muon bremsstrahlung in conditions of the COMPASS experiment at CERN.

  3. The 2017 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 European School of High-Energy Physics (formerly the CERN–JINR School of Physics) is jointly organized by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia, together with LIP, with support from FCT and the University of Evora in Portugal.

  4. Direct photon production in high-energy nuclear collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitzmann, T.

    2016-01-01

    Direct photons have always been considered a promising probe for the very early phases of high-energy nuclear collisions. Prompt photons reveal information about the initial state and its possible modifications in nuclei. In this context they should be one of the best probes for effects of gluon sat

  5. Optimization of the Characteristics of High-Energy Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Viktoriya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In work explored effect of mixed metallic fuel on the thermodynamic and ballistic characteristics of High-Energy Materials (HEMs. Efficiency of mixed metallic fuel estimated in relation to the characteristics of HEMs, containing conventional metallic fuel - aluminum. The main criteria of comparison are the specific impulse and the composition of the combustion products HEMs.

  6. The future of OA in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN 's SCOAP3 project has posted a summary of Rolf-Dieter Heuer's talk, Innovation in Scholarly Communication: Vision and Projects from High Energy Physics , at the Academic Publishing in Europe 2008 conference (Berlin, January 21-23, 2008). Heuer is the Research director of DESY and Director-General Elect of CERN .

  7. Innovation development for highly energy-efficient housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings account for 40% of EU final energy demand and policy developments like the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive are stimulating the innovation development for nearly zero-energy housing. However, businesses switching to innovative products for highly energy-efficient houses is a proce

  8. Chemistry of high-energy materials. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Chair of Inorganic Chemistry; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Center of Energetic Concepts Development (CECD)

    2012-07-01

    This graduate-level textbook treats the basic chemistry of high energy materials - primary and secondary explosives, propellants, rocket fuel and pyrotechnics - and provides a review of new research developments. Applications in both military and civil fields are discussed. The book also offers new insights into ''green'' chemistry requirements and strategies for military applications.

  9. Determining neutrino absorption spectra at ultra-high energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; van Vliet, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    A very efficient method for measuring the flux of ultra-high energy ( UHE) neutrinos is through the detection of radio waves which are emitted by the particle shower in the lunar regolith. The highest acceptance is reached for radio waves in the frequency band of 100 - 200 MHz which can be measured

  10. High energy physics division semiannual report of research activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.; Moonier, P.; Talaga, R.; Wagner, R. (eds.) (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period of January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.

  11. Scientific Recognition and Communication Behavior in High Energy Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltman, Gerald

    The study is concerned with scientific (i.e., professional) recognition and communication behavior in theoretical high energy physics. The sample consists of 977 respondents working in thirty-eight countries. The conferral of two components of professional recognition, research leadership and advisorship, as they are affected by geopolitical and…

  12. High-energy Physics with Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.

    1958-03-07

    Recent experience with liquid hydrogen bubble chambers of 25 and 40 cm dia. in high-energy physics experiments is discussed. Experiments described are: interactions of K{sup -} mesons with protons, interactions of antiprotons with protons, catalysis of nuclear fusion reactions by muons, and production and decay of hyperons from negative pions. (W.D.M.)

  13. Applications of NAA at Institute of High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    Recent achievements in application studies of neutron activation analysis (NAA) at Institute of High Energy Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences are briefly described. A small number of selected areas and problems, particularly in life sciences, are highlighted because they present challenges for NAA and its prospects in the future. (author)

  14. Quasi-elastic nuclear scattering at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The quasi-elastic scattering of two nuclei is considered in the high-energy optical model. Energy loss and momentum transfer spectra for projectile ions are evaluated in terms of an inelastic multiple-scattering series corresponding to multiple knockout of target nucleons. The leading-order correction to the coherent projectile approximation is evaluated. Calculations are compared with experiments.

  15. High-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning with LOFT

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Brandt, S; Briggs, M S; Budtz-Jørgensen, C; Campana, R; Carlson, B E; Celestin, S; Connaughton, V; Cummer, S A; Dwyer, J R; Fishman, G J; Fullekrug, M; Fuschino, F; Gjesteland, T; Neubert, T; Østgaard, N; Tavani, M

    2015-01-01

    This is a White Paper in support of the mission concept of the Large Observatory for X-ray Timing (LOFT), proposed as a medium-sized ESA mission. We discuss the potential of LOFT for the study of high-energy radiation from thunderstorms and lightning. For a summary, we refer to the paper.

  16. High Energy Scattering from the $AdS/CFT$ Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    2000-01-01

    We apply the AdS/CFT correspondence to derive expressions for the scattering amplitudes at high energy for gauge theories at strong coupling. A method is proposed based on the computation of correlators of Wilson loop operators by their stringy duals in AdS spaces using either the supergravity (weak field) or classical (minimal surface) approximations.

  17. Correlations and fluctuations in high energy heavy ion collision experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dai-Mei; WANG Ya-Ping; WEI Li-Hua; CAI Xu

    2008-01-01

    An overview of research status of soft physics in high energy heavy-ion collision experiments and recent experimental results are presented.The experimental status on fluctuations and correlations has been reviewed and the outlook for research status of soft physics in LHC/ALICE has been introduced in this paper.

  18. (Very)-high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics: The future

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Several projects planned or proposed can significantly expand our knowledge of the high-energy Universe in gamma rays. Construction of the Cherenkov telescope array CTA is started, and other detectors are planned which will use the reconstruction of extensive air showers. This report explores the near future, and possible evolutions in a longer term.

  19. (Very)-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astrophysics: the Future

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alesandro

    2016-01-01

    Several projects planned or proposed can significantly expand our knowledge of the high-energy Universe in gamma rays. Construction of the Cherenkov telescope array CTA is started, and other detectors are planned which will use the reconstruction of extensive air showers. This report explores the near future, and possible evolutions in a longer term.

  20. (Very-high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics: The future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelis Alessandro De

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several projects planned or proposed can significantly expand our knowledge of the high-energy Universe in gamma rays. Construction of the Cherenkov telescope array CTA is started, and other detectors are planned which will use the reconstruction of extensive air showers. This report explores the near future, and possible evolutions in a longer term.