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Sample records for high-carbohydrate diet effects

  1. Effects of consuming a high carbohydrate diet after eight weeks of exposure to a ketogenic diet

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    Kinzig Kimberly P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketogenic diets have been utilized for weight loss and improvement in metabolic parameters. The present experiments examined the effects of returning to a chow diet after prolonged ingestion of a ketogenic diet. Methods Rats were maintained on chow (CH or a ketogenic diet (KD for 8 weeks, after which the KD rats were given access to chow only (KD:CH for 8 additional weeks. Caloric intake, body weight, and plasma leptin, insulin and ghrelin were measured before and after the dietary switch. Results After 8 weeks of consuming a ketogenic diet, KD rats had increased adiposity and plasma leptin levels, and reduced insulin, as compared to CH controls. One week after the diet switch, fat pad weight and leptin levels remained elevated, and were normalized to CH controls within 8 weeks of the dietary switch. Switching from KD to chow induced a transient hypophagia, such that KD:CH rats consumed significantly fewer calories during the first week after the dietary switch, as compared to calories consumed by CH rats. This hypophagia was despite significantly increased plasma ghrelin in KD:CH rats. Finally, KD:CH rats developed hyperphagia over time, and during weeks 6-8 after the diet switch consumed significantly more calories per day than did CH-fed controls and gained more weight than CH-fed controls. Conclusion Collectively, these data demonstrate that returning to a carbohydrate-based diet after a period of consuming a ketogenic diet has post-diet effects on caloric intake, body weight gain, and insulin levels.

  2. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

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    Jayasimman Rajendran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  3. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency.

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    Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomašić, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1l(c.232A>G)) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  4. Protective effects of L-arabinose in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats

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    Lei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: L-Arabinose is a non-caloric sugar, which could affect glucose and lipid metabolism and suppress obesity. However, few reports have described the effect of L-arabinose in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders that increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objective: This study was conducted to explore the effects of L-arabinose in rats with metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF diet. Methods: After the rat model for metabolic syndrome was successfully established, L-arabinose was administrated by oral gavage for 6 weeks. The biochemical index and histological analysis were measured, and the expression levels of genes related to fatty acid metabolism were analyzed using real-time PCR. Results: Following treatment with L-arabinose, metabolic syndrome rats had an obvious reduction in body weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, serum insulin, TNF-α, and leptin. Further study showed that treatment with L-arabinose significantly increased the expression of mRNA for hepatic CPT-1α and PDK4, but the expression of mRNA for hepatic ACCα was reduced. Conclusions: This work suggests that L-arabinose could lower body weight, Lee's index, and visceral index and improve dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, and viscera function, which indicate that it might be a promising candidate for therapies combating metabolic syndrome.

  5. A whey-supplemented, high-protein diet versus a high-carbohydrate diet: effects on endurance cycling performance.

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    Macdermid, Paul W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2006-02-01

    This study compared a training diet recommended for endurance athletes (H-CHO) with an isoenergetic high protein (whey supplemented), moderate carbohydrate (H-Pro) diet on endurance cycling performance. Over two separate 7-d periods subjects (n = 7) ingested either H-CHO (7.9 +/- 1.9 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) carbohydrate; 1.2 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) fat; 1.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1) protein) or H-Pro (4.9 +/- 1.8 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 1.3 +/- 0.3 g x kg(-1) x d(-1); 3.3 +/- 0.4 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)) diet in a randomized, balanced order. On day 8 subjects cycled (self-paced) for a body weight dependent (60 kJ/bm) amount of work. No differences occurred between energy intake (P = 0.422) or fat intake (P = 0.390) during the two dietary conditions. Performance was significantly (P = 0.010) impaired following H-Pro (153 +/- 36) compared with H-CHO (127 +/- 34 min). No differences between treatments were observed for physiological measures taken during the performance trials. These results indicate an ergolytic effect of a 7-d high protein diet on self-paced endurance cycling performance.

  6. Metabolic effects of weight loss on a very-low-carbohydrate diet compared with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in abdominally obese subjects.

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    Tay, Jeannie; Brinkworth, Grant D; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of an energy-reduced, isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate, high-fat (VLCHF) diet and a high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on weight loss and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk outcomes. Despite the popularity of the VLCHF diet, no studies have compared the chronic effects of weight loss and metabolic change to a conventional HCLF diet under isocaloric conditions. A total of 88 abdominally obese adults were randomly assigned to either an energy-restricted (approximately 6 to 7 MJ, 30% deficit), planned isocaloric VLCHF or HCLF diet for 24 weeks in an outpatient clinical trial. Body weight, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at weeks 0 and 24. Weight loss was similar in both groups (VLCHF -11.9 +/- 6.3 kg, HCLF -10.1 +/- 5.7 kg; p = 0.17). Blood pressure, CRP, fasting glucose, and insulin reduced similarly with weight loss in both diets. The VLCHF diet produced greater decreases in triacylglycerols (VLCHF -0.64 +/- 0.62 mmol/l, HCLF -0.35 +/- 0.49 mmol/l; p = 0.01) and increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (VLCHF 0.25 +/- 0.28 mmol/l, HCLF 0.08 +/- 0.17 mmol/l; p = 0.002). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased in the HCLF diet but remained unchanged in the VLCHF diet (VLCHF 0.06 +/- 0.58 mmol/l, HCLF -0.46 +/- 0.71 mmol/l; p response in the VLCHF diet was observed, with 24% of individuals reporting an increase of at least 10%. The apoB levels remained unchanged in both diet groups. Under isocaloric conditions, VLCHF and HCLF diets result in similar weight loss. Overall, although both diets had similar improvements for a number of metabolic risk markers, an HCLF diet had more favorable effects on the blood lipid profile. This suggests that the potential long-term effects of the VLCHF diet for CVD risk remain a concern and that blood lipid levels should be monitored. (Long-term health effects of high and

  7. Effects of lipoprotein lipase gene variations, a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet, and gender on serum lipid profiles in healthy Chinese Han youth.

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    Huang, Xin; Gong, Renrong; Lin, Jia; Li, Ronghui; Xiao, Liying; Duan, Wei; Fang, Dingzhi

    2011-01-01

    A high-carbohydrate low-fat (HC/LF) diet and lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms have separately been found to be associated with triacylglycerol (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). This study sought to test the effects of LPL polymorphisms and an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profile of Chinese with a lower incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) consuming a diet with less fat and more carbohydrates. Fifty-six healthy subjects (22.89 ± 1.80 years) were given a control diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrates for 7 days, followed by an HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for 6 days; there were no changes in the fatty acid composition or restrictions on total energy. Serum lipid profiles at baseline, before and after the HC/LF diet, and LPL polymorphisms were analyzed. After 6 days of the HC/LF diet, TG and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) index were found to increase only in females with S447S. No decrease in HDL-C was noted. In subjects with Hind III polymorphism, increased TG was found in all females but not in males. Increased HDL-C, together with apolipoprotein (apo) AI, was found in male H- carriers but not in males with H+/H+ and females. In conclusion, LPL Ser447Stop and Hind III polymorphisms modified the effects of an HC/LF diet on the serum lipid profiles of a young Chinese population in different ways. Effective strategies for dietary interventions targeted at younger populations should take into account the interplay between genetic polymorphisms, diet, and gender.

  8. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

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    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  9. Preventative effect of Zingiber officinale on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-fed rat model and its mechanism of action.

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    Li, Yiming; Tran, Van H; Kota, Bhavani P; Nammi, Srinivas; Duke, Colin C; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance is a core component of metabolic syndrome and usually precedes the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have examined the preventative effect of an ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Zingiberaceae) on insulin resistance in a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet-fed rat model of metabolic syndrome. The HFHC control rats displayed severe insulin resistance, whilst rats treated with ginger extract (200 mg/kg) during HFHC diet feeding showed a significant improvement of insulin sensitivity using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after 10 weeks (p ginger, dose-dependently (from 50 to 150 μM) increased AMPK α-subunit phosphorylation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This was accompanied by a time-dependent marked increment of PGC-1α mRNA expression and mitochondrial content in L6 skeletal muscle cells. These results suggest that the protection from HFHC diet-induced insulin resistance by ginger is likely associated with the increased capacity of energy metabolism by its major active component (S)-[6]-gingerol.

  10. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis triggered by high carbohydrate diet.

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    El-Hennawy, Adel S; Nesa, Mushammat; Mahmood, Aza K

    2007-01-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an uncommon disorder characterized by elevated thyroid hormone, muscle weakness or paralysis, and intracellular shifts of potassium leading to hypokalemia. This article presents a case of thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis in a 22-year old Hispanic man with nonfamilial thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis triggered by a high carbohydrate diet. Laboratory studies showed elevated thyroid hormone, decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone, and hypokalemia. Rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels by giving antithyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil and prompt potassium therapy with frequent measurements of serum potassium levels during therapy to avoid catastrophic hyperkalemia when potassium starts to shift back from intracellular to extracellular compartments can lead to successful outcome.

  11. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

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    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  12. Effect of chromium picolinate and melatonin either in single or in a combination in high carbohydrate diet-fed male Wistar rats.

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    Doddigarla, Zephy; Ahmad, Jamal; Parwez, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to know the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and melatonin (Mel) each alone and in a combination on high carbohydrate diet-fed (HCD-fed) male Wistar rats that exhibit insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Wistar rats have been categorized into five groups. Each group consisted of six male Wistar rats, control rats (group I), HCD (group II), HCD + CrPic (group III), HCD + Mel (group IV), and HCD + CrPic + Mel (group V). Insignificant differences were observed in serum levels of superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and zinc in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II rats respectively. Significant differences were observed in group III, group IV, and group V when each group was compared with group II in homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), and in the levels of blood glucose (P < 0.05, <0.0.05, <0.05), total cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), triacylglycerols (<0.05, <0.001, <0.001), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05, <0.001, <0.001), malondialdehyde (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), catalase (P <0.05, <0.05, <0.05), glutathione (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.05), Mel (P < 0.05, <0.05, <0.001), and copper (P < 0.05, <0.05, < 0.001). In view of these results, HCD-fed male Wistar rats that are destined to attain IR and T2DM through diet can be prevented by giving CrPic and Mel administration in alone or in a combination.

  13. The influence of low versus high carbohydrate diet on a 45-min strenuous cycling exercise.

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    Kavouras, Stavros A; Troup, John P; Berning, Jacqueline R

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 +/- 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1-3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4-6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the H-CHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.

  14. Effects of a low- or a high-carbohydrate diet on performance, energy system contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise.

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    Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Pires, Flavio O; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Bishop, David

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high- or low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet on performance, aerobic and anaerobic contribution, and metabolic responses during supramaximal exercise. Six physically-active men first performed a cycling exercise bout at 115% maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion after following their normal diet for 48 h (∼50% of CHO, control test). Seventy-two hours after, participants performed a muscle glycogen depletion exercise protocol, followed by either a high- or low-CHO diet (∼70 and 25% of CHO, respectively) for 48 h, in a random, counterbalanced order. After the assigned diet period (48 h), the supramaximal cycling exercise bout (115% maximal oxygen consumption) to exhaustion was repeated. The low-CHO diet reduced time to exhaustion when compared with both the control and the high-CHO diet (-19 and -32%, respectively, p diet was accompanied by a lower total aerobic energy contribution (-39%) compared with the high-CHO diet (p 0.05). The low-CHO diet was associated with a lower blood lactate concentration (p 0.05). In conclusion, a low-CHO diet reduces both performance and total aerobic energy provision during supramaximal exercise. As peak K(+) concentration was similar, but time to exhaustion shorter, the low-CHO diet was associated with an earlier attainment of peak plasma K(+) concentration.

  15. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Weng-Yew Wong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome.

  16. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial.

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    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D; Wittert, Gary A; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2015-11-01

    To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease.One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault, Salazar-Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention.Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; -9.3 [-10.6, -8.0] kg) and blood pressure (-6 [-9, -4]/-6[-8, -5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [-1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC -4 [-6, -2], HC -2 [-3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC --2.4 [-6, 1.2], HC -1.8 [-5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30-300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks.Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese adults with T2DM and no preexisting kidney disease.

  17. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes

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    Tay, Jeannie; Thompson, Campbell H.; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D.; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Wittert, Gary A.; Brinkworth, Grant D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the long-term effects of a very low carbohydrate, high-protein, low saturated fat (LC) diet with a traditional high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on markers of renal function in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but without overt kidney disease. One hundred fifteen adults (BMI 34.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2, age 58 ± 7 years, HbA1c 7.3 ± 1.1%, 56 ± 12 mmol/mol, serum creatinine (SCr) 69 ± 15 μmol/L, glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula (eGFR 94 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m2)) were randomized to consume either an LC (14% energy as carbohydrate [CHO diet combined with supervised exercise training (60 min, 3 day/wk) for 12 months. Body weight, blood pressure, and renal function assessed by eGFR, estimated creatinine clearance (Cockcroft–Gault, Salazar–Corcoran) and albumin excretion rate (AER), were measured pre- and post-intervention. Both groups achieved similar completion rates (LC 71%, HC 65%) and reductions in weight (mean [95% CI]; −9.3 [−10.6, −8.0] kg) and blood pressure (−6 [−9, −4]/−6[−8, −5] mmHg), P ≥ 0.18. Protein intake calculated from 24 hours urinary urea was higher in the LC than HC group (LC 120.1 ± 38.2 g/day, 1.3 g/kg/day; HC 95.8 ± 27.8 g/day, 1 g/kg/day), P diet effect. Changes in SCr (LC 3 [1, 5], HC 1 [−1, 3] μmol/L) and eGFR (LC −4 [−6, −2], HC −2 [−3, 0] mL/min/1.73 m2) did not differ between diets (P = 0.25). AER decreased independent of diet composition (LC −−2.4 [−6, 1.2], HC −1.8 [−5.4, 1.8] mg/24 h, P = 0.24); 6 participants (LC 3, HC 3) had moderately elevated AER at baseline (30–300 mg/24 h), which normalized in 4 participants (LC 2, HC 2) after 52 weeks. Compared with a traditional HC weight loss diet, consumption of an LC high protein diet does not adversely affect clinical markers of renal function in obese

  18. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  19. A high-carbohydrate diet lowered blood pressure in healthy Chinese male adolescents.

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    Zhu, Xingchun; Lin, Jia; Song, Yongyan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Rongrong; Fan, Mei; Li, Yuanhao; Tian, Rong; Fang, Dingzhi

    2014-04-01

    Different diets consumed by individuals of different ethnicities, gender, and age may cause changes in blood pressure. The current study sought to investigate changes in blood pressures after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet by healthy Chinese adolescents. As a population, the Chinese consume a diet with a high carbohydrate content and they have a low incidence of hypertension and coronary artery disease. Dietary data were collected using a 3-day diet diary. Subjects were 672 high school students who were divided into a high-CHO diet group (≥ 55% carbohydrates) and a non-high-CHO diet group (blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Results indicated that males had a higher BMI, glucose level, SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP than females. When diet was taken into account, males in the non-high-CHO diet group had a higher SBP and PP than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a higher glucose level than females. Males in the high-CHO diet group had a lower SBP (p = 0.004) and PP (p = 0.002) than males in the non-high-CHO diet group and females in the high-CHO diet group had a lower glucose level (p = 0.003) than females in the non-high-CHO diet group. After adjusting for age, BMI, WHR, heart rate, the total daily energy intake, and the intake of vitamin C, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium, significant differences in SBP and PP were noted in males. These results indicate that male adolescents consuming a high-CHO diet had a lower SBP and PP than males consuming a non-high-CHO diet.

  20. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

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    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  1. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

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    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ALS is a fatal motor neurodegenerative disease characterized by muscle atrophy and weakness, dysarthria, and dysphagia. The mean survival of ALS patients is three to five years, with 50% of those diagnosed dying within three years of onset (1. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial to set an appropriate plan for metabolic and nutritional support in ALS. Nutritional management incorporates a continuous assessment and implementation of dietary modifications throughout the duration of the disease. The nutritional and metabolic approaches to ALS should start when the diagnosis of ALS is made and should become an integral part of the continuous care to the patient, including nutritional surveillance, dietary counseling, management of dysphagia, and enteral nutrition when needed. Malnutrition and lean body mass loss are frequent findings in ALS patients necessitating comprehensive energy requirement assessment for these patients. Malnutrition is an independent prognostic factor for survival in ALS with a 7.7 fold increase in risk of death. Malnutrition is estimated to develop in one quarter to half of people with ALS (2. Adequate calorie and protein provision would diminish muscle loss in this vulnerable group of patients. Although appropriate amount of energy to be administered is yet to be established, high calorie diet is expected to be effective for potential improvement of survival; ALS patients do not normally receive adequate  intake of energy. A growing number of clinicians suspect that a high calorie diet implemented early in their disease may help people with ALS meet their increased energy needs and extend their survival. Certain high calorie supplements appear to be safe and well tolerated by people with ALS according to studies led by Universitäts klinikum Ulm's and, appear to stabilize body weight within 3 months. In a recent study by Wills et al., intake of high-carbohydrate low-fat supplements has been recommended in ALS patients (3

  2. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet.

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    Senaphan, Ketmanee; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Sangartit, Weerapon; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Prachaney, Parichat; Greenwald, Stephen E; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

    2015-08-04

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA) is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS) in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg) was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  3. Ferulic Acid Alleviates Changes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome Induced by High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet

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    Ketmanee Senaphan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Ferulic acid (FA is the major phenolic compound found in rice oil and various fruits and vegetables. In this study, we examined the beneficial effects of FA in minimizing insulin resistance, vascular dysfunction and remodeling in a rat model of high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic changes, which is regarded as an analogue of metabolic syndrome (MS in man. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF diet and 15% fructose in drinking water for 16 weeks, where control rats were fed with standard chow diet and tap water. FA (30 or 60 mg/kg was orally administered to the HCHF and control rats during the last six weeks of the study. We observed that FA significantly improved insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles, and reduced elevated blood pressure, compared to untreated controls (p < 0.05. Moreover, FA also improved vascular function and prevented vascular remodeling of mesenteric arteries. The effects of FA in HCHF-induced MS may be realized through suppression of oxidative stress by down-regulation of p47phox, increased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Our results suggest that supplementation of FA may have health benefits by minimizing the cardiovascular complications of MS and alleviating its symptoms.

  4. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

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    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  5. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

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    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-10-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in (TH)leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis.

  6. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

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    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  7. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  8. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet ( 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome.

  9. Development of hepatocellular cancer induced by long term low fat-high carbohydrate diet in a NAFLD/NASH mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessitore, Alessandra; Mastroiaco, Valentina; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; Pompili, Simona; Cicciarelli, Germana; Barnabei, Remo; Capece, Daria; Zazzeroni, Francesca; Capalbo, Carlo; Alesse, Edoardo

    2017-08-08

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease. It can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and, in a percentage of cases, to hepatocarcinogenesis. The strong incidence in western countries of obesity and metabolic syndrome, whose NAFLD is the hepatic expression, is thought to be correlated to consumption of diets characterized by processed food and sweet beverages. Previous studies described high-fat diet-induced liver tumors. Conversely, the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in the progression of liver disease or cancer initiation has not been described yet. Here we show for the first time hepatic cancer formation in low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet fed NAFLD/NASH mouse model. Animals were long term high-fat, low-fat/high-carbohydrate or standard diet fed. We observed progressive liver damage in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat animals after 12 and, more, 18 months. Tumors were detected in 20% and 50% of high-fat diet fed mice after 12 and 18 months and, interestingly, in 30% of low-fat/high-carbohydrate fed animals after 18 months. No tumors were detected in standard diet fed mice. Global increase of hepatic interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and hepatocyte growth factor was detected in low-fat/high-carbohydrate and high-fat with respect to standard diet fed mice as well as in tumor with respect to non-tumor bearing mice. A panel of 15 microRNAs was analyzed: some of them revealed differential expression in low-fat/high-carbohydrate with respect to high-fat diet fed groups and in tumors. Data here shown provide the first evidence of the involvement of low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet in hepatic damage leading to tumorigenesis.

  10. Exercise and postprandial lipid metabolism: an update on potential mechanisms and interactions with high-carbohydrate diets (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jason M R; Hardman, Adrianne E

    2003-03-01

    Endurance trained people exhibit low levels of postprandial lipemia. However, this favorable situation is rapidly reversed with de-training and it is likely that the triglyceride (TG) lowering effects of exercise are mainly the result of acute metabolic responses to recent exercise rather than long-term training adaptations. A large body of evidence suggests that postprandial lipemia can be attenuated following an individual exercise session, with the energy expended during exercise being an important determinant of the extent of TG lowering. Increased lipoprotein lipase-mediated TG clearance and reduced hepatic TG secretion are both likely to contribute to the exercise-induced TG reductions. These changes may occur in response to post-exercise substrate deficits in skeletal muscle and/or the liver. In addition, regular exercise can oppose the hypertriglyceridaemia sometimes seen with low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. Levels of physical activity should therefore be taken into account when considering nutritional strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Caffeine prevents cognitive impairment induced by chronic psychosocial stress and/or high fat-high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, K H; Abdul-Razzak, K K; Khabour, O F; Al-Tuweiq, G M; Alzubi, M A; Alkadhi, K A

    2013-01-15

    Caffeine alleviates cognitive impairment associated with a variety of health conditions. In this study, we examined the effect of caffeine treatment on chronic stress- and/or high fat-high carbohydrate Western diet (WD)-induced impairment of learning and memory in rats. Chronic psychosocial stress, WD and caffeine (0.3 g/L in drinking water) were simultaneously administered for 3 months to adult male Wistar rats. At the conclusion of the 3 months, and while the previous treatments continued, rats were tested in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) for learning, short-term and long-term memory. This procedure was applied on a daily basis to all animals for 5 consecutive days or until the animal reaches days to criterion (DTC) in the 12th learning trial and memory tests. DTC is the number of days that the animal takes to make zero error in two consecutive days. Chronic stress and/or WD groups caused impaired learning, which was prevented by chronic caffeine administration. In the memory tests, chronic caffeine administration also prevented memory impairment during chronic stress conditions and/or WD. Furthermore, DTC value for caffeine treated stress, WD, and stress/WD groups indicated that caffeine normalizes memory impairment in these groups. These results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented stress and/or WD-induced impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  12. High-protein/high red meat and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets do not differ in their effect on faecal water genotoxicity tested by use of the WIL2-NS cell line and with other biomarkers of bowel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Evans, Bianca; Clifton, Peter; Noakes, Manny; Fenech, Michael

    2010-12-21

    The impact of popular weight-loss diets with different macronutrient profiles on bowel health in humans has not been previously assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a high-protein/high red meat (HP) diet influences faecal water genotoxicity and other standard biomarkers of bowel health differently compared with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Thirty-three male subjects were randomly assigned to a HP (35% protein, 40% carbohydrate) or HC (17% protein, 58% carbohydrate) isocaloric energy-restricted dietary intervention consisting of 12 weeks intensive weight loss followed by weight maintenance for up to 52 weeks. Faecal samples were collected at 0, 12 and 52 weeks. Faecal water genotoxicity was assessed in the WIL2-NS human B lymphoblastoid cell line by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Average weight loss after 12 weeks was 9.3 ± 0.7kg for both diets, with no further change in weight at 52 weeks. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant effect with time (Pacid excretion, phenol or p-cresol. Results suggest that HP and HC weight-loss diets may modify the carcinogenic profile of the bowel contents such that weight loss may exert a beneficial effect by reducing genotoxic load in the short term; however, these results require verification against a non-weight-loss control. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in lipoprotein(a), oxidized phospholipids, and LDL subclasses with a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihnia, Nastaran; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miller, Elizabeth R; Witztum, Joseph L; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-11-01

    Low-fat diets have been shown to increase plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a preferential lipoprotein carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in plasma, as well as small dense LDL particles. We sought to determine whether increases in plasma Lp(a) induced by a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet are related to changes in OxPL and LDL subclasses. We studied 63 healthy subjects after 4 weeks of consuming, in random order, a high-fat low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet and a LFHC diet. Plasma concentrations of Lp(a) (P diet compared with the HFLC diet whereas LDL peak particle size was significantly smaller (P Diet-induced changes in Lp(a) were strongly correlated with changes in OxPL/apoB (P diet were also correlated with decreases in medium LDL particles (P diet is associated with increases in OxPLs and with changes in LDL subclass distribution that may reflect altered metabolism of Lp(a) particles.

  14. Improved gross efficiency during long duration submaximal cycling following a short-term high carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M; Coleman, D; Hopker, J; Wiles, J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary manipulation on gross efficiency (GE), 15 trained male cyclists completed 3×2 h tests at submaximal exercise intensity (60% Maximal Minute Power). Using a randomized, crossover design participants consumed an isoenergetic diet (~4 000 kcal.day-1) in the 3 days preceding each test, that was either high in carbohydrate (HighCHO, [70% of the total energy derived from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 10% protein]), low in carbohydrate (LowCHO, [70% fat, 20% carbohydrate, 10% protein]) or contained a moderate amount of carbohydrate (ModCHO, [45% carbohydrate, 45% fat, 10% protein]). GE along with blood lactate and glucose were assessed every 30 min, and heart rate was measured at 5 s intervals throughout. Mean GE was significantly greater following the HighCHO than the ModCHO diet (HighCHO=20.4%±0.1%, ModCHO=19.6±0.2%; PDiet had no effect on blood glucose or lactate (P>0.05). This study suggests that before the measurement of gross efficiency, participants' diet should be controlled and monitored to ensure the validity of the results obtained.

  15. Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulla, Anayt; Alam, Md Ashraful; Sikder, Biswajit; Sumi, Farzana Akter; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Habib, Zaki Farhad; Mohammed, Mostafe Khalid; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Reza, Hasan Mahmud

    2017-06-02

    Obesity and related complications have now became epidemic both in developed and developing countries. Cafeteria type diet mainly composed of high fat high carbohydrate components which plays a significant role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the effect of Syzygium cumini seed powder on fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in high carbohydrate high fat diet (HCHF) induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HCHF diet ad libitum, and the rats on HCHF diet were supplemented with Syzygium cumini seed powder for 56 days (2.5% w/w of diet). Oral glucose tolerance test, lipid parameters, liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and lipid peroxidation products were analyzed at the end of 56 days. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activities were also measured in all groups of rats. Supplementation with Syzygium cumini seed powder significantly reduced body weight gain, white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, blood glucose, serum insulin, and plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL concentration. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation in HCHF rats improved serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation also reduced the hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and elevated the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as increased glutathione (GSH) concentration. In addition, histological assessment showed that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevented inflammatory cell infiltration; fatty droplet deposition and fibrosis in liver of HCHFD fed rats. Our investigation suggests that Syzygium cumini seed powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress and showed anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activity in liver of HCHF diet fed rats. In addition, Syzygium cumini seed powder may be beneficial in ameliorating insulin

  16. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  17. Associations of lipoprotein lipase gene rs326 with changes of lipid profiles after a high-carbohydrate and low-fat diet in healthy Chinese Han youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xing-chun; Lin, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Hui; Qiu, Li; Fang, Ding-zhi

    2014-04-23

    To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF) diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos) of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008) and Apo A-I (p = 0.005) after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  18. Associations of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene rs326 with Changes of Lipid Profiles after a High-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Han Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-chun Zhu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate and low-fat (HC/LF diet on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins (Apos of healthy Chinese Han youth with different genotypes of lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL rs326, 56 subjects were given a washout diet of 30.1% fat and 54.1% carbohydrate for seven days, followed by the HC/LF diet of 13.8% fat and 70.1% carbohydrate for six days, with no total energy restriction. Plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, Apo B-100 and Apo A-I were analyzed at baseline and before and after the HC/LF diet. The results show that, when compared with before the HC/LF diet, only the male G carriers experienced increased HDL-C (p = 0.008 and Apo A-I (p = 0.005 after the HC/LF diet. Decreased TC in both males and females and increased TG in females were found regardless of the genotype after the HC/LF diet. LDL-C decreased in all the subjects although the decrease was not significant in the female G carriers. These results demonstrate that the G allele of LPL rs326 associates with the elevated levels of HDL-C and Apo A-I after the HC/LF diet in males of the healthy Chinese Han Youth.

  19. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Manny; Foster, Paul R; Keogh, Jennifer B; James, Anthony P; Mamo, John C; Clifton, Peter M

    2006-01-11

    It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB) have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Eighty three subjects, 48 +/- 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 +/- 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 +/- 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ) for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF) (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%), High Unsaturated Fat (HUF) = (50:30:20; 6%), VLCARB (4:61:35; 20%) Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 +/- 0.5, VLF-4.0 +/- 0.5, HUF -4.4 +/- 0.6 kg). Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21%) (P fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  20. Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that high saturated fat very low carbohydrate diets (VLCARB have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk but evidence for this in controlled studies is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare, under isocaloric conditions, the effects of a VLCARB to 2 low saturated fat high carbohydrate diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk. Methods Eighty three subjects, 48 ± 8 y, total cholesterol 5.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2 were randomly allocated to one of 3 isocaloric weight loss diets (6 MJ for 8 weeks and on the same diets in energy balance for 4 weeks: Very Low Fat (VLF (CHO:Fat:Protein; %SF = 70:10:20; 3%, High Unsaturated Fat (HUF = (50:30:20; 6%, VLCARB (4:61:35; 20% Results Percent fat mass loss was not different between diets VLCARB -4.5 ± 0.5, VLF-4.0 ± 0.5, HUF -4.4 ± 0.6 kg. Lean mass loss was 32-31% on VLCARB and VLF compared to HUF (21% (P Conclusion Isocaloric VLCARB results in similar fat loss than diets low in saturated fat, but are more effective in improving triacylglycerols, HDL-C, fasting and post prandial glucose and insulin concentrations. VLCARB may be useful in the short-term management of subjects with insulin resistance and hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  1. Red pitaya juice supplementation ameliorates energy balance homeostasis by modulating obesity-related genes in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rats.

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    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-07-26

    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) or known as buah naga merah in Malay belongs to the cactus family, Cactaceae. Red pitaya has been shown to give protection against liver damage and may reduce the stiffness of the heart. Besides, the beneficial effects of red pitaya against obesity have been reported; however, the mechanism of this protection is not clear. Therefore, in the present study, we have investigated the red pitaya-targeted genes in obesity using high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome rat model. A total of four groups were tested: corn-starch (CS), corn-starch + red pitaya juice (CRP), high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat + red pitaya juice (HRP). The intervention with 5 % red pitaya juice was continued for 8 weeks after 8 weeks initiation of the diet. Retroperitoneal, epididymal and omental fat pads were collected and weighed. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using commercial kits. Gene expression analysis was conducted using RNA extracted from liver samples. A total of eighty-four genes related to obesity were analyzed using PCR array. The rats fed HCHF-diet for 16 weeks increased body weight, developed excess abdominal fat deposition and down-regulated the expression level of IL-1α, IL-1r1, and Cntfr as compared to the control group. Supplementation of red pitaya juice for 8 weeks increased omental and epididymal fat but no change in retroperitoneal fat was observed. Red pitaya juice reversed the changes in energy balance homeostasis in liver tissues by regulation of the expression levels of Pomc and Insr. The increased protein expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in HCHF group and red pitaya treated rats confirmed the results of gene expression. Collectively, this study revealed the usefulness of this diet-induced rat model and the beneficial effects of red pitaya on energy balance homeostasis by modulating the anorectic, orexigenic and energy expenditure related

  2. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

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    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2.

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    de França, Suélem A; dos Santos, Maísa P; Przygodda, Franciele; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Magalhães, Diego A; Bezerra, Kalinne S; Colodel, Edson M; Flouris, Andreas D; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Kawashita, Nair H

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate thermogenesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats submitted to low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and the involvement of adrenergic stimulation in this process. Male rats (~100 g) were submitted to LPHC (6%-protein; 74%-carbohydrate) or control (C; 17%-protein; 63%-carbohydrate) isocaloric diets for 15 days. The IBAT temperature was evaluated in the rats before and after the administration of noradrenaline (NA) (20 µg 100 g b w(-1) min(-1)). The expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other proteins involved in the regulation of UCP1 expression were determined by Western blot (Student's t test, P ≤ 0.05). The LPHC diet promoted a 1.1 °C increase in the basal temperature of IBAT when compared with the basal temperature in the IBAT of the C group. NA administration promoted a 0.3 °C increase in basal temperature in the IBAT of the C rats and a 0.5 °C increase in the IBAT of the LPHC group. The level of UCP1 increased 60% in the IBAT of LPHC-fed rats, and among the proteins involved in its expression, such as β3-AR and α1-AR, there was a 40% increase in the levels of p38-MAPK and a 30% decrease in CREB when compared to the C rats. The higher sympathetic flux to IBAT, which is a consequence of the administration of the LPHC diet to rats, activates thermogenesis and increases the expression of UCP1 in the tissue. Our results suggest that the increase in UCP1 content may occur via p38 MAPK and ATF2.

  4. [Metabolic and hormonal indices in rats with prolonged model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet].

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    Derkach, K V; Bondareva, V M; Trashkov, A P; Chistyakova, O V; Verlov, N A; Shpakov, A O

    2017-01-01

    To develop the approaches for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MS), a pathological state widespread in modern population, that involves a complex of metabolic and functional disorders, appropriate animal models of MS are required. One of these models is induced by the consumption of combined high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HC/HF) diet consisting of excess amount of easily digestible carbohydrates and saturated fats. At the same time, the character, temporal dynamics and severity of metabolic abnormalities in MS induced by HC/HF diet are still poorly understood. The aim of work was the characterization of metabolic changes in Wistar rats with MS induced by 10- and 15-week HC/HF diet that includes the consumption of 30% sucrose solution (instead of drinking water) and food rich in saturated fats. Rats that received HC/HF diet for 15 weeks had a number of features characteristic of MS, such as increased body weight and content of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, as well as the markers of impaired function of the cardiovascular system (hyperhomocysteinemia, the reduced level of vasodilator nitric oxide, the increased concentration of vasoconstrictor endothelin 1). In rats, which were on the diet for 10 weeks, the metabolic abnormalities were less pronounced, indicating an insufficiency of 10-week duration of HC/HF diet for MS induction. Thus, the model of MS induced by 15-week HC/HF diet has the characteristic features that allow for extrapolation of the obtained data to similar pathologic changes in human, and can be used to study the etiology and pathogenesis of MS and the search of effective ways of MS prevention and treatment.

  5. [Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Girschewski, H

    1977-12-01

    In an experiment using 24 high-yielding cows (3rd and 6th lactations), group II was fed sugar beet as carbohydrate source (2 kg DM per animal and day) for 4 weeks before and for 4 weeks after parturition, whilst group I was given the equivalent amount of dried spent beet pulp. Sugar beet feeding during the dry period caused the glucose level in the blood to rise significantly from 48 to 55 mg/100 ml. On the 21st day of lactation the glucose concentration in group II (27 mg) had declined more strongly than in group I (37 mg). Feeding large amounts of easily soluble carbohydrates during the dry period obviously inhibits gluconeogenesis during early lactation. The ketone body level of group II was found to rise to 14 mg/100 ml by the 21st day of lactation (group I--4 mg), a level indicative of ketosis. The ketogenous action (strong formation of butyric acid in the rumen) of sugar beet enhances this effect, too. The daily milk yield did not vary much coming to 26.8 and 27.8 kg in the control and in the experimental group, respectively. The results allow to conclude that feeding fresh sugar beet to high-yielding cows just before and shortly after parturition is not advisable.

  6. In vitro TNF-α- and noradrenaline-stimulated lipolysis is impaired in adipocytes from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Daniel D S; Dos Santos, Maísa P; Buzelle, Samyra L; Pereira, Mayara P; de França, Suélem A; Garófalo, Maria A R; Andrade, Cláudia M B; Froelich, Mendalli; de Almeida, Fhelipe J S; Frasson, Danúbia; Chaves, Valéria E; Kawashita, Nair H

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)- and noradrenaline (NE)-stimulated lipolysis in retroperitoneal (RWAT) and epididymal (EAT) white adipose tissue as a means of understanding how low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats maintain their lipid storage in a catabolic environment (marked by increases in serum TNF-α and corticosterone and sympathetic flux to RWAT and EAT), as previously observed. Adipocytes or tissues from the RWAT and EAT of rats fed an LPHC diet and rats fed a control (C) diet for 15 days were used in the experiments. The adipocytes from both tissues of the LPHC rats exhibited lower TNF-α- stimulated lipolysis compared to adipocytes from the C rats. The intracellular lipolytic agents IBMX, DBcAMPc and FSK increased lipolysis in both tissues from rats fed the C and LPHC diets compared to basal lipolysis; however, the effect was approximately 2.5-fold lower in adipocytes from LPHC rats. The LPHC diet induced a marked reduction in the β3 and α2-AR, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) content in RWAT and EAT. The LPHC diet did not affect TNF-α receptor 1 content but did induce a reduction in ERK p44/42 in both tissues. The present work indicates that RWAT and EAT from LPHC rats have an impairment in the lipolysis signaling pathway activated by NE and TNF-α, and this impairment explains the reduced response to these lipolytic stimuli, which may be fundamental to the maintenance of lipid storage in LPHC rats.

  7. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

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    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  8. 低脂高糖膳食对不同体质量指数的健康青年生理生化指标的影响%Effects of a Low-fat and High-carbohydrate Diet on the Physiological and Biochemical Indices in Healthy Youth with Different Body Mass Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永燕; 龚仁蓉; 张荣荣; 张珍; 李元昊; 胡敏珊; 李蓉晖; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨低脂高糖(low-fat and high-carbohydrate,LF-HC)膳食对不同体质量指数(BMI)的健康青年生理指标及糖脂代谢指标的影响.方法 给予7名超重青年[BMI=(27.82±1.64)kg/m2]和49名年龄匹配的正常对照[BMI=(20.06±2.41)kg/m2]7 d平衡膳食和6 d LF-HC膳食.平衡膳食含31.1%脂肪和54.1%碳水化合物,LF-HC膳食含14.8%脂肪和70.1%碳水化合物.于膳食干预的第1d、第8d和第14d清晨进行体检,测量各项生理指标;同时抽取12 h空腹静脉血,制备血L清并测定糖脂代谢相关指标,计算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR).结果 基础值时,正常组体质量(P=0.000)、BMI(P=0.000)、腰臀比(P=0.000)、收缩压(P=0.001)、舒张压(P=0.016)和甘油三酯(TG)(P=0.006)均低于超重组;高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)高于超重组(P=0.005).LF-HC膳食后,总胆固醇(TC)(P<0.05)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均降低,胰岛素(P<0.05)和HOMA-IR(P<0.05)在正常组和超重组中均升高;TG仅在正常组升高(P=0.000);HDL-C仅在超重组升高(P=0.018).结论 在健康青年中,LF-HC膳食对血清TG和HDL-C的影响与体质量指数有关.%Objective To investigate the effects of a low-fat and high-carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet on the physiological and biochemical indexes in healthy youth with different body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven overweight participants [BMI= (27. 82+1. 64) kg/m2 ] and 49 age-matched controls CBMI= (20. 06 ± 2. 41) kg/ m2] were given a washout diet for 7 d, followed by a LF-HC diet for 6 d. The washout diet contained 31. 1% fat and 54. 1% carbohydrate, and the LF-HC diet contained 14. 8% fat and 70. 1% carbohydrate of total energy. Anthropometric measurements were conducted on the mornings of the first, eighth and fourteenth days. Serum samples were prepared from twelve-hour fasting venous blood. Biochemical indexes including lipids, glucose and insulin were measured with routine methods. The

  9. Enhanced flavor-nutrient conditioning in obese rats on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate choice diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hallie S; Myers, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Through flavor-nutrient conditioning rats learn to prefer and increase their intake of flavors paired with rewarding, postingestive nutritional consequences. Since obesity is linked to altered experience of food reward and to perturbations of nutrient sensing, we investigated flavor-nutrient learning in rats made obese using a high fat/high carbohydrate (HFHC) choice model of diet-induced obesity (ad libitum lard and maltodextrin solution plus standard rodent chow). Forty rats were maintained on HFHC to induce substantial weight gain, and 20 were maintained on chow only (CON). Among HFHC rats, individual differences in propensity to weight gain were studied by comparing those with the highest proportional weight gain (obesity prone, OP) to those with the lowest (obesity resistant, OR). Sensitivity to postingestive food reward was tested in a flavor-nutrient conditioning protocol. To measure initial, within-meal stimulation of flavor acceptance by post-oral nutrient sensing, first, in sessions 1-3, baseline licking was measured while rats consumed grape- or cherry-flavored saccharin accompanied by intragastric (IG) water infusion. Then, in the next three test sessions they received the opposite flavor paired with 5 ml of IG 12% glucose. Finally, after additional sessions alternating between the two flavor-infusion contingencies, preference was measured in a two-bottle choice between the flavors without IG infusions. HFHC-OP rats showed stronger initial enhancement of intake in the first glucose infusion sessions than CON or HFHC-OR rats. OP rats also most strongly preferred the glucose-paired flavor in the two-bottle choice. These differences between OP versus OR and CON rats suggest that obesity is linked to responsiveness to postoral nutrient reward, consistent with the view that flavor-nutrient learning perpetuates overeating in obesity.

  10. Weight restoration on a high carbohydrate refeeding diet promotes rapid weight regain and hepatic lipid accumulation in female anorexic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Erin D; Hagman, Jennifer; Pan, Zhaoxing; MacLean, Paul S; Higgins, Janine A

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no standard clinical refeeding diet for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To provide the most efficacious AN clinical care, it is necessary to define the metabolic effects of current refeeding diets. An activity-based model of anorexia nervosa (AN) was used in female rats. AN was induced over 7d by timed access to low fat (LF) diet with free access to a running wheel. Plasma hormones/metabolites and body composition were assessed at baseline, AN diagnosis (day 0), and following 28d of refeeding on LF diet. Energy balance and expenditure were measured via continuous indirect calorimetry on days -3 to +3. AN induction caused stress as indicated by higher levels of corticosterone versus controls (p weight gain during refeeding was higher in AN rats than controls (p = 0.0188), despite lower overall energy intake (p weight as controls. It is possible that liver lipid accumulation was caused by overfeeding of carbohydrate suggesting that a lower carbohydrate, higher fat diet may be beneficial during AN treatment. To test whether such a diet would be accepted clinically, we conducted a study in adolescent female AN patients which showed equivalent palatability and acceptability for LF and moderate fat diets. In addition, this diet was feasible to provide clinically during inpatient treatment in this population. Refeeding a LF diet to restore body weight in female AN rats caused depressed TEE and REE which facilitated rapid regain. However, this weight gain was metabolically unhealthy as it resulted in elevated lipid accumulation in the liver. It is necessary to investigate the use of other diets, such as lower carbohydrate, moderate fat diets, in pre-clinical models to develop the optimal clinical refeeding diets for AN.

  11. The Utilization of Indigofera sp as the sole foliage in goat diets supplemented with high carbohydrate or high protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera sp is a tree leguminous forage species known to be adaptable to the drought climate and saline soil and so it has potential as alternative feed resource to support the ruminant animal production. This study aimed to study the responses of goats fed Indigofera sp as the sole foliages in their diets. Twenty male Boer x Kacang crossbred goats (6 months of age;16 ± 2,1 kg BW were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments containing fresh or wilted leaves of Indigifera sp. as the sole foliages and supplemented with high carbohydrate (HCC or protein (HPCconcentrates. Consumable parts i.e. leaves and twigs of about 8 to 10 months of age of Indigofera sp. were harvested by hand plucking every day in the morning. The experiment was a 2 x 2 factorial design arranged in a completely randomized design. The ruminal pH ranged from 6.14-6.85 and were not affected (P > 0.05 by wilting nor by the type of concentrates. Wilting did not affect (P > 0.05 the concentration of ruminal NH3-N, but it was significantly higher (P 0.05. Goats in the HCC group,however,numerically have higher total VFA concentration (178.5-183.75 mmol L-1 than those in the HPC group (142.21-174.64 mmol L-1. The apparent digestibility coeficients of DM, OM, CP and energy of the diet were not different (P > 0.05 when contained wilted or fresh Indigofera foliage. Significant increases (P 0.05 among dietary treatments, but the ADG of goats in the HCC group (60-63 g d-1 were significantly lower (P 0.05. BUN was not affected by wilting process, but providing high protein concentrates significantly (P < 0.05 increased the BUN concentration. It is concluded that foliage of Indigofera sp could be used as the sole forage in intensive production of goats. Wilting the foliage prior to feeding seemed to be unnecessary, since this process does not improve the animal productivity in term of daily gain and efficiency of feed utilization.

  12. Male cockroaches prefer a high carbohydrate diet that makes them more attractive to females: implications for the study of condition dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Sandra H; House, Clarissa M; Moore, Allen J; Simpson, Stephen J; Hunt, John

    2011-06-01

    Sexual selection is a major force driving the evolution of elaborate male sexual traits. Handicap models of sexual selection predict that male sexual traits should covary positively with condition, making them reliable indicators of male quality. However, most studies have either manipulated condition through varying diet quantity and/or caloric content without knowledge of specific nutrient effects or have correlated proxies of condition with sexual trait expression. We used nutritional geometry to quantify protein and carbohydrate intake by male cockroaches, Nauphoeta cinerea, and related this to sex pheromone expression, attractiveness, and dominance status. We found that carbohydrate, but not protein, intake is related to male sex pheromone expression and attractiveness but not dominance status. Additionally, we related two condition proxies (weight gain and lipid reserves) to protein and carbohydrate acquisition. Weight gain increased with the intake of both nutrients, whereas lipid reserves only increased with carbohydrate intake. Importantly, lipid accumulation was not as responsive to carbohydrate intake as attractiveness and thus was a less-accurate condition proxy. Moreover, males preferentially consumed high carbohydrate diets with little regard for protein content suggesting that they actively increase their carbohydrate intake thereby maximizing their reproductive fitness by being attractive. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Quercetin Isolated from Toona sinensis Leaves Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Protects Hepatocytes in High-Carbohydrate/High-Fat Diet and Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetic Mice

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    Yali Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of diabetes mellitus is related to oxidant stress induced by a high carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HFD. Quercetin, as a major bioactive component in Toona sinensis leaves (QTL, is a natural antioxidant. However, the exact mechanism by which QTL ameliorate diabetes mellitus is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypoglycemic effects and hepatocytes protection of QTL on HFD and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Intragastric administration of QTL significantly reduced body weight gain, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase serum levels compared to those of diabetic mice. Furthermore, it significantly attenuated oxidative stress, as determined by lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide content, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and as a result attenuated liver injury. QTL also significantly suppressed the diabetes-induced activation of the p65/NF-κB and ERK1/2/MAPK pathways, as well as caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels in liver tissues of diabetic mice. Finally, micrograph analysis of liver samples showed decreased cellular organelle injury in hepatocytes of QTL treated mice. Taken together, QTL can be viewed as a promising dietary agent that can be used to reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and its secondary complications by ameliorating oxidative stress in the liver.

  14. Body Weight Control by a High-Carbohydrate/Low-Fat Diet Slows the Progression of Diabetic Kidney Damage in an Obese, Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

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    Shuichi Ohtomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group. Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  15. Acute metabolic responses to a high-carbohydrate meal in outpatients with type 2 diabetes treated with a low-carbohydrate diet: a crossover meal tolerance study

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    Wakai Kenji

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low-carbohydrate diet (LCD achieves good glycemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2DM compared with a high-carbohydrate diet. With respect to energy metabolism, acute metabolic responses to high-carbohydrate meals (HCMs have not been determined in LCD patients with T2DM. Subjects and methods We enrolled 31 subjects with T2DM (mean age: 62 yrs, mean hemoglobin A1c level: 6.9%, of whom 13 were on a strict LCD (26% carbohydrate diet, and 18 a moderate one (44% carbohydrate diet. Two isocaloric meals were administered to all subjects in a randomized crossover design. The carbohydrate:protein:fat ratios of HCMs and low-carbohydrate meals (LCMs were 59:20:21 and 7:20:73, respectively. Serum β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, free fatty acids (FFAs, triglyceride and insulin, and plasma glucose concentrations were measured for 120 minutes after the intake of each meal. Results HCMs rapidly decreased postprandial β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and FFA concentrations within 2 hours in all patients in combination with rapid increases in serum insulin and plasma glucose, while LCMs increased or did not change β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and FFAs (P P HCMs sharply and rapidly decreased postprandial β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate concentrations in strict LCD subjects over 2 hours, but only slightly decreased them in moderate LCD subjects (P P = 0.002. The parameter Δtriglyceride was significantly correlated with background dietary %carbohydrate (Spearman's r = 0.484. Conclusion HCMs rapidly decreased postprandial ketone body concentrations in T2DM patients treated with a LCD. The decreases were more remarkable in strict than in moderate LCD subjects. HCMs slightly decreased postprandial triglyceride levels in strict LCD subjects. The parameter Δketone bodies was significantly correlated with the insulinogenic index, as was Δtriglyceride with background dietary %carbohydrate.

  16. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Matthew T; Groen, Albert K; Oler, Angie Tebon; Keller, Mark P; Choi, Younjeong; Schueler, Kathryn L; Richards, Oliver C; Lan, Hong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuipers, Folkert; Kendziorski, Christina M; Ntambi, James M; Attie, Alan D

    2006-12-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprotein X. The rate of LDL clearance was decreased in VLF SCD1(-/-) mice relative to VLF SCD1(+/+) mice, indicating that reduced apoB-containing lipoprotein clearance contributed to the hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, HDL-cholesterol was dramatically reduced in these mice. The presence of increased plasma bile acids, bilirubin, and aminotransferases in the VLF SCD1(-/-) mice is indicative of cholestasis. Supplementation of the VLF diet with MUFA- and PUFA-rich canola oil, but not saturated fat-rich hydrogenated coconut oil, prevented these plasma phenotypes. However, dietary oleate was not as effective as canola oil in reducing LDL-cholesterol, signifying a role for dietary PUFA deficiency in the development of this phenotype. These results indicate that the lack of SCD1 results in an increased requirement for dietary unsaturated fat to compensate for impaired MUFA synthesis and to prevent hypercholesterolemia and hepatic dysfunction. Therefore, endogenous MUFA synthesis is essential during dietary unsaturated fat insufficiency and influences the dietary requirement of PUFA.

  17. Effects of a High-carbohydrate Diet on the Serum Lipid and Apolipoprotein Ratios in Healthy Young Adults with Different Genotypes of APOA1 -75 G/A Polymorphism%高糖膳食对载脂蛋白AI基因-75G/A多态性不同基因型健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋永燕; 欧国进; 龚仁蓉; 张珍; 胡敏珊; 樊梅; 李元昊; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of a high-carbohydrate diet on the lipid and apoli-poprotein ratios in healthy young adults with different genotypes of the polymorphism at - 75 site in the promoter region of the gene of apolipoprotein AI (AP0A1). Methods Fifty-six subjects aged (22. 89 ± 1. 80) years were given a wash-out diet for 7 days, followed by a high-carbohydrate diet for 6 days. The wash-out diet contained 15% protein, 31% fat, and 54% carbohydrate. The high-carbohydrate diet contained 15% protein, 15% fat, and 70% carbohydrate. Twelve-hour fasting serum lipids and apolipoproteins B100 and AI were measured on the mornings of the 1st, the 8th, and the 14th days from the beginning of the wash-out diet. The ratios of triglyceride ( TG) /high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDL-C) , total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C)/HDL-C, and apolipoprotein B100 ( APOB100)/apolipoprotein AI ( APOAI) were calculated. The genome DNA was extracted and the polymorphism of APOA1 -75 G/A was determined by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results At baseline, the lipid and apolipoprotein ratios showed no significant differences between the GG genotype and the A carriers in males ( P > 0. 05 ) , whereas the female A carriers had a significantly higher ratio of LDL-C/ HDL-C compared with the female subjects with the GG genotype (P < 0. 05 ). Following the high-carbohydrate diet, significant decreases of TC/HDL-C were found in all the groups, regardless of sex and genotype ( P < 0. 01). LDL-C/HDL-C experienced significant decreases in both the genotypes in males ( P < 0. 05) , while in females, significant decrease of LDL-C/HDL-C was only observed in A carriers ( P < 0. 01). Conclusion The A allele of the -75 G/A polymorphism in APOAI may have specific effects on the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in females.%目的 探讨高糖膳食对载脂蛋白AI基因(APOA1)启动子区- 75 G/A多态性不同

  18. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flowers, Matthew T.; Groen, Albert K.; Oler, Angie Tebon; Keller, Mark P.; Choi, YounJeong; Schueler, Kathryn L.; Richards, Oliver C.; Lan, Hong; Miyazaki, Makoto; Kuipers, Folkert; Kendziorski, Christina M.; Ntambi, James M.; Attie, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of

  19. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Flowers; A.K. Groen; A.T. Oler; M.P. Keller; Y. Choi; K.L. Schueler; O.C. Richards; H. Lan; M. Miyazaki; F. Kuipers; C.M. Kendziorski; J.M. Ntambi; A.D. Attie

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprot

  20. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Kurt A; Morales, Jacobo; Vandusseldorp, Trisha A

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6-8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected.

  1. Extended exenatide administration enhances lipid metabolism and exacerbates pancreatic injury in mice on a high fat, high carbohydrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Rouse

    Full Text Available This study expanded upon a previous study in mice reporting a link between exenatide treatment and exocrine pancreatic injury by demonstrating temporal and dose responses and providing an initial mechanistic hypothesis. The design of the present study included varying lengths of exenatide exposure (3, 6 weeks to 12 weeks at multiple concentrations (3, 10, or 30 µg/kg with multiple endpoints (histopathology evaluations, immunoassay for cytokines, immunostaining of the pancreas, serum chemistries and measurement of trypsin, amylase, and, lipase, and gene expression profiles. Time- and dose-dependent exocrine pancreatic injury was observed in mice on a high fat diet treated with exenatide. The morphological changes identified in the pancreas involved acinar cell injury and death (autophagy, apoptosis, necrosis, and atrophy, cell adaptations (hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and cell survival (proliferation/regeneration accompanied by varying degrees of inflammatory response leading to secondary injury in pancreatic blood vessels, ducts, and adipose tissues. Gene expression profiles indicated increased signaling for cell survival and altered lipid metabolism in exenatide treated mice. Immunohistochemistry supported gene expression findings that exenatide caused and/or exacerbated pancreatic injury in a high fat diet environment potentially by further increasing high fat diet exacerbated lipid metabolism and resulting oxidative stress. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and determine their relevance to human disease.

  2. Decreased rate of protein synthesis, caspase-3 activity, and ubiquitin-proteasome proteolysis in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Emanuele; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Siqueira, Juliany Torres; Paula-Gomes, Silvia; Zanon, Neusa Maria; Oliveira, Eduardo Brandt; Navegantes, Luiz Carlos Carvalho; Kettelhut, Isis C; Andrade, Claudia Marlise Balbinotti; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Baviera, Amanda Martins

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the rates of both protein synthesis and breakdown, and the activation of intracellular effectors that control these processes in soleus muscles from growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days. The mass and the protein content, as well as the rate of protein synthesis, were decreased in the soleus from LPHC-fed rats. The availability of amino acids was diminished, since the levels of various essential amino acids were decreased in the plasma of LPHC-fed rats. Overall rate of proteolysis was also decreased, explained by reductions in the mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, ubiquitin conjugates, proteasome activity, and in the activity of caspase-3. Soleus muscles from LPHC-fed rats showed increased insulin sensitivity, with increased levels of insulin receptor and phosphorylation levels of AKT, which probably explains the inhibition of both the caspase-3 activity and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The fall of muscle proteolysis seems to represent an adaptive response that contributes to spare proteins in a condition of diminished availability of dietary amino acids. Furthermore, the decreased rate of protein synthesis may be the driving factor to the lower muscle mass gain in growing rats fed the LPHC diet.

  3. A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases fatty acid uptake and reduces norepinephrine-induced lipolysis in rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maísa P dos; França, Suélem A de; Santos, José Tiago F dos; Buzelle, Samyra L; Bertolini, Gisele L; Garófalo, Maria Antonieta R; Kettelhut, Isis C do; Frasson, Danúbia; Chaves, Valéria E; Kawashita, Nair H

    2012-03-01

    A low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet for 15 days increased the lipid content in the carcass and adipose tissues of rats. The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanisms of this lipid increase in the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) of these animals. The LPHC diet induced an approximately two- and tenfold increase in serum corticosterone and TNF-α, respectively. The rate of de novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis in vivo was reduced (50%) in LPHC rats, and the lipoprotein lipase activity increased (100%). In addition, glycerokinase activity increased (60%), and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase content decreased (27%). Basal [U-¹⁴C]-glucose incorporation into glycerol-triacylglycerol did not differ between the groups; however, in the presence of insulin, [U-¹⁴C]-glucose incorporation increased by 124% in adipocytes from only control rats. The reductions in IRS1 and AKT content as well as AKT phosphorylation in the RWAT from LPHC rats and the absence of an insulin response suggest that these adipocytes have reduced insulin sensitivity. The increase in NE turnover by 45% and the lack of a lipolytic response to NE in adipocytes from LPHC rats imply catecholamine resistance. The data reveal that the increase in fat storage in the RWAT of LPHC rats results from an increase in FA uptake from circulating lipoproteins and glycerol phosphorylation, which is accompanied by an impaired lipolysis that is activated by NE.

  4. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESCOBAR, KURT A.; MORALES, JACOBO; VANDUSSELDORP, TRISHA A.

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6–8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6–8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected. PMID:27766133

  5. Effects of the 54G/C polymorphism of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c on changes of serum lipid ratios induced by high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in healthy youth%固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c基因54G/C多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年人血脂比值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珍; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 杜娟; 汤慧; 黄鑫; 甘婵芬

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 54G/C polymorphism of sterol regulatory elementbinding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c)on serum lipid ratios and their response to high-carbohydrate/low-fat(HC/LF) diet in healthy youth. Methods After a regular diet for 7 days of wash-out, 56 healthy youth (22.89±1.80 yrs) were given HC/LF diet for 6 days. The regular diet contained 54% carbohydrate, 15%protein, and 31% fat of the total energy. The HC/LF diet contained 70% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 15% fat of the total energy. The serum lipids and glucose were measured on the 1st, 8th and 14th days.The ratios of TG/HDL-C, log (TG/HDL-C), TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. The 54G/C polymorphism of SREBP-1c gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Results No significant difference was found in lipid ratios and glucose at baseline and after regular diet in subjects with different genotypes in either the whole studied population or in males or females only. However, after HC/LF diet, LDL-C/HDL-C was significantly lower in females carrying the C allele than those of GG homozygotes (P< 0.05).Compared with those before HC/LF diet, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly decreased in all the subjects (P<0.05). When gender was taken into account, significant increase of TG/HDL-C and log(TG/HDL-C) was found only in females with GG genotype (P<0.05). All the subjects experienced significant decrease of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C regardless of their genders and genotypes (P<0.05). Conclusion The 54G/C polymorphism of SREBP-1c gene can influence the response of TG/HDL-C and log(TG/HDL-C) to HC/LF diet in females. The C allele may be a protective factor to prevent the increase of TG induced by HC/LF diet in females.%目的 探讨固醇调节元件结合蛋白-1c(sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c,SREBP-1c)基因54G/C多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂(high-carbohydrate/low-fat,HC/LF)膳食诱导的变化中的作用.方法 对56

  6. Effects of training status on the metabolic responses to high carbohydrate and high fat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, V L; McMurray, R G

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between the way in which aerobically trained and untrained women metabolize fats and carbohydrates at rest in response to either a high-fat or high-carbohydrate meal. Subjects, 6 per group, were fed a high CHO meal (2068 kJ, 76% CHO, 23% fat, 5% protein) and a high fat meal (2093 kJ, 21% CHO, 72% fat, 8% protein) in counterbalanced order. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured every half-hour for 5 hours. RMR was similar between groups. However, after ingesting a high CHO meal, trained subjects had a peak in metabolism at minute 60, not evident in the untrained subjects. In addition, postprandial RER from minutes 120-300 were lower and fat use was greater after the high CHO meal for the trained subjects. These results suggest that aerobically trained women have an accelerated CHO uptake and overall lower CHO oxidation following the ingestion of a high CHO meal.

  7. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  8. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae maintained in the laboratory Variações sazonais do efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidrato e rica em proteínas no metabolismo intermediário de Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae mantidos em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana K. Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet (HC and a high-protein diet (HP on the metabolism of the crayfish Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869, collected in different seasons and maintained in the laboratory for 15 days. Crayfish were collected monthly from January 2002 to January 2004 at São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil, in Guarapirá stream. In the laboratory, the animals were kept submerged in aquariums under controlled conditions. They were fed ad libitum, for 15 days with either a HC or HP diet. At the end of this period, haemolymph samples were collected, as were hepatopancreas, gills, and abdominal muscle that were removed for determination of glycogen, free glucose, lipids, and triglycerides. The haemolymph samples were used for determination of glucose, proteins, lipids, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in biochemical composition in crayfish maintained on HC or HP diets. Independent of the diets offered to the animals and the controlled conditions for 15 days, the indications of seasonality were unchanged. The observed changes seemed to be related to the reproductive period. Moreover, the HC diet increased all energy reserves in adult parastacids, which may aid in reproduction.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dieta rica em carboidratos (HC e da dieta rica em proteínas (HP sobre o metabolismo do Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869 coletados em diferentes estações e mantidos durante 15 dias em laboratório. Os lagostins foram coletados mensalmente de Janeiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2004 em São Francisco de Paula, Sul do Brasil, no riacho Guarapirá. No laboratório, os animais foram mantidos submersos em aquários sob condições controladas. Eles foram alimentados ad libitum por 15 dias com a dieta HC ou HP. Após o final do período, as amostras de hemolinfa foram coletadas, assim como o hepatopâncreas, as

  9. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-09-27

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered at

  10. Metabolic determinants of body weight after cats were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet or a high-carbohydrate low-protein diet ad libitum for 8 wk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradini, M; Rand, J S; Morton, J M; Rawlings, J M

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obese conditions are common in cats and are associated with the development of a number of diseases. Knowledge of metabolic determinants and predictors of weight gain may enable better preventative strategies for obesity in cats. Lean, healthy cats were fed either a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (n 16) or a high-carbohydrate low-protein (n 16) diet ad libitum for 8 wk. Potential determinants and predictors of final body weight assessed were body fat and lean masses, energy required for maintenance, energy requirements above maintenance for each kilogram of weight gain, insulin sensitivity index, fasting, mean 24-h and peak plasma glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations, and fasting and mean 24-h serum adiponectin concentrations. In cats fed the low-carbohydrate high-protein diet, after adjusting for initial body weight, those with higher energy requirements for weight gain and higher fasting glucose concentration had higher final body weights (P ≤ 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, fasting glucose and mean 24-h insulin concentrations (partial R(2) 37.3%) were imprecise. An equation using just initial body weight and fasting glucose concentration would be of more practical value, but was marginally less precise. In cats fed the high-carbohydrate low-protein diet, those with lower fasting leptin concentration initially had higher final body weights (P = 0.01). Predicted final body weights using initial body weight, energy requirements for maintenance, total body fat percentage and fasting leptin concentration (partial R(2) 39.2%) were reasonably precise. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings and to improve the precision of predicted final body weights.

  11. Postnatal exposure to a high-carbohydrate diet interferes epigenetically with thyroid hormone receptor induction of the adult male rat skeletal muscle glucose transporter isoform 4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh; Patel, Mulchand S; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-10-01

    Early life nutritional intervention causes adult-onset insulin resistance and obesity in rats. Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), in turn, transcriptionally enhances skeletal muscle Glut4 expression. We tested the hypothesis that reduced circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 concentrations encountered in postnatal (PN4-PN24) high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula-fed versus the mother-fed controls (MF) would epigenetically interfere with TR induction of adult (100 days) male rat skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, thereby providing a molecular mechanism mediating insulin resistance. We observed increased DNA methylation of the CpG island with enhanced recruitment of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and MeCP2 in the glut4 promoter region along with reduced acetylation of histone (H)2A.Z and H4 particularly at the H4.lysine (K)16 residue, which was predominantly mediated by histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). This was followed by enhanced recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1β to the glut4 promoter with increased Suv39H1 methylase concentrations. These changes reduced TR binding of the T3 response element of the glut4 gene (TREs; -473 to -450 bp) detected qualitatively in vivo (electromobility shift assay) and quantified ex vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation). In addition, the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator and CREB-binding protein to the glut4 promoter-protein complex was reduced. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction between TR and CBP to be reduced and HDAC4 to be enhanced in HC versus MF groups. These molecular changes were associated with diminished skeletal muscle Glut4 mRNA and protein concentrations. We conclude that early postnatal exposure to HC diet epigenetically reduced TR induction of adult male skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, uncovering novel molecular mechanisms contributing to adult insulin resistance and obesity.

  12. β2肾上腺素受体基因Gln27Glu变异对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值变化的影响%Effects of the β2-adrenergic Receptor Gln27Glu Variation on Changes of Serum Lipid and Apolipoprotein Ratios Induced by A High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet in Healthy Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧国进; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 张珍; 李元昊; 姜喆; 樊梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨β2肾上腺素受体基因(β2AR) Gln27Glu多态性对健康青年血脂及载脂蛋白比值的影响及在高糖低脂(HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂及载脂蛋白比值变化中的作用.方法 56例健康志愿者,给予7d平衡膳食和6 d HC/LF膳食,于第1d、第8d及第14 d取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂和载脂蛋白(apo) AI、B100水平,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDL-C)、log(TG/H DL-C)、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C、低密度脂蛋白胆同醇(LDL-C)/HDL-C、apoAI/apoB100值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分析β2AR Gln27Glu位点多态性.结果 血脂及载脂蛋白比值的基础值及平衡膳食后,无论是受试人群整体还是将男女分组分析,CC基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间均无明显差异.HC/LF膳食后,在整体受试人群中,G等位基因携带者log(TG/HDL-C)高于CC基因型受试者(P=0.038);男女分组分析发现CC基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间血脂及载脂蛋白比值无明显差异.与HC/LF膳食前相比,在受试人群整体,HC/LF膳食后apoAI/apoB100在CC基因型受试者升高(P=0.021),LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C在CC基因型和G等位基因携带者中均下降(P<0.05).按性别分组后,男性受试者HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/H DL-C在CC基因型及G等位基因携带者均降低(P<0.05);女性CC基因型和G等位基因携带者HC/LF膳食后TG/HDL-C、log( TG/HDL-C)均升高(P<0.05),TC/HDL-C均降低(P<0.05),但LDL-C/HDL-C仅在CC基因型中降低(P=0.037).结论 β2AR基因Gln27Glu多态性G等位基因能够在健康青年女性抑制HC/LF膳食诱导的LDL-C/HDL-C降低.%Objective To investigate the effects of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein ratios and its interaction with high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HC/LF) diet on the ratios in healthy youth. Methods After on a washout diet for seven days, fifty six healthy young subjects were given the

  13. Differing effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals on food hedonics in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-05-28

    Although the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on satiety are well documented, little is known about the impact of these macronutrients on food hedonics. We examined the effects of ad libitum and isoenergetic meals varying in fat and carbohydrate on satiety, energy intake and food hedonics. In all, sixty-five overweight and obese individuals (BMI=30·9 (sd 3·8) kg/m2) completed two separate test meal days in a randomised order in which they consumed high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC) foods. Satiety was measured using subjective appetite ratings to calculate the satiety quotient. Satiation was assessed by intake at ad libitum meals. Hedonic measures of explicit liking (subjective ratings) and implicit wanting (speed of forced choice) for an array of HFLC and LFHC foods were also tested before and after isoenergetic HFLC and LFHC meals. The satiety quotient was greater after ad libitum and isoenergetic meals during the LFHC condition compared with the HFLC condition (P=0·006 and P=0·001, respectively), whereas ad libitum energy intake was lower in the LFHC condition (Pfoods compared with the isoenergetic HFLC meal, which failed to suppress the hedonic appeal of subsequent HFLC foods. Therefore, when coupled with increased satiety and lower energy intake, the greater suppression of hedonic appeal for high-fat food seen with LFHC foods provides a further mechanism for why these foods promote better short-term appetite control than HFLC foods.

  14. 小檗碱对链脲菌素和高糖高脂饲料诱导糖尿病大鼠骨骼肌CDK9和cyclin T1表达的影响%Effect of berberine on CDK9 and cyclin T1 expression in skeletal muscle of diabeticrats induced by streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉银; 周世文

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察小檗碱对2型糖尿病大鼠骨骼肌病理结构改变及CDK9和cyclin T1蛋白表达的影响.方法 腹腔注射链脲菌素(35mg·kg-1)加高糖高脂饲料喂养16 wk建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型,随后16 wk每天分别拌食给予低中高剂量小檗碱(75、150、300mg·kg-1)、非诺贝特(100 mg·kg-1)和罗格列酮(4 mg·kg-1),用HE染色检查骨骼肌结构病变和免疫组化检测CDK9和cyclin T1的表达.结果 骨骼肌纤维在各组大鼠中仍正常分布,中高剂量小檗碱部分地改善糖尿病肌纤维的萎缩;中高剂量小檗碱和罗格列酮都能明显恢复糖尿病大鼠骨骼肌中表达降低的CDK9和cyclin T1至正常水平(P<0.01).结论 小檗碱调控骨骼肌CDK9和cyclin T1蛋白的表达可能是其改善糖尿病骨骼肌纤维萎缩的机制之一.%AIM To investigate the effect of berberine on damaged skeletal muscle and on the cyclin-dependent kinase 9(CDK9)and cyclin T1 expression in type 2 diabetic rats.METHODS Type 2 diabetes mellitus rats were in duced by an injection of 35 mg·kg-1 streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet for 16 wk.From wk 17 to wk 32,diabetic rats were given low-,middle-,high-dose berberine(75,150,300 mg·kg-1),fenofibrate(100 mg·kg-1) and rosiglitazone(4 mg·kg-1)by oral administration,respectively.The skeletal muscle structure was observed with hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining and the CDK9 and cyclin T1 expression Were detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS Fibre distribution remained normal in skeletal muscles of all the groups.Middle-,high-dose berberine partly im proved diabetic fibre atrophy.Middle-,high-dose berberine and rosiglitazone significantly increased the expressions for both of CDK9 and cyclin T1(P<0.01=.CONCLUSION Berberine modulates the CDK9 and cyclin T1 expressions in diabetic skeletal muscle and ameliorates the fibre damage.

  15. 脂联素基因45T/G多态性对高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年血脂比值变化的影响%Effects of Adiponectin Gene SNP45T/G on Changes of Serum Lipid Ratios Induced by High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet in Healthy Chinese Youth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉佳; 方定志; 龚仁蓉; 杜娟; 黄鑫

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨脂联素基因(APM1)45T/G多态性与健康中国汉族青年血脂比值的关系及其对高糖低脂(high carbohydrate and low fat,HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂比值变化的影响.方法 56名健康青年志愿者[(22.89±1.80)岁],给予7 d平衡膳食和6 d HC/LF膳食.在第1 d、第8 d、第14 d清晨取空腹12 h静脉血,测定血脂,计算甘油三酯(TG)/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、log(TG/HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)/HDLC、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C比值,提取血基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分析APM145T/G多态性.结果 无论是整体还是按性别分组,TT基因型受试者与G等位基因携带者之间血脂比值基础值均无明显差异.男性G等位基因携带者HC/LF膳食后TC/HDL-C高于TT基因型受试者(P<0.05);与膳食前相比,TT基因型受试者HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C和TC/HDL-C均降低(P<0.05),G等位基因携带者仅TC/HDL-C降低(P<0.01).在女性,无论HC/LF膳食前还是HC/LF膳食后,G等位基因携带者TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)均低于TT基因型个体(P<0.05);与膳食前相比,TT基因型受试者HC/LF膳食后TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)升高(P<0.05)、TC/HDL-C降低(P<0.001),G等位基因携带者LDL-C/HDL-C(P<0.05)和TC/HDL-C(P<0.01)降低,而TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)无显著变化.结论 APM145T/G G等位基因能抑制HC/LF膳食诱导的健康青年女性TG/HDL-C和log(TG/HDL-C)升高并使LDL-C/HDL-C降低,但可能使男性的LDL-C/HDL-C降低消失、TC/HDL-C升高.

  16. Rats prone to obesity under a high-carbohydrate diet have increased post-meal CCK mRNA expression and characteristics of rats fed a high-glycemic index diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaumontet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that rats prone to obesity exhibit an exaggerated increase in glucose oxidation and an exaggerated decline in lipid oxidation under a low-fat high-carbohydrate (LF/HC diet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in these metabolic dysregulations. After a one week adaptation to laboratory conditions, 48 male Wistar rats were fed a LF/HC diet for 3 weeks. During weeks 2 and 3, glucose tolerance tests (GTT, insulin tolerance tests (ITT and meal tolerance tests (MTT were performed to evaluate blood glucose, plasma and insulin. Glucose and lipid oxidation were also assayed during the GTT. At the end of the study, body composition was measured in all the rats, and they were classified as carbohydrate resistant (CR or carbohydrate sensitive (CS according to their adiposity. Before sacrifice, 24 of the 48 rats received a calibrated LF/HC meal. Liver, muscle and intestine tissue samples were taken to measure mRNA expression of key genes involved in glucose, lipid and protein metabolism. ITT, GTT and MTT showed that CS rats were neither insulin resistant nor glucose intolerant, but mRNA expression of CCK in the duodenum was higher and that of CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α in liver were lower than in CR rats. From these results, we make the hypothesis that in CS rats, CCK increased pancreatic secretion which may favor a quicker absorption of carbohydrates and consequently induces an enhanced inhibition of lipid oxidation in the liver leading to a progressive accumulation of fat preferentially in visceral deposits. Such a mechanism may explain why CS rats share many characteristics observed in rats fed a high glycemic index diet.

  17. Comparison of Insulin-resistance Rat Models Induced by High-fat and High-carbohydrate Diets%不同高能饮食诱发胰岛素抵抗大鼠模型的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘源; 赵爽; 高青松; 王志红

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析高猪油日粮及高蔗糖日粮分别诱发胰岛素抵抗大鼠的血液生化指标差异,为此类模型的建立及实验研究提供参考.方法雄性SD大鼠随机分为3组,对照组给予普通日粮,高脂组给予高猪油含量的日粮,高糖组给予高蔗糖含量的日粮.喂养6周,每两周测定空腹血糖、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-c)、总胆固醇(TCH)、胰岛素,根据胰岛素敏感性指数(ISI)=ln1/(FPG×FINS)评定大鼠的胰岛素敏感性.结果6周后,高脂、高糖组ISI显著低于对照组(P<0.05);猪油组血清胰岛素显著高于对照组(P<0.05)、血清HDL-c显著低于对照组(P<0.05);高蔗糖组血糖、胰岛素均上升,但与对照组无统计学差异;而各组间血清总胆固醇、甘油三酯及体重无明显差异(P>0.05).结论高脂、高糖日粮均可诱发IR大鼠模型,高脂模型具有血清胰岛素显著升高、HDL-c显著降低的特点而高糖模型伴有较高的血糖、胰岛素.%Objective To measure the biochemical parameters in blood of Insulin-resistance rat model induced by high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets. Methods Male SD rats were fed on standard laboratory chow, high-fat diet or high-carbohydrate diet respectively for 6 weeks. Serum glucose ( GLU) , insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol ( TCH) and HDL-cholesterol were measured at fortnightly interval. The insulin sensitivity was estimated by ISI index, ISI = lnl/( FPG x FINS). Results Compared with control after 6 weeks, ISI index significantly decreased in both high-fat and high-carbohydrate groups ( P < 0. 05 ) , and serum insulin was significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol was significant lower in high-fat group ( P < 0. 05 ). Serum GLU and insulin in high-carbohydrate group were higher than those in other groups. However there were mild difference in TG、GLU and body weight among the three groups. Conclusion Both high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets can induce

  18. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  19. Effects of the LIPE C-60G Polymorphism on Changes of Plasma Lipids and Glucose Induced by a High-carbohydrate Diet in Healthy Youth%激素敏感性脂肪酶基因C-60G多态性对高糖膳食诱导的健康青年血浆糖脂代谢指标变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元昊; 龚仁蓉; 山本真衣; 姜喆; 樊梅; 方定志

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨激素敏感性脂肪酶(HSL)基因(LIPE)启动子C-60G多态性在高糖膳食诱导的健康青年血浆糖脂代谢指标变化中的作用.方法 广告招募56名平均年龄为(22.89±1.80)岁的在校健康志愿者(男性27名,女性29名),给予7 d平衡膳食(31%脂肪、54%碳水化合物、15%蛋白质)和6 d高糖膳食(15%脂肪、70%碳水化合物和15%蛋白质),于第1、8、14 d取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂、血糖、胰岛素水平,并计算体重指数(BMI)及稳态模型估算胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性法分析LIPE C-60G多态性.结果 不论在高糖膳食前还是高糖膳食后,CC基因型女性高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)(P<0.01或P<0.05)和载脂蛋白A-Ⅰ(apo A-Ⅰ)(P<0.01或P<0.001)较CC基因型男性升高;高糖膳食后,CC基因型女性总胆固醇(TC)(P<0.01)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)(P<0.05)较CC基因型男性升高.与高糖膳食前相比,高糖膳食后CC基因型男性BMI(P<0.05)、TC(P<0.001)和LDL-C(P<0.01)降低,HDL-C(P<0.01)和apo A-Ⅰ(P<0.05)升高;CG基因型男性BMI(P<0.05)和TC(P<0.01)降低.CC基因型女性TC(P<0.001)、LDL-C(P<0.01)降低,甘油三酯(TG)(P<0.01)和胰岛素(P<0.05)升高;CG基因型女性TC降低(P<0.05),TG升高(P<0.05).结论 LIPE C-60G变异能够抑制高糖膳食诱导的健康青年男性LDL-C降低及HDL-C和apoA-Ⅰ的升高,抑制高糖诱导的健康青年女性LDL-C降低和胰岛素升高.%Objective To investigate the interaction of the C-60G polymorphism of hormone sensitive lipase gene (LIPE) with a high carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet on plasma lipids and glucose in a young and healthy Chinese Han population.Methods 27 males and 29 females were given a washout diets of 31% fat, 54%carbohydrate and 15% protein for 7 days, followed by the high-CHO diet of 15% fat, 70% carbohydrate and 15%protein for 6 days, without total

  20. In utero and postnatal exposure to a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet leads to differences in adipose tissue mRNA expression and blood metabolites in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Brittany M; Liu, Kari J; Keel, Tonya L; Graves, Thomas K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the differences in body composition, adipose tissue gene expression, blood metabolite and hormone concentrations, and insulin sensitivity in kittens exposed to high-protein (HP) or high-carbohydrate (HC) nutrition in utero and through the growth period. Eight dams were randomised onto two test diets, and fed the diets throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were evaluated for 9 months. Kittens were weaned at 2 months of age onto the same treatment diet as the dam and were allowed to consume diets ad libitum. The HC diet contained 34.3 % crude protein (CP), 19.2 % fat and 30.8 % digestible carbohydrate, while the HP diet contained 52.9 % CP, 23.5 % fat and 10.8 % digestible carbohydrate. Blood samples were collected at 6 months after birth. Body composition was determined at 2 and 8 months of age and an intravenous glucose tolerance test, neutering and adipose tissue biopsy conducted at 8 months of age. Physical activity was quantified at 6 and 9 months. Energy intake, DM intake and body weight were not different between groups. At 2 months, blood TAG were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. At 8 months, blood leptin was higher (P kittens fed the HC diet, while chemokine receptor 5, hormone-sensitive lipase, uncoupling protein 2, leptin and insulin receptor mRNA were greater (P kittens fed the HP diet. The present results demonstrate some of the changes in blood metabolites and hormones, physical activity and mRNA abundance that occur with feeding high protein levels to kittens.

  1. Effect of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intervention on change in mammographic density over menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa J; Greenberg, Carolyn V; Kriukov, Valentina; Minkin, Salomon; Jenkins, David J A; Yaffe, Martin; Hislop, Gregory; Boyd, Norman F

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that a low-fat dietary intervention for 2 years in women with extensive mammographic density decreased mammographic density to a greater extent than in the control group. Post-hoc analysis indicated that this effect was strongest in women who became postmenopausal during the follow-up period. The purpose of the present study was to determine if this potentially important finding could be confirmed in a new and larger group of subjects with a longer follow-up time. Participants in a low-fat dietary intervention trial who were premenopausal at entry and became postmenopausal during follow-up were examined. Total breast, dense, and non-dense area and percent density were measured in baseline and postmenopause mammograms using a computer-assisted method. Total breast and non dense area increased more in the control group compared to the intervention group (for breast area 2.6 and 0.2 cm(2), respectively; P=0.05, and for non-dense area 10.9 and 8.1 cm(2), respectively; P=0.06). Dense area decreased to a similar degree in both groups (-8.2 and -8.0 cm(2), respectively; P=0.84). Percent density decreased to a slightly greater degree in the control compared to intervention group (-9.4 and -7.8%, respectively, P=0.11). There were no significant differences between study groups after adjustment for weight change. Menopause reduced density to a similar extent in the low-fat diet and control groups. If a low-fat diet reduces breast cancer risk, the effect is unlikely to be through changes in mammographic density at menopause.

  2. Infant formula supplemented with low protein and high carbohydrate alters the intestinal microbiota in neonatal SD rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wenguang; Tang, Yaru; Qu, Yi; Cao, Fengbo; Huo, Guicheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula) and last but not least, the diet composition. In the diet composition, protein and carbohydrate are very important for the growth of microbiota, many infant fomulas (different ratio protein/carbohydrate) can regulate the development of gut microbiota by different metabolism. The effect of low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula on the establis...

  3. Low-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets decrease primary bile acid synthesis in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Bandsma, RHJ; Stellaard, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat content influences bile salt metabolism, but quantitative data from controlled studies in humans are scarce. Objective: The objective of the study was to establish the effect of dietary fat content on the metabolism of primary bile salts. Design: The effects of eucaloric extr

  4. Effects of a high carbohydrate diet and arginine supplementation during the rearing period of gilts on osteochondrosis prevalence at slaughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, D. B.; Laurenssen, B. F A; Koopmanschap, R. E.; van Grevenhof, E. M.; van Weeren, P. R.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a consequence of necrotic growth cartilage formation early in life and suggested to be associated with lameness and premature culling of sows. Higher insulin, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with increased OC in horses and are affected by

  5. Effects of a high carbohydrate diet and arginine supplementation during the rearing period of gilts on osteochondrosis prevalence at slaughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de D.B.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Grevenhof, van E.M.; Weeren, van P.R.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is a consequence of necrotic growth cartilage formation early in life and suggested to be associated with lameness and premature culling of sows. Higher insulin, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are associated with increased OC in horses and are affected by c

  6. A cost-effective strategy for the bio-prospecting of mixed microalgae with high carbohydrate content: diversity fluctuations in different growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea-Barcia, Glenda; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, widespread efforts have been directed towards decreasing the costs associated with microalgae culture systems for the production of biofuels. In this study, a simple and inexpensive strategy to bio-prospect and cultivate mixed indigenous chlorophytes with a high carbohydrate content for biomethane and biohydrogen production was developed. Mixed microalgae were collected from four different water-bodies in Queretaro, Mexico, and were grown in Bold's basal mineral medium and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using inexpensive photo-bioreactors. The results showed large fluctuations in microalgal genera diversity based on different culture media and nitrogen sources. In secondary effluent, Golenkinia sp. and Scenedesmus sp. proliferated. The carbohydrate content, for secondary effluent, varied between 12% and 57%, and the highest volumetric and areal productivity were 61 mg L(-1)d(-1) and 4.6 g m(-2)d(-1), respectively. These results indicate that mixed microalgae are a good feedstock for biomethane and biohydrogen production.

  7. No Decrease of HDL Cholesterol after 6 Days of Low Fat and High Carbohydrate Diets in a Young Chinese Han Pop-ulation%中国汉族青年低脂高糖膳食6天后的血清高密度脂蛋白、胆固醇水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正科; 汤慧; 龚仁蓉; 林佳; 甘禅芬; 黄鑫; 李蓉辉; 方定志

    2008-01-01

    More studies are needed on the hyperyriacylglycerolemic effects of low fat and high carbohydrate (LF-HC) diet in young population, especially Chinese who generally have a diet containing lower fat and higher carbohydrate. To test them in a young Chinese Han population, 56 healthy subjects (22.89±1.80) years were given regular diet of 31% fat and 54% carbohy-drate for 7 days, followed by LF-HC diet of 15% fat and 70% carbohydrate for 6 days, without total energy restriction. After the LF-HC diet, the male experienced an increase of high density lipoprutein (HDL) cholesterol and decreases of weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol (P < 0.05). The female experienced in-creased serum triacylglycerol and insulin, and decreased TC and LDL cholesterol (P < 0.05). When BMI was taken into account,all the subjects with low, medium, or high BMI experienced decreases of TC and LDL cholesterol although some changes were not significant. No significant decrease of HDL cholesterol was found, while significantly increased HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-Ⅰ (apo A- Ⅰ) were found in the male subjects with low or high BMI (P < 0.05). Significant increase of triacylglycerol was observed only in the female subjects with low or medium BMI. In conclusion, subjects with different BMI and gender have different triacylglycerol and HDL cholesterol responses to LF-HC diets, and significant increase of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A- Ⅰ were observed in some young male subjects.%目的 探讨低脂高糖膳食对中国汉族青年血脂及载脂蛋白的影响.方法 我室招募健康在校大学生自愿者56名((22.89±1.80)岁],于7 d平衡膳食后给予低脂高糖膳食6 d,分别在第1 d、8 d、14 d清晨收集受试者人类学指标并抽取空腹静脉血,测定血清甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、血糖(GLU)、 胰岛

  8. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Reis

    Full Text Available Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  9. Effects of Synthetic Diets Enriched in Specific Nutrients on Drosophila Development, Body Fat, and Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Gene-diet interactions play a crucial but poorly understood role in susceptibility to obesity. Accordingly, the development of genetically tractable model systems to study the influence of diets in obesity-prone genetic backgrounds is a focus of current research. Here I present a modified synthetic Drosophila diet optimized for timely larval development, a stage dedicated to energy storage. Specifically increasing the levels of individual macronutrients-carbohydrate, lipid, or protein-resulted in markedly different organismal effects. A high-carbohydrate diet adversely affected the timing of development, size, early lifespan and body fat. Strikingly, quadrupling the amount of dietary lipids had none of these effects. Diets rich in protein appeared to be the most beneficial, as larvae developed faster, with no change in size, into long-lived adults. I believe this synthetic diet will significantly facilitate the study of gene-diet interactions in organismal energy balance.

  10. Comparison of a high-carbohydrate and high-protein breakfast effect on plasma ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY levels in women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlackova Dana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigated plasma levels of gut-brain axis peptides ghrelin, obestatin, NPY and PYY after consumption of a high-carbohydrate (HC and high-protein (HP breakfast in patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and in healthy controls. These peptides play an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and their secretion is disturbed under condition of eating disorders. As various types of consumed macronutrients may induce different plasma hormone responses, so we examined these responses in women patients with eating disorders and compared them with those of healthy controls. Methods We examined plasma hormone responses to HC and HP breakfast in patients with AN (n = 14; age: 24.6 ± 1.8 years, BMI: 15.3 ± 0.7, BN (n = 15; age: 23.2 ± 1.7 years, BMI: 20.5 ± 0.9 and healthy controls (n = 14; age: 24.9 ± 1.4 years, BMI: 21.1 ± 0.8. Blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein, the first blood drawn was collected before meal, and then 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after breakfast consumption. Plasma hormone levels were determined by commercially available RIA kits. Results Fasting and postprandial plasma obestatin levels were significantly increased in both AN and BN patients, while plasma ghrelin levels were significantly increased in AN patients only. After breakfast consumption, plasma levels of ghrelin and obestatin decreased, although they were still above the range of values of healthy controls. Fasting NPY plasma levels were significantly increased in AN and BN patients and did not change postprandially. Fasting PYY levels were comparable in AN, BN and healthy controls, but postprandially significantly increased after HP breakfast in AN and BN patients. Different reactions to breakfast consumption was found for ghrelin and PYY among investigated groups, while for obestatin and NPY these reactions were similar in all groups. Conclusions Significant

  11. Effects of Diet on Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Mikic, Anja; Pietrolungo, Cara E

    2016-09-01

    There is much emerging information surrounding the impact of sleep duration and quality on food choice and consumption in both children and adults. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of dietary patterns and specific foods on nighttime sleep. Early studies have shown that certain dietary patterns may affect not only daytime alertness but also nighttime sleep. In this review, we surveyed the literature to describe the role of food consumption on sleep. Research has focused on the effects of mixed meal patterns, such as high-carbohydrate plus low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets, over the short term on sleep. Such studies highlight a potential effect of macronutrient intakes on sleep variables, particularly alterations in slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep with changes in carbohydrate and fat intakes. Other studies instead examined the intake of specific foods, consumed at a fixed time relative to sleep, on sleep architecture and quality. Those foods, specifically milk, fatty fish, tart cherry juice, and kiwifruit, are reviewed here. Studies provide some evidence for a role of certain dietary patterns and foods in the promotion of high-quality sleep, but more studies are necessary to confirm those preliminary findings.

  12. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Arun Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO and Derbesia tenuissima (DT, in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  13. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  14. Changes of serum lipid ratios induced by interactions between a high carbohydrate diet and the PGC-1αgene polymorphism%高糖膳食与PGC-1α基因多肽性相互作用对血脂比值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊梅; 龚仁蓉; 姜喆; 李元昊; 张荣荣; 方定志

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨过氧化物酶增殖物活化受体辅激活因子-1α基因(PGC-1α)Gly482Ser多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂(HC/LF)膳食诱导的血脂比值变化中的作用.方法 56名(22.89±1.80岁)健康青年志愿者,给予7d平衡膳食和6dHC/LF膳食,分别于d1、d8及d 14清晨取空腹静脉血,测定血脂水平,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白-胆固醇(TG/HDL-C)、log (TG/HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白-胆固醇(LDL-C)/HDL-C值、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应-限制性酶切法分别分析PGC-1αGly482Ser位点多态性.分析不同基因型受试者间血脂比值差异.结果 无论是整体水平还是男女分组后,TG/HDL-C、log (TG/HDL-C)、LDL-C/HDL-C以及TC/HDL-C基础值、HC/LF膳食前和HC/LF膳食后在GG基因型受试者和A等位基因携带者之间均没有统计学差异.与HC/LF膳食前相比,在男性,HC/LF膳食后GG基因型受试者TC/HDL-C显著降低,A等位基因携带者除TC/HDL-C显著降低外,LDL-C/HDL-C也显著降低.在女性,HC/LF膳食后GG基因型受试者TC/HDL-C显著降低,A等位基因携带者除TC/HDL-C显著降低外,LDL-C/HDL-C也显著降低,TG/HDL-C、log (TG/HDL-C)却显著升高.结论 PGC-1α Gly482Ser A等位基因与HC/LF膳食后LDL-C/HDL-C降低有关,与女性TG/HDL-C、log (TG/HDL-C)升高相关联,具有明显的性别差异.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor coactivator la gene (PGC-1α) on serum lipid ratios and their responses to a high carbohydrate/low fat ( HC/LF) diet in healthy young adults. METHODS After a regular diet for 7 days of wash-out, 56 health young adults (22.89 ± 1.80 years old) were given the HC/LF diet for 6 days.The serum lipids were measured on the 1st, the 8th and the 14th days. The ratios of TG/ HDL-C, log (TG/HDL-C), TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. The polymorphism of PGC-lα Gly482Ser were detected by PCR

  15. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate ('Eco-Atkins') diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-02-05

    Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Change in body weight. 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to -6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and -5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) -1.1 kg (-2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) -0.49 mmol/L (-0.70 to -0.28), pvegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss diet, thus improving heart disease risk factors. clinicaltrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/), #NCT00256516.

  16. Effects of ethanol on CYP2E1 levels and related oxidative stress using a standard balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzalis, Ligia A; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Simon, Karin A; Schindler, Fernanda; Giavarotti, Leandro; Monteiro, Hugo P; Videla, Luis A; Junqueira, Virgínia B C

    2012-07-01

    Expression of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is very much influenced by nutritional factors, especially carbohydrate consumption, and various results concerning the expression of CYP2E1 were obtained with a low-carbohydrate diet. This study describes the effects of ethanol treatment on CYP2E1 levels and its relationship with oxidative stress using a balanced standard diet to avoid low or high carbohydrate consumption. Rats were fed for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks a commercial diet plus an ethanol-sucrose solution. The results have shown that ethanol administration was associated with CYP2E1 induction and stabilization without related oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that experimental models with a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet produce some undesirable CYP2E1 changes that are not present when a balanced standard diet is given.

  17. High dietary protein decreases fat deposition induced by high-fat and high-sucrose diet in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaumontet, C.; Schwarz, J.; Even, P.C.; Simonin-Foucault, A.; Piedcoq, J.; Fromentin, G.; Azzout-Marniche, D.; Tome, D.

    2015-01-01

    High-protein diets are known to reduce adiposity in the context of high carbohydrate and Western diets. However, few studies have investigated the specific high-protein effect on lipogenesis induced by a high-sucrose (HS) diet or fat deposition induced by high-fat feeding. We aimed to determine the

  18. Ketogenic Diet: Effects on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ketogenic diet on growth of 237 children (130 males, 107 females treated for intractable epilepsy has been evaluated in a prospective cohort study (average follow-up 308 days at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

  19. Diet influences cocaine withdrawal behaviors in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebens, M; Barros, H M T

    2003-01-01

    The effects of drugs of abuse might depend on several environmental factors, among them the individual's feeding habits. It was our objective to study the influence of the diet on cocaine acute behavioral effects and during the first 5 days of withdrawal after prolonged treatment. Rats were fed a balanced diet, high-protein diet, high-carbohydrate diet or high-fat diet from weaning to adulthood. Adult rats were injected with 15 mg/kg cocaine 24, 5 and 1 h before the forced swimming retest or the drug was administered daily during 15 days and the animals were evaluated in the forced swimming test on five daily occasions after drug withdrawal. Diets alone did not induce significant behavioral differences in locomotion, immobility, swimming, climbing or head shakes. Acute cocaine reduced immobility during the forced swimming test and increased locomotion demonstrating a nonspecific antiimmobility effect related to hyperactivity. Acute cocaine reduced head shakes of rats fed high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. After cocaine withdrawal, head shakes were decreased for rats fed any of the diets and rats were more immobile if fed a high-fat diet and were less immobile if fed a high-protein or high-carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, differences in the amounts of macronutrients in the diet may cause different behavioral outcomes after acute cocaine and during cocaine withdrawal.

  20. The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Megan L.; Garnett, Sarah P.; Baur, Louise A.; Lister, Natalie B.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27517953

  1. The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Megan L; Garnett, Sarah P; Baur, Louise A; Lister, Natalie B

    2016-08-09

    Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.

  2. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  3. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    The health effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) are investigated in a six month randomized controlled intervention, in which the NND was compared to the average Danish diet (ADD) among 181 adult participants. Foods were handed out free of charge from a study shop according to the ad libitum...... has a potential as a healthy and highly satisfying diet for the general population....

  4. Effect of a 6-month vegan low-carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) diet on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight in hyperlipidaemic adults: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David J A; Wong, Julia M W; Kendall, Cyril W C; Esfahani, Amin; Ng, Vivian W Y; Leong, Tracy C K; Faulkner, Dorothea A; Vidgen, Ed; Paul, Gregory; Mukherjea, Ratna; Krul, Elaine S; Singer, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low-carbohydrate diets may be useful for weight loss. Diets high in vegetable proteins and oils may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. The main objective was to determine the longer term effect of a diet that was both low-carbohydrate and plant-based on weight loss and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Design, setting, participants A parallel design study of 39 overweight hyperlipidaemic men and postmenopausal women conducted at a Canadian university-affiliated hospital nutrition research centre from April 2005 to November 2006. Intervention Participants were advised to consume either a low-carbohydrate vegan diet or a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet for 6 months after completing 1-month metabolic (all foods provided) versions of these diets. The prescribed macronutrient intakes for the low-carbohydrate and high-carbohydrate diets were: 26% and 58% of energy from carbohydrate, 31% and 16% from protein and 43% and 25% from fat, respectively. Primary outcome Change in body weight. Results 23 participants (50% test, 68% control) completed the 6-month ad libitum study. The approximate 4 kg weight loss on the metabolic study was increased to −6.9 kg on low-carbohydrate and −5.8 kg on high-carbohydrate 6-month ad libitum treatments (treatment difference (95% CI) −1.1 kg (−2.1 to 0.0), p=0.047). The relative LDL-C and triglyceride reductions were also greater on the low-carbohydrate treatment (treatment difference (95% CI) −0.49 mmol/L (−0.70 to −0.28), p<0.001 and −0.34 mmol/L (−0.57 to −0.11), p=0.005, respectively), as were the total cholesterol:HDL-C and apolipoprotein B:A1 ratios (−0.57 (−0.83, −0.32), p<0.001 and −0.05 (−0.09, −0.02), p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions A self-selected low-carbohydrate vegan diet, containing increased protein and fat from gluten and soy products, nuts and vegetable oils, had lipid lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight loss

  5. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  6. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that vegetarian diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.

  8. Diet effects on honeybee immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Ducloz, François; Crauser, Didier; Le Conte, Yves

    2010-08-23

    The maintenance of the immune system can be costly, and a lack of dietary protein can increase the susceptibility of organisms to disease. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between protein nutrition and immunity in insects. Here, we tested in honeybees (Apis mellifera) whether dietary protein quantity (monofloral pollen) and diet diversity (polyfloral pollen) can shape baseline immunocompetence (IC) by measuring parameters of individual immunity (haemocyte concentration, fat body content and phenoloxidase activity) and glucose oxidase (GOX) activity, which enables bees to sterilize colony and brood food, as a parameter of social immunity. Protein feeding modified both individual and social IC but increases in dietary protein quantity did not enhance IC. However, diet diversity increased IC levels. In particular, polyfloral diets induced higher GOX activity compared with monofloral diets, including protein-richer diets. These results suggest a link between protein nutrition and immunity in honeybees and underscore the critical role of resource availability on pollinator health.

  9. Favorable cardio-metabolic outcomes following high carbohydrate intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast: A review of available findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bloomer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Daniel Fast is a biblically inspired dietary program rich in carbohydrate, most closely resembling a vegan diet but with additional restrictions, including the elimination of processed foods, white flour products, preservatives, additives, sweeteners, caffeine, and alcohol. While no specific requirements are placed on the ingestion of specific percentages of macronutrients, the mean daily carbohydrate intake is by default approximately 60%, while protein and fat intake are 15% and 25%, respectively. Despite a relatively high carbohydrate intake, multiple favorable cardio-metabolic effects are noted when following the plan, in as few as three weeks. This includes improvements in HOMA-IR, which may be at least in part due to the lower glycemic load and high dietary fiber content of the foods consumed. Other notable changes include reductions in systemic inflammation, total and LDL-cholesterol, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and body weight/body fat. Short and moderate-term compliance to the program is excellent-better than most dietary programs, perhaps due to the ad libitum nature of this plan. This paper presents an overview of the Daniel Fast, a carbohydrate-rich dietary program, including relevant findings from both human and animal investigations using this dietary model.

  10. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...... by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin...

  11. Low-Carbohydrate Diet Impairs the Effect of Glucagon in the Treatment of Insulin-Induced Mild Hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Schmidt, Signe; Damm-Frydenberg, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the ability of glucagon to restore plasma glucose (PG) after mild hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes on an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) versus a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten patients with insulin pump-treated type...... 1 diabetes randomly completed 1 week of the HCD (≥250 g/day) and 1 week of the LCD (≤50 g/day). After each week, mild hypoglycemia was induced by a subcutaneous insulin bolus in the fasting state. When PG reached 3.9 mmol/L, 100 µg glucagon was given subcutaneously, followed by 500 µg glucagon 2 h...... of insulin, glucagon, and triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: The LCD reduces the treatment effect of glucagon on mild hypoglycemia. Carbohydrate intake should be considered when low-dose glucagon is used to correct hypoglycemia....

  12. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  13. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  14. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  15. Chronic administration of grape-seed polyphenols attenuates the development of hypertension and improves other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in cafeteria diet-fed rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pons, Z.; Margalef, M.; Bravo, F.I.; Arola-Arnal, A.; Muguerza, B.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of grape-seed polyphenols against the development of hypertension and other cardiometabolic conditions associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were studied in rats fed a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, known as the cafeteria (CAF) diet. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed standard

  16. Arguments for a lower carbohydrate-higher fat diet in patients with a short small bowel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Short small bowel patients suffer from malabsorption due to a strongly reduced small bowel surface. These patients usually get a high caloric high carbohydrate-low fat diet at oral or enteral feeding. At several points our studies demonstrate that the effect of this formula is doubtful. In these pat

  17. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weihua

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal®, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG. Methods Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal® was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal® on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. Results KetoCal® administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal® diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal® groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid Co

  18. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Emilia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is metabolic effect of low glycaemic-index diet. The currently available scientific literature shows that low glycaemic-index diets acutely induce a number of favorable effects, such as a rapid weight loss, decrease of fasting glucose and insulin levels, reduction of circulating triglyceride levels and improvement of blood pressure. The long-term effect of the combination of these changes is at present not known. Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of cardiovascular disease, further controlled studies on low-GI diet and metabolic disease are needed.

  19. Cognitive performance of Gottingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin in serum. However, higher levels of triglycerides were observed for minipigs fed the diets with high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose compared to minipigs fed a standard minipig diet. This might explain the observed impairments in spatial cognition. These findings suggest that high dietary intake of both fat and sugar may impair spatial cognition which could be relevant for mental functioning in humans.

  20. Effect of Soya based Protein Rich Diet on Glycaemic Parameters and Thyroid Function Tests in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarathi Vijaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Medical nutrition therapy plays a major role in the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. However, control of postprandial blood glucose values is often a challenge in Asian Indian GDM women due to high carbohydrate content in Indian diet.

  1. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  2. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  3. Diet effects in gut microbiome and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; He, Xianzhi; Huang, Jinhai

    2014-04-01

    The 100 trillion microbes in human gut coevolve with the host and exert significant influences on human health. The gut microbial composition presents dynamic changes correlated with various factors including host genotypes, age, and external environment. Effective manipulation of the gut microbiota through diets (both long-term and short-term diet patterns), probiotics and/or prebiotics, and antibiotics has been proved being potential to prevent from metabolic disorders such as obesity in many studies. The dietary regulation exerts influences on microbial metabolism and host immune functions through several pathways, of which may include selectively bacterial fermentation of nutrients, lower intestinal barrier function, overexpression of genes associated with disorders, and disruptions to both innate and adaptive immunity. Discoveries in the interrelationship between diet, intestinal microbiome, and body immune system provide us novel perceptions to the specific action mechanisms and will promote the development of therapeutic approaches for obesity. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  5. Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Wilson, S.A.; Rolland, V.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24h in a respiration chamber. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27 +/- 3 y; body mass index, BMI 23 +/- 3 kg/m2). DIETS: A

  6. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

  7. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  8. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakai Kenji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously demonstrated that a loosely restricted 45%-carbohydrate diet led to greater reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c compared to high-carbohydrate diets in outpatients with mild type 2 diabetes (mean HbA1c level: 7.4% over 2 years. To determine whether good glycemic control can be achieved with a 30%-carbohydrate diet in severe type 2 diabetes, 33 outpatients (15 males, 18 females, mean age: 59 yrs with HbA1c levels of 9.0% or above were instructed to follow a low-carbohydrate diet (1852 kcal; %CHO:fat:protein = 30:44:20 for 6 months in an outpatient clinic and were followed to assess their HbA1c levels, body mass index and doses of antidiabetic drugs. HbA1c levels decreased sharply from a baseline of 10.9 ± 1.6% to 7.8 ± 1.5% at 3 months and to 7.4 ± 1.4% at 6 months. Body mass index decreased slightly from baseline (23.8 ± 3.3 to 6 months (23.5 ± 3.4. Only two patients dropped out. No adverse effects were observed except for mild constipation. The number of patients on sulfonylureas decreased from 7 at baseline to 2 at 6 months. No patient required inpatient care or insulin therapy. In summary, the 30%-carbohydrate diet over 6 months led to a remarkable reduction in HbA1c levels, even among outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes, without any insulin therapy, hospital care or increase in sulfonylureas. The effectiveness of the diet may be comparable to that of insulin therapy.

  9. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic profile in Chinese women: a randomised controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Chen, Xiafei; Tang, Lixin; Feng, Ying; Shai, Iris; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B; Lin, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the potential adherence to and the effectiveness of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with a habitually high carbohydrate intake. In the present controlled feeding trial, fifty overweight or obese women (age 47·9 (sem 0·9) years; BMI 26·7 (sem 0·3) kg/m²) were randomly assigned to a LC non-energy-restricted diet (initial carbohydrate intake 20 g/d, with a 10 g increase weekly) or an energy-restricted (ER) diet (carbohydrate intake 156-205 g/d, ER to 5021 or 6276 kJ/d, 35% average energy reduction) for 12 weeks. Over the intervention period, the two diets had comparable compliance (96%) and self-reported acceptability. At week 12, carbohydrate intake in the LC and ER groups contributed to 36·1 and 51·1% of total energy, respectively (P diets showed similarly decreased mean body weight (LC - 5·27 (95% CI - 6·08, - 4·46) kg; ER - 5·09 (95% CI - 5·50, - 4·67) kg, P = 0·67) and percentage of fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (LC - 1·19 (95% CI - 1·88, - 0·50)%; ER - 1·56 (95% CI - 2·20, - 0·92)%, P = 0·42), participants in the LC group had greater reductions in the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol (P= 0·03) and also in the ratio of TAG:HDL-cholesterol (P = 0·01) than those in the ER group. The present 12-week diet trial suggested that both a LC non-energy-restricted diet and an ER diet were acceptable to Chinese women and both diets were equally effective in reducing weight and fat mass. Moreover, the LC diet showed beneficial effects on blood lipid profiles.

  10. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer J Klement

    Full Text Available Currently ketogenic diets (KDs are hyped as an anti-tumor intervention aimed at exploiting the metabolic abnormalities of cancer cells. However, while data in humans is sparse, translation of murine tumor models to the clinic is further hampered by small sample sizes, heterogeneous settings and mixed results concerning tumor growth retardation. The aim was therefore to synthesize the evidence for a growth inhibiting effect of KDs when used as a monotherapy in mice.We conducted a Bayesian random effects meta-analysis on all studies assessing the survival (defined as the time to reach a pre-defined endpoint such as tumor volume of mice on an unrestricted KD compared to a high carbohydrate standard diet (SD. For 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria either a mean survival time ratio (MR or hazard ratio (HR between the KD and SD groups could be obtained. The posterior estimates for the MR and HR averaged over four priors on the between-study heterogeneity τ2 were MR = 0.85 (95% highest posterior density interval (HPDI = [0.73, 0.97] and HR = 0.55 (95% HPDI = [0.26, 0.87], indicating a significant overall benefit of the KD in terms of prolonged mean survival times and reduced hazard rate. All studies that used a brain tumor model also chose a late starting point for the KD (at least one day after tumor initiation which accounted for 26% of the heterogeneity. In this subgroup the KD was less effective (MR = 0.89, 95% HPDI = [0.76, 1.04].There was an overall tumor growth delaying effect of unrestricted KDs in mice. Future experiments should aim at differentiating the effects of KD timing versus tumor location, since external evidence is currently consistent with an influence of both of these factors.

  11. Evaluation of collection method and diet effects on apparent digestibility and energy values of swine diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Tran, H; Bundy, J W; Burkey, T E; Kerr, B J; Nielsen, M K; Miller, P S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of collection method and diet type on digestibility coefficients. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows were fed either a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet or CSBM with 20% dried distillers' grains with solubles (CSBM-DDGS). In Exp. 2, the effects of basal diet and collection method on determination of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) digestibility were studied using 24 barrows. The 4 diets used in Exp. 2 were: a CSBM (basal 1) , a barley-canola meal (BCM; basal 2), 80% basal 1 with 20% DDGS (CSBM-DDGS), and 80% basal 2 with 20% DDGS (BCM-DDGS). In both experiments, feces were collected using a time-based collection method (DY) or a "marker-to-marker" collection method (MM). Diets contained 0.5% of titanium dioxide (TiO) for estimating digestibility using the index marker approach (IM). The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM and GE were lower ( diet than in the CSBM diet in Exp. 1 but were not different in Exp. 2. All the estimates of BCM-based diets were consistently lower ( diets. In Exp. 1, digestibility coefficients determined by the DY and MM were not different from each other, whereas those estimates were lower ( diet type and method for dietary digestibility coefficients. Digestibility and energy values estimated by the DY and MM were not different in pigs fed CSBM-based diets and the BCM-DDGS diet, whereas those estimates were greater ( diet and method for estimating DDGS digestibility. The ATTD of DM and GE of DDGS using the MM were greater ( diets. The mean DE and ME (as-fed basis) of DDGS were 3,994 and 3,688 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 1 diet and were 3,919 and 3,547 kcal/kg, respectively, when estimated using the basal 2 diet. In conclusion, both collection methods can be used to estimate energy and nutrient digestibility of diets and DDGS when using CSBM-based diets.

  12. Effects of monounsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on serum lipoproteins and apoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Groot, de M.J.M.; Broeke, van den L.T.; Severijnen-Nobels, A.P.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet and an olive-oil-rich diet on the distribution of cholesterol over the various lipoproteins, on serum apolipoproteins, and on the composition of HDL2 and HDL3 were studied under strict dietary control. Forty-eight healthy subjects first consumed a

  13. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ... 3.38% and food conversion ratio (FCR) of 5.78 of the formulated diets respectively were ... The Juveniles fed raw soybean gave the least growth performance (Diet T3) and ...

  14. 高糖低脂膳食对健康青年血脂比值的影响%Effects of High-carbohydrate/Low-fat Diet on Serum Lipid Ratios in Healthy Young Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘婵芬; 龚仁蓉; 林佳; 李正科; 汤慧; 黄鑫; 李蓉辉; 方定志

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨短期高糖低脂膳食对健康青年血脂比值甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDL-C)、log(TG/HDL-C)、总胆固醇(TC)/HDL-C、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)/HDL-C的影响.方法 在校大学生自愿者56名(22.89±1.80)岁,于7 d平衡膳食后给予高糖低脂膳食6 d,分别在第1 d、8 d、14 d清晨抽取空腹静脉血,测定TG、TC、HDL-C、LDL-C浓度,计算TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)、TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C值.结果 高糖低脂膳食后,TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)在女性显著升高(P<0.05),男性有下降趋势,但无统计学意义.按BMI或WHR分析发现,高糖低脂膳食后 TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)在正常女性显著升高(P<0.05),而在一般肥胖或腹型肥胖女性无显著性改变;不同BMI或WHR男性高糖低脂膳食后TG/HDL-C、Iog(TG/HDL-C)无显著变化.TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C在高糖低值膳食后均显著下降(P<0.05).且不受性别、BMI、WHR 的影响.结论 高糖低脂膳食诱导的TG/HDL-C、log(TG/HDL-C)改变因性别及BMI或WHR不同而不同,TC/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C的改变则不受其影响,对指导相应人群改变膳食结构具有重要意义.

  15. Very low density lipoprotein triglyceride transport in type IV hyperlipoproteinemia and the effects of carbohydrate-rich diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarfordt, Steven H.; Frank, Arthur; Shames, David M.; Berman, Mones; Steinberg, Daniel

    1970-01-01

    Transport of plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) and of fatty acids in triglycerides of plasma very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-TGFA) was studied in two normal subjects, five patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia, and two patients with type I hyperlipoproteinemia. After intravenous pulse-labeling with albumin-bound 1-palmitate-14C, specific radioactivity of plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA were determined at intervals up to 24 hr. The results were analyzed using several different multicompartmental models each compatible with the experimental data. Fractional transport of VLDL-TGFA was distinctly lower (no overlap) in the type IV patients than in the control subjects, both on a usual balanced diet (40% of calories from carbohydrate) and on a high-carbohydrate diet (80% of calories). However, net or total transport of VLDL-TGFA in the type IV patients was not clearly distinguishable from that in the control subjects, there being considerable overlap on either diet. The results suggest that in this group of type IV patients the underlying defect leading to the increased pool size of VLDL-TGFA is not overproduction but a relative defect in mechanisms for removal of VLDL-TGFA. Since some of these type IV patients had only a moderate degree of hypertriglyceridemia at the time they were studied, and since it is not established that patients with the type IV phenotype constitute a biochemically homogeneous population, the present results should not be generalized. Four studies were done (in two control subjects and two type IV patients) in which the kinetic parameters in the same individual were determined on the balanced diet and on the high-carbohydrate diet. All subjects showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA pool size. Using two of the models for analysis, all showed an increase in net transport of VLDL-TGFA; using the third model, three of the four studies showed an increase in VLDL-TGFA transport. The results are compatible with the interpretation that the carbohydrate

  16. Adipocyte Gene Expression Is Altered in Formerly Obese Mice and As a Function of Diet Composition123

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan S Miller; Becker, Kevin G.; Prabhu, Vinayakumar; Cooke, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In the development of obesity, the source of excess energy may influence appetite and metabolism. To determine the effects of differences in diet composition in obesity, mice were fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 10% fat energy) or a high-fat energy–restricted diet (HFR; 60% fat energy) over 18 wk in weight-matched groups of mice. To identify obesity-associated genes with persistently altered expression following weight reduction, mice were fed either a standard low-fat diet (LF; 10% ...

  17. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Obesity-prone (OP) rodents are used as models of human obesity predisposition. The goal of the present study was to identify preexisting defects in energy expenditure components in OP rats. Two studies were performed. In the first one, male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 3 wk and then a high-fat diet (HFD) for the next 3 wk. This study showed that adiposity gain under HCD was 2.9-fold larger in carbohydrate-sensitive (CS) than in carbohydrate-resistant (CR) rats, confirming the concept of "carbohydrate-sensitive" rats. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS) rats, and indicated that obesity developed in FS rats only as the result of a larger CI not fully compensated by a parallel increase in EE. A specific pattern of spontaneous activity, characterized by reduced activity burst intensity, was identified in FS rats but not in CS ones. This mirrors a previous observation that under HCD, CS but not FS rats, exhibited bursts of activity of reduced intensity. In a second study, rats were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and the components of energy expenditure were examined by indirect calorimetry in 10 FR and 10 FS rats. This study confirmed that a low basal EE, reduced thermic effect of feeding, defective postprandial energy partitioning, or a defective substrate utilization by the working muscle are not involved in the FS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and female individuals respectively. From the analysis of the results, it was found that changes of diet % of fat and carbohydrates do not have a significant impact on predicted lifespan, while the diet % of proteins has an important effect. Reduction of diet protein % to the minimum recommended in nutrition literature yields an average increase of 3.3 years on the predicted lifespan. Changes in the calorie content of the diet also have an important effect, yielding a % increase in lifespan equal or higher than the % reduction in the diet caloric content. This correlates well experimental data on small mammal and insects, in which lifespan has been increased by diet restriction.

  19. Carbohydrates and Endothelial Function: Is a Low-Carbohydrate Diet or a Low-Glycemic Index Diet Favourable for Vascular Health?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endot...

  20. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  1. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent weight-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, arthritis and some cancers. A healthy diet is an important part of a weight-loss ... you to lose weight. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  2. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharshi Bhaswant

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both black (B and green (G cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  3. Green and Black Cardamom in a Diet-Induced Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaswant, Maharshi; Poudyal, Hemant; Mathai, Michael L; Ward, Leigh C; Mouatt, Peter; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-09-11

    Both black (B) and green (G) cardamom are used as flavours during food preparation. This study investigated the responses to B and G in a diet-induced rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats were fed either a corn starch-rich diet (C) or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with increased simple sugars along with saturated and trans fats (H) for 16 weeks. H rats showed signs of metabolic syndrome leading to visceral obesity with hypertension, glucose intolerance, cardiovascular remodelling and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 3% dried B or G for the final eight weeks only. The major volatile components were the closely related terpenes, 1,8-cineole in B and α-terpinyl acetate in G. HB (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + black cardamom) rats showed marked reversal of diet-induced changes, with decreased visceral adiposity, total body fat mass, systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides, and structure and function of the heart and liver. In contrast, HG (high-carbohydrate, high-fat + green cardamom) rats increased visceral adiposity and total body fat mass, and increased heart and liver damage, without consistent improvement in the signs of metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that black cardamom is more effective in reversing the signs of metabolic syndrome than green cardamom.

  4. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazrai, Y M; Defeudis, G; Pozzilli, P

    2014-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the fastest growing diseases; the number of people affected by diabetes will soon reach 552 million worldwide, with associated increases in complications and healthcare expenditure. Lifestyle and medical nutrition therapy are considered the keystones of type 2 diabetes prevention and treatment, but there is no definite consensus on how to treat this disease with these therapies. The American Diabetes Association has made several recommendations regarding the medical nutrition therapy of diabetes; these emphasize the importance of minimizing macrovascular and microvascular complications in people with diabetes. Four types of diets were reviewed for their effects on diabetes: the Mediterranean diet, a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet, a vegan diet and a vegetarian diet. Each of the four types of diet has been shown to improve metabolic conditions, but the degree of improvement varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate a patient's pathophysiological characteristics in order to determine the diet that will achieve metabolic improvement in each individual. Many dietary regimens are available for patients with type 2 diabetes to choose from, according to personal taste and cultural tradition. It is important to provide a tailor-made diet wherever possible in order to maximize the efficacy of the diet on reducing diabetes symptoms and to encourage patient adherence. Additional randomized studies, both short term (to analyse physiological responses) and long term, could help reduce the multitude of diets currently recommended and focus on a shorter list of useful regimens.

  5. Effect of macronutrient composition of the diet on the regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue at rest and during exercise: microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljkovicova, Hana; Marion-Latard, Fabrice; Hejnova, Jindra; Majercik, Marek; Crampes, François; De Glisezinski, Isabelle; Berlan, Michel; Rivière, Daniel; Stich, Vladimir

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate, using a microdialysis technique, whether modifications in the proportion of fat in the diet influence lipid mobilization from adipose tissue in situ. Nine healthy volunteers (age, 23.4 +/- 0.2 years; body mas index [BMI], 23.5 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) were fed, in random order, with a high-fat diet (HFD) (65% of energy content fat, 15% protein, 20% carbohydrate) or a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) (70% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 15% fat) for 5 days, with a washout period of 10 days between the diets. Subjects were studied in the fasting state on the morning following days 4 and 5 of each diet. We measured the concentration of extracellular glycerol (EGC) in adipose tissue in response to (1) pharmacologic stimulation with isoprenaline (1 and 10 micromol/L) in situ, (2) stimulation with intravenous infusion of epinephrine (0.0375 microg/min/kg body weight), and (3) submaximal aerobic exercise (50% V*O2max, 60-minute duration). No effect of the diet composition was found in the increases of EGC in response to isoprenaline (area under the curve [AUC]: HFD, 1,534 +/- 370 micromol/90 min; HCD, 1,108 +/- 465 micromol/90 min; not significant [NS]) or epinephrine stimulations (AUC: HFD, 190 +/- 92 micromol/30 min; HCD, 251 +/- 298 micromol/30 min; NS). The exercise-induced increase in EGC was higher during the HFD (AUC: HFD, 1,641 +/- 181 micromol/60 min; HCD, 963 +/- 156 micromol/60 min; P <.05) and was associated with a higher exercise-induced response of norepinephrine (P <.05) and epinephrine (P =.056) and lower insulinemia during exercise. The results suggest that macronutrient composition of diet does not affect the beta-adrenergic responsiveness of adipose tissue to catecholamine action at rest. During exercise, the HFD promotes higher lipolysis in adipose tissue and this is associated with a higher catecholamine response and lower insulinemia.

  6. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  7. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  8. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory R; Clark, Sally A; Cox, Amanda J; Halson, Shona L; Hargreaves, Mark; Hawley, John A; Jeacocke, Nikki; Snow, Rodney J; Yeo, Wee Kian; Burke, Louise M

    2010-07-01

    We determined the effects of varying daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training on endurance performance, whole body rates of substrate oxidation, and selected mitochondrial enzymes. Sixteen endurance-trained cyclists or triathletes were pair matched and randomly allocated to either a high-carbohydrate group (High group; n = 8) or an energy-matched low-carbohydrate group (Low group; n = 8) for 28 days. Immediately before study commencement and during the final 5 days, subjects undertook a 5-day test block in which they completed an exercise trial consisting of a 100 min of steady-state cycling (100SS) followed by a 7-kJ/kg time trial on two occasions separated by 72 h. In a counterbalanced design, subjects consumed either water (water trial) or a 10% glucose solution (glucose trial) throughout the exercise trial. A muscle biopsy was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle on day 1 of the first test block, and rates of substrate oxidation were determined throughout 100SS. Training induced a marked increase in maximal citrate synthase activity after the intervention in the High group (27 vs. 34 micromol x g(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.001). Tracer-derived estimates of exogenous glucose oxidation during 100SS in the glucose trial increased from 54.6 to 63.6 g (P < 0.01) in the High group with no change in the Low group. Cycling performance improved by approximately 6% after training. We conclude that altering total daily carbohydrate intake by providing or withholding carbohydrate during daily training in trained athletes results in differences in selected metabolic adaptations to exercise, including the oxidation of exogenous carbohydrate. However, these metabolic changes do not alter the training-induced magnitude of increase in exercise performance.

  9. Diet, insulin resistance, and obesity: zoning in on data for Atkins dieters living in South Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Garvey, W Timothy

    2004-09-01

    Insulin resistance is a central pathogenic factor for the metabolic syndrome and is associated with both generalized obesity and the accumulation of fat in the omental and intramyocellular compartments. In the context of the current obesity epidemic, it is imperative to consider diets in terms of their ability to both promote weight loss and ameliorate insulin resistance. Weight loss under any dietary formulation depends on hypocaloric intake, and only moderate weight loss (5-10%) is sufficient to augment insulin sensitivity. However, increments in insulin sensitivity may be more directly related to loss of intramyocellular or omental fat rather than loss of total body weight per se. The widespread acceptance of popular low-carbohydrate high-fat diets (e.g. Atkins Diet, Zone Diet, South Beach diet) further underscores the need to evaluate dietary interventions regarding their safety and metabolic effects. These high-fat diets have been shown to be safe in the short term; however, their long-term safety has not been established. With respect to insulin sensitivity, diets enriched in saturated fats can induce insulin resistance, whereas fat substitution with monounsaturated fats can enhance insulin sensitivity. On the other hand, high-fiber, high-carbohydrate diets comprised of foods with low caloric density can similarly be used for effective weight reduction and to ameliorate insulin resistance. Although some data suggest that low-glycemic index diets are most advantageous in this regard, these effects may have more to do with increments in dietary fiber than differences in available carbohydrates. Popular low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are being fervently embraced as an alternative to challenging modifications in lifestyle and intentional calorie reduction. Current data do not support such unbridled enthusiasm for these diets, particularly in relationship to high-fiber, high-carbohydrate diets emphasizing intake of fresh vegetables and fruits. Long-term studies

  10. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  11. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  12. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Cancelliere, Rosa; di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-11-16

    High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy) rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. The T Allele of the ACAT-2 734 C/T Polymorphism is Associated with the Changes of TG/HDLC, log (TG/HDLC) and LDLC/HDLC Induced by High-carbohydrate/ Low-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Women%酰基辅酶A:胆固醇酰基转移酶2基因734位点T等位基因与高糖低脂膳食诱导的健康青年女性TG/HDLC、log( TG/HDLC)及LDLC/HDLC改变相关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜喆; 龚仁蓉; 李元昊; 樊梅; 方定志

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the acyl-coenzyme A-' cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2) 734 C/T polymorphism on ratios of serum lipids and its interactions on the ratios with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat ( HC/LF) diet in a young healthy Chinese population. Methods After a washout diet for seven days, fifty six young healthy subjects were given the HC/LF diet for six days. The serum lipid profiles were analyzed using the twelve-hour fasting venous blood samples collected in the mornings of the first, the eighth and the fourteenth days. The ratios of TG/HDLC, log (TG/HDLC) , TC/HDLC and LDLC/HDLC were calculated. The ACAT-2 734 C/T polymorphism was analyzed by restriction fragments patterns after amplified by polymerase chain reactions. Results At baseline, the female carriers of the T allele had significantly lower log (TG/HDLC) than the female subjects with the CC genotype. The male subjects%目的 探讨酰基辅酶A:胆固醇酰基转移酶2(ACAT-2)基因734位点C/T多态性对健康青年血脂比值的影响及在高糖低脂膳食诱导的血脂比值变化中的作用.方法 给予56名健康青年志愿者7天平衡膳食和6天高糖低脂膳食,于第1天、第8天以及第14天清晨抽取12 h空腹静脉血,测定血脂,计算甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TG/HDLC)、log(TrG/HDLC)、总胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(TC/HDLC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇/高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDLC/HDLC)比值.提取基因组DNA,聚合酶链反应限制性酶切法分析ACAT-2基因734位点多态性.结果 女性T等位基因携带者log( TG/HDLC)显著低于CC纯合子受试者,男性CC纯合子受试者TC/HDLC显著高于女性CC纯合子受试者,男性T等位基因携带者log(TG/HDLC)显著高于女性.高糖低脂膳食前,男性T等位基因携带者TG/HDLC、log(TG/HDLC)显著高于女性.与高糖低脂膳食前相比,高糖低脂膳食后男性TC/HDLC、LDLC/HDLC显著降低,不受基因型影响.女性CC纯合子受试者

  14. The anticancer and antiobesity effects of Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Chao, Xiaojuan; Su, Tao; Fu, Xiuqiong; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2017-01-02

    Cancers have been the leading cause of death worldwide and the prevalence of obesity is also increasing in these few decades. Interestingly, there is a direct association between cancer and obesity. Each year, more than 90,000 cancer deaths are caused by obesity or overweight. The dietary pattern in Crete, referred as the traditional Mediterranean diet, is believed to confer Crete people the low mortality rates from cancers. Nevertheless, the antiobesity effect of the Mediterranean diet is less studied. Given the causal relationship between obesity and cancer, the antiobesity effect of traditional Mediterranean diet might contribute to its anticancer effects. In this regard, we will critically review the anticancer and antiobesity effects of this diet and its dietary factors. The possible mechanisms underlying these effects will also be discussed.

  15. High-protein and high-carbohydrate breakfasts differentially change the transcriptome of human blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Blom, W.A.M.; Ommen, B. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Application of transcriptomics technology in human nutrition intervention studies would allow for genome-wide screening of the effects of specific diets or nutrients and result in biomarker profiles. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the potential of gene expression profiling in blood c

  16. Ketogenic diet therapy is effective in encephalitis with refractory seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Kurata, Tomoko; Deguchi, Shoko; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Abe, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Although ketogenic diet therapy is effective in refractory seizures in childhood, its effect on adult encephalitis with similar refractory seizures and prolonged encephalopathy has not been well reported. We report here a case of a 22-year-old man with acute encephalitis with refractory repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS). Partial seizures of the face developed to repeated generalized convulsions, which were refractory against anti-epileptic drugs and a high dose of propofol. After struggling for 9 months, he dramatically recovered after ketogenic diet therapy. Ketogenic diet therapy may be an important tool to help cure AERRPS.

  17. Diet-dependent modulation of hippocampal expression of endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins in cannabinoid antagonist-treated obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Patricia; Luque-Rojas, María Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Blanco, Eduardo; Pavón, Francisco J; Serrano, Antonia; Crespillo, Ana; Vida, Margarita; Grondona, Jesús M; Cifuentes, Manuel; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez; Suárez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity produces changes in endocannabinoid signaling (ECS), influencing the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, we demonstrated that, in high-fat-diet-fed rats, blockade of CB1 receptor by AM251 not only reduced body weight but also increased adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, suggesting an influence of diet on hippocampal cannabinoid function. To further explore the role of hippocampal ECS in high-fat-diet-induced obesity, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical expression of the enzymes that produce (diacylglycerol lipase alpha and N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D) and degrade (monoacylglycerol lipase and fatty acid amino hydrolase) endocannabinoids may be altered in the hippocampus of AM251 (3 mg/kg)-treated rats fed three different diets: standard diet (normal chow), high-carbohydrate diet (70% carbohydrate) and high-fat diet (60% fat). Results indicated that AM251 reduced caloric intake and body weight gain, and induced a modulation of the expression of ECS-related proteins in the hippocampus of animals exposed to hypercaloric diets. These effects were differentially restricted to either the 2-arachinodoyl glycerol or anandamide signaling pathways, in a diet-dependent manner. AM251-treated rats fed the high-carbohydrate diet showed a reduction of the diacylglycerol lipase alpha : monoacylglycerol lipase ratio, whereas AM251-treated rats fed the high-fat diet showed a decrease of the N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D : fatty acid amino hydrolase ratio. These results are consistent with the reduced levels of hippocampal endocannabinoids found after food restriction. Regarding the CB1 expression, AM251 induced specific changes focused in the CA1 stratum pyramidale of high-fat-diet-fed rats. These findings indicated that the cannabinoid antagonist AM251 modulates ECS-related proteins in the rat hippocampus in a diet-specific manner. Overall, these results suggest that the hippocampal ECS participates

  18. Short-term effects of a low carbohydrate diet on glycaemic variables and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Schmidt, Signe; Damm-Frydenberg, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) vs a low carbohydrate diet (LCD) on glycaemic variables and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (4 women, insulin pump-treated, median ± standard deviation [s.d.] age 48...... (225 ± 30 vs 47 ± 10 g carbohydrates/d; P levels were similar in the two diets (7.3 ± 1.1 vs 7.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L; P = .99). The LCD resulted in more time with glucose values in the range of 3.9 to 10.0 mmol/L (83% ± 9% vs 72% ± 11%; P = .02), less time with values ≤3.9 mmol....../L (3.3% ± 2.8% vs 8.0% ± 6.3%; P = .03), and less glucose variability (s.d. 1.9 ± 0.4 vs 2.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L; P = .02) than the HCD. Cardiovascular markers were unaffected, while fasting glucagon, ketone and free fatty acid levels were higher at end of the LCD week than the HCD week. In conclusion...

  19. Effects of 7 days on an ad libitum low-fat vegan diet: the McDougall Program cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Thomas, Laurie E; McDougall, Craig; Moloney, Gavin; Saul, Bradley; Finnell, John S; Richardson, Kelly; Petersen, Katelin Mae

    2014-10-14

    Epidemiologic evidence, reinforced by clinical and laboratory studies, shows that the rich Western diet is the major underlying cause of death and disability (e.g, from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes) in Western industrialized societies. The objective of this study is to document the effects that eating a low-fat (≤10% of calories), high-carbohydrate (~80% of calories), moderate-sodium, purely plant-based diet ad libitum for 7 days can have on the biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Retrospective analysis of measurements of weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids and estimation of cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and day 7 from 1615 participants in a 10-day residential dietary intervention program from 2002 to 2011. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was used for testing the significance of changes from baseline. The median (interquartile range, IQR) weight loss was 1.4 (1.8) kg (p 7.5% at baseline, the risk dropped to 5.5% (>27%) at day 7 (p vegan diet eaten ad libitum for 7 days results in significant favorable changes in commonly tested biomarkers that are used to predict future risks for cardiovascular disease and metabolic diseases.

  20. Mitochondrial Profiles and the Anticonvulsant Effect of the Ketogenic Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the anticonvulsant effect of the ketogenic diet (KD in adolescent rats, at Emory University and other centers, found that the hippocampus responds by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, enhancing metabolic gene expression, and increasing energy reserves.

  1. The effect of a physical activity, diet and behaviour modification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of a physical activity, diet and behaviour modification intervention on the self-perception of 9 to 12 year old overweight and obese children. ... Kinanthropometric measurements were used to assess body composition and ...

  2. Effect of Progesterone Therapy versus Diet Modification on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnant women may experience constipation for the first time or ... Aim: To compare the effect of progesterone versus diet modification in the treatment of constipation .... is a natural product that contains several types of fiber.

  3. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  4. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects

  5. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  6. Effect of the "protein diet" and bone tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zoraide Nascimento da Silva; Vanessa Azevedo de Jesuz; Eduardo de Salvo Castro; Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa; Gilson Teles Boaventura; Vilma Blondet de Azeredo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the hyperproteic diet consumption on bone tissue. Methods: The study was conducted during sixty days. Twenty eight Wistar albinus rats, adults, originated from Laboratory of Experimental Nutrition were divided in four groups: (n = 7); Control 1 (C1), Control 2 (C2), Hyperproteic 1 (HP1) e Hyperproteic 2 (HP2). The C2 and HP2 groups were submitted to 30% of food restriction. The hyperproteic diet was based on the Atkins diet and prepared to si...

  7. Effects of different proportions of high carbohydrate intake on morbidity of hypertension of middle aged and elderly people in Zhang Fang village, Fang Shan District, Beijing%高碳水化合物摄入比例对北京市房山区张坊村中老年人高血压患病率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪忠新; 王佳; 武力; 顾中一; 毕研霞; 丁冰杰; 李伟; 张立红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨碳水化合物摄入比例与北京市房山区张坊村中老年人高血压患病率的关系.方法 随机抽取北京市房山区张坊村中老年村民150例,测量血压和人体指标,并对村民膳食摄入量进行调查,按纳入和排除标准入选132例作为研究对象.根据碳水化合物的摄入比例将村民分成两组:高碳水化合物摄入比例组(碳水化合物摄入比例占总能量比例大于或等于60%组),以下称高碳水化合物组(high carbohydrate group,HC组),和非高碳水化合物摄入比例组(碳水化合物摄入比例占总能量比例小于60%组),以下称非高碳水化合物组(none high carbohydrate group,NHC组),并对两组人群的有关指标进行统计分析.结果 该村中老年高血压患病率较高,达59.1%.HC组高血压患病率明显高于NHC组,以收缩压升高为显著;两组村民年龄、性别、吸烟和饮酒情况差异无统计学意义;两组村民人体测量指标差异无统计学意义;两组村民总能量、碳水化合物、钙、钠及钾等摄入量差异无统计学意义,但NHC组村民鱼肉类、干果类和油脂类摄入量显著高于HC组,按营养素换算后NHC组村民蛋白质和脂肪摄入量亦显著高于HC组.结论 碳水化合物摄入占总能量比例大于或等于60%时,高血压患病率明显增加,以收缩压升高为显著.这与蛋白质和脂肪的摄入量的减少有关,与年龄、吸烟、饮酒、人体测量指标及总能量、碳水化合物、钙、钠及钾等摄入量无关.%Objective To invesligale the relationship belween the proportion of carbohydrale inlake and the morbidily of hypertension in middle aged and elderly people in Zhang Fang village, Fang Shan Dislricl, Beijing. Methods Tolally 150 middle aged and elderly villagers were selecled randomly in Zhang Fang Village,Fang Shan Dislricl, Beijing. The btood pressure and paramelers of anlhropomelry were measured and the diel inlake was investigated. According to

  8. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour...... fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society....

  9. Valproate effect on ketosis in children under ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Martha; Pavlou, Evangelos; Gogou, Maria; Katsanika, Irene; Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Grafakou, Olga; Gkampeta, Anastasia; Dinopoulos, Argyrios; Evangeliou, Athanasios

    2016-07-01

    Although ketogenic diet has been proven useful in the management of intractable seizures, interactions with other medicines have been reported. This study reports two patients on co-administration with ketogenic diet and valproate appearing undesirable side effects after increase or decrease of valproate pharmaceutical levels. Totally 75 patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy were treated with ketogenic diet in our departments. Their age varied from 6 months to 9 years. All patients were followed for at least 12 months and up to five years. Clinical and laboratory variables have been regularly assessed. In 75 patients treated with ketogenic diet and valproate at the same time treatment was well tolerated. Two patients presented mild to moderate undesirable effects. In these patients the removal of valproate treatment resulted in an increase of ketosis with respective clinical signs. The conversion of the diet from 4:1 to 1:1 and 2,5:1 respectively resulted in reduction of ketosis and clinical improvement. In the majority of cases co-administration of valproate and ketogenic diet seems to be safe. In two cases, valproate appeared to have a negative effect on ketosis (and weaning it led to over-ketosis). This interaction is worthy of future study. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of chia seed and oil (Salvia Hispanica L.) potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity and comorbidities induced by high fat and high carbohydrate diet in vivo : Avaliação do potencial da semente e do óleo de chia (Salvia Hispanica L.) na prevenção e no tratamento da obesidade e comorbidades induzidas por dieta hiperlipídica e hiperglicídica in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaela da Silva Marineli Campos

    2016-01-01

    A diversidade de compostos bioativos presentes nos alimentos e sua ampla aplicação terapêutica justificam a busca por conhecimentos relacionados às propriedades fisiológicas ou funcionais dos mesmos. A chia (Salvia hispanica L.) é uma antiga planta herbácea, com alto teor de óleo, principalmente ácido graxo ?-linolênico, proteína, fibra dietética e outros compostos bioativos. Ela tem sido recentemente estudada por sua importante composição nutricional, possível aplicação em alimentos, potenci...

  11. Fat and carbohydrate content in the diet induces drastic changes in gene expression in young Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M.Junker; Figueiredo Cardoso, Tainã; Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul

    2017-01-01

    impact of diet interventions, it is very important to investigate the molecular mechanisms driving the diet-induced phenotypic changes in relevant tissues. However, studying these effects in humans is difficult due to ethical concerns in doing interventions and obtaining tissue samples and good animal......In human health, there is interest in developing specific diets to reduce body weight. These studies are mainly focused on phenotypic changes induced in blood measurements, i.e., triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and insulin, and on physical changes, i.e., body weight and BMI. To evaluate the biological...... the initial stages of diet-induced metabolic changes. Half of them were fed a high-fat/cholesterol, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) diet, and the other half were fed a low- fat/cholesterol, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) diet. After 13 weeks, the HFLC group weighted less and had dyslipidemia compared to the LFHC group...

  12. Nutrition, oxidative stress and intestinal dysbiosis: Influence of diet on gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Mazzola, Margherita; Leone, Angelo; Sinagra, Emanuele; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Damiani, Provvidenza; Cappello, Francesco; Gerges Geagea, Alice; Jurjus, Abdo; Bou Assi, Tarek; Messina, Massimiliano; Carini, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Microbiota refers to the population of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi) that inhabit the entire gastrointestinal tract, more particularly the colon whose role is to maintain the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and control the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota is called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis redisposes to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease and indeterminate colitis. The purpose of this literature review is to elucidate the influence of diet on the composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the healthy gut and the role of diet in the development of dysbiosis. The "Western diet", in particular a low - fiber high fat/high carbohydrate diet is one factor that can lead to severe dysbiosis. In contrast, "mediterranean" and vegetarian diets that includes abundant fruits, vegetables, olive oil and oily fish are known for their anti-inflammatory effects and could prevent dysbiosis and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of A Multigrain Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay S. Karn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a formulated multigrain diet on metabolic alterations in carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant status in diabetic animals Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate and diabetic status was confirmed by blood glucose levels over a period of two weeks. Diet was formulated using Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays and casein, corn starch and vegetable oil. Carbohydrate (plasma glucose, hepatic glycogen, G-6-Pase and hexokinase, hepatic and renal functions (Total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant profiles (SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, TAA were determined. Results and Conclusions: The diabetic animals when fed formulated diet, exhibited significant decreases in serum glucose, SGPT, SGOT, urea, creatinine and hepatic G-6-pase levels along with increased serum protein and glycogen content and hepatic hexokinase activity as compared to those of commercial diet fed diabetic animals. Hepatic and renal enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant profiles were also found to be restored to their normal values in those diabetic group of animals fed formulated diet. This study thus indicated that a multigrain formulated diet has a positive effect on diabetic animals with respect to serum glucose levels, hepatic and renal functions and antioxidant activity.

  14. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  15. Ketogenic Diet Provides Neuroprotective Effects against Ischemic Stroke Neuronal Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheida Shaafi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the world. Many mechanisms contribute in cell death in ischemic stroke. Ketogenic diet which has been successfully used in the drug-resistant epilepsy has been shown to be effective in many other neurologic disorders. The mechanisms underlying of its effects are not well studied, but it seems that its neuroprotective ability is mediated at least through alleviation of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis events. On the basis of these mechanisms, it is postulated that ketogenic diet could provide benefits to treatment of cerebral ischemic injuries.

  16. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI......Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...

  17. The effects of fat-free, saturated and polyunsaturated fat diets on rat liver and plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G J; Kelley, D S; Schmidt, P C; Serrato, C M

    1987-02-01

    The liver and plasma lipids and fatty acid composition of rats fed synthetic diets of differing fat type and content were studied. All animals were starved for 48 hr and then refed a high carbohydrate, fat-free diet for 48 hr. They were then divided into three groups and fed for an additional 48 hrs the following: group 1, the fat-free diet; group 2, a diet containing 44% of calories from corn oil; and group 3, a diet containing 44% calories from completely hydrogenated soybean oil. The total lipid concentration of the liver in the animals on the fat-free diet was elevated at 72 and 96 hr. The addition of either saturated or unsaturated fat in the diet at 48 hr prevented this accumulation. The total phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations of the liver were relatively uninfluenced by any diet in this study. Plasma total fatty acid concentration was elevated at 72 hr in the animals on a fat-free diet compared to those fed the stock diet, starved for 48 hr or fed the fat-containing diets. By 96 hr, however, plasma fatty acid concentrations in all groups were similar to those in animals fed only the stock diet. The release of de novo synthesized fatty acids into plasma from the liver was strongly inhibited by dietary fat, either saturated or polyunsaturated. With the fat-free diet there was a significant increase in the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in both liver and plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe, N D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M

    1999-06-01

    To examine the relative effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, and monounsaturated fats on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM subjects. Fourteen male and seven female variably controlled NIDDM subjects recruited by advertisement. Free living outpatients. A repeated measures, within-subject design was used such that each subject consumed three diets: (a) a high-GI diet (53% CHO -21% fat, 63 GI units (glucose= 100)); (b) a low-GI diet (51% CHO -23% fat, 43 GI units); and (c) a high-mono high-GI diet (42% CHO -35% fat, 59 GI units) in random order and cross-over fashion for four weeks. Approximately 45% energy was provided as key foods which differed in published GI values and specifically excluded legumes. Dietary fibre intake was > 30 g/d on each diet. At the end of each dietary intervention, we measured fasting plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, total glycated plasma protein, fructosamine, LDL and HDL particle size as well as 24 h urinary excretion of glucose and C-peptide. HDL-cholesterol was higher on the low-GI and high-mono high-GI diets compared to the high-GI diet (P < 0.05 for overall diet effect). There were no other significant differences in metabolic control between diets, even when adjusted for BMI, glucose control or gender. Body weight and saturated fat intake remained stable between dietary interventions. High-mono high-GI and high-CHO, low-GI diets are superior to high-CHO, high-GI diets with respect to HDL metabolism but no effect was noted on glucose metabolism in variably controlled NIDDM subjects.

  20. Effect of corn bran and steep inclusion in finishing diets on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, K M; Buckner, C D; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Loy, T W

    2013-08-01

    One metabolism trial and 2 finishing trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding corn bran and steep liquor (steep) in replacement of dry-rolled corn (DRC) on diet digestibility, cattle performance, and nutrient mass balance in open feedlot pens. The metabolism trial (Exp. 1) used 8 ruminally cannulated heifers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and the 2 finishing trials used 128 steer calves fed for 167 d (Exp. 2) and 256 yearling steers fed for 126 d (Exp. 3). Dietary treatments for all trials included a DRC-based control (CON), 30% corn bran (30/0), 30% corn bran plus 15% steep (30/15), and 45% corn bran plus 15% steep (45/15), in which by-products replaced DRC and molasses in the diet (DM basis). Diets were not isonitrogenous or isoenergetic. In the metabolism trial, feeding the by-product diets produced greater rumen pH (5.95) than CON (5.76; P diets (P diet than the by-product diets (2.36 vs. 2.84 and 0.72 vs. 1.66, respectively). In the performance trials, steers fed the by-product diets consumed more DM (P = 0.06) and G:F was either similar for all diets in Exp. 2 (P = 0.56) or less for cattle fed 30/0 than the other diets in Exp. 3 (P = 0.05). Percent N loss was reduced in Exp. 2 by including corn bran in diets compared with CON (P diet digestibility, it was beneficial in maintaining cattle performance in the feedlot studies. Feeding corn bran in combination with steep increased manure N removed and N in compost, but decreased percent N lost during the winter months only.

  1. Effects of methyl donor diets on incisional pain in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation with methyl donors can influence the programming of epigenetic patterns resulting in persistent alterations in disease susceptibility and behavior. However, the dietary effects of methyl donors on pain have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary methyl donor content on pain responses in mice. METHODS: Male and female C57BL/6J mice were treated with high or low methyl donor diets either in the perinatal period or after weaning. Mechanical and thermal nociceptive sensitivity were measured before and after incision. RESULTS: Mice fed high or low methyl donor diets displayed equal weight gain over the course of the experiments. When exposed to these dietary manipulations in the perinatal period, only male offspring of dams fed a high methyl donor diet displayed increased mechanical allodynia. Hindpaw incision in these animals caused enhanced nociceptive sensitization, but dietary history did not affect the duration of sensitization. For mice exposed to high or low methyl donor diets after weaning, no significant differences were observed in mechanical or thermal nociceptive sensitivity either at baseline or in response to hindpaw incision. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal dietary factors such as methyl donor content may impact pain experiences in later life. These effects, however, may be specific to sex and pain modality.

  2. Soybean hull and enzyme inclusion effects on diet digestibility and growth performance in beef steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-06-01

    A beef feedlot study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean hull (SH) inclusion and enzyme addition on diet digestibility and animal performance. The hypothesis was SH inclusion and enzyme addition would increase fiber digestibility with no negative effect on animal performance. Eight treatments (TRT) were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial using four diets and two enzyme (ENZ) inclusion rates. The diets were composed primarily of whole shell corn (WSC) with 0%, 7%, 14%, or 28% SH replacing corn. The ENZ was a commercial proprietary mix of , and (Cattlemace, R&D Life Sciences, Menomonie, WI) included in the diets at 0% (S0, S7, S14, S28) or 0.045% DM basis (S0e, S7e, S14e, S28e). Eighty steers (287 ± 31 kg, SD) were stratified by weight and blocked into pens with 1 heavy and 1 light pen per TRT (2 pen/TRT, 5 steers/pen). Steers were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diets for the final 15 d. Fecal samples were collected on d 70 to determine diet digestibility. Diets were balanced for AA and RDP requirement based on available ME. Individual DMI was measured using a GrowSafe system. Diet, ENZ, and diet × ENZ effects were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Initial BW was applied as a covariate for final BW (FBW), and DMI was included as a covariate for all digestibility measures. The diet × ENZ interaction had no effect on FBW, ADG, DMI, or any digestibility measure ( ≥ 0.11). Steers fed ENZ tended to have greater FBW ( = 0.09) and had numerically greater ADG than steers not fed ENZ. Diet influenced DMI ( diets had the greatest DMI ( ≤ 0.3), steers fed S0 diets had the least DMI ( ≤ 0.002), and DMI of steers fed S14 and S28 diets did not differ ( = 0.5). There was a diet × ENZ interaction for G:F ( = 0.02) in which S0, S0e, S14e, and S28e did not differ ( ≥ 0.3) and were greatest ( ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of diet or ENZ on DM, OM, or CP digestibility ( ≥ 0.2). Diet had an effect on NDF and ADF

  3. Effect of Diet on Metabolism of Laboratory Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P. C.; Riskowski, G. L.; McKee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    In previous studies when rats were fed a processed, semipurified, extruded rodent food bar (RFB) developed for space science research, we noted a difference in the appearance of gastrointestinal tissue (GI); therefore the following study evaluated GI characteristics and growth and metabolic rates of rats fed chow (C) or RFB. Two hundred and twenty-four rats (78 g mean body weight) were randomly assigned to 28 cages and provided C or RFB. Each cage was considered the experimental unit and a 95 percent level of significance, indicated by ANOVA, was used for inference. After each 30-, 60-, and 90-day period, eight cages were shifted from the C to RFB diet and housing density was reduced by two rats per cage. The two rats removed from each cage were sacrificed and used for GI evaluation. Metabolic rates of the rats in each cage were determined by indirect calorimetry. No differences in body weight were detected at 0, 30, 60 or 90 days between C and RFB. Heat production (kcal/hr/kg), CO2 production (L/hr/kg) and O2 consumption (L/hr/kg) were different by light:dark and age with no effect of diet. Respiratory quotient was different by age with no effect of light:dark or diet. Rats on the C diet ate less food and drank more water than those on RFB. C rats produced more fecal and waste materials than the RFB. GI lengths increased with age but were less in RFB than C. GI full and empty weights increased with age but weighed less in RFB than C. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) numbers increased with age with no effect of diet. No differences in ileum-associated GALT area were detected between C and RFB. Switching C to RFB decreased GI length, GI full and empty weights, with no changes in GALT number or area. We concluded RFB decreased GI mass without affecting metabolic rate or general body growth.

  4. Thermodynamics and metabolic advantage of weight loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2003-09-01

    Published reports show that low carbohydrate weight loss diets provide a metabolic advantage, a greater weight loss per calorie consumed compared to isocaloric high carbohydrate diets. These reports have not been refuted but rather largely ignored, presumably because of the apparent violation of the laws of thermodynamics ("a calorie is a calorie"). In this review, we show that there is no such violation of thermodynamic laws. Energy utilization of different diets depends on the chemical pathway taken and a metabolic analysis of the efficiency of different pathways reveals large differences. Likewise, thermogenesis produced by diets of different macronutrient composition varies widely. We present a plausible mechanism that depends on the inefficiency of metabolic cycles and, in particular, protein turnover. A low carbohydrate diet makes demands on protein turnover for gluconeogenesis. From a theoretical point of view,energy balance between two diets is to be expected only if the subjects have the same final physiologic state, and only if all of the changes contributing to the energy, heat, work and chemical effects are known. Most diet experiments do not conform to this ideal. There is no theoretical contradiction in metabolic advantage and no theoretical barrier to accepting reports describing this effect.

  5. Effect of the "protein diet" and bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraide Nascimento da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the hyperproteic diet consumption on bone tissue. Methods: The study was conducted during sixty days. Twenty eight Wistar albinus rats, adults, originated from Laboratory of Experimental Nutrition were divided in four groups: (n = 7; Control 1 (C1, Control 2 (C2, Hyperproteic 1 (HP1 e Hyperproteic 2 (HP2. The C2 and HP2 groups were submitted to 30% of food restriction. The hyperproteic diet was based on the Atkins diet and prepared to simulate the protein diet. At the end of the study the animals were anesthetized to performer bone densitometry analyses by DEXA and blood and tissue collection. Serum and bone minerals analyses were conducted by colorimetric methods in automated equipment. Results: The total bone mineral density (BMD of the pelvis and the spine of the food restriction groups (HP2 e C2 were lower (p < 0.05 than C1 e HP1 groups. While the femur BMD of the HP2 was lower (p < 0.05 related to others groups. It had been observed reduction (p < 0.05 in the medium point of the width of femur diaphysis and in bone calcium level in the hyperproteic groups (HP1 e HP2. It was observed similar effect on the osteocalcin level, that presented lower (p < 0.05 in the hyperproteic groups. The insulin level was lower only in HP2 and serum calcium of the HP1 and HP2 groups was lower than C1. Conclusion: The protein diet promotes significant bone change on femur and in the hormones levels related to bone synthesis and maintenance of this tissue.

  6. Effect Of Diet Counseling On Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumaneela Bolla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Metabolism is the way the uses digested food for growth amp energy. Importance of diet in diabetes can be treated back to the days of the ancient ayurvedic physician Sushreeta. Type of diabetes age of the patient body weight severity of the hyperglycemia associated complications and mode of treatment being followed determine the exact allowance and type of diet. This needs to be worked out for each individual diabetic. Dietary management is the corn stone of diabetes treatment and should receive the almost consideration by the patient and by the treating physician. Objective To assess The Nutritional Status and To Study the Effect Of Diet Counseling on Type II Diabetic Patients. Methodology For this study from diabetic hospital in Vijayawada were selected. In this study 40 samples age 30 to 60 years. They belong to age between 30 to 60 years. Preparation of Questionnaire to collect the General information age sex past history of subjects Anthropometric data Biochemical information Dietary information. Conclusion There is significant changes in the blood sugar levels after the diet counseling. Intake of the high amounts of the fiber low glycemic foods and functional foods helps to reduce the blood sugar levels randomly.

  7. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina; Håkansson, Maria; Nilsson, Sofia; Rehfeld, Jens F; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2013-09-01

    Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated over a 4-h period. Addition of thylakoids suppressed hunger motivation and increased secretion of CCK from 180 min, and prevented postprandial hypoglycaemia from 90 min following food intake. These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary addition of thylakoids could aid efforts to reduce food intake and prevent compensational eating later in the day, which may help to reduce body weight over time.

  8. The effects of Moina artificial diet and nutrase xyla supplemented artificial diet on growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Babalola, T.O.O.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Moina, artificial diet (55% CP) and nutrase xyla supplemented artificial diet on growth performances and survival rates of Clarias gariepinus larvae. A combination of Moina and artificial diet (with or without nutrass xyla) resulted in higher growth performance and survival rates during a 12-day nursing time with specific growth rates of 30.04-32.15% d super(-1) and survival rates of 87.5-90%. Best growth performance and survival rat...

  9. Metabolic and behavioral effects of chronic olanzapine treatment and cafeteria diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Alexandre P; Tort, Ana H; Gnoatto, Jussânia; Moreira, Julia D; Vinadé, Elsa R; Perry, Marcos L; Souza, Diogo O; Lara, Diogo R; Portela, Luis V

    2010-10-01

    Olanzapine and highly palatable diets can alter metabolism and brain function. We investigated the interaction of chronic treatment (4 months) with olanzapine and a cafeteria diet on metabolic parameters, memory tasks (spatial and aversive), the elevated plus maze and locomotor activity induced by d-amphetamine. Male Wistar rats were separated into the following groups: standard diet vehicle, standard diet and olanzapine, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet and olanzapine. Olanzapine was administered in the drinking water (approximately 1.5 mg/kg/day), and after 3 days of treatment, the rats exhibited an expected anxiolytic effect and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. After 4 months of treatment, cafeteria diet vehicle and cafeteria diet olanzapine rats exhibited an increased body weight and heavier fat pads compared with the standard diet groups. Olanzapine increased only the epididymal and mesenteric fat pads. The cafeteria diet and olanzapine group showed greater glucose intolerance compared with all other groups. The cafeteria diet altered the effects of chronic olanzapine on the performance in the water maze and inhibitory avoidance tasks. Chronic olanzapine treatment failed to affect amphetamine-induced locomotion and to produce anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze task, regardless of the diet. Our results suggest that chronic olanzapine caused an increase in fat pads, which is putatively involved in the etiology of many metabolic diseases. Rats on the cafeteria diet were overweight and exhibited glucose intolerance. We did not observe these effects with olanzapine treatment with the standard diet. Moreover, the chronic treatment regimen caused tolerance to the antipsychotic and anxiolytic effects of olanzapine and seemed to potentiate some of the metabolic effects of the cafeteria diet. The cafeteria diet also modified the effects of chronic treatment with olanzapine on cognitive tasks, which may represent an undesirable effect of

  10. Effect of the diet components on adiponectin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. G. Reis

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, which requires nutritional interventions for its effective control. Adiponectin has antiinflammatory capacity, improves glucose tolerance and presents decreased plasma expression and concentration in obese individuals. Studies with animals reveal improvement in insulin resistance after the infusion of adiponectin; in humans, caloric restriction increases its levels. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of dietary components on gene expression and plasma concentration of adiponectin. Sixteen articles were found following a literature review -seven with interventions in animal models and nine in human. The results in animal models demonstrate that the consumption of hyperlipidemic diets, rich in saturated fat, reduces the levels of adiponectin, while the diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and supplementation with omega-3 and eicosapentaenoic acid increase its gene expression and plasma levels. In humans, the consumption of a healthy and Mediterranean diet are positively associated with adiponectin levels, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Due to the importance of adiponectin in preventing metabolic diseases and reducing cardiovascular risk, more research are needed on food strategies to promote the increase of adiponectin levels. Therefore, studies must be carried out to evaluate the response to different sources and levels of various dietary components and the safety of the supplementation of specific nutrients.

  11. Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates metabolic, cardiovascular and liver changes in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome: Pharmacological and metabolism-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Efentakis, Panagiotis; Gikas, Evangelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Andreadou, Ioanna; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Brown, Lindsay

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The Mediterranean diet has been proposed as an important dietary pattern to confer cardioprotection by attenuating risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is present in olive fruit and oil, which are basic constituents of the Mediterranean diet. In this study, we have shown that treatment with HT (20mg/kg/d for 8 weeks) decreased adiposity, improved impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, improved endothelial function with lower systolic blood pressure, decreased left ventricular fibrosis and resultant diastolic stiffness and reduced markers of liver damage in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. These results were accompanied by reduced infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into the heart with reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in an HRMS-based metabolism study of HT, we have identified 24 HT phase I and II metabolites, six of them being over-produced in high-starch, low-fat diet fed rats treated with HT compared to obese rats on high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. These results provide direct evidence for cardioprotective effects of hydroxytyrosol by attenuation of metabolic risk factors. The implications of altered metabolism of HT in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet fed obese rats warrant further investigation.

  12. Effect of diet composition on water consumption in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, M I; Beaulieu, A D; Patience, J F

    2006-11-01

    Concerns relating to use of water resources by the livestock industry, combined with the rising cost of manure management, have resulted in greater interest in identifying ways to reduce drinking water utilization by pigs while maintaining animal well-being and achieving satisfactory growth performance. The objective of this experiment was to determine if increasing the dietary CP or mineral concentrations increases water intake and excretion and, conversely, if reducing the dietary CP content reduces water intake and excretion. Forty-eight barrows (34.3 +/- 4.6 kg of BW; 12/treatment) were given free access to diets containing a low protein (16.9% CP), high protein (20.9% CP), or excess protein (25.7% CP) level, or a diet with excess levels of Ca, P, Na, and Cl. Water was available to each pig on an ad libitum basis via dish drinkers that were determined to waste less than 3% of total water flow. The excess CP diet tended to increase average daily water intake (ADWI) and urinary excretion (P luxury intake is a significant experimental challenge. Because the impact of dietary treatment on water utilization was small, we conclude that factors other than dietary protein and mineral concentration and daily protein and mineral intake have a relatively large effect on water intake and excretion. Consequently, strategies to reduce water intake must recognize, understand, and manage these additional behavioral and physiological factors. Diet composition may be a part of strategies designed to reduce excessive water utilization by the pig industry but may have a limited effect if other important factors are ignored.

  13. Diet and effects of diet management on quality of life and symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostgaard, Hege; Hausken, Trygve; Gundersen, Doris; El-Salhy, Magdy

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the diet and quality of life of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients in comparison to the background population. Furthermore, it studied the effects of guidance on diet management on changes in food intake, quality of life and symptoms. A total of 35 healthy controls, 36 IBS patients and 43 IBS patients who had received guidance on diet management 2 years earlier were included. The controls and patients were asked to complete an FFQ questionnaire, an SF-NDI questionnaire, an IBS-QoL questionnaire and a Birmingham IBS symptom score questionnaire. There were no statistical differences in the intake of calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fat between the controls and IBS patients, with or without guidance on diet management. IBS patients made a conscious choice to avoid certain food items, some of which belong to fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosacharides and polyols (FODMAPs). They had a higher consumption, however, of other food items that are rich in FODMAPs. They also avoided other food sources which are crucial for their health. Two years after receiving guidance on diet management, IBS patients had a different diet profile. They avoided all FODMAP‑rich food, consumed more food with probiotic supplements and did not avoid food sources that were crucial to their health. In addition, they had improved quality of life and reduced symptoms. Although at first sight the diet of IBS patients did not differ from that of the background population, detailed examination showed avoidance of certain food items. Guidance on the management of diet improved their choice of a healthier diet, improved quality of life and reduced IBS symptoms.

  14. The effect of weaner diet protein content and diet quality on the long-term performance of pigs to slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellock, I J; Houdijk, J G M; Miller, A C; Gill, B P; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Short and long-term effects of manipulating dietary CP content and diet quality in weaner diets on health and performance of pigs were investigated in a 2 x 2 factorial combination of CP inclusion (high-CP, 230 g of CP/kg vs. low-CP, 170 g of CP/kg) and diet quality (high-quality, cooked cereals, and animal protein vs. low-quality, raw cereals, and plant protein). Diets were fed ad libitum for 14 d postweaning to pigs weaned at 29.4+/-3.1 d of age and 9.9+/-1.0 kg of BW. From d 14 to slaughter at 104+/-3 kg, all pigs were fed the same series of standard commercial diets. There were 15 replicates per treatment in the weaner phase (30 kg). High-quality diets promoted gut health as indicated by improved fecal lactobacilli to coliform ratio (P=0.002) and decreased fecal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli counts on d 11 postweaning (P=0.028), reducing the risk of postweaning diarrhea and improving pig health from weaning to the end of the weaner phase. Reducing CP content had no effect on gut health. High-CP (P=0.053) and high-quality (P=0.025) diets independently increased ADG during the first 14 d postweaning compared with low-CP and low-quality diets, respectively. There were no interactions between dietary CP content and quality on any of the response criteria investigated. Despite differences in the immediate postweaning period, there was no effect of manipulating diet quality or CP content for 2 wk postweaning on lifetime performance with pigs reaching slaughter weight in 128+/-7 d. These results indicate that high-quality diets may protect pig gut health during the immediate postweaning period. However, it may be possible to use less expensive, decreased quality weaner diets without any adverse effects on long-term performance when weaning older, heavier pigs and where health status, environmental control, and stock management are all maintained to a high standard.

  15. Effects of high fibre diets on gut fill, behaviour and productivity in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    Different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity and measure the effect on different parameters in two experiments. In exp. I, three diets (A, commercial control diet; B, high insoluble fibre content; and C, high soluble fibre content) were fed to 10...... significantly more in a hunger test than birds on diets B and C, indicating that these two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Stereotypic pecking was most frequently seen in birds fed A and never observed in birds fed B. Birds on diet C appeared scruffier in their plumage...... fibre feed staying longer in the intestinal system. Birds fed fibre diets displayed more dust bathing and less stereotypic behaviour. Egg production did not differ between the diet treatments. The results from the two experiments show that high fibre diets prolong the passage of feed and reduce...

  16. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  17. Effect of selenium on rat growth, growth hormone and diet utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, R C

    1976-05-01

    Female rats were fed a selenium-deficient diet composed of Torula yeast, sucrose, vitamins (including tocopheryl acetate) and minerals from weaning and during breeding, gestation and lactation. The offspring were used to study the effects of selenium on growth, diet utilization and growth hormon status. The Torula yeast diet containing 200 IU dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate was fed alone or supplemented with 0.025 or 0.1 ppm of selenium as selenite. Rats fed the selenium-supplemented diets grew significently faster and consumed significantly more diet than rats fed the unsupplemented diet. Anterior pituitary weights were lower in selenium-deficient rats, but if expressed per unit of body weight, were similar to pituitary weight of selenium-supplemented animals. Total growth hormone in the anterior pituitary was reduced in selenium-deficient rats. A metabolism study indicated that rats allowed ad libitum access to supplemented diets consumed more diet and obtained more metabolizable energy from the diet than rats fed the deficient diet. It the intake of rats fed the supplemented diets was limited to that of rats allowed ad libitum access to deficient diet, growth of rats was similar. However, metabolizable energy content of the diet increased quadratically and nitrogen digestibility increased linearly as thelevel of selenium increased. Selenium deficiency reduced growth primarily by decreased diet consumption, but also reduced the utilization of energy and nitrogen.

  18. Identifying molecular effects of diet through systems biology: influence of herring diet on sterol metabolism and protein turnover in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Nookaew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in lifestyle have resulted in an epidemic development of obesity-related diseases that challenge the healthcare systems worldwide. To develop strategies to tackle this problem the focus is on diet to prevent the development of obesity-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD. This will require methods for linking nutrient intake with specific metabolic processes in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr -/- mice were fed a high fat/high sugar diet to mimic a westernized diet, being a major reason for development of obesity and atherosclerosis. The diets were supplemented with either beef or herring, and matched in macronutrient contents. Body composition, plasma lipids and aortic lesion areas were measured. Transcriptomes of metabolically important tissues, e.g. liver, muscle and adipose tissue were analyzed by an integrated approach with metabolic networks to directly map the metabolic effects of diet in these different tissues. Our analysis revealed a reduction in sterol metabolism and protein turnover at the transcriptional level in herring-fed mice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that an integrated analysis of transcriptome data using metabolic networks resulted in the identification of signature pathways. This could not have been achieved using standard clustering methods. In particular, this systems biology analysis could enrich the information content of biomedical or nutritional data where subtle changes in several tissues together affects body metabolism or disease progression. This could be applied to improve diets for subjects exposed to health risks associated with obesity.

  19. A bioenergetics systems evaluation of ketogenic diet liver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutfles, Lewis J; Wilkins, Heather M; Koppel, Scott J; Weidling, Ian W; Selfridge, J Eva; Tan, Eephie; Thyfault, John P; Slawson, Chad; Fenton, Aron W; Zhu, Hao; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2017-09-01

    Ketogenic diets induce hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production. To further evaluate how ketogenic diets affect hepatocyte bioenergetic infrastructure, we analyzed livers from C57Bl/6J male mice maintained for 1 month on a ketogenic or standard chow diet. Compared with the standard diet, the ketogenic diet increased cytosolic and mitochondrial protein acetylation and also altered protein succinylation patterns. SIRT3 protein decreased while SIRT5 protein increased, and gluconeogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathway proteins were variably and likely strategically altered. The pattern of changes observed can be used to inform a broader systems overview of how ketogenic diets affect liver bioenergetics.

  20. Effects of a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein diet compared with (supra-)sustained milk protein diets on body-weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-01

    Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or SSMP diet.

  1. Effect of different diets on reproduction, longevity and predation capacity of Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calixto, A.M.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Montes, F.C.; Silva, A.C.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Orius insidiosus is a generalist predator for which diet influences important biological traits like reproduction and predation. We tested the effects of different diets alone or in combination on reproduction, longevity and predation capacity of this predator. The diets tested were: no food (contro

  2. Effects of flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Gold Syrian Hamster model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of a flavonoid-rich diet supplemented with cranberry on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters. Animals were fed one of four diets: high fat high cholesterol (HFHC) diet, HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+...

  3. Effect of four processed animal proteins in the diet on digestibility and performance in laying hens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Veldkamp, T.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Veer, de R.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was performed to investigate the effect of animal vs. vegetable protein sources in the diet of laying hens on the development of hen performance. A diet containing protein sources of only vegetable origin was compared with 4 diets, each containing 1 of 4 processed animal proteins (PAP)

  4. Effect of supplementing grain amaranth diets with amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James Bond

    fortification of amaranth diets with casein improved chick performance and the ... animals fed grain amaranth diets has been attributed to anti-nutritional factors in ...... The authors wish to thank the German Academic Exchange Programme ...

  5. [Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices and lipid metabolism in Coilia nasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guang-Lian; Xu, Gang-Chun; Gu, Ruo-Bo; Xu, Pao

    2013-12-01

    Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices, and enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in fingerlings Coilia nasus at age of 6 months were investigated during 60-day experiment in this study. Fingerlings with similar body length and mass were fed with one of 3 types of diets (diet 1: soft pellet; diet 2: soft pellet mixed with fish oil; diet 3: slow-sinking hard pellet). Fish fed with diets 2 or 3 had significantly higher total body mass, rate of mass gain, specific growth rate, and fullness coefficient than those fed with diet 1. Fish fed with diet 3 exhibited the lower food coefficient compared to those fed with diets 1 or 2. Growth traits (length, length to mass ratio, length to width ratio, hepatopancreas somatic indices and viscera somatic index) and serum biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides) in all three treatments were not significantly different. Fish fed with diet 1 exhibited significantly higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I than those fed with diets 2 or 3, while fish fed with diet 2 exhibited significantly lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II. However, amylase, pepsin, lipase activity, lipoprotein lipase and acetyl-coa carboxylase had no significant difference in fish body among all groups. Results suggested that fish oil as a diet supplement highly facilitated fish growing. The slow-sinking pellet had the highest utilization efficiency and was suitable to feed fish fingerlings of C. nasus.

  6. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (i...

  7. Effect of diet on the human gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain

    The gut microbiota plays an important role for humans in both health and disease. It is therefore important to understand how and to what extent choice of diet may influence the microbial community and the effects this has on the host. The variation in the normal human gut microbiota may however...... impede the discovery of correlations between dietary changes and compositional shifts in the microbiota by masking such effects. Although specific functional food ingredients, such as prebiotics, are known to have measurable effects on e.g. abundance of bifidobacteria, it is nevertheless clear...... that induced shifts in gut microbiota show large inter-individual variations. It thus seems plausible that knowing the microbiota composition could facilitate predictions as to how the community will react to dietary interventions thus moving towards some degree of personalised dietary recommendations. During...

  8. Researching Effective Strategies to Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Children and Teenagers - RESIST. A randomised control trial investigating the effects of two different diets on insulin sensitivity in young people with insulin resistance and/or pre-diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sukanya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant with the rise in childhood obesity there has been a significant increase in the number of adolescents with clinical features of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Clinical insulin resistance and prediabetes are likely to progress to type 2 diabetes and early atherosclerosis if not targeted for early intervention. There are no efficacy trials of lifestyle intervention in this group to inform clinical practice. The primary aim of this randomised control trial (RCT is to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of two different structured lifestyle interventions differing in diet composition on insulin sensitivity, in adolescents with clinical insulin resistance and/or prediabetes treated with metformin. Methods/design This study protocol describes the design of an ongoing RCT. We are recruiting 108 (54 each treatment arm 10 to 17 year olds with clinical features of insulin resistance and/or prediabetes, through physician referral, into a multi-centred RCT. All participants are prescribed metformin and participate in a diet and exercise program. The lifestyle program is the same for all participants except for diet composition. The diets are a high carbohydrate, low fat diet and a moderate carbohydrate, increased protein diet. The program commences with an intensive 3 month dietary intervention, implemented by trained dietitians, followed by a 3 month intensive gym and home based exercise program, supervised by certified physical trainers. To measure the longer term effectiveness, after the intensive intervention trial participants are managed by either their usual physician or study physician and followed up by the study dietitians for an additional 6 months. The primary outcome measure, change in insulin sensitivity, is measured at 3, 6 and 12 months. Discussion Clinical insulin resistance and prediabetes in the paediatric population are rapidly emerging clinical problems with serious health outcomes. With

  9. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity.

  10. Training and natural immunity: effects of diets rich in fat or carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B K; Helge, Jørn Wulff; Richter, E A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a carbohydrate-rich versus fat-rich diet influenced the effect of training on the immune system. Ten untrained young men ingested a carbohydrate-rich diet [65 energy percent (E%) carbohydrate] and ten subjects a fat-rich diet (62E% fat) while...... with interleukin (IL)-2 or interferon (IFN)-alpha, did not change. Furthermore, training did not influence the percentages of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ or CD14+ cells. However, when the two diet groups were compared, it was found that the NK-cell activity had increased in the group on the carbohydrate-rich diet...... influence natural immunity, and suggest that ingestion of a fat-rich diet during training is detrimental to the immune system compared to the effect of a carbohydrate-rich diet....

  11. Effect of nine diets on xenobiotic transporters in livers of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-01-01

    1. Lifestyle diseases are often caused by inappropriate nutrition habits and attempted to be treated by polypharmacotherapy. Therefore, it is important to determine whether differences in diet affect the disposition of drugs. Xenobiotic transporters in the liver are essential in drug disposition. 2. In the current study, mice were fed one of nine diets for 3 weeks. The mRNAs of 23 known xenobiotic transporters in livers of mice were quantified by microarray analysis, and validated by branched DNA assay. The mRNAs of 15 transporters were altered by at least one diet. Diet-restriction (10) and the atherogenic diet (10) altered the expression of the most number of transporters, followed by western diet (8), high-fat diet (4), lab chow (2), high-fructose diet (2) and EFA-deficient diet (2), whereas the low n-3 FA diet had no effect on these transporters. Seven of the 11 xenobiotic transporters in the Slc family, three of four in the Abcb family, two of four in the Abcc family and all three in the Abcg family were changed significantly. 3. This first comprehensive study indicates that xenobiotic transporters are altered by diet, and suggests there are likely diet-drug interactions due to changes in the expression of drug transporters.

  12. The effect of herbal formula PROVE 1 and Stevia levels in diets on diet utilization of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooprasert, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of 0.2% antibiotic (ascomix-s®, one kilogram of which contains lincomycin hydrochloride 44 g and sulfamethazine 110 g or 0.25% herbal formulaPROVE 1, combined with five levels of Stevia supplementation in the diets on digestibility of pigs. Two factors; 1 type of drug (0.2% antibiotic and 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 and 2 five Stevia levels (0,0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% were investigated and 10 dietary treatments were used in this study. Ten related growing crossbred (Large White x Landrace barrow pigs (30±1.5 kg body weight were raised in individualmetabolism cages for three collecting periods (30, 40 and 50 kg body weight, each pig was fed one experimental diet throughout the collecting period.The results showed that pigs fed diet with either 0.2% antibiotic or 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 had similar digestibility of diet, crude protein (CP, fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE (89.01 vs 87.83,94.96 vs 94.23, 60.73 vs 59.03, 61.22 vs 60.44 and 93.28 vs 92.03%, respectively. Negligible differences were observed between 0 and 0.4% Stevia supplementation in diet, but levels showed better digestibility than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, and the diet with 0.4% Stevia supplementation had the highestdigestibility of diet, CP, fiber, ash and NFE (91.04, 96.43, 69.48, 70.47 and 94.07%, respectively. The diet with antibiotic combined with 0.4% Stevia had digestibility of diet, CP, fat and fiber better than the otherlevels of Stevia supplementation, especially digestibility of ash, which was significantly higher than that of diet with 0.2% Stevia, but not significantly different from the other levels of Stevia supplementation. A partof herbal formula PROVE1 combined with 0% Stevia had the highest digestibility of ash (72.90%, significantly higher than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, except the diet with herbal formula PROVE 1combined with 0.4% Stevia supplementation

  13. Diet-induced obesity and diet-resistant rats: differences in the rewarding and anorectic effects of D-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Marta; Steardo, Luca; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-09-01

    Obesity is a leading public health problem worldwide. Multiple lines of evidence associate deficits in the brain reward circuit with obesity. Whether alterations in brain reward sensitivity precede or are a consequence of obesity is unknown. This study aimed to investigate both innate and obesity-induced differences in the sensitivity to the effects of an indirect dopaminergic agonist. Rats genetically prone to diet-induced obesity (DIO) and their counterpart diet-resistant (DR) were fed a chow diet, and their response to D-amphetamine on intracranial self-stimulation and food intake were assessed. The same variables were then evaluated after exposing the rats to a high-fat diet, after DIO rats selectively developed obesity. Finally, gene expression levels of dopamine receptors 1 and 2 as well as tyrosine hydroxylase were measured in reward-related brain regions. In a pre-obesity state, DIO rats showed innate decreased sensitivity to the reward-enhancing and anorectic effects of D-amphetamine, as compared to DR rats. In a diet-induced obese state, the insensitivity to the potentiating effects of D-amphetamine on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) threshold persisted and became more marked in DIO rats, while the anorectic effects were comparable between genotypes. Finally, innate and obesity-induced differences in the gene expression of dopamine receptors were observed. Our results demonstrate that brain reward deficits antedate the development of obesity and worsen after obesity is fully developed, suggesting that these alterations represent vulnerability factors for its development. Moreover, our data suggests that the reward-enhancing and anorectic effects of D-amphetamine are dissociable in the context of obesity.

  14. Effect of high-fat diet on rat myometrium during pregnancy-isolated myometrial mitochondria are not affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Qvortrup, Klaus; Damm, Peter; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Laboring women with elevated body mass index (BMI) have an increased risk of inefficient uterine labor contractions, and despite the significance of mitochondria in the production of energy to drive uterine contractions, mitochondrial function in the myometrium with reference to the BMI has not been explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity prior to and during gestation affects oxidative capacity and/or morphology of mitochondria in the myometrium at term in an animal model. Rat dams were fed for 47 days prior to impregnation and during gestation with either (1) a regular chow diet, (2) a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, or (3) a high-fat low-carbohydrate diet (n = 10 in each group). On day 20 of gestation, corresponding to term pregnancy, total hysterectomy was performed with subsequent examination of the function and morphology of myometrial mitochondria. Body composition was regularly assessed by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging, and blood sampling was done prior to diet assignment, impregnation, and hysterectomy. Dams on the high-fat low-carbohydrate diet achieved higher fat percentage compared to rats on the regular chow diet (p < 0.05). Maximal oxygen consumption, phosphate/oxygen ratio, or the amount of mitochondria per gram of myometrium did not differ between the three feeding groups. Electron microscopic examinations did not reveal any morphological differences in mitochondria between groups; however, a previously undescribed subsarcolemmal localization of the mitochondria in the myocyte was identified. We did not find evidence of altered myometrial mitochondrial function or morphology in this animal model of obesity prior to and during pregnancy.

  15. Effects of increasing the fibre content of a layer diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, O G

    1984-04-01

    The fibre content of a basal diet fed to laying hens was increased from 149.2 g to between 218.6 and 292.3 g/kg by the inclusion of various fibrous farm wastes and by-products at 200 g/kg diet. The fibrous ingredients lowered the metabolisable energy (ME) of the basal diet from 11.82 to between 9.31 and 11.21 MJ/kg. Utilisation (g food/kg egg) of the basal diet was not significantly different from values for diets containing maize cob, cassava or maize starch residues. The diet containing maize cob supported a performance similar to that of the basal diet, despite a lower energy content (10.08 MJ/kg). Diets containing cowpea shell, cassava peel or sawdust, with lower energy contents, and those containing maize starch residue, palm kernel meal or dried brewers grains, with higher energy contents, were not as good. The diet containing cassava starch residue supported similar egg production to the basal but egg size was less. Inclusion of some of the fibre sources caused slight decreases in yolk cholesterol, although this could not be correlated with dietary fibre content. Additional dietary fibre caused slight increases in gizzard weight but this was also not simply related to dietary fibre content.

  16. Effects of a ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Kirsten; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    For a subpopulation of drug-resistant epilepsies, a ketogenic diet constitutes the treatment of choice. A ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet, which induces ketosis. Despite the use in treatment of epilepsy since 1924, the clinical efficacy was not demonstrated...... in a controlled, randomized trial until 2008, showing its capability of reducing seizure frequency with more than 50%. However, the exact mechanism of this form of treatment is still unknown. We report here a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, where a brain 18F-FDG PET examination...

  17. Effects of diet energy concentration and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance of weanling pigs fed diets containing canola meal produced from high protein or conventional canola seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T F; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of diet NE and an exogenous carbohydrase on growth performance and physiological parameters of weanling pigs fed a corn-soybean meal (SBM) diet or diets containing high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). A total of 492 pigs (initial BW: 9.15 ± 0.06 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with 12 dietary treatments and 9 pens per treatment. A control diet based on corn and SBM and 4 diets containing 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV were formulated to a similar NE by adjusting inclusion of choice white grease. Four additional diets also contained 20% or 30% CM-HP or 20% or 30% CM-CV, but no additional choice white grease, and NE in these diets, therefore, was less than in the control diet. The control diet and the diets containing 30% CM-HP or CM-CV without increased choice white grease were also formulated with inclusion of an exogenous carbohydrase. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 22 d and 1 pig per pen was sacrificed at the conclusion of the experiment. Results indicated that compared with the control diet, there was no impact of canola meal on final BW, ADG, ADFI, or G:F, but pigs fed CM-CV had greater ( diets with reduced NE had greater ( diets with constant NE. Only minor effects of CM-HP or CM-CV on intestinal weight, gut fill, digesta pH, cecal VFA concentrations, and serum concentrations of urea N, total N, or albumin were observed, but the weight of the thyroid gland increased ( diets without the carbohydrase, but that was not the case if the carbohydrase was included in the diet (interaction, ( diets fed to weanling pigs from 2 wk postweaning did not impact growth performance compared with pigs fed a corn-SBM diet, and NE in diets containing canola meal does not have to be similar to that of corn-SBM diets. However, inclusion of CM-CV containing 4.43 µmol/g glucosinolates in the diets resulted in improved growth performance compared with inclusion of CM

  18. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Similar to the response observed for H(2)S, feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean S(2-) by 64% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Although these studies did not show beneficial effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal pH, VFA, or H(2)S

  19. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  20. Intermittent hypoxia exacerbates metabolic effects of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drager, Luciano F; Li, Jianguo; Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2011-11-01

    Obesity causes insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the relative contribution of sleep apnea is debatable. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of sleep apnea, on IR and NAFLD in lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice (C57BL/6J), 6-8 weeks of age were fed a high fat (n = 18) or regular (n = 16) diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to CIH or control conditions (room air) for 4 weeks. At the end of the exposure, fasting (5 h) blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, liver enzymes, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg) were measured. In DIO mice, body weight remained stable during CIH and did not differ from control conditions. Lean mice under CIH were significantly lighter than control mice by day 28 (P = 0.002). Compared to lean mice, DIO mice had higher fasting levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, the HOMA index, and had glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis at baseline. In lean mice, CIH slightly increased HOMA index (from 1.79 ± 0.13 in control to 2.41 ± 0.26 in CIH; P = 0.05), whereas glucose tolerance was not affected. In contrast, in DIO mice, CIH doubled HOMA index (from 10.1 ± 2.1 in control to 22.5 ± 3.6 in CIH; P < 0.01), and induced severe glucose intolerance. In DIO mice, CIH induced NAFLD, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which was not observed in lean mice. In conclusion, CIH exacerbates IR and induces steatohepatitis in DIO mice, suggesting that CIH may account for metabolic dysfunction in obesity.

  1. Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of plant-based diets on weight loss. Participants were enrolled in a 6-mo, five-arm, randomized controlled trial in 2013 in South Carolina. Participants attended weekly group meetings, with the exception of the omnivorous group, which served as the control and attended monthly meetings augmented with weekly e-mail lessons. All groups attended monthly meetings for the last 4 mo of the study. Diets did not emphasize caloric restriction. Overweight adults (body mass index 25-49.9 kg/m(2); age 18-65 y, 19% non-white, and 27% men) were randomized to a low-fat, low-glycemic index diet: vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pesco-vegetarian (n = 13), semi-vegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12). Fifty (79%) participants completed the study. In intention-to-treat analysis, the linear trend for weight loss across the five groups was significant at both 2 (P diets may result in greater weight loss than more modest recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Latest evidence of the effects of the Mediterranean diet in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, G; Badimon, L; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-10-01

    The first step in the prevention of cardiovascular disease is healthy lifestyle and diet. Recent systematic reviews of observational studies ranked Mediterranean diet as the most likely dietary model to provide cardiovascular protection. This review updates the knowledge on the effects of Mediterranean diet from observational and randomized trials published in the last year. The results of the PREDIMED study, a randomized trial providing a higher level of scientific evidence than cohort studies, confirmed that the Mediterranean diet reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. This effect may be exerted by reducing blood pressure; improving glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and lipoprotein particle characteristics; and decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress. It may also stem from a favorable interaction between diet and gene polymorphisms related to cardiovascular risk factors and events. These recent results allow us to recommend Mediterranean diet to subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease with the highest level of scientific evidence.

  3. Effects of Simulated Hypogravity and Diet on Estrous Cycling in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental factors can disrupt ovulatory cycles. The study objective was to determine the effect of diet and simulated hypogravity on rat estrous cycles. Age 50 d Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to he fed either a purified or chow diet. Only normal cycling rats were used. Experimental rats (n=9-10/group) were kept as ambulatory controls (AC) or subjected to 40 d simulated hypogravity using a disuse atrophy hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. There was no effect on estrous cycles of AC fed either diet. At day 18, HLS rats fed either diet, had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus. HLS rats fed purified diet also had reduced time in estrus. Plasma estradiol was reduced in HLS rats fed purified diet but there was no effect on progesterone. This may have occurred because blood was collected from rats in estrus. Urinary progesterone collected during initial HLS was elevated in rats fed purified diet. In AC, corticosterone was elevated in chow vs purified diet fed rats. Differences were particularly striking following the application of a stressor with HLS/chow-fed rats displaying an enhanced stress response. Results emphasize the importance of diet selection when measuring endocrine-sensitive endpoints. HLS is a useful model for investigating the effects of environment on reproduction and providing insight about the impact extreme environment such as spaceflight on female reproductive health.

  4. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  5. Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Lap Tai Le; Joan Sabaté

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were...

  6. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  7. Diet and effects of diet management on symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Østgaard, Hege

    2011-01-01

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder manifested by abdominal discomfort or pain, bloating and abdominal distension, and changes in the defecation pattern between diarrhoea and constipation. A significant proportion of IBS patients attribute their symptoms to food items and food intolerance. More information is needed on the effect of diet management in the treatment of IBS and this thesis is a contribution with effort to adva...

  8. Effect of fibre hydrolytic enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius P Ketaren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of the rice bran as poultry feed is restricted by its high fibre content as poultry is unable to hydrolyse the fibre into available energy. This experiment was aimed The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of crude enzymes supplementation on performances of broiler chickens fed diets containing 30% rice bran. The experiment was based on completely randomized design with nine experimental diets. Diets 1-5 contained 5% less than recommended protein and energy, based on determined metabolizable energy (ME content in the rice bran at 2040 kcal/kg, without taking into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation. These diets were: 1. A control diet (D2040, without enzymes; 2. D2040 + E. javanicum (BS4 + P. nalgiovense (S11; 3. D2040 + BS4 + A. niger; 4. D2040 + BS4 + commercial enzymes (CE; 5. D2040 + B. pumilus (PU4-2 + CE. Four other experimental diets contained the same protein and energy levels as in the diets 1-5, but had taken into account on the beneficial effect of the enzyme supplementation,. These diets were: 6. D2702 + BS4 + S11; 7. D2650 + BS4 + A. niger; 8. D2465 + BS4 + CE ;and 9. D2465 + PU4-2+ CE. Each experimental diet was repeated six times and each replication consists of 5 day-old broiler chickens. Results showed that FCR of the chickens fed D2040 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.38 and D2465 + PU4-2 + CE diet (FCR = 1.46 were significantly (P < 0.01 improved compared to the control diet (FCR = 1.64. This experiment strongly shows that supplementation of PU4-2 + CE enzymes significantly (P < 0.01 improved feed efficiency of the broiler chickens by 11-16%.

  9. Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses to High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Meals in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gregersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The postprandial state is hypothesised to be proinflammatory and prooxidative, but the relative contributions of fat versus carbohydrate are unclear. Therefore, we examined inflammation and oxidative stress responses in serum and skeletal muscle before and after 1000 kcal meals, which were high in either fat or carbohydrate in 15 healthy individuals. Serum and muscle expression of IL6 was elevated 3 hours after each meal, independently of macronutrient composition (P<0.01. Serum IL18 was decreased after high-fat meal only (P<0.01. Plasma total antioxidative status and muscle Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase were decreased after high-carbohydrate meal only (P<0.05. We conclude that a high-carbohydrate meal may evoke a greater postprandial oxidative stress response, whereas both fat and carbohydrate increased IL6. We speculate that the observed increases in postprandial IL6, without increases in any other markers of inflammation, may indicate a normal IL6 response to enhance glucose uptake, similar to its role postexercise.

  10. Antiseizure Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Seizures Induced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    high-fat, adequate protein, and low-carbohydrate and .... Table 1. Blood electrolytes, glucose and ketosis. The value of serum electrolytes among the animal ... ketogenic diets against most type of epilepsy in animal .... Diabetes, 27, 1087-1091.

  11. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    .... However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs...

  12. Effects of finishing diet and pre-slaughter fasting time on meat quality in crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the carbohydrate composition of finishing diet (fed from 80 to 107 kg of body weight and the length of pre-slaughter fasting on pork quality were studied in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 80 crossbred pigs. The control finishing diet was based on barley and soybean meal, and the fibrous finishing diet was based on barley, barley fibre, faba beans, and rapeseed cake. These diets contained 465 and 362 g starch and 177 and 250 g dietary fibre per kg, respectively. The fasting times of 25 and 41 h were obtained by giving the pigs their last meal at different times. Longer fasting lowered the glycolytic potential of the longissimus lumborum muscle (P = 0.01, whereas the finishing diet had no effect. Different muscles responded differently to the treatments. Longer fasting increased the ultimate pH of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.02, but did not affect that of the longissimus lumborum and semispinalis capitis muscles. The finishing diets did not affect the ultimate pH of the investigated muscles. A diet × fasting time interaction was seen in the lightness of the semimembranosus muscle (P = 0.05. The fibrous diet resulted in darker meat than the control diet did in pigs that were fasted for 25 h (P < 0.05. Longer fasting darkened the meat colour in pigs fed the fibrous diet (P < 0.05 but not in those fed the control diet. The meat from the semispinalis capitis muscle was darker in pigs fed the fibrous than those fed the control diet (P = 0.04. The treatments did not affect the colour of the longissimus lumborum muscle. Longer fasting decreased drip loss from the meat of pigs fed the control diet (P < 0.05. The eating quality of the pork was not influenced by the finishing diets or the fasting time. The pigs also grew equally fast on both finishing diets. In conclusion, a moderate alteration in the carbohydrate composition of a finishing diet or longer pre-slaughter fasting can have some effects on pork quality in crossbred pigs

  13. Exercise is more effective than diet control in preventing high fat diet-induced β-amyloid deposition and memory deficit in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesako, Masato; Uemura, Kengo; Kubota, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Akira; Sasaki, Kazuki; Hayashida, Naoko; Asada-Utsugi, Megumi; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Uemura, Maiko; Kihara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shimohama, Shun; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2012-06-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some dietary patterns, specifically high fat diet (HFD), increase the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Thus, interventions targeting HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions may be effective in preventing the development of AD. We previously demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein (APP)-overexpressing transgenic mice fed HFD showed worsening of cognitive function when compared with control APP mice on normal diet. Moreover, we reported that voluntary exercise ameliorates HFD-induced memory impairment and β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition. In the present study, we conducted diet control to ameliorate the metabolic abnormality caused by HFD on APP transgenic mice and compared the effect of diet control on cognitive function with that of voluntary exercise as well as that of combined (diet control plus exercise) treatment. Surprisingly, we found that exercise was more effective than diet control, although both exercise and diet control ameliorated HFD-induced memory deficit and Aβ deposition. The production of Aβ was not different between the exercise- and the diet control-treated mice. On the other hand, exercise specifically strengthened the activity of neprilysin, the Aβ-degrading enzyme, the level of which was significantly correlated with that of deposited Aβ in our mice. Notably, the effect of the combination treatment (exercise and diet control) on memory and amyloid pathology was not significantly different from that of exercise alone. These studies provide solid evidence that exercise is a useful intervention to rescue HFD-induced aggravation of cognitive decline in transgenic model mice of AD.

  14. Influence of high- and low-carbohydrate diet following glycogen-depleting exercise on heart rate variability and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Dalquano, Elen; Nogueira, Marie; Casarini, Dulce; Kiss, Maria Augusta; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Pires, Flávio de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term low- or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet consumed after exercise on sympathetic nervous system activity. Twelve healthy males underwent a progressive incremental test; a control measurement of plasma catecholamines and heart rate variability (HRV); an exercise protocol to reduce endogenous CHO stores; a low- or high-CHO diet (counterbalanced order) consumed for 2 days, beginning immediately after the exercise protocol; and a second resting plasma catecholamine and HRV measurement. The exercise and diet protocols and the second round of measurements were performed again after a 1-week washout period. The mean (+/-SD) values of the standard deviation of R-R intervals were similar between conditions (control, 899.0+/-146.1 ms; low-CHO diet, 876.8+/-115.8 ms; and high-CHO diet, 878.7+/-127.7 ms). The absolute high- and low-frequency (HF and LF, respectively) densities of the HRV power spectrum were also not different between conditions. However, normalized HF and LF (i.e., relative to the total power spectrum) were lower and higher, respectively, in the low-CHO diet than in the control diet (mean+/-SD, 17+/-9 normalized units (NU) and 83+/-9 NU vs. 27+/-11 NU and 73+/-17 NU, respectively; pheart rate was modified after a short-term low-CHO diet, but plasma catecholamine levels were not altered.

  15. The Effect of Diet Mixing on a Nonselective Herbivore.

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    Sophie Groendahl

    Full Text Available The balanced-diet hypothesis states that a diverse prey community is beneficial to consumers due to resource complementarity among the prey species. Nonselective consumer species cannot differentiate between prey items and are therefore not able to actively regulate their diet intake. We thus wanted to test whether the balanced-diet hypothesis is applicable to nonselective consumers. We conducted a laboratory experiment in which a nonselective model grazer, the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis, was fed benthic green algae as single species or as a multi-species mixture and quantified the snails' somatic growth rates and shell lengths over a seven-week period. Gastropods fed the mixed diet were found to exhibit a higher somatic growth rate than the average of the snails fed single prey species. However, growth on the multi-species mixture did not exceed the growth rate obtained on the best single prey species. Similar results were obtained regarding the animals' shell height increase over time. The mixed diet did not provide the highest growth rate, which confirms our hypothesis. We thus suggest that the balanced-diet hypothesis is less relevant for non-selective generalist consumers, which needs to be considered in estimates of secondary production.

  16. Effect of diet on fecal and urinary estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, H A; Knowlton, K F; Meyer, M T; Khunjar, W O; Love, N G

    2010-05-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has identified estrogens from animal feeding operations as a major environmental concern, but few data are available to quantify the excretion of estrogenic compounds by dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to quantify variation in estrogenic activity in feces and urine due to increased dietary inclusion of phytoestrogens. Ten Holstein heifers were assigned to 2 groups balanced for age and days pregnant; groups were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a 2-period crossover design. Dietary treatments consisted of grass hay or red clover hay, and necessary supplements. Total collection allowed for sampling of feed refusals, feces, and urine during the last 4 d of each period. Feces and urine samples were pooled by heifer and period, and base extracts were analyzed for estrogenic activity (estrogen equivalents) using the yeast estrogen screen bioassay. Feces and urine samples collected from 5 heifers were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify excretion of 7 phytoestrogenic compounds. Excretion of 17-beta estradiol equivalents in urine was higher and tended to be higher in feces for heifers fed red clover hay (84.4 and 120.2 mg/d for feces and urine, respectively) compared with those fed grass hay (57.4 and 35.6 mg/d). Analysis by LC-MS/MS indicated greater fecal excretion of equol, genistein, daidzein, coumestrol, and formononetin by heifers fed red clover hay (1634, 29.9, 96.3, 27.8, and 163 mg/d, respectively) than heifers fed grass hay (340, 3.0, 46.2, 8.8, and 18.3 mg/d, respectively). Diet had no effect on fecal biochanin A or 2-carbethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone. Four phytoestrogens were detected in urine (2-carbethoxy-5, 7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone, daidzein, equol, and formononetin) and their excretion was not affected by diet. Identifying sources of variation in estrogenic activity of manure will aid in the

  17. Health – promoting effect of quercetin in human diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kobylińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a plant flavonoid phytochemical exhibiting a broad spectrum of properties i.a. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. However, the effect of quercetin is not clear. This compound at low concentrations can stimulate proliferation of human cells, so it can be a potential drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and in high concentrations, it induces apoptosis thereby eliminating the infected or abnormal cells and can serve as a potential anticancer drug with wide clinical application. Action of quercetin can be explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signalling system. Due to its widespread occurrence in the plant world, it is an integral component of the human diet. The dietary quercetin occurs most often in the form of β-glycosides connected mostly with rutinose, rhamnose and glucose. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of flavonoids, including quercetin, ranges from 3 to 70 mg. Epidemiological studies confirm an inverse correlation between the consumption of flavonoids and the incidence of lifestyle diseases and tumor formation. Published data indicate that consumption of foods rich in flavonoids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, flavonoids - including quercetin – seem to be an interesting pro-health agent.

  18. [Health--promoting effect of quercetin in human diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobylińska, Agnieszka; Janas, Krystyna M

    2015-01-09

    Quercetin is a plant flavonoid phytochemical exhibiting a broad spectrum of properties i.a. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. However, the effect of quercetin is not clear. This compound at low concentrations can stimulate proliferation of human cells, so it can be a potential drug in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and in high concentrations, it induces apoptosis thereby eliminating the infected or abnormal cells and can serve as a potential anticancer drug with wide clinical application. Action of quercetin can be explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signalling system. Due to its widespread occurrence in the plant world, it is an integral component of the human diet. The dietary quercetin occurs most often in the form of β-glycosides connected mostly with rutinose, rhamnose and glucose. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of flavonoids, including quercetin, ranges from 3 to 70 mg. Epidemiological studies confirm an inverse correlation between the consumption of flavonoids and the incidence of lifestyle diseases and tumor formation. Published data indicate that consumption of foods rich in flavonoids reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. Thus, flavonoids - including quercetin - seem to be an interesting pro-health agent.

  19. The zone diet and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, S N

    1999-04-01

    The Zone diet is the latest eating regimen marketed to improve athletic performance by opposing traditional high carbohydrate sports diets. The 40/30/30 diet is centred primarily on protein intake (1.8 to 2.2 g/kg fat free mass; i.e. total bodyweight-fat weight) and promises a change in the body's insulin to glucagon ratio through its macronutrient alterations. Changes in the existing hormonal milieu are said to result in the production of more vasoactive eicosanoids, thus allowing greater oxygen delivery to exercising muscle. This favourable condition, known as the Zone, is anecdotally reported to benefit even the most elite endurance athletes. Applying the Zone's suggested protein needs and macronutrient distributions in practice, it is clear that it is a low carbohydrate diet by both relative and absolute standards, as well as calorie deficient by any standard. Reliable and abundant peer reviewed literature is in opposition to the suggestion that such a diet can support competitive athletic endeavours, much less improve them. The notion that a 40/30/30 diet can alter the pancreatic hormone response in favour of glucagon is also unfounded. The Zone is a mixed diet and not likely to affect pancreatic hormone release in the same way individual nutrients can. Although the postprandial insulin response is reduced when comparing a 40% with a 60% carbohydrate diet, it is still a sufficient stimulus to offset the lipolytic effects of glucagon. Many of the promised benefits of the Zone are based on selective information regarding hormonal influences on eicosanoid biology. Contradictory information is conveniently left out. The principle of vasodilating muscle arterioles by altering eicosanoid production is notably correct in theory. However, what little human evidence is available does not support any significant contribution of eicosanoids to active muscle vasodilation. In fact, the key eicosanoid reportedly produced in the Zone and responsible for improved muscle

  20. Antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil, a polyherbal formulation, in cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pooja; Mehla, Jogender; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions all over the world yet it lacks adequate treatment. Most of the drugs have failed either due to ineffectiveness or adverse effects. Complementary and alternative system of medicine is being used since ancient times. However, many of them have not been tested for efficacy and safety using modern scientific methods. Therefore, the antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil, a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated in cafeteria diet induced obesity in female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals weighing 100-150 g were divided into four groups (n = 8) i.e. standard pellet diet, cafeteria diet control, cafeteria diet + Safoof Mohazzil and standard pellet diet plus Safoof Mohazzil. The formulation was administered orally at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 14 weeks. At the end of study, cafeteria diet significantly increased body weight, Lee's index, lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), insulin and leptin levels as compared to standard pellet diet control group. Fourteen week treatment with Safoof Mohazzil significantly prevented the increase in body weight, Lee's index, lipid profile, insulin and leptin levels as compared to cafeteria diet control group without affecting food and water intake. Safoof Mohazzil had no adverse effect on hepatic transaminases, locomotor activity and motor coordination. The study provides evidence for antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil.

  1. The distorting effect of varying diets on fecal glucocorticoid measurements as indicators of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, A. Charlotte; Abelson, Klas S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological stress response is frequently gauged in animals, non-invasively, through measuring glucocorticoids in excreta. A concern with this method is, however, the unknown effect of variations in diets on the measurements. With an energy dense diet, leading to reduced defecation, will low...

  2. New Treatments for Autism: Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jennifer B.; Velez, Denise M.; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study assessed the effects of a gluten-free diet over one year on learning patterns in three autistic children (ages 5 to 8) participating in an applied behavioral analysis program. Rates of learning for five behavioral targets 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months after the start of the diet were compared using a within-subjects…

  3. Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Jackson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet- and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy have the potential to alter maternal and child outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether or not the effects of diet and lifestyle interventions vary in subgroups of women, based on maternal body mass index (BMI), age, parity, ...

  4. Effects of aging and life-prolonging diet on thyroid regulation of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromakova, I A; Konovalenko, O A

    2004-03-01

    The effect of thyroxin on the intensity of protein synthesis in rats of different age was studied during natural aging and in rats maintained on a low-caloric diet inhibiting aging. The intensity of protein synthesis decreased and the reaction to hormonal stimulus was absent in animals fed life-prolonging diet.

  5. Diet drives quick changes in the metabolic activity and composition of human gut microbiota in a validated in vitro gut model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Eck, A.; Koenen, M.E.; Savelkoul, P.H.M.; Budding, A.E.; Venema, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen how rapidly the human gut microbiota responds to diet in an in vitro model of the proximal colon (TIM-system). Two experimental diets were provided to the gut bacteria: a high carbohydrate and a high protein diet. The metabolic response and the composition of the

  6. Diet drives quick changes in the metabolic activity and composition of human gut microbiota in a validated in vitro gut model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Eck, A.; Koenen, M.E.; Savelkoul, P.H.M.; Budding, A.E.; Venema, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen how rapidly the human gut microbiota responds to diet in an in vitro model of the proximal colon (TIM-system). Two experimental diets were provided to the gut bacteria: a high carbohydrate and a high protein diet. The metabolic response and the composition of the

  7. Effects of Acidifying Pig Diets on Emissions of Ammonia, Methane, and Sulfur from Slurry during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Poulsen, Henrik V; Jensen, Bent B; Petersen, Søren O

    2014-11-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from intensive livestock production is a threat to natural ecosystems. This study investigated pig diet manipulation by 1% (w/w) benzoic acid (BA) amendment and lowering of dietary electrolyte balance through substituting 1.4% (w/w) CaCO with 2.0% (w/w) CaCl. Urine and feces were collected separately from 24 pigs fed one of four diets (Control, +BA, +CaCl, +BA+CaCl) in metabolic cages and mixed as slurry. During 103 d of storage, all acidifying diets consistently reduced pH in the slurry by 0.4 to 0.6 units. There was a strong relationship between slurry pH and NH emissions, which were considerably reduced by the three acidifying diets. The +BA diet decreased NH emission by 28%, the +CaCl diet by 37%, and the combined +BA and +CaCl diet by 40%. Acidifying diets had no effect on S cycling or emission of volatile S compounds under the prevailing conditions of restricted S feeding. Methane (CH) emissions were increased by 73% in diets with CaCl. An initial delay in CH emissions was investigated in a separate experiment with manipulation of pH (5.4, 6.7, or 8.8) and inoculation with adapted pig slurry (0, 4, 11, or 19%), which showed that methanogenic potential, rather than inhibitory effects of the chemical environment, caused the delay. In conclusion, NH emissions from slurry could be reduced by addition of BA to pig diets or by controlling the dietary electrolyte balance, but there was no additive effect of combining the two strategies. However, CH emissions from slurry may increase with acidifying diets. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. The effects of a cafeteria diet on insulin production and clearance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-Auví, Anna; Cedó, Lídia; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a cafeteria diet on the function and apoptosis of the pancreas, and the activity and expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). Female Wistar rats were fed either with a cafeteria diet or a control diet for 17 weeks, and blood and tissues were then collected for analysis. The cafeteria diet-treated rats had higher plasma insulin and C-peptide levels (Pcafeteria diet down-regulated the gene expression of the anti-apoptotic marker B-cell/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and up-regulated the protein levels of BCL2-associated X protein, a pro-apoptotic marker (Pcafeteria diet caused lipid accumulation in the pancreas and modified the expression of key genes that control lipid metabolism. To assay whether insulin clearance was also modified, we checked the activity of the IDE, one of the enzymes responsible for insulin clearance. We found increased liver IDE activity (Pcafeteria diet-fed animals, which could, in part, be due to an up-regulation of its gene expression. Conversely, IDE gene expression was unmodified in the kidney and adipose tissue; although when the adipose tissue weight was considered, the insulin clearance potential was higher in the cafeteria diet-treated rats. In conclusion, treatment with a cafeteria diet for 17 weeks in rats mimicked a pre-diabetic state, with ectopic lipid accumulation in the pancreas, and increased the IDE-mediated insulin clearance capability.

  9. Effects of soft-diet feeding on BDNF expression in hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Hirayama, Akihiko; Hosoe, Nobuo; Furube, Masaru; Hirano, Shusuke

    2008-11-01

    Our previous study showed that mice fed a soft diet after weaning had reduced synaptic connections in the hippocampal formation and impaired spatial learning ability after 3 months of age. We hypothesized that soft-diet feeding during development reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in the hippocampus, resulting in lower synaptic densities in this region. Male pups of C57BL/6 mice were fed either a solid (hard-diet group) or powdered diet (soft-diet group), starting at weaning. Expression of BDNF protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was evaluated quantitatively with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 1, 3 and 6 months of age. Reduction in BDNF protein levels due to soft diet was detected markedly in the hippocampus of 3- and 6-month-old mice. On the other hand, a soft diet showed no significant effect on BDNF content in the cerebral cortex throughout the ages investigated. Immunohistochemistry of hippocampal formation in 3-month-old mice revealed that intensities of BDNF immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer and CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers appeared diminished in mice fed the soft diet compared with mice fed the hard diet. These results indicate that insufficient mastication activity during development reduces BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus and influences synaptic plasticity in this region.

  10. Effect of Coleus forskohlii extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, Hebbani Nagarajappa; Gopalakrishna, Sushma; Mariyanna, Bhanumathy; Thekkoot, Midhun; Reddy, Roopa; Tippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can lead to adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance and also increases the risk of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to determine the effect of Coleus forskohlii on obesity and associated metabolic changes in rats fed with cafeteria diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate antiobesogenic and metabolic benefits of C. forskohlii in cafeteria diet induced obesity rat model. RATS WERE RANDOMLY DIVIDED INTO FIVE GROUPS OF SIX ANIMALS IN EACH GROUP AND AS FOLLOWS: Normal pellet diet group; cafeteria diet group; cafeteria diet followed by 50 mg/kg/d Coleus forskohlii extract (CFE), 100 mg/kg/d CFE and 45 mg/kg/d orlistat groups, respectively. Indicators of obesity such as food intake, body weight and alteration in serum lipid profiles were studied. Feeding of cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats. Administration of CFE significantly halted increase in food intake and weight gain associated with cafeteria diet. Development of dyslipidemia was also significantly inhibited. The observed effects validate that supplementation of CFE with cafeteria diet could curb the appetite and mitigate the development of dyslipidemia.

  11. Effect of Coleus forskohliiextract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebbani Nagarajappa Shivaprasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can lead to adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance and also increases the risk of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to determine the effect of Coleus forskohlii on obesity and associated metabolic changes in rats fed with cafeteria diet. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate antiobesogenic and metabolic benefits of C. forskohlii in cafeteria diet induced obesity rat model. Materials and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals in each group and as follows: Normal pellet diet group; cafeteria diet group; cafeteria diet followed by 50 mg/kg/d Coleus forskohlii extract (CFE, 100 mg/kg/d CFE and 45 mg/kg/d orlistat groups, respectively. Indicators of obesity such as food intake, body weight and alteration in serum lipid profiles were studied. Results: Feeding of cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats. Administration of CFE significantly halted increase in food intake and weight gain associated with cafeteria diet. Development of dyslipidemia was also significantly inhibited. Conclusion: The observed effects validate that supplementation of CFE with cafeteria diet could curb the appetite and mitigate the development of dyslipidemia.

  12. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Thomas L; Hu, Frank B

    2004-10-01

    For years, proponents of some fad diets have claimed that higher amounts of protein facilitate weight loss. Only in recent years have studies begun to examine the effects of high protein diets on energy expenditure, subsequent energy intake and weight loss as compared to lower protein diets. In this study, we conducted a systematic review of randomized investigations on the effects of high protein diets on dietary thermogenesis, satiety, body weight and fat loss. There is convincing evidence that a higher protein intake increases thermogenesis and satiety compared to diets of lower protein content. The weight of evidence also suggests that high protein meals lead to a reduced subsequent energy intake. Some evidence suggests that diets higher in protein result in an increased weight loss and fat loss as compared to diets lower in protein, but findings have not been consistent. In dietary practice, it may be beneficial to partially replace refined carbohydrate with protein sources that are low in saturated fat. Although recent evidence supports potential benefit, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the effects of high protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

  13. Effects of cafeteria diet and high fat diet intake on anxiety, learning and memory in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Renata Tavares Beschizza; Ferreira do Vales, Lucas Duarte Manhas; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cafeteria and high fat diets were investigated on animal models of behavior. Male Wistar rats were treated with Control (C), Cafeteria (CD) and High Fat (FD) diets and tested in the Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) procedures. Body weight, length, abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues were recorded. Physical parameters, weight of tissues, EPM, and MWM data were subjected to ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). There were no differences on weight and length parameters between CD and C rats up to 98 days of age. However, abdominal circumferences were higher in CD as compared to C at 35 and 70 days of age, respectively, the 5th and the 7th weeks. FD presented lower measures of weight and abdominal circumference; nevertheless there was an increase on those parameters at the end of the nutritional treatment. Even without an apparent weight gain of CD and FD these animals presented a greater accumulation of retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues. In addition, CD and FD demonstrated behaviors that can suggest lower anxiety. CD showed a better learning performance and FD showed better recall of previous learned information in the memory retention test. According to those data it was concluded that hypercaloric diet ingestion was capable of triggering metabolic alterations and possibly lowering anxiety associated to learning or memory improvement on a spatial task.

  14. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Whelton, Paul K; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; He, Jiang; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2015-09-17

    Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, saturated fat; n = 73) on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL); p = 0.009) and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (-16.8 ng/mL (-32.0 to -1.6 ng/mL); p = 0.031) than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  15. The Effects of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs. a Low-Fat Diet on Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss and improvement in traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD markers. Effects on novel CVD markers remain unclear. We examined the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet (<40 g/day; n = 75 versus a low-fat diet (<30% kcal/day from total fat, <7% saturated fat; n = 73 on biomarkers representing inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction in a 12 month clinical trial among 148 obese adults free of diabetes and CVD. Participants met with a study dietitian on a periodic basis and each diet group received the same behavioral curriculum which included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Eighty percent of participants completed the intervention. At 12 months, participants on the low-carbohydrate diet had significantly greater increases in adiponectin (mean difference in change, 1336 ng/mL (95% CI, 342 to 2330 ng/mL; p = 0.009 and greater decreases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentrations (−16.8 ng/mL (−32.0 to −1.6 ng/mL; p = 0.031 than those on the low-fat diet. Changes in other novel CVD markers were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, despite the differences in weight changes on diets, a low-carbohydrate diet resulted in similar or greater improvement in inflammation, adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelial dysfunction than a standard low-fat diet among obese persons.

  16. Nutrition concerns and health effects of vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston John

    2010-12-01

    Vegetarians exhibit a wide diversity of dietary practices, often described by what is omitted from their diet. When a vegetarian diet is appropriately planned and includes fortified foods, it can be nutritionally adequate for adults and children and can promote health and lower the risk of major chronic diseases. The nutrients of concern in the diet of vegetarians include vitamin B(12), vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc. Although a vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients, the use of supplements and fortified foods provides a useful shield against deficiency. A vegetarian diet usually provides a low intake of saturated fat and cholesterol and a high intake of dietary fiber and many health-promoting phytochemicals. This is achieved by an increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains, legumes, nuts, and various soy products. As a result of these factors, vegetarians typically have lower body mass index, serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and blood pressure; reduced rates of death from ischemic heart disease; and decreased incidence of hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain cancers than do nonvegetarians.

  17. Carbohydrate restricted diet in conjunction with metformin and liraglutide is an effective treatment in patients with deteriorated type 2 diabetes mellitus: Proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Jürgen E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease. During the course of the disease intensive treatment is often necessary resulting in multiple interventions including administration of insulin. Although dietary intervention is highly recommended, the clinical results of the widely prescribed diets with low fat content and high carbohydrates are disappointing. In this proof-of-concept study, we tested the effect of dietary carbohydrate-restriction in conjunction with metformin and liraglutide on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Forty patients with type 2 diabetes already being treated with two oral anti-diabetic drugs or insulin treatment and who showed deterioration of their glucose metabolism (i.e. HbA1c >7.5, were treated. A carbohydrate-restricted diet and a combination of metformin and liraglutide were instituted, after stopping either insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs (excluding metformin. After enrollment, the study patients were scheduled for follow-up visits at one, two, three and six months. Primary outcome was glycemic control, measured by HbA1c at six months. Secondary outcomes were body weight, lipid-profile and treatment satisfaction. Results Thirty-five (88% participants completed the study. Nearly all participating patients experienced a drop in HbA1c and body weight during the first three months, an effect which was maintained until the end of the study at six months. Seventy-one percent of the patients reached HbA1c values below 7.0%. The range of body weight at enrollment was extreme, reaching 165 kg as the highest initial value. The average weight loss after 6 months was 10%. Most patients were satisfied with this treatment. During the intervention no significant change of lipids was observed. Most patients who were on insulin could maintain the treatment without insulin with far better metabolic control. Conclusions Carbohydrate restriction in conjunction with

  18. Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation or Restricted Diet on Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Vahidinia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the preventive effect of antioxidant supplements and/or restricted diet on the stress oxidative index (8-Iso-PGF2α and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in obese rats induced by a high-fat (HF diet. Material and Methods: In this experimental study forty-eight male Wister rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Their daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α and TAC measured by EIA methods. Results: Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Serum 8-Iso-PGF2α in HF was 1416.2±443.5 and in HF restricted was 1209.4±424.4pg/ml (p>0.05 and equal for other groups. The lowest TAC was seen in HF and highest was in HFS (0.36±0.43 and 3.0±1.13 mM, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest that antioxidant supplements and caloric restriction may improved TAC and partially suppress stress oxidative index in high fat diet induced obese rats. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;18(1:48-56

  19. The New Nordic Diet is an effective tool in environmental protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in season; and >75% organic produce. The environmental impact of the 2 diets was compared based on 16 impact categories, which were monetized to evaluate the overall socioeconomic effect of a shift from an ADD to an NND. Objective: The objective was to determine whether this diet shift can be an effective...... tool in environmental protection. Design: The 3 features by which this diet shift affects the environment—composition, transport (import), and type of production (organic/conventional)—were separately investigated by using life cycle assessment. Results: When both diet composition and transport were...... taken into account, the NND reduced the environmental impact relative to the ADD measured by all 16 impact categories. The socioeconomic savings related to this diet shift was €266/person per year, or 32% of the overall environmental cost of the ADD. When the actual 8% content of organic produce...

  20. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health.

  1. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (pchlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (pChlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid.

  2. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lap Tai; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-05-27

    Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations.

  3. Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lap Tai Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations.

  4. Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lap Tai; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations. PMID:24871675

  5. Effect of lignin on oxidative stress in chickens fed a diet contaminated with zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Bořutová, Radka; Faix, Stefan; Plachá, Iveta; Cobanová, Klaudia; Košíková, Božena; Leng, L'ubomír

    2012-03-01

    The effect of lignin supplementation to a diet contaminated with zearalenone (ZEA) on antioxidant status was studied in female chickens of the ISA BROWN laying strain. From the day of hatching to 2 weeks of age, four groups of chickens were fed the same uncontaminated control diet. After 14 days, Group 1 (control) continued to receive the uncontaminated diet, while Group 2 was fed an identical diet enriched with 0.5% chemically modified lignin. Simultaneously, chickens of Group 3 were switched to a diet contaminated with 7.9 mg/kg ZEA and those of Group 4 to an identical contaminated diet supplemented with 0.5% lignin. At 6 weeks of age blood and tissue samples were collected. Feeding of a diet contaminated with a high level of ZEA resulted in elevated glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the duodenal mucosa and kidney tissues, and an increased γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity in the plasma, indicative of oxidative stress. In the liver tissue, no mycotoxin-induced response in GPx and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activities occurred, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level was even reduced. Neither the plasma levels of retinol and α-tocopherol nor the activities of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and GPx in blood were affected in birds fed the contaminated diet. The only effect of lignin supplemented to the contaminated feed was that it prevented the increase of GPx activity in the duodenal mucosa as an indicator of oxidative stress.

  6. The gut microbial community in metabolic syndrome patients is modified by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Carmen; Garcia-Carpintero, Sonia; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Rangel Zuñiga, Oriol A; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Landa, Blanca B; Clemente, Jose C; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Camargo, Antonio; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal microbiota changes may be involved in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a multicomponent disorder frequently associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to test the effect of consuming two healthy diets: a Mediterranean diet and a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet, for 2years in the gut microbiota of MetS patients and those in the control group. We analyzed the differences in the bacterial community structure between the groups after 2years of dietary intervention (Mediterranean or low-fat diet) through quantitative polymerase chain reaction using primers, targeting specific bacterial taxa. We observed, at basal time, that the abundance of Bacteroides, Eubacterium and Lactobacillus genera is lower in the control group than in MetS patients, while Bacteroides fragilis group, Parabacteroides distasonis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Ruminococcus flavefaciens subgroup and Eubacterium rectale are depleted in MetS patients (all P values diet partially restores the population of P. distasonis, B. thetaiotaomicron, F. prausnitzii, B. adolescentis and B. longum in MetS patients (all P values diet could be a useful tool to restore potentially beneficial members of the gut microbiota, although the stability of these changes over time still remains to be assessed.

  7. Effect of Erythroxylum coca, cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester as dietary supplements on energy metabolism in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burczynski, F J; Boni, R L; Erickson, J; Vitti, T G

    1986-06-01

    The effects of dietary supplements of cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, a coca leaf extract and powdered coca leaves on body weight and overall body metabolism were studied in the rat. Respiratory quotient was measured to assess the relative utilization of fats, carbohydrates and protein. The effect of cocaine and ecgonine methyl ester on protein metabolism was also assessed in terms of changes in the relative state of nitrogen balance. Rats maintained on a low protein/high carbohydrate diet containing cocaine (1 mg/g) exhibited normal body weight gain on normal food intake. Rats on the same diet with 2 mg/g cocaine as the hydrochloride or as coca dextrin lost weight, which was apparently related to diminished food intake. In contrast, rats received the same high level of cocaine as coca leaf powder in the same diet had minimal weight gain in spite of a high food intake. In contrast, rats receiving the same high level of cocaine as ly, rats receiving the same high level of cocaine (2 mg/g) in a high protein diet had normal food intake and body weight gain. An adequate protein diet appears to compensate for whatever inhibiting effect is imposed on the body by the high levels of cocaine. Ecgonine methyl ester appears to have no significant effect on food intake or body weight. Rats fed the low protein/high carbohydrate diet containing either the low (1 mg/g) or the high (2 mg/g) cocaine level exhibited significantly depressed respiratory quotients (near 0.75) suggesting increased fat utilization. The magnitude of the reduction appeared to be dose-related. Yet, the respiratory quotient of the rats receiving the high level of cocaine in a high protein diet remained at normal control values. Also, in a separate nitrogen balance-type of experiment, rats receiving the low level of cocaine (1 mg/g low protein/high carbohydrate diet) exhibited a normal ability to accumulate body nitrogen, presumably protein. These results support the idea that under conditions of protein

  8. Fine-scale spatio-temporal variation in tiger Panthera tigris diet: Effect of study duration and extent on estimates of tiger diet in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfer, Paul M.; Streby, Henry M.; Gurung, B.; Simcharoen, A.; McDougal, C.C.; Smith, J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to conserve declining tiger Panthera tigris populations and distributions have experienced limited success. The poaching of tiger prey is a key threat to tiger persistence; a clear understanding of tiger diet is a prerequisite to conserve dwindling populations. We used unpublished data on tiger diet in combination with two previously published studies to examine fine-scale spatio-temporal changes in tiger diet relative to prey abundance in Chitwan National Park, Nepal, and aggregated data from the three studies to examine the effect that study duration and the size of the study area have on estimates of tiger diet. Our results correspond with those of previous studies: in all three studies, tiger diet was dominated by members of Cervidae; small to medium-sized prey was important in one study. Tiger diet was unrelated to prey abundance, and the aggregation of studies indicates that increasing study duration and study area size both result in increased dietary diversity in terms of prey categories consumed, and increasing study duration changed which prey species contributed most to tiger diet. Based on our results, we suggest that managers focus their efforts on minimizing the poaching of all tiger prey, and that future studies of tiger diet be of long duration and large spatial extent to improve our understanding of spatio-temporal variation in estimates of tiger diet. ?? 2011 Wildlife Biology, NKV.

  9. Effect of various diets on the expression of phase-I drug-metabolizing enzymes in livers of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Cui, Julia Yue; Lu, Hong; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that diets can alter the metabolism of drugs; however, it is difficult to compare the effects of multiple diets on drug metabolism among different experimental settings. Phase-I-related genes play a major role in the biotransformation of pro-drugs and drugs. 2. In the current study, effects of nine diets on the mRNA expression of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes in livers of mice were simultaneously investigated. Compared to the AIN-93M purified diet (control), 73 of the 132 critical phase-I drug-metabolizing genes were differentially regulated by at least one diet. Diet restriction produced the largest number of changed genes (51), followed by the atherogenic diet (27), high-fat diet (25), standard rodent chow (21), western diet (20), high-fructose diet (5), EFA deficient diet (3) and low n-3 FA diet (1). The mRNAs of the Fmo family changed most, followed by Cyp2b and 4a subfamilies, as well as Por (from 1121- to 21-fold increase of theses mRNAs). There were 59 genes not altered by any of these diets. 3. The present results may improve the interpretation of studies with mice and aid in determining effective and safe doses for individuals with different nutritional diets.

  10. Effect of diet on the intestinal microbiota and its activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    AB Purpose of review: To summarize and discuss recent findings concerning diet-microbiota-health relations. Recent findings: Mouse and other model animal studies have provided detailed insight into host-microbiota interactions, but cannot be extrapolated easily to humans that have different dietary

  11. Towards healthy diets for parents: effectiveness of a counselling intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Towards Healthy Diets for parents: efectiveness of a counselling intervention Eveline J.C. Hooft van Huysduynen Abstract Introduction and Objective: As parents’ modelling of dietary behaviour is one of the factors influencing children’s

  12. Effect of diet on the intestinal microbiota and its activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    AB Purpose of review: To summarize and discuss recent findings concerning diet-microbiota-health relations. Recent findings: Mouse and other model animal studies have provided detailed insight into host-microbiota interactions, but cannot be extrapolated easily to humans that have different dietary

  13. Towards healthy diets for parents: effectiveness of a counselling intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft Van Huysduynen, E.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Towards Healthy Diets for parents: efectiveness of a counselling intervention Eveline J.C. Hooft van Huysduynen Abstract Introduction and Objective: As parents’ modelling of dietary behaviour is one of the factors influencing children’s

  14. Effects on non-digestible oligosaccharides in young pig diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    Some carbohydrates in young pig diets escape enzymatic digestion and form substrates for the gastrointestinal microflora. These include the non-digestible oligosaccharides ( NDO ), which are found in e.g. cereals and legumes. Certain NDO may selectively stimulate the growth and/or a

  15. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  16. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...... of a fat-rich diet decreases the storage of glycogen in both muscle and liver. Therefore, training intensity may be compromised in individuals while consuming a fat-rich diet. During submaximal exercise, fat for oxidation in muscle is recruited from plasma fatty acids, plasma triacylglycerol, and muscle...

  17. [Effect of different diets on quality of life in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roĭtberg, G E; Budko, E A; Dorosh, Zh V; Ushakova, T I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study influence of diets with a various ratio of carbohydrates and fatty components on modification of metabolic risk factors due to decrease of weight and abdominal adiposity, and also on quality of life of the patient. 49 males were included in the study the age 30-65 years with metabolic syndrome X. All patients had increased body mass or obesity. Hypertension of I and II stages was observed in 49.0% of cases. The estimation of results was carried out in three months after assignment of one of investigated diets. Effective reduction of body mass parameters was achieved at use of all diets within three months. Nutritional counseling was based on dietary preferences and habits of the patient to improve quality of life at observance of a diet. Common negative feature of investigated diets was occurrence of feeling of hunger that caused infringement of accuracy of observance of recommendations.

  18. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  19. Effect of habitat quality on diet flexibility in Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Nelly; Motsch, Peggy; Delahaye, Alexia; Saintvanne, Alice; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dupé, Sandrine; Vallet, Dominique; Qarro, Mohamed; Tattou, Mohamed Ibn; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. They are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. These monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. We studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of Barbary macaques that lived in different cedar forests undergoing varying extents of grazing pressure from domestic livestock. In all three sites, diet varied seasonally. Heavy grazing led to a significant decrease in herbaceous production and species richness. As a consequence, the monkeys' diet in this poor habitat showed a decreased plant species richness. Moreover, it incorporated fewer above-ground herbaceous resources, and a greater proportion of subterranean resources (especially hypogeous fungi and subterranean invertebrates such as earthworms, eggs and adults of earwigs, and ant's larvae) than the diet of monkeys inhabiting ungrazed forest. Cedar bark, cedar strobiles, earthworms, and earwigs were part of the monkeys' diet only in grazed forest. Monkeys in heavily grazed forest compensated for a lack of herbaceous foods by eating subterranean foods preferentially to tree and shrub products. The foods they consumed take longer to harvest and process than the seeds or leaves consumed by Barbary macaques in less heavily grazed forest habitats. Our results suggest that monkeys do differ in their diets according to the degree of habitat change induced by human activities. They also highlight the dietary flexibility of Barbary macaques as a key element that allows them to cope with degraded habitats. We later compare the dietary adjustments of Barbary macaques facing environmental change to dietary strategies of other macaques and temperate-zone primates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Effects of cholesterol rich diet on blood coagulative and fibrinolytic activities in male rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Quan-jin; Li, Xiao-ying

    2005-05-01

    To explore the effects of cholesterol rich diet on the activities of blood coagulative and fibrinolytic systems in male rabbits. 14 male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized to cholesterol rich diet(CRD) group and common diet (control) group. Rabbits in CRD group were fed with 1% cholesterol embedded diet and those in the control group were fed with common diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers and FDP, PT and APTT, activity of ADP, AT-III, PLG and alpha2-PI were tested in all rabbits before given cholesterol rich diet and after 12 weeks' feeding with different kinds of diet. Levels of blood TG, TC, LDL, HDL, Lp(a), apoA1, apoB, FIB, D-dimers in CRD group were all elevated significantly compared with those in the control group and the baseline levels. PT and APTT were shortened, ADP, PLG and alpha2-PI activity were increased in CRD group. Cholesterol rich diet not only is the direct cause of hyperlipidemia but also can increase the coagulative activity and inhibit the fibrinolytic activity and promoting the evolution of arteriosclerosis.

  1. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Fukuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5, or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10 for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

  2. [Anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar in rats subjected to a high fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderbala, H; Kaddouri, H; Kheroua, O; Saidi, D

    2016-06-01

    The search of new anti-obesogenic treatments based on medicinal plants without or with minimal side effects is a challenge. In this context, the present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-obesogenic effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV) in Wistar rats subjected to a high fat diet. Eighteen male Wistar rats (140±5g) were divided into 3 three equal groups. A witness group submitted to standard laboratory diet and two groups subjected to a high fat diet (cafeteria diet); one receives a daily gavage of apple cider vinegar (7mL/kg/d) for 30 days. Throughout the experiment monitoring the nutritional assessment, anthropometric and biochemical parameters is achieved. In the RCV vs RC group, we observed a highly significant decrease (Pdiet (cafeteria) are thwarted by taking apple cider vinegar which proves to have a satiating effect, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects, and seems prevent the atherogenic risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of supplemental fat in low energy diets on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    inclusion. Diets rich in UFA have been found to reduce fat deposition in broiler chicks when compared to ... There are few experiments designed to study the effect of different levels of ..... organs, than that from UFA which is metabolically used.

  4. Comparative effect of self–formulated and four commercial diets on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... This study was conducted to evaluate growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematological parameters and cost effectiveness in broilers fed self-formulated and four commercial diets as ... Materials and methods.

  5. Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of rats and ... CR flour was processed using traditional Nigerian method of processing. ... Analysis of variance and repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to ...

  6. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  7. Effects of B vitamin deletion in chemically defined diets on brood development in Camponotus vicinus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankowski, Mark E; Morrell, J J

    2014-08-01

    The potential contributions of B vitamins by a yeast associate to the nutrition of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr was examined as part of an effort to develop a chemically defined diet. This diet was used to test the effects of individual B vitamin and other nutrient deletions on larval development. The chemically defined diet contained amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other growth factors in a liquid sucrose matrix. C. vicinus worker colonies with third- and fourth-instar larvae were fed a complete artificial diet or that diet with a component deleted for a 12-wk period. There was a significant effect of diet on larval growth and number of adult worker ants produced in the overall nutrient deletion test, but ant development was often better on incomplete diets with one B vitamin deleted compared with the complete holidic basal diet. Thiamine deletion resulted in significantly higher brood weights compared with the complete diet. Diets of sugar water plus all B vitamins, sugar water only, or a diet minus all B vitamins and cholesterol were associated with significantly lower brood weights. Significantly more adult worker ants were produced by worker colonies fed diets minus cholesterol, choline, thiamine, or riboflavin compared with the complete basal diet. The results suggest that the diet, while suitable for rearing, could benefit from further study to better define component levels. The potential relationship of C. vicinus with yeast associates is discussed in relation to further studies.

  8. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schothorst, van, E.M; Bunschoten, J.E; Schrauwen, P; Mensink, R.P; Keijer, J

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance...

  9. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  10. Effects of a ketogenic diet on hippocampal plasticity in freely moving juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, J Harry; Ruskin, David N; Koranda, Jessica L; Masino, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Ketogenic diets are low-carbohydrate, sufficient protein, high-fat diets with anticonvulsant activity used primarily as a treatment for pediatric epilepsy. The anticonvulsant mechanism is thought to involve elevating inhibition and/or otherwise limiting excitability in the brain. Such a mechanism, however, might also significantly affect normal brain activity and limit synaptic plasticity, effects that would be important to consider in the developing brain. To assess ketogenic diet effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, electrophysiological recordings were performed at the perforant path/dentate gyrus synapse in awake, freely-behaving juvenile male rats. Electrodes were implanted 1 week prior to recording. Animals were fed regular chow or a ketogenic diet ad libitum for 3 weeks before recording. Although the ketogenic diet did not significantly alter baseline excitability (assessed by input-output curves) or short-term plasticity (using the paired-pulse ratio), it did reduce the magnitude of long-term potentiation at all poststimulation timepoints out to the last time measured (48 h). The results suggest an effect of ketogenic diet-feeding on the induction magnitude but not the maintenance of long-term potentiation. The lack of effect of the diet on baseline transmission and the paired-pulse ratio suggests a mechanism that limits excitation preferentially in conditions of strong stimulation, consonant with clinical reports in which the ketogenic diet alleviates seizures without a major impact on normal brain activity. Limiting plasticity in a seizure-susceptible network may limit seizure-induced epileptogenesis which may subserve the ongoing benefit of the ketogenic diet in epilepsy.

  11. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Effect of including liquid vinasse in the diet of rabbits on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liquid vinasse (LV in the diet for growing rabbits on performance, carcass yield and intestinal morphometry were assessed. Eighty New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomized block design with five treatments (LV inclusion at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g/kg diet and four replications. There was no effect of the treatment on final weight, daily weight gain, mortality rate and carcass yield characteristics. The daily intakes of feed, dry matter, crude protein and energy and feed conversion decreased linearly with increase in LV in the diet. Including LV affected the duodenum crypt depth and the ilium villus perimeter and height linearly and affected the duodenum villus perimeter, height and the absorption surfaces and ilium crypt depth and absorption surface quadratically. There was no effect of including LV on jejunum morphometry. Vinasse can be used to feed growing rabbits at up to 87.8 g per kilogram of diet.

  13. Effect of a Limited Iodine Diet on Iodine Uptake by Thyroid Glands in Hyperthyroid Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Moncrieff, J C; Heng, H G; Weng, H Y; Dimeo, D; Jones, M D

    2015-01-01

    The effect of feeding a limited iodine diet on radioactive iodine uptake in the thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats is unknown. To determine how feeding limited dietary iodine affects radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats. Eight geriatric cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Prospective study of eight client owned hyperthyroid cats fed a commercially available iodine limited diet for 6 months. Clinical signs were evaluated and TT4 and fT4 were measured during consumption of the diet. Uptake of (123)I was determined before and 8-16 weeks after exclusive consumption of the diet. Clinical signs of hyperthyroidism resolved in all cats, but there was no significant increase in body weight. TT4 and fT4 decreased into the reference range by 8-16 weeks in all cats. Mean TT4 before consumption of the diet was 9.7 μg/dL (SD 5.2) and after consumption of the diet was 3.1 μg/dL (SD 0.9). Scintigraphy revealed unilateral uptake of isotope in 5 cats and bilateral uptake in 3 cats. Mean percentage uptake of (123)I by the thyroid gland at 8 hours after isotope administration was 16.2 (SD 11.8) before diet consumption and 34.6 (SD 11.7) 8-16 weeks after exclusive consumption of the diet. The percentage increase was variable between cats (38-639%). Limited iodine diets increase iodine uptake in the autonomous thyroid glands of hyperthyroid cats. Further studies are necessary to determine if consumption of a limited iodine diet changes sensitivity of the thyroid gland to (131)I treatment. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Effects of diet and exposure to hindlimb suspension on estrous cycling in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    Various factors can disrupt the female reproductive cycle resulting in subfertility. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether physiological changes associated with exposure to hypogravity disrupt reproductive cycles. The hindlimb suspension (HLS) model was used to simulate the major physiological effects of hypogravity in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Also, to determine whether diet may influence reproductive results, rats were fed purified American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G or chow diet. Rats (n = 9-11/group) subjected to HLS had lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged diestrus, indicating hypoestrogenism. Interestingly, HLS rats fed AIN-93G but not chow diet had significantly reduced time spent in estrus and decreased plasma estradiol. Attenuation of hypoestrogenism in the chow-fed rats suggested that diet provided an exogenous source of estrogen. The mechanism involved in the disruption of estrous cycling remains to be determined. HLS increased urinary corticosterone (CORT) levels during the initial 4 days of HLS, suggesting that physiological responses to acute stress may be a potential mechanism in the disruption of estrous cycles. Higher basal urinary CORT was observed in rats fed chow vs. AIN-93G diet. HLS resulted in increased urinary CORT. However, two-way ANOVA indicated a significant HLS effect (P diet effect on urinary CORT levels, suggesting that estrogenic activity associated with the chow diet did not enhance the stress response. The results of this study indicate that HLS, diet, and the combination of HLS and diet influence estrous cycling. This has important implications for future reproductive success in the hypogravity environment of space.

  15. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all Pdiet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet.

  16. Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Noworolski, Susan M; Wen, Michael J; Dyachenko, Artem; Prior, Jessica L; Weinberg, Melissa E; Herraiz, Laurie A; Tai, Viva W; Bergeron, Nathalie; Bersot, Thomas P; Rao, Madhu N; Schambelan, Morris; Mulligan, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    Consumption of high-fructose diets promotes hepatic fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) and an atherogenic lipid profile. It is unclear whether these effects occur independent of positive energy balance and weight gain. We compared the effects of a high-fructose, (25% of energy content) weight-maintaining diet to those of an isocaloric diet with the same macronutrient distribution but in which complex carbohydrate (CCHO) was substituted for fructose. Eight healthy men were studied as inpatients for consecutive 9-day periods. Stable isotope tracers were used to measure fractional hepatic DNL and endogenous glucose production (EGP) and its suppression during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Liver fat was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Weight remained stable. Regardless of the order in which the diets were fed, the high-fructose diet was associated with both higher DNL (average, 18.6 ± 1.4% vs 11.0 ± 1.4% for CCHO; P = .001) and higher liver fat (median, +137% of CCHO; P = .016) in all participants. Fasting EGP and insulin-mediated glucose disposal did not differ significantly, but EGP during hyperinsulinemia was greater (0.60 ± 0.07 vs 0.46 ± 0.06 mg/kg/min; P = .013) with the high-fructose diet, suggesting blunted suppression of EGP. Short-term high-fructose intake was associated with increased DNL and liver fat in healthy men fed weight-maintaining diets.

  17. The effect of diet on dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, W.A.; Barrows, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    A 2 X 2 factorial experiment of diet type (krill vs. fish meal) and steroid supplementation (0 vs. 30 ??g 17??-methyltestosterone kg-1) was conducted to determine the effects on dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout. Triplicate tanks of 250 fry were fed one of the four diets at a rate calculated to produce 115 g fish in 34 weeks. Fish were transferred to larger tanks when mean density index reached 0.40. Dorsal fin index (DFI, measured as mean dorsal fin height X 100/total fish length) was greater (P < 0.001) among fish fed krill-based diets than for fish fed fish-based diets at weeks 12, 22, and 34 of the trial. Added testosterone decreased (p = 0.04) DFI among fish fed the krill diet at week 12 but otherwise had no effect on fin condition. Addition of testosterone to either diet type decreased (P = 0.02) critical thermal maximum, which is a measure of fish resistance to thermal stress. The results suggest that diet composition can influence the rate of dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout through a metabolic, behavioral, or combined change.

  18. Morphological effects of autoclaved diet on the myenteric neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrícia O Gon(c)alez; Naianne K Clebis; Renata B Mari; Karina M Gagliardo; Sandra R Stabille; Haroldo G Faria; Edson A Liberti; José Roberto Kfoury Jr

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of autoclaved diet on the jejunum neurons of the myenteric plexus of rats during their growth.METHODS: The experimental groups were made up of rats going through weaning whose mothers Received either an autoclaved or a non-autoclaved diet during gestation and lactation, and rats that were fed the same diet as their mothers during the post-weaning period. In order to measure the neurons' body pro-file and to quantify the number of neurons per area, preparations were stained by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diaphorase method.RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in rats' body weight or in the number of neurons regard-less of the diet used (P > 0.05). There was a decrease in the jejunum-ileum length in rats treated with an autoclaved diet (P < 0.05). An increase in the neuronal cross-sectional area was seen in rats that had Received the autoclaved diet, an effect that was significant for animals undergoing weaning. In addition, all observed factors showed significant differences when related to the age of the animals.CONCLUSION: The autoclaved diet did not alter the quantity of neurons, but increased their cell body area, suggesting changes similar to those observed in pro-tein deficiency.

  19. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the e...

  20. Effect of Diet upon Intestinal Disaccharidases and Disaccharide Absorption*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, J. J.; Broitman, S. A.; Zamcheck, N.

    1967-01-01

    The administration of a carbohydrate-containing diet for 24 hours to rats previously fasted for 3 days led to a twofold increase in total intestinal sucrase and sucrase specific activity. The specific activity of maltase was similarly increased, but lactase activity was unaffected. The sucrose-containing diet led to a greater increase in sucrase than maltase activity, whereas the converse was true of the maltose-containing diet. A carbohydrate-free isocaloric diet led to a slight increase in the total intestinal sucrase, but sucrase specific activity was unchanged. Assay of sucrase activity of mixed homogenates from casein-fed and sucrose-fed rats or fasted and sucrose-fed animals yielded activities that were additive. The Michaelis constant (Km) of the enzyme hydrolyzing sucrose was similar in the fasted, casein-fed, and sucrose-fed rats. The maximal velocity (Vmax) was twice greater in sucrose-fed as compared to casein-fed or fasted rats, suggesting an increased quantity of enzyme subsequent to sucrose feeding. Adrenalectomized rats maintained on 1.0% salt intake had sucrase and maltase levels comparable to those of controls. Steroid administration did not significantly increase their activities. The response to sucrose feeding was similar in both control and adrenalectomized rats, indicative of the absence of steroidal control on sucrase and maltase activity in the adult animal. Studies using intestinal ring preparations indicated that sucrose hydrolysis by the intact cells proceeded more rapidly when animals were fed sucrose. Additional corroboration of the physiologic significance of the increased enzyme levels in homogenates was afforded by intestinal perfusion studies. Sucrose hydrolysis increased twofold and fructose absorption fourfold in animals fed sucrose when compared to either fasted or casein-fed rats. PMID:6018758

  1. Cortical orofacial motor representation: effect of diet consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, L; Lee, J C; Sessle, B J

    2010-10-01

    Jaw and tongue motor alterations may occur following changes in food consistency, but whether such changes are associated with re-organization of motor representations within the facial sensorimotor cortex is unclear. We used intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and recordings of evoked electromyographic responses to determine jaw (anterior digastric) and tongue (genioglossus) motor representations within the histologically defined face primary motor cortex (face-M1) and adjacent somatosensory cortex (face-S1) of rats fed hard (N = 6) or soft (N = 6) diet for 2 to 3 weeks. ICMS evoked jaw and tongue responses from an extensive area within the face-M1 and a smaller area within the face-S1. A significant contralateral predominance was reflected in the number and latency of ICMS-evoked jaw responses (p diet groups in jaw and tongue motor representations, suggesting that the rat's ability to adapt to changes in diet consistency may not be associated with significant neuroplasticity of sensorimotor cortex motor outputs.

  2. PENGARUH DIET KACANG MERAH TERHADAP KADAR GULA DARAH TIKUS DIABETIK INDUKSI ALLOXAN [Effect of Red Bean Diet on Blood Glucose Concentration of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic response of red bean were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of red bean (Vigna umbellata diet compare with soy bean diet on blood glucose concentration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats (250-300 g were diabetic induced by alloxan injection (80 mg/kg of body weight by intra muscular injection. They were divided into three groups of ten rats. They were fed (1 Standard diet (STD, (2 Red bean diet (KM, and (3 Soy bean diet (KD for 28 days. Concentration of serum glucose were determined before injection (0 day,after injection (day 17th and every sweek during diet intervention (day 24,31,38 and 45thIt was found that alloxan injection increased serum glucose concentration of STD, KM, and KD rats. After 28 days intervention, red bean decreased the serum glucose concentration from 217, 87 mg/dL to 57,70 mg/dL (69 % in KM groups and from 218,94 mg/dL to 76,82 mg/dL (65 % in KD groups, but standard diet (STD were decreased less than both of KM and KD diet.

  3. [Effects of microalgal diets on juvenile growth and survival of the ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhi; Zhang, Ming; Teng, Wei-Ming; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Wang, Chao; Liu, Zhong-Ying; Li, Shi-Lei; Liu, Xiang-Feng

    2014-08-01

    Under hatchery conditions (temperature, 23.5-24.0 degrees C; salinity, 29.5-30.0), effects of microalgal diets on growth and survival of the juvenile ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii, were investigated for 24 days by feeding with diets made of single or combinatory use of four different microalgae, Isochrysis galbana, Chlorella sp., Chaetoceros muelleri and Nitzschia closterium. The results showed that the survival rates were over 95% in all diet groups with no significant difference among them. When feeding with single microalgae, the best feeding effects on growth were observed in I. galbana, while the worst effects occurred in Chlorella sp. When feeding with various combinations of microalgae, the optimal effects on shell length and specific growth rate were observed in diets containing I. galbana compared to the other diets. The diet composed of I. galbana and Chlorella sp. (1:1) provided the best effects for S. broughtonii juveniles, resulting in a specific growth rate of 5.6% x d(-1) in shell length and 6.4% x d(-1) in shell height. These results should be valuable to direct the technique optimization of artificial breeding for the hatchery production of S. broughtonii seeds.

  4. Effect Of Fasting And Vegetarian Diet On The Improvement Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalvat A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, the conventional treatments and the experimental observations have shown that by taking particular foods or omitting some foods form ordinary diet, the disease symptoms of the patients reduce. The interesting point is that fasting lowers the objective and subjective indexes of disease activities in most patients who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. The effects of a short-time fast and subsequent vegetarian diets for one year, on the rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied in this research. Materials and Methods: 52 patients (40 females and 12 males with definite rheumatoid arthritis, based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria were selected and duly studied with single blind method. 28 patients were selected after one month fasting at Ramadan. From the tenth day, a vegetarian diet was prescribed for them. This diet was continued for three moths. After three moths, the diet was changed to a combination of milk, vegetables and fruits. Two of the patients left the study at the end of Ramadan. A group of 24 non-fasting patients with ordinary food diet were selected as control group. Results: In the patients subject of study (with the average age of 39+14.5 and average 36 months disease, after four weeks of fasting under vegetarian diet, significant improvement was found in many of their disease indexes based on ACR criteria, such as joint pain and joint swelling, length of morning stiffness and responds to a health evaluation questionnaires. These suitable effects have still remained the same after one year. With respect to the findings, it is concluded that fasting and a changed diet had left significant effects on all calculated indexes. Although short time fasting had suitable effects in most patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, almost in all cases, the disease recurred when the patient returned to his/her ordinary food diet. Conclusion: The results of the

  5. Effects of four Bifidobacteria on obesity in high-fat diet induced rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To compare the effects of four Bifidobacteria strains(Bifidobacteria L66-5,L75-4,M13-4 and FS31-12,originated from normal human intestines) on weight gain,lipid metabolism,glucose metabolism in an obese murine model induced by high-fat diet.METHODS:Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups.Control group received standard chow,model group received high-fat diet,and intervention groups received high-fat diet added with different Bifidobacteria strains isolated from healthy volu...

  6. Effect of mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dana; Al-Badri, Marwa R; Azar, Sami T

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes mellitus with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the relationship between Mediterranean diet and diabetes control. The result of these studies was conflicting. Some were able to elicit a protective role, while others showed no added benefit. As a result; we decided to conduct a systematic review to have a better understanding of the relationship between adherence to Mediterranean diet and diabetes control. A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective, and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes. Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long

  7. Diet composition modifies embryotoxic effects induced by experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavini, E; Broccia, M L; Prati, M; Domenico Roversi, G

    1991-01-01

    Despite improvements in prenatal care, the incidence of congenital malformations in diabetic pregnancies is still 3-4 times higher than in normal pregnancies. These defects could be attributed to alterations of intrauterine environment due to disorder of the maternal metabolism. If this were true, the quality of food could play a role in diabetes-induced embryotoxicity. To check this hypothesis, female CD rats were made diabetic by injecting intravenously 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin 2 weeks before mating. From the first day of pregnancy they were divided into three groups and maintained on the following diets: (1) standard diet (Italiana Mangimi); (2) purified high protein diet (protein 55%, carbohydrates 25.5%, fat 7.5%, fiber 4.5%, ash 7.5%); (3) purified normoprotein diet (protein 19%, carbohydrates 62.5%, fat 7.5%, fiber 4%, ash 7%). Nondiabetic pregnant females fed with standard diet served as negative control. No significant differences were observed in blood glucose levels among the groups (range 410-500 mg/dl). The group fed on normoprotein diet showed at term of pregnancy: (1) higher rate of resorptions; (2) lower fetal weight; (3) higher frequency of major malformations than the groups fed standard and hyperproteic diets. Although we are not able at this time to discriminate between a protective effect of a diet with a high protein content and a disruptive effect of a diet containing high quantity of carbohydrates, the results of this trial support the hypothesis of a fuel-mediated teratogenesis in diabetic pregnancy.

  8. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil

    2016-02-14

    The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of healthy; and the dietary intervention had a duration of 6 months or longer. Results from individual studies were pooled as weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effect model. In all, eleven RCT with 1369 participants met all the set eligibility criteria. Compared with participants on LF diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol.

  9. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  10. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  11. Effects of Antioxidants Supplemment, Astaxanthin, Vitamin E, C, in Rat Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vahidinia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. In this study, we examined the preventive effect of antioxidants supplement and/or restricted diet on the development of obesity induced by feeding a high-fat (HF diet. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HF purified diet (61% kcal from fat ad libitum, HF restricted (30%, HF supplemented with astaxanthin, vitamin E and C (HFS, HFS restricted (30% for 12 weeks. Daily food intake and weekly body weight gain were measured. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software using Colmogroph- Smirnov, One-Way ANOVA, and Two-Way ANOVA. Results: Dietary antioxidants suppressed body weight gain in the HF-diet ad libitum (-9.8%, and in HF restricted diet (-18.14%. Energy intake was not significant in HF with HFS (58.8 and 58.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively and in HF restricted with HFS restricted (41.7 and 41.6 kcal/rat/d, respectively. Conclusion: results of this study suggest that antioxidants supplement might be of value in reducing the likelihood of obesity in rats fed with high-fat diets, especially when accompanying with restricted diets.

  12. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  13. [Effect of dosed diet restriction on physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V; Chaka, E G; Safonov, S L

    2014-07-01

    The effect of dosed diet restriction on the physiological remodeling and bioelectric properties of bone tissue was studied in 48 male Wistar rats 3- and 18-months of age. The rate of bone tissue apposition was studied by the dynamic histomorphometry method (intravital tetracycline labeling). Electric potentials on the periosteal surface of the freshly isolated femurs were recorded. The magnitude of dielectric loss factor was determined to assess the quality of bone tissue. The control rats received a standard diet. The experimental rats received a limited diet (60 % of the standard mass) for 28 days. The magnitude and rate of the bone tissue apposition on the endosteal and periosteal surface of the tibia were less by 38.4% and 122.7% respectively in experimental rats after dosed diet restriction. Electric potential in the metaphyseal-epiphyseal growth zones of the femur was 29.7% lower, and the dielectric loss factor increased by 15.8%. The bone tissue apposition rate and the electric potential magnitude were increased 10 days after completion of the dosed diet restriction. The magnitude of the dielectric loss factor decreased after returning to the standard diet. Key words: dosed diet restriction, bone, remodelling, bioelectric properties.

  14. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of acidogenic or alkalogenic diets in rats; effects of feeding NH4Cl, KHCO3 or KCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of diet-induced acid-base disturbances were examined in 4-week, 13-week and 18-month toxicity studies, and in a 30-month carcinogenicity study. Rats were fed a natural ingredient diet (controls), supplemented with 2% or 4% KHCO3 (base-forming diets), or with 1% or 2.1% NH4Cl (acid-formin

  15. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low

  16. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucros

  17. Effect of an isoenergetic traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoprotein A-I kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics has not been studied to date. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of the MedDiet in the absence of changes in body weight on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I kinetic in men with metaboli...

  18. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  19. Effects of a short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterdahl, M; Kocturk, T; Koochek, A; Wändell, P E

    2008-05-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular diseases by paleolithic or hunter-gatherer diets has been discussed during recent years. Our aim was to assess the effect of a paleolithic diet in a pilot study on healthy volunteers during 3 weeks. The intention was to include 20 subjects, of whom 14 fulfilled the study. Complete dietary assessment was available for six subjects. Mean weight decreased by 2.3 kg (Pdiet, but further studies, including control group, are needed.

  20. Effect of diet containing Zataria multiflora leaves on anxiety behavior in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Results: The results indicated that the diet containing 10% thyme had significantly increased the presence of the animal in the open arms of maze compared to the control group (P <0.01 and also a decrease was observed in the assessment of cortisol hormone compared to the control group(p <0.05. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that diet containing thyme was effective in reducing anxiety reactions in rats.

  1. The perils of high carbohydrate drinks in the undiagnosed diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Saad Aldeen; Hameed, Asjad; Yousif, Saif; Lessan, Nader

    2011-08-11

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in its incidence and prevalence. Reduction in refined carbohydrate (sugar) intake is an important part of nutritional advice to patients with known diabetes. Sugar is available in a variety of confectionary products. It is also available in especially packaged 'convenience foods' as high energy drinks. Among people without diabetes, such food can have its own health risks. A significant group of patients with diabetes remain undiagnosed. This group are at especially high risk from all the negative metabolic effects of high sugar intake available as high calorie drinks. The authors report two patients without previously known diabetes who presented similarly with marked hyperglycaemic states, leading to severe metabolic disturbances. Both were obese, had common precipitating factors and consumed large quantities of sugary soft drinks ('lucozade'). Both patients recovered well. They were followed up for over 7 years. One is not diabetic and the second is diabetic requiring a small dose of metformin.

  2. Nutritional and biochemical effects of aspartame intake in rats under an experimental diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Martinez-Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the effect of aspartame intake in rats under a diet mimicking the trends of fat consumption in the society. The composition of the experimental diet was within the recommended human limits except the saturated fat amount supplying from coconut fat. Rats under the experimental diet showed an increase in the body weight, transitory increase in the blood pressure and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides alongside a transitory reduction in plasma urea versus the standard group. Rats under the experimental diet plus aspartame intake (54.8 ± 7.3 mg/kg bw/day did not show any increase of body weight and in plasma values of glucose and triglycerides while showed an improvement in the plasma value of urea with respect the group under only the experimental diet. However, the aspartame group showed a more maintained increase of blood pressure. In conclusion, experimental diet produces negative effects on cardiovascular risk factors of the rats while the aspartame intake under the experimental feeding had mixed effects on the cardiometabolic factors of the animals.

  3. Argan oil reduces, in rats, the high fat diet-induced metabolic effects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sour, S; Belarbi, M; Sari, N; Benammar, C H; Baghdad, C H; Visioli, F

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-04-08

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats' intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14-20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. "Programming" of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  5. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Tain, You-Lin; Li, Shih-Wen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Miao-Meng; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF) group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF) group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet. PMID:27070590

  6. Programming Effects of Prenatal Glucocorticoid Exposure with a Postnatal High-Fat Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Ming Sheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has shown that many chronic diseases originate from early life, even before birth, through what are termed as fetal programming effects. Glucocorticoids are frequently used prenatally to accelerate the maturation of the lungs of premature infants. High-fat diets are associated with insulin resistance, but the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure plus a postnatal high-fat diet in diabetes mellitus remain unclear. We administered pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats’ intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg body weight or vehicle at gestational days 14–20. Male offspring were administered a normal or high-fat diet starting from weaning. We assessed the effects of prenatal steroid exposure plus postnatal high-fat diet on the liver, pancreas, muscle and fat at postnatal day 120. At 15 and 30 min, sugar levels were higher in the dexamethasone plus high-fat diet (DHF group than the vehicle plus high-fat diet (VHF group in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT. Serum insulin levels at 15, 30 and 60 min were significantly higher in the VHF group than in the vehicle and normal diet group. Liver insulin receptor and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase mRNA expressions and protein levels were lower in the DHF group. Insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 mRNA expressions were lower in the epididymal adipose tissue in the VHF and DHF groups. “Programming” of liver or epididymal adipose tissue resulted from prenatal events. Prenatal steroid exposure worsened insulin resistance in animals fed a high-fat diet.

  7. Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo

    2014-01-30

    A vegetarian diet generally includes plenty of vegetables and fruits, which are rich in phytochemicals, antioxidants, fiber, magnesium, vitamins C and E, Fe³⁺, folic acid and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and is low in cholesterol, total fat and saturated fatty acid, sodium, Fe²⁺, zinc, vitamin A, B₁₂ and D, and especially n-3 PUFA. Mortality from all-cause, ischemic heart disease, and circulatory and cerebrovascular diseases was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivorous populations. Compared with omnivores, the incidence of cancer and type 2 diabetes was also significantly lower in vegetarians. However, vegetarians have a number of increased risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as increased plasma homocysteine, mean platelet volume and platelet aggregability compared with omnivores, which are associated with low intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for vegetarians to carefully design their diet, specifically focusing on increasing their intake of vitamin B₁₂ and n-3 PUFA to further reduce already low mortality and morbidity from non-communicable diseases. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance of piglets fed tryptophan- and valine-deficient diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Canibe, Nuria; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2016-01-01

    with Leu, Trp, and Val. A Leu-deficient diet with BsVal was included to distinguish between a general probiotic effect and in situ AA production. Eight diets were formulated for each of the 3 studies: 6 diets with 6 levels of AA and 2 diets with BsTrp or BsVal at 10x or 100x standard doses added....... In conclusion, dietary inclusion of B. subtilis mutants indicated some improvements in the performance of pigs fed AA-deficient diets, which could be related to intestinal synthesis and release of l-Trp and l-Val, to protease activity, or to a general probiotic effect....

  9. Effects of growth hormone plus a hyperproteic diet on methotrexate-induced injury in rat intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Gomez-de-Segura, I A; Vázquez, I; López, J M; de Guevara, C L; De-Miguel, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether growth hormone treatment reduces injury to the intestinal mucosa induced by methotrexate (MTX). Wistar rats with intestinal injury induced by methotrexate were treated with daily growth hormone, beginning 3 days before MTX treatment until 3 or 4 days after MTX administration. The rats were killed at 3 or 7 days post-MTX administration. The rats were fed with either a normoproteic diet or a hyperproteic diet. Body weight, mortality, bacterial translocation, intestinal morphometry, proliferation and apoptosis and blood somatostatin and IGF-1 were determined. Combined administration of growth hormone and a hyperproteic diet reduces MTX-induced mortality. This effect was accompanied by increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within the crypt. Morphometric data showed complete recovery of the mucosa by day 7 post-MTX administration. These results indicate a synergistic protective action of growth hormone combined with a hyperproteic diet to MTX-induced injury.

  10. Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brader, L; Uusitupa, M; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:Dietary pattern is central in the prevention of hypertension and blood pressure (BP)-related diseases. A diet based on healthy Nordic foods may have a favourable impact on BP. The objective was to clarify whether a Nordic alternative for a healthy food pattern would have.......5 mm Hg; P=0.122). Heart rate tended to be lower in those on the healthy Nordic diet (P=0.057). Urinary sodium and potassium excretions were unaffected by diets and consequently not associated with the healthy Nordic diet-induced lowering of BP.Conclusions:Consumption of Nordic varieties of health......-enhancing foods for 12 weeks decreased diastolic ambulatory BP and mean arterial pressure in subjects with features of MetS during weight-stable condition, suggesting beneficial effects of a healthy Nordic dietary pattern on ambulatory BP....

  11. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: Effects of weight loss and a review of popular diets. Are low carbohydrate diets the answer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harjot K Gill; George Y Wu

    2006-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a wide spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from relatively benign steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure.The presence of obesity and insulin resistance is strongly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver and confers on it a greater risk of histologically advanced disease. There is a growing concern in the medical profession as the prevalence of this disease continues to rise in parallel with the rise in obesity and the metabolic syndrome.Treatment options are limited and dietary weight loss is often advised. Low fat diets are difficult to adhere to and recent studies have shown the potential of low carbohydrate diets for weight loss and improving insulin resistance. Thus far, no study has evaluated the effect of low carbohydrate diets on NAFLD. Future studies will be required to address this question and others with regards to the nutritional adequacy and long-term side effects of these diets.

  12. The effects of X-ray radiation on mandibular bone of low-calcium diet rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Akihiko (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    In an attempt to examine the effects of X-ray on osteoporosis, a single dose of 30 Gy was delivered to the mandible in rats given low-calcium diet. Serum levels of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) were measured; and changes in bone salt were determined by autoradiography, microradiography, and roentgenography using an electron probe microanalyzer. Body weight was lower in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group, irrespective of types of diet. The serum Ca levels in the irradiated group given a normal diet were significantly decreased on Days 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. When given a low-Ca diet, these levels tended to be lower in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group on Day 7 or later. The serum levels of inorganic P were significantly lower in the irradiated group given a normal diet than the non-irradiated group on Day 3. Rats given a low-Ca diet had the same levels, irrespective of irradiation. Autoradiography revealed that Ca-45 retention in the whole jaw was slightly greater in the irradiated group than the non-irradiated group On Days 7 and 21. Rats given a low-Ca diet in both irradiated and non-irradiated groups had a greater Ca-45 retention than those given a normal diet. Microradiography revealed that bone formation-like changes, such as flat surface of the periodontal membrane at the intra-alveolar septum, were slightly noticeable in the irradiated group of rats given a normal diet on Day 21. Thinning of the intra-alveolar septum and decrease of the trabecula at the diaphysis were also noticeable in the irradiated group of rats given a low-Ca diet. Variation of X-ray intensity was more marked on Day 7 than on Day 21 in the irradiated group given a normal diet. When given a low-Ca diet, both the irradiated and non-irradiated group had noticeable X-ray intensity variation. (N.K.).

  13. The Ketogenic and Atkins Diets Effect on Intractable Epilepsy: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad GHAZAVI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghazavi A, Tonekaboni SH, Karimzadeh P, Nikibakhsh AA, Khajeh A, Fayyazi A. The Ketogenic and Atkins Diets Effect on Intractable Epilepsy: A Comparison. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 12-17.AbstractObjectiveIntractable epilepsy is a major difficulty in child neurology, because the numbers of drugs that are available for treatment are limited and new treatments such as diets must be tried. Now there are some diets available for treating patients with intractable epilepsy. The oldest diet is the classic ketogenic diet and one of thenewest diets is the modified Atkins diet. Patients have a harder time accepting the classic ketogenic diet than the Atkins diet, which is easier to accept because the food tastes better. This study compares the efficacy of the ketogenic diet and the Atkins diet for intractable epilepsy in children.Materials & MethodsThis study is a clinical trial survey with sample size of 40 children with refractory epilepsy who were patients at Mofid hospital in Tehran, Iran. Initially, from Jan 2005–Oct 2007, 20 children were treated with the Atkins diet, and then from Oct 2007–March 2010, the other group was treated with the classic ketogenic diet and the results were compared. ResultsIn this study, response to treatment was greater than a 50% reduction in seizures and at the end of first, second, and third months for the ketogenic diet were 55%, 30%, and 70% and for the Atkins diet were 50%, 65%, and 70%, respectively.ConclusionThe results of this study show that there is no significant difference between the classic Ketogenic diet and the Atkins diet at the end of first, second, and third months and both had similar responses to the treatments.References Camfield CS, Canfield PR, Gordon K, Wirrell E, Dooley JM. Incidence of epilepsy in childhood and adolescents in Nova Scotia. Epilepsia, 1996 Jan;37(1:19-23.Gessner U, Sagmeister M, Horisberger B. The cost of Epilepsy in

  14. Effect of Diet and Exercise on the Peripheral Immune System in Young Balb/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, B. E.; Jarillo-Luna, R. A.; Campos-Rodríguez, R.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Rivera-Aguilar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Although diet and exercise clearly have an influence on immune function, studies are scarce on the effect caused by exercise and the consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich diet on the peripheral immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise and the two aforementioned unbalanced diets on young Balb/c mice, especially in relation to BMI, the level of glucose, and the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. The changes found were then related to the synthesis of leptin and adiponectin as well as the production of oxidative stress. The increase in BMI found with the carbohydrate-rich and fat-rich diets showed correlation with the levels of leptin and adiponectin. An increase in leptin and a decrease in adiponectin directly correlated with an increase in total lymphocytes and CD4+ cells and with a decrease in B cells. The increase in leptin also correlated with an increase in CD8+ cells. Glycemia and oxidative stress increased with the two unbalanced diets, negatively affecting the proliferation of total lymphocytes and the percentage of B cells, apparently by causing alterations in proteins through carbonylation. These alterations caused by an unbalanced diet were not modified by moderate exercise. PMID:26634209

  15. [The effects of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-yan; Ma, Li-chuan; Li, Yin-yin; Zhao, Jia-jun; Li, Ming-long

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of long-term high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on body weight and the expression of gastrointestinal hormones in diet-induced obesity rats. Twenty-four diet-induced obesity rat models were established by feeding fat-enriched diet, then were randomly divided into two groups by stratified sampling method by weight: the high-protein diet group (HP, 36.7% of energy from protein), and the normal chow group (NC, 22.4% of energy from protein), 12 rats in each group. The total calorie intake of each rat per day was similar and was maintained for 24 weeks, then body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting plasma ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were determined, as well as protein expression of ghrelin in stomach, GLP-1 in ileum were detected by immunohistochemistry. After 24 weeks, body weight of HP, NC groups were (490.92 ± 39.47) g and (545.55 ± 31.08) g, respectively (t = -3.664, P 0.05), and plasma ghrelin level was negatively correlated to body weight (r = -0.370, t = -1.899, P diet can reduce body weight and visceral fat, increase the expression of ghrelin, and decline GLP-1 expression in diet-induced obesity rats.

  16. Effect of Mediterranean Diet in Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk Modification: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eSleiman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past few years, there has been a worldwide significant increase in the incidence of type II diabetes (T2DM with both increase in morbidity and mortality. Controlling diabetes through life style modifications, including diet and exercise has always been the cornerstone in diabetes management. As a matter of fact, a number of studies addressed the potential protective role of Mediterranean diet in diabetic patients. Increasing evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet could be of benefit in diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity as well as atherosclerosis, cancer, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on the effect of Mediterranean diet in diabetes control and cardiovascular risk modification as well as the possible mechanism through which this diet might exhibit its beneficial role. We did a comprehensive search of multiple electronic databases such as Medline, Google Scholars, PubMed, and the Cochrane central register data until May 2014. We included cross-sectional, prospective and controlled clinical trials that looked at the associations between Mediterranean diet and indices of diabetes control such HbA1c, fasting glucose, and HOMA, in addition to cardiovascular and peripheral vascular outcomes.Outcome/Conclusion: Most of the studies showed favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on glycemic control and CVD, although a certain degree of controversy remains regarding some issues, such as obesity. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results, thus further longer term studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the Mediterranean diet along with the possibility of explaining its mechanism.

  17. Effects of soy components on blood and liver lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Yi Lin; Cheng-Yu Tsai; Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of soy protein, isoflavone, and saponin on liver and blood lipid in rats that consumed high-cholesterol diets.METHODS: High-cholesterol diets (1%) with or without soy material were fed to 6-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats for 8 wk. Blood lipids, liver lipids, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels were measured. The in vitro bile acid-binding ability of soy materials was analyzed.RESULTS: The results of in vitro studies showed that soy protein isolate had a significantly higher bile acid-binding ability (8.4±0.8%) than soy saponin (3.1±0.7%) and isoflavone (1.3±0.4%, P<0.05). On the other hand, at the end of the experimental period, rats that consumed soy protein diets had lower GOT and GPT levels than rats that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets.Rats that consumed soy protein also had lower total cholesterol (TC) levels in the liver than those that consumed casein under high-cholesterol diets. Rats that consumed the soy protein diet containing both saponin and isoflavone had lower hepatic TC level than those that consumed the soy protein diet without isoflavone alone.The effect of different types of proteins on triglyceride was not significant.CONCLUSION: Consumption of soy provided benefits to control lipid levels under high-cholesterol dieting conditions in this rat model of hypercholesterolemia. The major component that reduced hepatic TC was not saponin, but possibly isoflavone.

  18. Effects of almond consumption on the post-lunch dip and long-term cognitive function in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jaapna; Tan, Sze-Yen; Mattes, Richard D

    2017-02-01

    The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the acute effect of an almond-enriched high-fat lunch or high-carbohydrate lunch on the post-lunch decline in cognitive function, and (2) evaluate the effects of chronic almond consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet on the memory and attention domains of cognitive function. In total, eighty-six overweight and obese adults were randomised to consume either an almond-enriched diet (AED) or a nut-free control diet (NFD) over a 12-week weight loss intervention. Participants were also randomised to receive either an almond-enriched high-fat lunch (A-HFL) (>55 % energy from fat, almonds contributing 70-75 % energy) or a high-carbohydrate lunch (HCL) (>85 % energy from carbohydrates) at the beginning and end of the weight loss intervention. Memory and attention performance indices decreased after lunch consumption (Pconsumption at a midday meal can reduce the post-lunch dip in memory. However, long-term almond consumption may not further improve cognitive function outcomes in a weight loss intervention.

  19. The effect of a low iron diet and early life methylmercury exposure in Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sherri L.; Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency increases risk for adverse health outcomes in humans; however little is known about the potential interaction with methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Studies testing multiple stressor hypotheses are expensive and time consuming in mammalian model systems; therefore, determining relevance of alternative models is important. Daphnia pulex were fed standard or low-Fe diets of freshwater algae, Ankistrodesmus falcatus. MeHgCl (1600 ng/L) or vehicle was added to culture media for 24 h during early life, and the combinatorial effects of a low-Fe diet and MeHg exposure on lifespan, maturation time, and reproduction were evaluated. Lipid storage effects were measured using image analysis of Oil Red O staining and triacylglyceride quantification. Our results show a dose-dependent reduction in lifespan in D. pulex fed low Fe diets. Lipid analysis suggests an interactive effect of diet and MeHg exposure, with MeHg exposure increasing lipid storage in D. pulex fed a low-Fe diet. These findings suggest the effects of dietary iron intake and early life MeHg exposure in D. pulex may be mediated by changes in energetics that result in differential lipid storage. Therefore, lipid storage in D. pulex may be a useful screen for detecting long-term effects of multiple stressors early in life. PMID:26806633

  20. THE EFFECTS OF DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVEL OF NON-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES ON PERFORMANCE AND CANNIBALISM IN LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of different diets containing different level ofnon-starch polysaccharides (NSP on performance and cannibalism of laying hens. Six diets (wheatbased,rice hull-based, plant protein-based, millrun-based, MOS, and bentonite were used and wererandomly given to 6 groups of ISA Brown hens, with 18 replicates per group and 5 birds per replicatefor 8 weeks. The results showed that diets did not have a significant effect (P>0.05 on cannibalismmortality, but numerically the rice hull diet gave the lowest effect, the millrun gave the intermediateeffect, whereas the plant protein diet gave the largest negative effect. Diet significantly affected feedintake (P<0.01, egg production (P<0.01, feed to egg ratio (P<0.01 and egg weight (P<0.05. Birds onmillrun diet had the lowest intake, but the feed to egg ratio was superior and egg production was thehighest compared to those fed other diets. In contrast, the feed to egg ratio in rice hull diet was inferior,and egg weight was also lighter than those fed other diets. In conclusion, fibre sources have beenverified as contributing factors involved in the outbreak of cannibalism in laying hens. Diets containinghigh insoluble NSP had a potential to decrease the mortality due to cannibalism.

  1. GPRC6a is not required for the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey-Jones, James S; Alamshah, Amin; McGavigan, Anne K; Spreckley, Eleanor; Banks, Katherine; Cereceda Monteoliva, Nicholas; Norton, Mariana; Bewick, Gavin A; Murphy, Kevin G

    2015-06-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) is activated by proteinogenic amino acids and may sense amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. The study investigated whether GPRC6A was necessary for the effects of low- and high-protein diets on body weight and food intake in mice. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a low-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a knockout (GPRC6a-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a low-protein diet (6% protein) for 9 days. The role of GPRC6A in mediating the effects of a high-protein diet on body weight was investigated in GPRC6a-KO and WT mice fed a control diet (18% protein) or a high-protein diet (50% protein) for 5 weeks. A high-protein diet reduced body weight gain and food intake compared with a control diet in both WT and GPRC6a-KO mice. A low-protein diet decreased body weight gain in GPRC6a-KO mice. GPRC6A was not necessary for the effects of a low- or high-protein diet on body weight and likely does not play a role in protein-induced satiety. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeou-mei Christiana Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD, which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  3. Effect of high fat diet enriched with unsaturated and diet rich in saturated fatty acids on sphingolipid metabolism in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Zabielski, Piotr; Gorski, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of high fat diet leads to muscle lipid accumulation which is an important factor involved in induction of insulin resistance. Ceramide is likely to partially inhibit insulin signaling cascade. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different high fat diets on ceramide metabolism in rat skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats fed for 5 weeks: (1) a standard chow and (2) high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (3) diet enriched with saturated fatty acids (SAT). Assays were performed on three types of muscles: slow-twitch oxidative (soleus), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic, and fast-twitch glycolytic (red and white section of the gastrocnemius, respectively). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (n- and aSMase), and neutral and alkaline ceramidase (n- and alCDase) was examined. The content of ceramide, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate was also measured. The ceramide content did not change in any muscle from PUFA diet group but increased in the SAT diet group by 46% and 52% in the soleus and red section of the gastrocnemius, respectively. Elevated ceramide content in the SAT diet group could be a result of increased SPT activity and simultaneously decreased activity of nCDase. Unchanged ceramide content in the PUFA diet group might be a result of increased activity of SPT and alCDase and simultaneously decreased activity of SMases. We conclude that regulation of muscle ceramide level depends on the diet and type of skeletal muscle. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification

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    Rachel Nicoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.

  5. Dominant effects of the diet on the microbiome and the local and systemic immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jot Hui Ooi

    Full Text Available Outside the nutrition community the effects of diet on immune-mediated diseases and experimental outcomes have not been appreciated. Investigators that study immune-mediated diseases and/or the microbiome have overlooked the potential of diet to impact disease phenotype. We aimed to determine the effects of diet on the bacterial microbiota and immune-mediated diseases. Three different laboratory diets were fed to wild-type mice for 2 weeks and resulted in three distinct susceptibilities to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. Examination of the fecal microbiota demonstrated a diet-mediated effect on the bacteria found there. Broad-spectrum antibiotics disturbed the gut microbiome and partially eliminated the diet-mediated changes in DSS susceptibility. Dietary changes 2 days after DSS treatment were protective and suggested that the diet-mediated effect occurred quickly. There were no diet-mediated effects on DSS susceptibility in germ-free mice. In addition, the diet-mediated effects were evident in a gastrointestinal infection model (Citrobacter rodentium and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Taken together, our study demonstrates a dominant effect of diet on immune-mediated diseases that act rapidly by changing the microbiota. These findings highlight the potential of using dietary manipulation to control the microbiome and prevent/treat immune-mediated disease.

  6. The Use of Ketogenic Diet in Pediatric Patients with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiewicz Runyon, Amanda; So, Tsz-Yin

    2012-01-01

    A ketogenic diet is a nonpharmacologic treatment strategy to control refractory epilepsy in children. Although this diet has been used successfully to reduce seizures since the 1920s, the anticonvulsant mechanism of ketosis remains unknown. The initiation of the diet requires an average four-day hospitalization to achieve ketosis in the patient as well as to provide thorough education on diet maintenance for both the patient and the caregivers. A ketogenic diet, consisting of low carbohydrate and high fat intake, leaves little room for additional carbohydrates supplied by medications. Patients on ketogenic diets who exceed their daily carbohydrate limit have the risk of seizure relapse, necessitating hospital readmission to repeat the diet initiation process. These patients are at a high risk for diversion from the diet. Patients admitted to the hospital setting are often initiated on multiple medications, and many hospital systems are not equipped with appropriate monitoring systems to prevent clinicians from introducing medications with high carbohydrate contents. Pharmacists have the resources and the expertise to help identify and prevent the initiation of medications with high carbohydrate content in patients on ketogenic diets. PMID:22970384

  7. The Effects of the Combination of a Refined Carbohydrate Diet and Exposure to Hyperoxia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nicia Pedreira; Campos, Keila Karine Duarte; Pena, Karina Braga; Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease with genetic, social, and environmental influences. This study aims at analyzing the effects of the combination of a refined carbohydrate diet and exposure to hyperoxia on the pulmonary oxidative and inflammatory response in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG), hyperoxia group (HG), refined carbohydrate diet group (RCDG), and refined carbohydrate diet + hyperoxia group (RCDHG). The experimental diet was composed of 10% sugar, 45% standard diet, and 45% sweet condensed milk. For 24 hours, the HG and RCDHG were exposed to hyperoxia and the CG and RCDG to ambient air. After the exposures were completed, the animals were euthanized, and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lungs were collected for analyses. The HG showed higher levels of interferon-γ in adipose tissue as compared to other groups and higher levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the CG and RCDHG. SOD and CAT activities in the pulmonary parenchyma decreased in the RCDHG as compared to the CG. There was an increase of lipid peroxidation in the HG, RCDG, and RCDHG as compared to the CG. A refined carbohydrate diet combined with hyperoxia promoted inflammation and redox imbalance in adult mice. PMID:28018521

  8. Combined effects of caffeine and zinc in the maternal diet on fetal brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, T.; Gottschalk, S.B.; Yazdani, M.; Joseph, F. Jr. (Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors have reported that caffeine (C) intake during the lactational period by dams decreases the Zn content of the brain in their offspring. The objective of the present study is to determine how C plus Zn supplementation to the maternal diet during gestation affects the fetal brains. Timed-pregnant rats at day 3 of gestation were randomly divided into 4 groups (G). G1 was fed a 20% protein diet as a control, G2 was fed a diet supplemented with Zn, G3 was fed a diet with C and G4 was fed a diet with C and Zn. At day 22 of gestation, fetuses were taken out surgically. Fetal brains were removed. Their weights, DNA, Zn, protein, cholesterol, caffeine concentration, and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined. Body and brain weights and cholesterol contents in G4 were greater than in G1, whereas Zn concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity were less. Zn concentration and Zn/DNA in G2 were greater than in G1. Cholesterol content in G4 was higher than in G3. Although mean caffeine concentration in brain and plasma in G4 was greater than in G3, there was no statistical significance between the G due to the wide fluctuation among the pups. It is concluded that supplementation of C and Zn in the maternal diet during gestation could influence fetal brain composition differently than C supplementation alone. Supplementation of Zn alone showed minor effects.

  9. The Effect of Hypoallergenic Diagnostic Diet in Adolescents and Adult Patients Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

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    Jarmila Celakovská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of a diagnostic hypoallergenic diet on the severity of atopic dermatitis in patients over 14 years of age. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic hypoallergenic diet was recommended to patients suffering from atopic dermatitis for a period of 3 weeks. The severity of atopic dermatitis was evaluated at the beginning and at the end of this diet (SCORAD I, SCORAD II and the difference in the SCORAD over this period was statistically evaluated. Results: One hundred and forty-nine patients suffering from atopic dermatitis were included in the study: 108 women and 41 men. The average age of the subjects was 26.03 (SD: 9.6 years, with the ages ranging from a minimum of 14 years to a maximum of 63 years. The mean SCORAD at the beginning of the study (SCORAD I was 32.9 points (SD: 14.1 and the mean SCORAD at the end of the diet (SCORAD II was 25.2 points (SD: 9.99. The difference between SCORAD I and SCORAD II was evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average decrease of SCORAD was 7.7 points, which was statistically significant (P=.00000. Conclusion: Introduction of the diagnostic hypoallergenic diet may serve as a temporary medical solution" in patients suffering from moderate or severe forms of atopic dermatitis. It is recommended that this diet be used in the diagnostic workup of food allergy.

  10. Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olek, Robert A; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Wierzba, Tomasz H; Kaczor, Jan J

    2013-07-01

    Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes' activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles.

  11. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame seed (10%, and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol + sesame oil (5%. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P0.05. In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P0.05. Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  12. The Effects of the Combination of a Refined Carbohydrate Diet and Exposure to Hyperoxia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicia Pedreira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease with genetic, social, and environmental influences. This study aims at analyzing the effects of the combination of a refined carbohydrate diet and exposure to hyperoxia on the pulmonary oxidative and inflammatory response in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG, hyperoxia group (HG, refined carbohydrate diet group (RCDG, and refined carbohydrate diet + hyperoxia group (RCDHG. The experimental diet was composed of 10% sugar, 45% standard diet, and 45% sweet condensed milk. For 24 hours, the HG and RCDHG were exposed to hyperoxia and the CG and RCDG to ambient air. After the exposures were completed, the animals were euthanized, and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lungs were collected for analyses. The HG showed higher levels of interferon-γ in adipose tissue as compared to other groups and higher levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the CG and RCDHG. SOD and CAT activities in the pulmonary parenchyma decreased in the RCDHG as compared to the CG. There was an increase of lipid peroxidation in the HG, RCDG, and RCDHG as compared to the CG. A refined carbohydrate diet combined with hyperoxia promoted inflammation and redox imbalance in adult mice.

  13. Effect of supplemented diet with maturation plant extract on reproductive performance of Etroplus suratansis

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    S. Albin Dhas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to understand the effect of herbal maturation diet on reproductive successes in Etroplus suratensis. Three herbal maturation diets (EXD1, EXD2, EXD3 and one control diet (EXD0 were prepared with different combinations of herbal ingredients and normal diet ingredients. The experimental animal were observed for the success in reproductive performance like Gonado Somatic Index (GSI, fecundity, striping response, percentage of fertilization, percentage of hatching, percentage of deformed and formed larvae, volume of milt, number of sperm cell, percentage of sperm motility, sperm survival time, percentage of active sperm. The EXD3 diet combination increased the GSI (3.14, fecundity (1325, striping responds (87.23, percentage of fertilization (96.45 percentage of hatching (91.89, percentage of formed larvae (87.53, volume of milt (287 μl, number of sperm cell per μl (1912 percentage of sperm motility (94.18, time of sperm survival (72′15″ and percentage of active sperm cells (92.27 and reduced deformed larva percentage (4.36. From this observation it is more evident that the combination of EXD3 was the best combination and it could be utilized for the formulation of maturation diets for E. suratensis.

  14. Effects of a diet rich in arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates on postprandial metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Gregersen, Søren; Hald, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Low intake of dietary fibre is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. Dyslipidaemia plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of the impact of dietary fibres on postprandial lipaemia is, however, sparse. This study aimed in subjects with metabolic...... syndrome to assess the impact on postprandial lipaemia and features of the metabolic syndrome of a healthy carbohydrate diet (HCD) rich in cereal fibre, arabinoxylan and resistant starch compared to a refined-carbohydrate western-style diet (WSD). Methods: Nineteen subjects completed the randomised...... lipid content were measured. Results: We found no diet effects on postprandial lipaemia. However, there was a significant diet × statin interaction on total cholesterol (P = 0.02) and LDL cholesterol (P = 0.002). HCD decreased total cholesterol (−0.72 mmol/l, 95% CI (−1.29; −0.14) P = 0.03) and LDL...

  15. Effects of maternal diet and host quality on oviposition patterns and offspring performance in a seed beetle (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Segovia, Ricardo; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2008-07-01

    In seed beetles, oviposition decisions may influence the offspring phenotype because eggs constitute the initial resources available for larval development. We tested the effects of host quality variations (small vs. large seeds of the host plant Calystegia sepium, Convolvulaceae) on oviposition patterns and offspring performance of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus. We also manipulated the maternal diet: high diet quality vs. low diet quality to evaluate possible interactive effects of the maternal nutritional environment and host quality on oviposition patterns. We further assessed the consequences of egg size variation in offspring size. Female M. eulophus fed with high-quality diet (H-diet) laid more eggs and lived longer than females fed with low-quality diet (P-diet). Fecundity decreased under a low-quality host for both maternal diets. The occurrence of maternal environmental effects on egg size plasticity was detected. Under conditions of low-quality host, mothers fed with the high-quality diet produced bigger eggs in comparison with a high-quality host, whereas females fed with the low-quality diet produced smaller ones. Regardless of these differences observed in egg size depending on the maternal diet, progeny emerging from small seeds (low-quality host) showed a similar performance at emergence. Offspring traits were only significantly affected by host quality. Beetles emerging from large seeds had greater body weight and length than those reared on small seeds. Variations in oviposition patterns in response to host quality are discussed.

  16. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals.Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46 or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47 for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks.The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017. When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%. The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks.Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms.CRiS KCT0001771.

  17. Effect of a Brown Rice Based Vegan Diet and Conventional Diabetic Diet on Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A 12-Week Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Se-A; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Guk; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Ji-Yun; Jeon, Jae-Han; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Several intervention studies have suggested that vegetarian or vegan diets have clinical benefits, particularly in terms of glycemic control, in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, no randomized controlled trial has been conducted in Asians who more commonly depend on plant-based foods, as compared to Western populations. Here, we aimed to compare the effect of a vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control among Korean individuals. Participants diagnosed with T2D were randomly assigned to follow either a vegan diet (excluding animal-based food including fish; n = 46) or a conventional diet recommended by the Korean Diabetes Association 2011 (n = 47) for 12 weeks. HbA1c levels were measured at weeks 0, 4, and 12, and the primary study endpoint was the change in HbA1c levels over 12 weeks. The mean HbA1c levels at weeks 0, 4, and 12 were 7.7%, 7.2%, and 7.1% in the vegan group, and 7.4%, 7.2%, and 7.2% in the conventional group, respectively. Although both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1C levels, the reductions were larger in the vegan group than in the conventional group (-0.5% vs. -0.2%; p-for-interaction = 0.017). When only considering participants with high compliance, the difference in HbA1c level reduction between the groups was found to be larger (-0.9% vs. -0.3%). The beneficial effect of vegan diets was noted even after adjusting for changes in total energy intake or waist circumference over the 12 weeks. Both diets led to reductions in HbA1c levels; however, glycemic control was better with the vegan diet than with the conventional diet. Thus, the dietary guidelines for patients with T2D should include a vegan diet for the better management and treatment. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of a vegan diet, and to identify potential explanations of the underlying mechanisms. CRiS KCT0001771.

  18. Effects of Diet Dilution during the Finishing Period on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the response of broiler to diet dilution during the finishing period. Sixty 29-day-old commercial Avian male broiler chicks were assigned to two groups randomly, with 30 broilers each. Birds were offered a conventional finishing diet or with 10% dilution diet with ground rice hulls from 29 to 49 days of age. The result showed that there were no significant differences between the effects of diet dilution and the control on final body weight, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Diet dilution led to a reduction in abdominal fat weight, whereas carcass and breast muscle weight were not affected.

  19. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  20. The effects of classic ketogenic diet on serum lipid profile in children with refractory seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Karimi, Parviz; Mahmoudi, Maryam; Badv, Reza Shervin; Tavassoli, Ali Reza; Azizi Malamiri, Reza

    2016-12-01

    More than 25 % of children with epilepsy develop refractory seizures unresponsive to both old and new generation anticonvulsants. Since such seizures have a serious negative impact on the quality of life, other treatment options are considered. The ketogenic diet is a well-known treatment for managing refractory seizures, although its mechanism of action is unknown. Studies have shown that this diet is as good as, or better than, any of the newer medications in reducing seizure frequency. However, concerns about adverse effects have been raised. We conducted an open label trial to show the effects of this diet on serum lipid profile. Thirty-three children with refractory epilepsy were treated with the ketogenic diet and were followed for 6 months. Their serum lipid profile was assessed at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after initiating the diet. Seizure frequency was reduced in 63 % of children (no seizures in 2/33 and reduced >50 % in 19/33). However, after 6 months of administering the diet, median triglyceride was significantly increased (from 84 to 180 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median total cholesterol was significantly increased (from 180 to 285 mg/dl, P < 0.001), median serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was significantly increased (from 91 to 175 mg/dl, P < 0.001), and median serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly increased (from 51 to 58 mg/dl, P < 0.001). Results of this study indicate that a classic ketogenic diet in children with refractory seizures is effective in seizure reduction, but leads to development of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Epigenetic DNA Methylation Mediating Octopus vulgaris Early Development: Effect of Essential Fatty Acids Enriched Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus, Octopus vulgaris, is a good candidate for aquaculture but a sustainable production is still unviable due to an almost total mortality during the paralarvae stage. DNA methylation regulates gene expression in the eukaryotic genome, and has been shown to exhibit plasticity throughout O. vulgaris life cycle, changing profiles from paralarvae to adult stages. This pattern of methylation could be sensitive to small alterations in nutritional and environmental conditions during the species early development, thus impacting on its health, growth and survival. In this sense, a full understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms operating during O. vulgaris development would contribute to optimizing the culture conditions for this species. Paralarvae of O. vulgaris were cultured over 28 days post-hatching (dph using two different Artemia sp. based diets: control and a long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA enriched diet. The effect of the diets on the paralarvae DNA global methylation was analyzed by Methyl-Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP and global 5-methylcytosine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA approaches. The analysis of different methylation states over the time revealed a global demethylation phenomena occurring along O. vulgaris early development being directly driven by the age of the paralarvae. A gradual decline in methylated loci (hemimethylated, internal cytosine methylated, and hypermethylated parallel to a progressive gain in non-methylated (NMT loci toward the later sampling points was verified regardless of the diet provided and demonstrate a pre-established and well-defined demethylation program during its early development, involving a 20% of the MSAP loci. In addition, a differential behavior between diets was also observed at 20 dph, with a LC-PUFA supplementation effect over the methylation profiles. The present results show significant differences on the paralarvae methylation profiles

  2. The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero, Magdalena; Arriaga, Julio C; Jalal, Diana; Rivard, Christopher; McFann, Kim; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Vázquez, Armando; Ruiz, Arturo; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Jimenez, Carlos Roncal; Johnson, Richard J; Lozada, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez

    2011-11-01

    One of the proposed causes of obesity and metabolic syndrome is the excessive intake of products containing added sugars, in particular, fructose. Although the ability of excessive intake of fructose to induce metabolic syndrome is mounting, to date, no study has addressed whether a diet specifically lowering fructose but not total carbohydrates can reduce features of metabolic syndrome. A total of 131 patients were randomized to compare the short-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets-a low-fructose diet vs a moderate natural fructose diet-on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters. Patients were randomized to receive 1500, 1800, or 2000 cal diets according to sex, age, and height. Because natural fructose might be differently absorbed compared with fructose from added sugars, we randomized obese subjects to either a low-fructose diet (diet with natural fruit supplements (50-70 g/d) and compared the effects of both diets on the primary outcome of weight loss in a 6-week follow-up period. Blood pressure, lipid profile, serum glucose, insulin resistance, uric acid, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and quality of life scores were included as secondary outcomes. One hundred two (78%) of the 131 participants were women, mean age was 38.8 ± 8.8 years, and the mean body mass index was 32.4 ± 4.5 kg/m(2). Each intervention diet was associated with significant weight loss compared with baseline. Weight loss was higher in the moderate natural fructose group (4.19 ± 0.30 kg) than the low-fructose group (2.83 ± 0.29 kg) (P = .0016). Compared with baseline, each intervention diet was associated with significant improvement in secondary outcomes. Reduction of energy and added fructose intake may represent an important therapeutic target to reduce the frequency of obesity and diabetes. For weight loss achievement, an energy-restricted moderate natural fructose diet was superior to a low-fructose diet.

  3. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  4. Simulated weightlessness and synbiotic diet effects on rat bone mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarper, Hüseyin; Blanton, Cynthia; DePalma, Jude; Melnykov, Igor V.; Gabaldón, Annette M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports results on exposure to simulated weightlessness that leads to a rapid decrease in bone mineral density known as spaceflight osteopenia by evaluating the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with synbiotics to counteract the effects of skeletal unloading. Forty adult male rats were studied under four different conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of diet (synbiotic and control) and weight condition (unloaded and control). Hindlimb unloading was performed at all times for 14 days followed by 14 days of recovery (reambulation). The synbiotic diet contained probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis lactis and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. This paper also reports on the development of a desktop three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of bones from rats subjected to simulated weightlessness. The importance of quantifying bone resistance to breakage is critical when examining the effectiveness of interventions against osteopenia resulting from skeletal unloading, such as astronauts experience, disuse or disease. Mechanical strength indices provide information beyond measures of bone density and microarchitecture that enhance the overall assessment of a treatment's potency. In this study we used a newly constructed three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of femur and tibia bones from hindlimb-unloaded rats fed an experimental synbiotic diet enriched with probiotics and fermentable fiber. Two calculated outputs for each sample were Young's modulus of elasticity and fracture stress. Bone major elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous) were quantified using ICP-MS analysis. Hindlimb unloading was associated with a significant loss of strength in the femur, and with significant reductions in major bone elements. The synbiotic diet did not protect against these unloading effects. Tibia strength and major elements were not reduced by hindlimb unloading, as was

  5. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  6. Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-11-10

    Norton grape is one of the most important wine grapes in Southern and Midwestern states and generates massive pomace byproducts. The objective of this study is to characterize the antioxidant compounds and activity in Norton grape pomace extract (GPE) and further assess the potential health promoting properties of Norton GPE using an animal disease model. The total phenolic content and anthocyanins in Norton GPE were 475.4 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and 156.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/g, respectively. Catechin and epicatechin in GPE were 28.6 and 24.5 mg/g, respectively. Other major antioxidants in GPE included quercetin (1.6 mg/g), trans-resveratrol (60 μg/g), gallic acid (867.2 μg/g), coutaric acid (511.8 μg/g), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (408.3 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (371.5 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of GPE was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and was 4133 μmol of Trolox equiv/g. Male diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a normal diet (ND group), a high fat diet (HF group), and the high fat diet supplemented with GPE (HFGPE group). After 12-week treatment, mice in the high fat diet groups gained 29% more weight than the ND group. The GPE supplementation (estimated 250 mg/kg bw/d) lowered plasma C-reactive protein levels by 15.5% in the high fat diet fed mice (P < 0.05), suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect by dietary GPE. However, dietary GPE did not improve oxidative stress in DIO mice as determined by plasma ORAC, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. The results showed that GPE contained significant antioxidants and dietary GPE exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in diet induced obesity.

  7. Atrophy and neuron loss: effects of a protein-deficient diet on sympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Silvio Pires; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Misawa, Rúbia; Girotti, Priscila Azevedo; Castelucci, Patrìcia; Blazquez, Francisco Hernandez Javier; de Melo, Mariana Pereira; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi

    2009-12-01

    Protein deficiency is one of the biggest public health problems in the world, accounting for about 30-40% of hospital admissions in developing countries. Nutritional deficiencies lead to alterations in the peripheral nervous system and in the digestive system. Most studies have focused on the effects of protein-deficient diets on the enteric neurons, but not on sympathetic ganglia, which supply extrinsic sympathetic input to the digestive system. Hence, in this study, we investigated whether a protein-restricted diet would affect the quantitative structure of rat coeliac ganglion neurons. Five male Wistar rats (undernourished group) were given a pre- and postnatal hypoproteinic diet receiving 5% casein, whereas the nourished group (n = 5) was fed with 20% casein (normoproteinic diet). Blood tests were carried out on the animals, e.g., glucose, leptin, and triglyceride plasma concentrations. The main structural findings in this study were that a protein-deficient diet (5% casein) caused coeliac ganglion (78%) and coeliac ganglion neurons (24%) to atrophy and led to neuron loss (63%). Therefore, the fall in the total number of coeliac ganglion neurons in protein-restricted rats contrasts strongly with no neuron losses previously described for the enteric neurons of animals subjected to similar protein-restriction diets. Discrepancies between our figures and the data for enteric neurons (using very similar protein-restriction protocols) may be attributable to the counting method used. In light of this, further systematic investigations comparing 2-D and 3-D quantitative methods are warranted to provide even more advanced data on the effects that a protein-deficient diet may exert on sympathetic neurons. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The effects of dose and diet on the pharmacodynamics of omeprazole in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, B W; Underwood, C; Greer, R; McGowan, C M; Mills, P C

    2017-07-01

    Conflicting data are presented in the current literature regarding the efficacy of omeprazole for suppressing gastric acidity in the horse. The objective of this study was to investigate the duration of intraday acid suppression achieved with two doses of omeprazole under two different dietary conditions. A four-way crossover design. Six adult Thoroughbred horses instrumented with percutaneous gastrotomy tubes were used. Intragastric pH was measured for continuous 23 h periods (08.00-07.00 h) for six consecutive days (Days 0-5). Baseline data was recorded on Day 0 and omeprazole administered on Days 1-5. Two doses (1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg bwt per os once a day) and two diets (a high grain/low fibre [HG/LF] and ad libitum hay [HAY)] diet) were studied. Data for the percent (%) time pH was above 4 (%tpH>4) and median intraday pH was reported for two measurement locations and analysed using generalised estimating equations. An effect of both diet and dose was evident with mean %tpH>4 and the mean of the median intraday pHs typically higher at the higher (4 mg/kg bwt) dose and in HG/LF diet. The overall efficacy of omeprazole in raising intragastric pH was good under the HG/LF conditions but relatively poor in the HAY diet. A cumulative effect of dosing, not previously reported in the horse, was observed. The overall efficacy of omeprazole in raising ventral gastric pH was less than previously reported. Both dose and diet may play a role in the efficacy of omeprazole in the horse. Therefore, the use of singular dosing recommendations that encompass all horse types and management conditions may not be appropriate and dosing recommendations that take into account the diet of the horse may be advantageous. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Parboiled rice bran in japanese quail diets at growing phase and residual effect at laying period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the second largest cereal crop in the world and the by-products resulting from rice processing for human consumption are potential feedstuffs to compose poultry diets. In this sense, it was evaluated the influence of parboiled rice bran (PRB in diets for Japanese quails in growing phase on the performance and digestibility, besides of residual effects and characteristics of egg quality in laying phase. A total of 324 Japanese quails with 7 days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 6 treatments and 6 replicates of 9 birds. The treatments consisted of 6 isonutritives diets, being a control diet without PRB and the others containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. At the end of growing phase the birds were allotted in cages and fed the same diet without PRB at laying phase. At growing phase, the inclusion of PRB up to 5% promoted linear reduction in dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of diet; however a linear increase in metabolizable energy was noted. Feed intake, weight gain and final weight were reduced but not altering feed:gain ratio and body composition. At laying phase, the inclusion of PRB increased the age at first egg production but no influence was verified at age to reach 50% of egg production. No effect was verified at laying percentage, feed intake, weight and egg mass and feed:gain ratio. In economical evaluation, the inclusion of up to 25% of parboiled rice bran provided best economical indexes. The inclusion of PRB Japanese quails diets at growing phase can be recommended in levels up to 25%, without incurring future losses at laying phase.

  10. Effects of Low Glycemic Index Diets on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinhua; Heng, Weijun; Gao, Jianbo

    2016-05-01

    Studies of the effects of low glycemic index (LGI) diets on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have reported conflicting findings.The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the effects of LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on maternal and neonatal outcomes in GDM patients.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases for studies of the effects of LGI diets in GDM patients. We performed a meta-analysis of the effects of the LGI diets with and without added dietary fiber (DF) on GDM outcomes. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random- and fixed-effects models.Five RCTs involving 302 participants were included in our meta-analysis. No statistically significant differences in the risks of cesarean section delivery, large for gestational age, and small for gestational age were observed. The risk of macrosomia in the LGI groups was significantly lower (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.71; P = 0.008) than that in the control groups. Our subgroup analysis of the effects of DF showed that LGI diets with an increased level of DF, relative to the control diet, reduced the risk of macrosomia beyond that of the LGI diets alone (RR: 0.17 vs 0.47, respectively). The subgroup analysis also showed that LGI diets in which the level of DF was approximately equivalent to that in the control diets significantly reduced the risk of insulin usage (RR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.52-0.92; P = 0.01).The LGI diets reduced the risk of macrosomia in GDM patients, and LGI diets with added DF reduced the risk of macrosomia further. The LGI diets with levels of DF approximately equivalent to that in the control diets reduced the risk of insulin usage in GDM patients.

  11. Effect of diet processing method and ingredient substitution on feed characteristics and survival of larval walleye, Sander vitreus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, F.T.; Lellis, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the production of larval fish diets. The first method, microextrusion marumerization (MEM), has been tested in laboratory feeding trials for many years and produces particles that are palatable and water stable. The second method, particle-assisted rotational agglomeration (PARA), produced diets that have lower density than diets produced by MEM. Each method was used to produce diets in the 250- to 400- and 400- to 700-??m range and compared with a reference diet (Fry Feed Kyowa* [FFK]) for feeding larval walleye in two experiments. The effect of substituting 4% of the fish meal with freeze-dried artemia fines was also investigated. In the first experiment, 30-d survival was greater (P < 0.05) for fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia (49.1.0%) than for fish fed the same diet produced by MEM (27.6%). The addition of Artemia to a diet produced by MEM did not increase survival of larval walleye. Fish fed the reference diet had 24.4% survival. In the second experiment, there was an effect of both processing method and Artemia supplementation, and an interaction of these effects, on survival. Fish fed a diet produced by PARA without Artemia supplementation had 48.4% survival, and fish fed the same diet produced by MEM had only 19.6% survival. Inclusion of 4% freeze-dried Artemia improved (P < 0.04) survival of fish fed MEM particles but not those fed PARA particles. Fish fed FFK had greater weight gain than fish fed other diets in both experiments. Data indicate that the PARA method of diet processing produces smaller, lower density particles than the MEM process and that diets produced by the PARA process support higher survival of larval walleye with low capital and operating costs. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2006.

  12. Effects of providing preweaning diets to piglets: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Schultz Marcolla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing a solid diet in addition to sow milk during lactation (creep feed is a management commonly recommended to producers. This practice was introduced as a strategy to minimize the deleterious effects of abrupt and early weaning, as well as to standardize the litters to be weaned, to increase weaning weight, and to accelerate the adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets to solid diets. Creep feeds are formulated to present high levels of digestibility and palatability and to contain high-quality and high-cost ingredients. However, the results of studies indicating that the simple offer of creep feed is efficient in minimizing the deleterious effects of weaning or in facilitating the adaptation of piglets to early diets are still sparse and poorly consolidated. The objective of this study was to review factors that influence the consumption of creep feed and the effects of consumption of these diets on performance during lactation, as well as possible effects on enzyme production, occurrence of diarrhea episodes and postweaning performance of piglets weaned at 21 to 28 days of age. The results indicate that the intestinal maturity of suckling piglets is not sufficient to permit voluntary consumption and adequate digestion of the diets. Even animals ready for consumption did not ingest sufficient amounts to promote enzymatic adaptation or to improve postweaning performance. Contrary to expectations, the consumption of creep feed, especially in low amounts, may be associated with sensitization of the gastrointestinal tract which results in hypersensitivity reactions and postweaning diarrhea. It can be concluded that the simple offer of creep feed is not efficient in promoting growth during lactation and postweaning, nor does it facilitate the early adaptation of weaned piglets to solid diets. Studies in this area are therefore necessary to develop techniques that can effectively minimize losses resulting from the practice of early

  13. Effects of alternate fasting or very low calorie diet and low calorie diet on metabolic syndrome in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tančić-Gajić, M; Vujović, S; Vukčević, M; Ivović, M; Drezgić, M; Marina, Lv; Stojanović, M; Arizanović, Z; Nenezić, A; Micić, D

    2012-10-01

    Weight loss improves the metabolic syndrome (MetS) features and related clinical abnormalities in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a non-surgical therapeutic program on the MetS in severely obese patients. Sixty-four extremely obese patients were involved in the therapeutic program, which consisted of two alternating phases: the three-week therapeutic fasting or semi-fasting in hospital conditions and the low calorie diet with dosed physical activity in outpatient conditions. At the baseline we measured: anthropometric parameters, blood pressure and lipid profile. Subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin resistance/sensitivity was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment and the oral glucose insulin sensitivity. After weight reduction by at least 10%, all mentioned assessments were repeated. None of the patients had significant adverse effects. Forty-one patients aged 43.0±11.5 years completed the study. The mean weight loss was 27 kg or 18% of the initial weight (presistance, the overall prevalence of MetS (32%) and all MetS parameters, without the significant change in high-density lipoprotein. This weight loss pogram substantially improves the MetS in extremely obese patients. The tailored alternating either fasting or semi- fasting should be considered as an optional approach to manage extreme obesity and related metabolic abnormality.

  14. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Syrian Mesquite (Prosopis farcta) Root in High Cholesterol Diet-Fed Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Miraghaee, Shahram; Babaei, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Bahareh; Bahrami, Mohammad Taher; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Prosopis farcta root has been proposed as an efficacious natural drug for cardiovascular disorders in traditional medicine. The present study evaluates the efficacy of aqueous extract of Prosopis farcta root on experimental atherosclerosis development in rabbits with high cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipid parameters were significantly increased in the high cholesterol diet groups in comparison with the normal control group (P Prosopis farcta root significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein levels compared to high cholesterol diet rabbits (P < .050). This finding may reflect a reduction of chest pain or the beneficial effects of this plant root extract on cardiovascular health. The present study can serve as a basis for future investigations on the other effects of this plant on cardiovascular health.

  15. Effectiveness of the ketogenic diet used to treat resistant childhood epilepsy in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallböök, Tove; Sjölander, Arvid; Åmark, Per

    2015-01-01

    . Twenty-five patients who stopped the diet within four weeks because of compliance-problems and minor side-effects were excluded. Seizure-type(s), seizure-frequency, anti-epileptic drugs and other treatments, mental retardation, autism-spectrum disorder and motor-dysfunction were identified and treatment......BACKGROUND: This Scandinavian collaborative retrospective study of children treated with ketogenic diet (KD) highlights indications and effectiveness over two years follow-up. METHODS: Five centres specialised in KD collected data retrospectively on 315 patients started on KD from 1999 to 2009......-response was evaluated. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Responders (>50% seizure-frequency reduction) at 6, 12 and 24 months were 50%, 46% and 28% respectively, seizure-free were 16%, 13% and 10%. Still on the diet were 80%, 64% and 41% after 6, 12 and 24 months. No child had an increased seizure...

  16. Emodin Prevents Intrahepatic Fat Accumulation, Inflammation and Redox Status Imbalance During Diet-Induced Hepatosteatosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Nobili

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-fat and/or high-carbohydrate diets may predispose to several metabolic disturbances including liver fatty infiltration (hepatosteatosis or be associated with necro-inflammation and fibrosis (steatohepatitis. Several studies have emphasized the hepatoprotective effect of some natural agents. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of the treatment with emodin, an anthraquinone derivative with anti-oxidant and anti-cancer abilities, in rats developing diet-induced hepatosteatosis and steatohepatitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet (SD for 15 weeks, or a high-fat/high-fructose diet (HFD/HF. After 5 weeks, emodin was added to the drinking water of some of the SD and HFD/HF rats. The experiment ended after an additional 10 weeks. Emodin-treated HFD/HF rats were protected from hepatosteatosis and metabolic derangements usually observed in HFD/HF animals. Furthermore, emodin exerted anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the HFD/HF-induced increase of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Emodin also affected the hepatocytes glutathione homeostasis and levels of the HFD/HF-induced increase of glutathionylated/phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a natural agent such as emodin can prevent hepatosteatosis, preserving liver from pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant damage caused by HFD/HF diet. These findings are promising, proposing emodin as a possible hindrance to progression of hepatosteatosis into steatohepatitis.

  17. High fat diet has a prominent effect upon the course of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros Alencar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether a long-term high-fat diet has an effect on the outcome of chronic murine schistosomiasis mansoni compared to a standard diet. Swiss Webster female mice (3 weeks old were fed each diet for up to six months and were then infected with 50 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Their nutritional status was assessed by monitoring total serum cholesterol and body mass. Infected mice were examined 6-17 weeks post infection to estimate the number of eggs in faeces. Mice were euthanised the next day. Total serum cholesterol was lower in infected mice in comparison to uninfected controls (p = 0.0055. In contrast, body mass (p = 0.003, liver volume (p = 0.0405, spleen volume (p = 0.0124, lung volume (p = 0.0033 and faecal (p = 0.0064 and tissue egg density (p = 0.0002 were significantly higher for infected mice fed a high-fat diet. From these findings, it is suggested that a high-fat diet has a prominent effect on the course of chronic schistosomiasis mansoni in mice.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of elemental diets with different fat composition in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papada, E; Kaliora, A C; Gioxari, A; Papalois, A; Forbes, A

    2014-04-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two isoenergetic elemental formulae with different fat content in the rat model of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis that mimics human inflammatory bowel disease. A total of forty-five male Wistar rats were assigned to five groups: (1) control group; (2) TNBS-induced colitis group; (3) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a long-chain TAG (LCT)-rich diet; (4) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a medium-chain TAG (MCT)-rich diet; (5) TNBS-induced colitis group fed a baseline diet and administered infliximab. Nutritional management lasted 12 d before and 4 d after rectal administration of TNBS. Subsequently, the rats were killed, and colonic tissue samples were collected for the assessment of histology, inflammation and oxidative stress. The MCT-rich diet decreased IL-6, IL-8 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, while the LCT-rich diet reduced only ICAM-1 levels and GST activity (P<0.05). Neither elemental formula affected IL-10 levels. Infliximab reduced IL-8 and ICAM-1 levels and GST activity and increased IL-10 levels (P<0.05). No significant differences were detected in oxidative stress. Histological damage scores differed significantly only between the control and the TNBS-induced colitis group. A MCT-rich formula seems to exert stronger anti-inflammatory effects than a LCT-rich formula in TNBS colitis.

  19. Effects of diets containing different concentrations of propolis on hematological and immunological variables in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, E; Silici, S; Cetin, N; Güçlü, B K

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of 4 different levels of propolis supplementation on the hematological and immunological parameters of laying hens, a trial was conducted with 60 White Leghorn layer hens. The experiment was conducted by using a randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replicates, and 3 hens in each replicate. Treatments included basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 g of propolis/kg of diet, respectively. At the end of the 12-wk treatment period, samples of blood were collected to determine hematological and immunological values. The results showed that the addition of propolis at 3 g/kg in the diet resulted in significant increases (P propolis supplementation significantly increased (P red blood cells) compared with the other treatments. On the other hand, hemoglobin and hematocrit values and total leucocyte (white blood cells) and differential leucocytes counts were not influenced by propolis supplementation. These results indicate that the inclusion of propolis at the level of 3 g/kg of diet may have a positive effect on humoral immunity of laying hens.

  20. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  1. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and insul

  2. Effects of a high-fat, low- versus high-glycemic index diet: retardation of insulin resistance involves adipose tissue modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Bunschoten, J.E.; Schrauwen, P.; Mensink, R.P.; Keijer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Beneficial effects of low glycemic index (GI) diets in rodents have been studied using healthy low-fat diets, while the effects might be different on high-fat diets inducing progression of insulin resistance. We fed C57BL/6J male mice high-fat low/high-GI (LGI/HGI) diets for 13 wk. Glucose and

  3. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia : effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, D.J.A.; Kendall, C.W.C.; Vidgen, E.; Augustin, L.S.A.; Erk, van M.; Geelen, A.; Parker, T.; Faulkner, D.; Vuksan, V.; Josse, R.G.; Leiter, L.A.; Connelly, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein have not been assessed despite much recent interest in the effect of soy proteins in reducing serum cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the metabolic effects of diets high in vegetable protein (specifically, wheat gluten) on serum

  4. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Kiazand, Alexandre; Alhassan, Sofiya; Kim, Soowon; Stafford, Randall S; Balise, Raymond R; Kraemer, Helena C; King, Abby C

    2007-03-07

    Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately. To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effects on weight loss and related metabolic variables. Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February 2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic, premenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79), or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up. Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure. Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing. Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12 months, and mean 12-month weight loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (PZone, -1.6 kg (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.4 kg), LEARN, -2.6 kg (-3.8 to -1.3 kg), and Ornish, -2.2 kg (-3.6 to -0.8 kg). Weight loss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups. In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic

  5. EFFECTS OF FISH OIL, DHA OIL AND LECITHIN IN MICROPARTICULATE DIETS ON STRESS TOLERANCE OF LARVAL GILTHEAD SEABREAM (SPARUS AURATA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镜恪; 王文琪; 李岿然; 雷霁霖

    2002-01-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air ( lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity ( high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16:0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  6. Effects of a ketogenic diet on auditory gating in DBA/2 mice: A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregellas, Jason R; Smucny, Jason; Legget, Kristina T; Stevens, Karen E

    2015-12-01

    Although the ketogenic diet has shown promise in a pilot study and case report in schizophrenia, its effects in animal models of hypothesized disease mechanisms are unknown. This study examined effects of treatment with the ketogenic diet on hippocampal P20/N40 gating in DBA/2 mice, a translational endophenotype that mirrors inhibitory deficits in P50 sensory gating in schizophrenia patients. As expected, the diet increased blood ketone levels. Animals with the highest ketone levels showed the lowest P20/N40 gating ratios. These preliminary results suggest that the ketogenic diet may effectively target sensory gating deficits and is a promising area for additional research in schizophrenia.

  7. Effects of fish oil, DHA oil and lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ke; Wang, Wen-Qi; Li, Kui-Ran; Lei, Ji-Lin

    2002-12-01

    The effects of natural fish oil, DHA oil and soybean lecithin in microparticulate diets on stress tolerance of larval gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata) were investigated after 15 days feeding trials. The tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stress factors such as exposure to air (lack of dissolved oxygen), changes in water temperature (low) and salinity (high) were determined. This study showed that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and soybean lecithin was the most effective for increasing the tolerance of larval gilthead seabream to various stresses, and that microparticulate diet with natural fish oil and palmitic acid (16∶0) was more effective than microparticulate diet with DHA oil and soybean lecithin.

  8. Effects of oilseed supplements on milk production and quality in dairy cows fed a hay-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kasal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA profile was investigated in lactating dairy cows. According to a Latin square design, twelve cows were assigned to three experimental settings which received a haybased diet supplemented with one of the following mixtures: cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Control diet (C-diet; full fat ground rapeseed (1.0 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Rapeseed diet (R-diet and extruded linseed (1.2 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Linseed diet (L-diet. Diet supplemented with rape- and linseed did not affect dry matter intake. As result of the high amount of dietary ether extract R- and L-diet showed higher crude fat intake as compared to the control. Despite the higher intake of crude fat and, in particular, of the polyunsaturated fraction, milk yield and composition resulted similar among treatments. Compared to C-diet, R-diet resulted in milk containing significantly lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA (60.9 vs 66.9% of total detected SFA as well as higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (30.6 vs 24.2%. However, R-diet had no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA. With respect to C-diet, L-diet also significantly reduced the content of SFA (59.8 vs 66.9% and increased both MUFA (29.1 vs 24.2% and PUFA (4.7 vs 4.1% contents. Feeding about 1 kg of whole oilseeds per head per day had no clear effects on milk vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid contents. The inclusion of rapeseed in the diet significantly reduced the content of n-6 FA in the milk, whereas the linseed-supplemented diet significantly increased the content of n-3 FA. In comparison to C-diet, n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in L-diet milk and intermediate in R-diet milk. Feeding lactating dairy cows with oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA did not

  9. Cardioprotective and renoprotective effects of Cocos nucifera water in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rat dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufadekemi Tolulope Kunle-Alabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera water on the cardiovascular and renal functions of offspring from rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation. Methods: Four groups of pregnant Wistar rats were treated from gestation day 1 to 21; namely, control (1 mL/100 g distilled water, C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water, high fat diet (1 mL/100 g distilled water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet and high fat diet + C. nucifera water (1 mL/100 g C. nucifera water + 30% butter: 70% standard rodent diet. All dams received standard rodent diet from gestation day 22, and offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet on postnatal day 28. On postnatal day 120, serum and cardiac levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-1β and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in offspring. Serum creatinine and urea levels as well as histology of heart and kidney tissue were assessed. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Male high fat diet offspring showed significantly increased (P < 0.05 serum interleukin-1β compared with C. nucifera water offspring. The increase in serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein observed in female high fat diet offspring was not present in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring.Heart tissues from high fat diet offspring showed scanty fibers and congested myocardium with mild fibrosis. Male high fat diet offspring kidneys showed mesangial cell hyperplasia, fat infiltration and mild tubular necrosis. These were accompanied with alterations in serum urea and creatinine levels in high fat diet + C. nucifera water offspring. Conclusions: C. nucifera water exerts cardioprotective and renoprotective effects on offspring of rat dams fed high fat diet during gestation via an anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  10. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of high fat diet on artificial oocyte activation following superovulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Chika; Kitazato, Takane; Iwasa, Takeshi; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of increased dietary intake and high fat diet (HFD) in mice on artificial oocyte activation by using puromycin or roscovitine. Six-week-old mice were fed as either a control diet group, an increased dietary intake group or an HFD group for 4 weeks. Oocytes were obtained following superovulation and were divided into three treatment groups (no activation treatment, calcium ionophore and puromycin treatment, and calcium ionophore and roscovitine treatment) and were incubated for 4 h. Retrieved oocytes and numbers of oocytes activated as assessed by morphological changes were compared among the three treatment groups. The proportion of degenerated oocytes in HFD mice was significantly higher than that in control diet mice. The rates of activation in oocytes treated with roscovitine were 90.3% in control diet mice, 89.8% in increased dietary intake mice and 67.9% in HFD mice. The rate of activation in oocytes treated with roscovitine in HFD mice was significantly lower than the rates in control diet mice and increased dietary intake mice. The rates of activation in oocytes treated with puromycin were 90.6% in control diet mice, 94.0% in increased dietary intake mice and 71.4% in HFD mice, and the rate of activation in oocytes treated with puromycin in HFD mice was significantly lower than the rates in control diet mice and increased dietary intake mice. HFD-induced obesity deteriorated induction of oocyte activation by roscovitine or puromycin in mice.

  12. PKU-related dysgammaglobulinaemia: the effect of diet therapy on IgE and allergic sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Agostoni, C; Biasucci, G; Sala, M; Banderali, G; Luotti, D; Giovannini, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of diet on the development of immunoallergic signs and symptoms in children with phenylketonuria (PKU) was evaluated. Immunological indices of 58 children with PKU treated with diets were compared to the immunological indices of 58 healthy (non-PKU) children. In the PKU group, 39 children had been placed on diet therapy within the first month of life; 19 children had been placed on diet therapy after 6 months of age. Total circulating lymphocytes; CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ circulating lymphocytes; and serum IgA, IgM, IgG and total IgE levels were measured for each child. Skin prick tests were performed for common inhalant and food allergens. Every 3 months over the 2-year period of this study, the signs and symptoms of eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma were recorded. The PKU group had lower IgG levels (p = 0.004) and higher total IgE levels (p = 0.0001) than the control group. Significantly lower IgE levels were found in children started on diet therapy within the first month of life compared with those started on diet therapy after 6 months of age (p = 0.0001). Allergic sensitization was significantly more frequent in the PKU group (24/58 vs 13/58, z = 2.00, p Asthma was less frequent in the PKU group than in the control group (5/58 vs 14/58, z = 2.09, p < 0.05). Thus, diet appeared to prevent the development of immunoallergic signs and symptoms.

  13. Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandro, Rubini; Gerardo, Bosco; Alessandra, Lodi; Lorenzo, Cenci; Andrea, Parmagnani; Keith, Grimaldi; Yang, Zhongjin; Antonio, Paoli

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 0-t 20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t 20-t 40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t 40-t 2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t 0-t 20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t 20-t 40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t 40-t 2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RER was observed after 20 and 40 days in the KD group, but not in the MD group. In the KD group, significant reductions were observed for both carbon dioxide output and PETCO2, however, there was no significant change in VO2, VCO2, and REE. While both diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet. The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

  14. A case‐control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonoda, Tomoko; Nagata, Yoshie; Mori, Mitsuru; Miyanaga, Naoto; Takashima, Naomi; Okumura, Koji; Goto, Ken; Naito, Seiji; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2004-01-01

    The age‐adjusted incidence of prostate cancer is low in Japan, and it has been suggested that the traditional Japanese diet, which includes many soy products, plays a preventive role against prostate cancer...

  15. Effects of a ketogenic diet on ADHD-like behavior in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Law, Tsz Hong; Davies, Emma; Zanghi, Brian; Pan, Yuanlong; Volk, Holger A

    2016-02-01

    Epilepsy in humans and rodent models of epilepsy can be associated with behavioral comorbidities including an increased prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and seizure frequency have been successfully reduced in humans and rodents using a ketogenic diet (KD). The aims of this study were (i) to describe the behavioral profile of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) while on a standardized nonketogenic placebo diet, to determine whether ADHD-like behaviors are present, and (ii) to examine the effect of a ketogenic medium chain triglyceride diet (MCTD) on the behavioral profile of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) compared with the standardized placebo control diet, including ADHD-like behaviors. A 6-month prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover dietary trial comparing the effects of the MCTD with a standardized placebo diet on canine behavior was carried out. Dogs diagnosed with IE, with a seizure frequency of at least 3 seizures in the past 3months (n=21), were fed the MCTD or placebo diet for 3months and were then switched to the alternative diet for 3months. Owners completed a validated behavioral questionnaire to measure 11 defined behavioral factors at the end of each diet period to report their dogs' behavior, with three specific behaviors hypothesized to be related to ADHD: excitability, chasing, and trainability. The highest scoring behavioral factors in the placebo and MCTD periods were excitability (mean±SE: 1.910±0.127) and chasing (mean±SE: 1.824±0.210). A markedly lower trainability score (mean±SE: 0.437±0.125) than that of previously studied canine populations was observed. The MCTD resulted in a significant improvement in the ADHD-related behavioral factor chasing and a reduction in stranger-directed fear (pdiet. The latter effect may be attributed to previously described anxiolytic effects of a KD. These data support the supposition that

  16. Enzyme use in kibble diets formulated with wheat bran for dogs: effects on processing and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, F C; Vasconcellos, R S; Brunetto, M A; Filho, F O R; Gomes, M O S; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there is an interest in technologies that favour the use of coproducts for animal nutrition. The effect of adding two enzyme mixtures in diets for dogs formulated with wheat bran (WB) was evaluated. Two foods with similar compositions were formulated: negative control (NC; without WB) and test diet (25% of WB). The test diet was divided into four treatments: without enzyme (positive control), enzyme mixture 1 (ENZ1; added before extrusion β-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, glucoamylase, phytase); enzyme mixture 2 (ENZ2; added before extrusion the ENZ1 more α-amylase); enzyme mixture 2 added after the extrusion (ENZ2ex). ENZ1 and ENZ2 were used to evaluate the enzyme effect on extruder pre-conditioner (processing additive) and ENZ2ex to evaluate the effect of enzyme supplementation for the animal. Digestibility was measured through total collection of faeces and urine. The experiment followed a randomized block design with five treatments (diets) and six dogs per diet, totalling 30 dogs (7.0 ± 1.2 years old and 11.0 ± 2.2 kg of body weight). Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test and orthogonal contrasts (p < 0.05). Reducing sugars showed an important reduction after extrusion, suggesting the formation of carbohydrate complexes. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid-hydrolysed fat and energy was higher in NC than in diets with WB (p < 0.001), without effects of enzyme additions. WB diets resulted in higher faecal production and concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and reduced pH and ammonia concentration (p < 0.01), with no effect of enzyme addition. The enzyme addition did not result in improved digestibility of a diet high in non-starch polysaccharides; however, only ATTD was measured and nutrient fermentation in the large intestine may have interfered with the results obtained. WB modified fermentation product formation in the colon of dogs.

  17. Effect of Indica Rice Diets Supplemented with Exogenous Enzyme on Growth and Digestion of Pigs Fed Paddy-Based Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min-qi; XU Zi-rong; SUN Jian-yi

    2004-01-01

    Sixty growing pigs (Landrace × Jiaxing black) were used to study the effects of exogenous enzymes (including β -glucanase,xylanase and cellulase) supplemented to paddy-based diets on pig growth performance and digestion. With the supplementation of enzymes, average daily gain of pig was increased by 8.78%(P<0.05), feed gain radio was decreased by 9.42%(P<0.05), feed apparent digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat and crude fiber were increased by 17.32% (P<0.01), 16.04% (P<0.05) and 108.57%(P<0.01),the viscosity of jejunum, and ileum contents were reduced by 7.08%(P<0.01) and 6.78%(P<0.01), numbers of E. coli in feaces and diarrhoea morbidity were decreased by 81.29%(P<0.01 ) and 37.00%(P<0.05), and the activities of protelytic enzyme and α-amylase in duodenal contents were enhanced by 99.07% (P<0.05) and 18.38%(P<0.05), respectively.

  18. The adverse effect of obesity/high fat diet on oocyte quality and metabolism is not reversible with resumption of regular diet in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kasey A Reynolds; Boudoures, Anna L.; Chi, Maggie M-Y; Wang, Qiang; Kelle H Moley

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, which affects over one-third of reproductive-age women, has negative effects on reproduction and results in oocyte defects in both mice and humans. In this study, we used a mouse model to examine whether the adverse effects of an obesogenic diet, specifically abnormal oocyte spindle formation, mitochondrial metabolism, and lipid accumulation, can be reversed by return to normal weight and metabolic profile. Female C57BL6/J mice were placed on either a high-fat diet (HFD; 35.8% fat an...

  19. Effect of lipid sources and inclusion levels in diets for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Polycarpo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the interactions and effects of 2 and 4% addition levels of poultry slaughterhouse fat (chicken tallow and soybean oil in diets for broiler chickens. Two experiments were carried out using one-day-old male Cobb chicks in an entirely random design with a 2x2 factorial scheme. In the first experiment, 560 chicks were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics. In the second experiment, 100 chicks were used to determine the nutrient digestibility, dietary energy utilization and the lipase and amylase pancreatic activity. There was no interaction between the fat sources and the addition levels for any of the analyzed variables, except for the digestibility coefficient of dry matter (DCDM, which was higher in diets added with 2% soybean oil when compared to chicken tallow. The addition of 4% fat in the diet, regardless of fat source, improved the digestibility coefficient of ethereal extract (DCEE and increased weight gain and feed intake. Moreover, in the initial phase, the addition of 4% fat to the diet increased lipase activity when compared to diets with 2% addition, and a positive correlation between DCEE and pancreatic lipase activity was observed. In conclusion, there is no interaction between fat sources and addition levels, except for DCDM. Carcass characteristics are not influenced by any of the studied factors. The addition of 4% fat increases pancreatic lipase activity and improves DCEE, resulting in greater weight gain, regardless of the tested fat source, making chicken tallow a great alternative to soybean oil.

  20. Diet, but not oral probiotics, effectively reduces urinary oxalate excretion and calciumoxalate supersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, John C.; Tremaine, William J.; De Simone, Claudio; O’Connor, Helen M.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effect of a controlled diet and two probiotic preparations on urinary oxalate excretion, a risk factor for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation, in patients with mild hyperoxaluria. Patients were randomized to a placebo, a probiotic, or a synbiotic preparation. This tested whether these probiotic preparations can increase oxalate metabolism in the intestine and/or decrease oxalate absorption from the gut. Patients were maintained on a controlled diet to remove the confounding variable of differing oxalate intake from food. Urinary oxalate excretion and calcium oxalate supersaturation on the controlled diet were significantly lower compared with baseline on a free-choice diet. Neither study preparation reduced urinary oxalate excretion nor calcium oxalate supersaturation. Fecal lactobacilli colony counts increased on both preparations, whereas enterococcal and yeast colony counts were increased on the synbiotic. Total urine volume and the excretion of oxalate and calcium were all strong independent determinants of urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation. Hence, dietary oxalate restriction reduced urinary oxalate excretion, but the tested probiotics did not influence urinary oxalate levels in patients on a restricted oxalate diet. However, this study suggests that dietary oxalate restriction is useful for kidney stone prevention. PMID:20736987

  1. Effects of a short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet on strength and power performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jason C; Wood, Richard J; Davidson, Patrick W; Collins, Sean M; Matthews, Tracey D; Gregory, Sara M; Paolone, Vincent J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of switching from a habitual diet to a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) on strength and power performance in trained men (n = 16) and women (n = 15). Subjects performed handgrip dynamometry, vertical jump, 1RM bench press and back squat, maximum-repetition bench press, and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic cycling test after consuming a habitual diet (40.7% carbohydrate, 22.2% protein, and 34.4% fat) for 7 days and again after following a CRD (5.4% carbohydrate, 35.1% protein, and 53.6% fat) for 7 days. Before both testing sessions, body weight and composition were examined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Three 2 × 2 multiple analyses of variance were used to compare performance variables between the habitual diet and CRD. Subjects consumed significantly fewer (p diet (2,537.43 ± 99.5). Body mass decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Despite a reduction in body mass, strength and power outputs were maintained for men and women during the CRD. These findings may have implications for sports that use weight classes, and in which strength and power are determinants of success. A CRD may be an alternative method for short-term weight loss without compromising strength and power outputs. The use of a 7-day CRD could replace weight loss methods employing severe dehydration before competition.

  2. Effects of a high protein diet on cognition and brain metabolism in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication observed in patients with liver disease. Patients who suffer from HE present neuropsychiatric, neuromuscular and behavioral symptoms. Animal models proposed to study HE resulting from cirrhosis mimic the clinical characteristics of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and require the administration of hepatotoxins such as thioacetamide (TAA). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a high protein diet on motor function, anxiety and memory processes in a model of cirrhosis induced by TAA administration. In addition, we used cytochrome c-oxidase (COx) histochemistry to assess the metabolic activity of the limbic system regions. Male rats were distributed into groups: control, animals with cirrhosis, Control rats receiving a high protein diet, and animals with cirrhosis receiving a high protein diet. Results showed preserved motor function and normal anxiety levels in all the groups. The animals with cirrhosis showed an impairment in active avoidance behavior and spatial memory, regardless of the diet they received. However, the animals with cirrhosis and a high protein diet showed longer escape latencies on the spatial memory task. The model of cirrhosis presented an under-activation of the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields and the medial part of the medial mammillary nucleus. The results suggest that a high protein intake worsens spatial memory deficits shown by the TAA-induced model of cirrhosis. However, high protein ingestion has no influence on the COx hypoactivity associated with the model.

  3. Effects of BST and high energy diet on gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Joyce Lew

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy and recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST injection to identify genes that might control mammogenesis. Total RNA was extracted from the parenchymal tissue of 32 heifers randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two diets (a standard diet and a high energy, high protein diet, each with or without bST. To perform microarray experiments, RNA samples were pooled (2 animals/pool before reverse transcription and labeling with Cy3 or Cy5. A 4-node loop design was used to examine the differential gene expression among treatments using a bovine-specific cDNA microarray (National Bovine Functional Genomics Consortium Library, NBFGC containing 18,263 unique expressed sequence tags (EST. Significance levels of differential gene expression among treatments were assessed using a mixed model approach. Injection of bST altered the expression of 12 % of the genes on NBFGC slide related to tissue development, whereas 6% were altered by diet. Administration of bST increases the expression of genes positively related to cell proliferation and mammary parenchyma to a greater extent than a high energy diet.

  4. Citrus pulp as an ingredient in ostrich diet: effects on meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Fasone, V; Galofaro, V; Barbagallo, D; Bella, M; Pennisi, P

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this trial was to study the effects of citrus pulp inclusion in ostrich diets on meat quality, evaluated on iliofibularis and gastrocnemius muscles. M. iliofibularis had a lower ultimate pH (Piliofibularis. M. gastrocnemius had a lower proportion of C14:0 (Piliofibularis. Citrus pulp diet increased (P<0.05) meat ultimate pH and reduced cooking losses (P<0.05) as compared to the control diet. Meat from animals given citrus pulp had lower crude fat (P<0.05) and ash percentages (P<0.05) in comparison to that from the control group. The proportions of intramuscular saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were lower (P<0.05) in the citrus pulp group as compared to the control one. Meat from the citrus pulp treatment group had a higher (P<0.05) percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids than meat from the control treatment. In particular, meat from ostriches given citrus pulp diet exhibited higher C18:2ω6 (P<0.05) and C20:4ω6 (P<0.05) contents that accounted for a higher ω6/ω3 ratio (P<0.05) as compared to the control group. Overall, the use of a citrus pulp-included diet in ostrich feeding did not adversely affect meat quality and, therefore, citrus pulp seems to be a possible ingredient to reduce feeding costs.

  5. Effectiveness of dietary xylo-oligosaccharides for broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Hai-qing; LU Lin; XU Guo-hui; XIAO Lin; CHEN Xiao-gang; XIA Rui-rui; ZHANG Li-yang; LUO Xu-gang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) on growth performance, meat quality, immune functions, duodenal morphology and intestinal microbial populations of broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal basal diet. A total of 450 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were ran-domly alocated by bodyweight to 1 of 5 treatments with 6 replicate cages (15 broilers per cage) for each of 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed the basal corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg of XOS kg–1 of diet, respectively, for an experimental duration of 42 days. The results showed that supple-mentation of XOS affected feed conversion rate (feed/gain, F/G) during days 22–42 and 1–42 (P0.05) on al other measured indices. The chicks fed the diet supplemented with 100 mg of XOS kg–1 had the lowest (P<0.05) F/G and drip loss in thigh muscle. The drip loss in thigh muscle decreased linearly (P=0.003) as the supplemented XOS increased. Duodenal crypt depth decreased (P<0.05) at the supplemental level of 75 mg of XOS kg–1. The results indicate that dietary supplementations of 75 and 100 mg of XOS kg–1 are beneifcial to broilers fed a conventional corn-soybean meal diet.

  6. Effects of diet on population development of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M.; Estévez, A.

    1989-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in order to observe the effect of five diets on the population development of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis Müller under laboratory conditions. Diets were based on baker’s yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the algae Tetraselmis suecica and Isochrysis galbana, mixed, or as simple diets. Growth rates, fecundity and biometric parameters were studied for 15 days. The cultures were divided in a logarithmic phase and a harvesting phase. Rotifers fed on Tetraselmis, alone or mixed with yeast or Isochrysis, gave good performances with the best results in all the parameters studied. Average growth rates in all diets were similar during the exponential phase, with values ranging from 0.72 ( Tetraselmis and Tetraselmis + yeast) to 0.47 (yeast). During the harvesting phase there were high differences between diets, with rates highly reduced in the yeast-group (0.17) and good rates when Tetraselmis was ingested (0.65 0.51). This alga had a positive influence on the rotifers, increasing individual growth and fecundity.

  7. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD...... modifications of the diet are needed in order to make this food concept beneficial regarding phosphorus absorption....

  8. Effect of Zinc-Deficient Diet on Oral Tissues and Periodontal Indices in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedmajidi, Seyed Ali; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Khani, Zohreh; Zahedpasha, Samir; Jenabian, Niloofar; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Halalkhor, Sohrab; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) as a nutritional factor affects the health of the oral tissues. This study was done for the evaluation of the effects of zinc deficiency on the oral tissues of rats. The study was carried out on 14 male Wistar rats, cessation of lactation on the 24th day after birth. The rats were randomly divided into two groups. Zinc deficient (ZD) diet was used for one group and another group was fed with a zinc-containing (ZC) diet. The alterations of the oral tissues in both groups were evaluat...

  9. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine...... the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...

  10. Iodine carry over in dairy cows: effects of levels of diet fortification and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Masoero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous lactating cows were divided in three groups based on milk yield: high (H, average (A and low (L. Within each group, cows were randomly allotted to two levels of iodine inclusions into the diet and respectively: level 1 (1: base diet containing 1.55 mg/kg dry matter, level 2 (2: base diet plus 47.2 mg/d. Potassium iodide was used. Feeds, orts, drinking water and individual milk samples were collected and analysed for the iodine content. The iodine concentration and total excretion in milk were affected by the level of iodine supplementation (P<0.05. No effect on milk iodine concentration could be addressed either to the level of milk yield or to the milk yield x treatment interaction. The total amount of iodine excretion and carry over were affected (P<0.05 by the level of milk yield.

  11. Effect of Argyreia speciosa root extract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiv; Alagawadi, K R; Rao, M Raghavendra

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the antiobesity effects of the ethanolic extract of Argyreia speciosa roots in rats fed with a cafeteria diet (CD). Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding them a CD daily for 42 days, in addition to a normal diet. Body weight and food intake was measured initially and then every week thereafter. On day 42, the serum biochemical parameters were estimated and the animals were sacrificed with an overdose of ether. The, liver and parametrial adipose tissues were removed and weighed immediately. The liver triglyceride content was estimated. The influence of the extract on the pancreatic lipase activity was also determined by measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. The body weight at two-to-six weeks and the final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lowered (P cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats.

  12. Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: Effects of Foods and Nutrients in Classical and Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badimon, Lina; Chagas, Patricia; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma

    2017-04-27

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Diet comprises a mixture of food compounds that has an influence on human health. The relationship between diet and health is extremely complex and strategies to delay or prevent chronic diseases such as CVD are of utmost interest because chronic diseases and more concretely CVD are still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In this mini-review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the principal diet components that potentially influence CVD initiation and progression. Current research places the Mediterranean dietary pattern, rich in fruits and vegetables, as the most cardioprotective, because of its high concentration of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, phytosterols, vitamins and minerals, which exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects contributing to the delay of CVD initiation and progression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines.

  14. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  15. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2002-01-01

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by infus

  16. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by

  17. Effect of a vegan diet on biomarkers of chemoprevention in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Rauma, A.L.; Törrönen, R.; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, G.C.D.M.; Dreve, M.A.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mykkänen, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. In order to study the potential beneficial effects of a vegan diet, a cross-sectional study was performed and several biomarkers of chemoprevention were measured in a population of female 'living food' eaters ('vegans'; n = 20) vs matched omnivorous controls (n = 20). 2. White blood cells obtaine

  18. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  19. Krachtvoer: Effect evaluation of a Dutch healthful diet promotion curriculum for lower vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.K.; Assema, P. van; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Breukelen, G. van; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioural effects of a school-based healthful diet promotion intervention implemented in lower vocational schools. Design: A cluster-randomised pre-test-post-test experimental design was used, and data were collected by means of written questionna

  20. Phenotyping the effect of diet on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de N.J.W.; Afman, L.A.; Mensink, M.R.; Muller, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the growing incidence of metabolic syndrome. Diet is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In this review, we focused on recent publications reporting on the effect of macro- and micronutrients on development and progressi

  1. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2002-01-01

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by infus

  2. Effect of a vegan diet on biomarkers of chemoprevention in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.; Rauma, A.L.; Törrönen, R.; Vogel, N. de; Bruijntjes-Rozier, G.C.D.M.; Dreve, M.A.; Bogaards, J.J.P.; Mykkänen, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. In order to study the potential beneficial effects of a vegan diet, a cross-sectional study was performed and several biomarkers of chemoprevention were measured in a population of female 'living food' eaters ('vegans'; n = 20) vs matched omnivorous controls (n = 20). 2. White blood cells

  3. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  4. Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes, lycop

  5. The effects of diet- and diet plus exercise-induced weight loss on basal metabolic rate and acylated ghrelin in grade 1 obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes AL

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available André L Lopes,1 Ana Paula T Fayh,2,3 Luisa G de Souza Campos,4 Bruno C Teixeira,1 Randhall B Kreismann Carteri,1 Jerri L Ribeiro,4 Rogério Friedman,2 Álvaro Reischak-Oliveira1 1Exercise Research Laboratory, School of Physical Education, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 2Endocrine Unit, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 3Health Sciences College of Trairi, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Santa Cruz, RN, Brazil; 4Centro Universitário Metodista – IPA, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Background: Diet and exercise are often prescribed as primary intervention regarding obesity-related disorders. Additionally, recent studies have shown beneficial effects of weight loss through diet and exercise in ghrelin concentrations in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 5% weight loss on lipid profile, resting metabolic rate (RMR, and acylated ghrelin (AG using two different methods of intervention (diet or diet plus exercise. Materials and methods: Eighteen subjects (twelve women and six men aged 20–40 years with a body mass index of 30–34.9 kg/m2 (grade 1 obesity were randomized into two intervention groups: diet (n=9 or diet plus exercise (n=9. Both groups underwent treatment until 5% of the initial body weight was lost. At baseline and upon completion, RMR and AG were analyzed. Results: Both groups showed a significant decrease in body fat percentage and fat mass. The diet-plus-exercise group showed a decrease in AG (pre: 54.4±25.3 pg/mL and post: 33.2±19.1 pg/mL and an increase in RMR (pre: 1,363±379 kcal/day, post: 1,633±223 kcal/day. Conclusion: These data suggest that diet plus exercise induced weight loss and had beneficial effects on AG concentration and RMR, essential factors to ensure the benefits of a weight-loss program. Keywords: exercise therapy, diet, energy regulation, obesity

  6. Effects of diets with Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. on performance and digestibility of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Molina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects on performance and digestibility in growing rabbits were studied by comparing 3 diets containing increasing inclusion rates of amaranth (Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.: 0 (A0, 160 (A16 and 320 g/kg (A32 diet. Diets were formulated isoproteic and isocaloric to meet the nutrient requirements of growing rabbits. One hundred and thirteen weaned New Zealand White rabbits (mean±standard deviation weight: 760±102 g, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of the 3  experimental diets. Rabbits were fed ad libitum from 35 to 87 d of age, and health status and performance traits were  onitored. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of the diets were measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 12 rabbits per treatment. Amaranthus dubius contained 209 g/kg dry matter (DM of crude protein and 398 g/kg DM of neutral detergent fibre. There were no significant differences between treatments in weight gain (mean 21.6 g/d and live weight at the end of the fattening period (mean 1883 g. Daily feed intake was higher (P<0.05 in A0 than in A16 and A32 diets (85.4 vs. 73.7 and 69.9 g/d, respectively, and feed conversion rate improved with increased inclusion of A. dubius in the diet (from 3.84 to 3.28 for A0 and A32 diets, respectively; P<0.05. Health status was not affected by the amaranth inclusion rate. Total tract apparent digestibility showed high values, with no differences among diets except for ether extract. Thus, A. dubius could be considered as an alternative source of protein and fibre for rabbit feeding in tropical and subtropical regions.

  7. Effects of High-Butterfat Diet on Embryo Implantation in Female Rats Exposed to Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Cheong, Ana; Ying, Jun; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Thomas, Michael A; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor associated with poor pregnancy outcomes in human and rodents. The effects of butterfat diets on embryo implantation and whether it modifies BPA's actions are currently unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of butterfat diet on embryo implantation success in female rats exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of BPA. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dietary butterfat (10% or 39% kcal/kg body weight [BW]) in the presence or absence of BPA (250 μg/kg BW) or ethinylestradiol (0.1 μg/kg BW) shortly before and during pregnancy to assess embryo implantation potentials by preimplantation development and transport, in vitro blastulation, outgrowth, and implantation. On gestational day (GD) 4.5, rats treated with BPA alone had higher serum total BPA level (2.3-3.7 ng/ml). They had more late-stage preimplantation embryos, whereas those receiving high butterfat (HBF) diet had the most advanced-stage embryos; dams cotreated with HBF and BPA had the most number of advanced embryos. BPA markedly delayed embryo transport to the uterus, but neither amount of butterfat had modifying effects. An in vitro implantation assay showed HBF doubled the outgrowth area, with BPA having no effect. In vivo, BPA reduced the number of implanted embryos on GD8, and cotreatment with HBF eliminated this adverse effect. HBF diet overall resulted in more and larger GD8 embryos. This study reveals the implantation disruptive effects of maternal exposure to an environmentally relevant dose of BPA and identifies HBF diet as a modifier of BPA in promoting early embryonic health.

  8. Effects of Betaine Supplementation to Methionine Deficient Diet on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The efficacy of Methionine (Met sparing effect of Betaine (BET has been shown to be associated with dietary compositions, animal physiological stage and living conditions. This study was to determine the extent to which dietary Met could be replaced by BET in broiler chickens under the feeding conditions specific to Chinese poultry industry.Approach: A total of 900 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were fed three corn-soybean meal-based starter rations (d 1-21 and grower rations (d 22-42 for a total of 42 days. Met levels in the diets were: Diet 1, Met content at the recommended level (Control; diet 2, Met level at 85% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 400 (starter or 300 (grower mg kg-1 DM; Diet 3, Met level at 75% of the Control supplemented with BET at the level of 600 (starter or 500 (grower mg khg-1 DM. The broilers were raised in a temperature controlled house with 3 pens (replicates per dietary treatment. Results: In general, treatment had no effect on body weight, feed intake or feed efficiency. Concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in the serum of broilers fed Diet 3 were higher (pConclusions/Recommendations: Supplementation of BET to replace up to 25% of total dietary Met did not affect the growth performance but improved the carcass quality of the broilers. BET could be used to spare 25% of the total Met in broiler diet that was formulated based on the Feeding Standard of China.

  9. The effect of peptidoglycan enriched diets on antimicrobial peptide gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadei, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Vecino, Jose L González; Wadsworth, Simon; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diets on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. Fish were divided into 5 groups and fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg PG/Kg, and sampled 1, 7 and 14 days later. The expression of eight AMP genes (four defensins, two cathelicidins and two liver expressed AMPs) was determined in skin, gill, gut and liver, tissues important for first lines of defence or production of acute phase proteins. Up-regulation of many AMPs was found after feeding the PG enriched diets, with sequential expression seen over the time course studied, where defensins were typically expressed early and cathelicidins and LEAPs later on. A number of clear differences in AMP responsiveness between the tissues examined were also apparent. Of the four PG concentrations used, 5 mg PG/Kg did not always elicit AMP gene induction or to the same degree as seen with the other diets. The three higher dose groups generally showed similar trends although differences in fold change were more pronounced in the 50 and 100 mg PG/Kg groups. Curiously several AMPs were down-regulated after 14 days of feeding in gills, gut and liver. Nevertheless, overall the PG enriched diets had a positive effect on AMP expression. Further investigations now need to be undertaken to confirm whether this higher AMP gene expression correlates with protection against common bacterial diseases and if PG enriched diets have value as a means to temporarily boost the piscine immune system.

  10. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets have sex-specific effects on bone health in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengin, Ayse; Kropp, Benedikt; Chevalier, Yan

    2016-01-01

    the effects in female rats remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether sex-specific effects of LC-HF diets on bone health exist. METHODS: Twelve-week-old male and female Wistar rats were isoenergetically pair-fed either a control diet (CD), "Atkins-style" protein-matched diet (LC-HF-1), or ketogenic......PURPOSE: Studies in humans suggest that consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets (LC-HF) could be detrimental for growth and bone health. In young male rats, LC-HF diets negatively affect bone health by impairing the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis (GH/IGF axis), while...... low-protein diet (LC-HF-2) for 4 weeks. In females, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry analyses were performed on the distal femur. Sex hormones were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and endocrine parameters including GH and IGF-I were measured by immunoassay...

  11. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... A bland diet can be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may ...

  12. Effect of the cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist rimonabant on inflammation in mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied whether cannabinoid receptor (CB1) blockade with rimonabant has an anti-inflammatory effect in obese mice, and whether this effect depends on weight loss and/or diet consumption. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were treated orally with rimonabant (HFD-R) or vehicle (HFD-V) for 4 we...

  13. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  14. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, S W; Pusztai, A

    1999-10-16

    Diets containing genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing the lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had variable effects on different parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Some effects, such as the proliferation of the gastric mucosa, were mainly due to the expression of the GNA transgene. However, other parts of the construct or the genetic transformation (or both) could also have contributed to the overall biological effects of the GNA-GM potatoes, particularly on the small intestine and caecum.

  15. Laxative effects of agarwood on low-fiber diet-induced constipation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimazawa Masamitsu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis, well known as incense in Southeast Asia, has been used as a digestive in traditional medicine. We investigated the laxative effects of an ethanol extract of agarwood leaves (EEA in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation. Methods A set of rats was bred on a normal diet while another set was placed on a low-fiber diet to induce constipation. The laxative effect of agarwood was then investigated on both sets of rats. Results Pretreatment of normal rats with single dose of EEA (600 mg/kg, p.o. significantly increased frequency and weight of stools. Also, treatments with EEA (300 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. for 14 days caused a significant increase in stool frequency and weight. Feeding of the animals with a low-fiber diet resulted in a decrease in stool weight, frequency, and water content and also delayed carmine egestion. A single treatment with EEA (600 mg/kg or senna (150 and 300 mg/kg significantly increased stool frequency, weight, and water content and also accelerated carmine egestion in the model rats. Once daily administrations of EEA (150 mg/kg, for 14 days, caused a significant increase in water content of stools. The higher doses of EEA (300 and 600 mg/kg significantly increased frequency, weight, and water content of the stools while accelerating carmine egestion in the constipated rats. Senna (150 and 300 mg/kg produced similar effect as the higher doses of EEA but, in addition, induced severe diarrhea. Conclusion These findings indicate that EEA has a laxative effect, without causing diarrhea, in a rat model of low-fiber diet-induced constipation. These findings suggest that EEA may be highly effective on constipation as a complementary medicine in humans suffering from life style-induced constipation.

  16. Effects of triticale-based diets on finishing pig performance and pork quality in deep-bedded hoop barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Zebblin M; Honeyman, Mark S; Gibson, Lance R; Prusa, Ken J

    2007-07-01

    Effects of triticale diets on pig performance and pork quality were evaluated in summer and winter. Diets were: corn-soy, 40% triticale, or 80% triticale. Pigs (72kg) were fed 49d. Loins were evaluated for meat and fat quality and sensory evaluation. Average daily gain decreased as triticale inclusion increased (Ptriticale had least gain:feed ratio (Ptriticale diet had smallest loin muscle area (PTriticale fed to pigs in hoop barns slightly decreased growth without compromising pork quality.

  17. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  18. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  19. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Effect of different grazing pressure by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and ... and animal performance through its direct and indirect effect on leaf area development, photosynthetic ... Conversely, lower stocking rate increases individual animal performance .... Factors affecting forage intake by range ruminants: A review.

  20. A ketogenic diet reduces amyloid beta 40 and 42 in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Van Leuven Fred

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily strikes the elderly. Studies in both humans and animal models have linked the consumption of cholesterol and saturated fats with amyloid-β (Aβ deposition and development of AD. Yet, these studies did not examine high fat diets in combination with reduced carbohydrate intake. Here we tested the effect of a high saturated fat/low carbohydrate diet on a transgenic mouse model of AD. Results Starting at three months of age, two groups of female transgenic mice carrying the "London" APP mutation (APP/V717I were fed either, a standard diet (SD composed of high carbohydrate/low fat chow, or a ketogenic diet (KD composed of very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat chow for 43 days. Animals fed the KD exhibited greatly elevated serum ketone body levels, as measured by β-hydroxybutyrate (3.85 ± 2.6 mM, compared to SD fed animals (0.29 ± 0.06 mM. In addition, animals fed the KD lost body weight (SD 22.2 ± 0.6 g vs. KD 17.5 ± 1.4 g, p = 0.0067. In contrast to earlier studies, the brief KD feeding regime significantly reduced total brain Aβ levels by approximately 25%. Despite changes in ketone levels, body weight, and Aβ levels, the KD diet did not alter behavioral measures. Conclusion Previous studies have suggested that diets rich in cholesterol and saturated fats increased the deposition of Aβ and the risk of developing AD. Here we demonstrate that a diet rich in saturated fats and low in carbohydrates can actually reduce levels of Aβ. Therefore, dietary strategies aimed at reducing Aβ levels should take into account interactions of dietary components and the metabolic outcomes, in particular, levels of carbohydrates, total calories, and presence of ketone bodies should be considered.

  1. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

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    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  2. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

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    Stephen D. Anton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one year weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1 Atkins; (2 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH; (3 Glycemic-Index; (4 Mediterranean; (5 Ornish; (6 Paleolithic; and (7 Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one-year weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets.

  3. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Hida, Azumi; Heekin, Kacey; Sowalsky, Kristen; Karabetian, Christy; Mutchie, Heather; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Barnett, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. PMID:28758964

  4. Betaine supplementation prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet: effects on one-carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; da Silva, Robin P; Lamarre, Simon G; Kelly, Karen B; Jacobs, René L; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of betaine supplementation on the regulation of one-carbon metabolism and liver lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Rats were fed one of three different liquid diets: control diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet supplemented with betaine. The control and high-fat liquid diets contained, respectively, 35 and 71 % of energy derived from fat. Betaine supplementation involved the addition of 1 % (g/L) to the diet. After three weeks on the high-fat diet the rats had increased total liver fat concentration, liver triglycerides, liver TBARS and plasma TNF-α. The high-fat diet decreased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration and the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio compared to the control as well as altering the expression of genes involved in one-carbon metabolism. Betaine supplementation substantially increased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration (~fourfold) and prevented fatty liver and hepatic injury induced by the high-fat diet. It was accompanied by the normalization of the gene expression of BHMT, GNMT and MGAT, which code for key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism related to liver fat accumulation. In conclusion, the regulation of the expression of MGAT by betaine supplementation provides an additional and novel mechanism by which betaine supplementation regulates lipid metabolism and prevents accumulation of fat in the liver.

  5. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  6. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Mavropoulos John C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (1c. Results Forty-nine (58.3% participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03, body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p Conclusion Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

  7. Effect of betaine and arginine in lysine-deficient diets on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, M S; Alfaia, C M; Costa, P; Lopes, P A; Martins, S V; Lemos, J P C; Moreira, O; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B; Prates, J A M

    2015-10-01

    Forty entire male pigs from a commercial crossbreed (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were used to investigate the individual or combined effects of betaine and Arg supplementation in Lys-deficient diets on growth performance, carcass traits, and pork quality. Pigs with 59.9 ± 1.65 kg BW were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary treatments ( = 8). The 5 dietary treatments were normal Lys and CP diet (0.51% Lys and 16% CP; control), reduced Lys and CP diet (0.35% Lys and 13% CP), reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine supplementation (0.33%), reduced Lys and CP diet with Arg supplementation (1.5%), and reduced Lys and CP diet with betaine and Arg supplementation (0.33% betaine and 1.5% Arg). Pigs were slaughtered at 92.7 ± 2.54 kg BW. The Lys-deficient diets (-35% Lys) increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content by 25% ( = 0.041) and meat juiciness by 12% ( = 0.041) but had a negative effect on growth performance ( Betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets had no effect on IMF content but increased ( betaine and Arg supplementation of Lys-deficient diets does not further increase IMF content but improves some pork sensory traits, including overall acceptability.

  8. Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barrios Freitas, Rodrigo; Melato, Fernanda Araujo; Oliveira, Jerusa Maria de; Bastos, Daniel Silva Sena; Cardoso, Raisa Mirella; Leite, João Paulo Viana; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2017-02-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and toxic effects of E. edulison cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet. Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in cardiac muscle and renal tissue of 60 animals, which were randomly assigned for 10 equal groups. Half of the rats were fed with cafeteria diet and the other half with commercial chow, combined or not to E. edulislyophilized extract, E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract or E. edulisoil. Data were evaluated using ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Data showed a significant increase of CAT activity in cardiac tissue of animals from the groups fed with cafeteria diet associated to E. edulis lyophilized extract at 5%, E. edulis lyophilized extract at 10% and E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract at 10%. In addition, the same result was found in animals from the groups fed with commercial chow and commercial chow combined with E. edulislyophilized extract at 10% in comparison to the group fed exclusively with cafeteria diet. GST and SOD enzyme activity showed significant increase in the heart tissue of animals nourished with commercial chow when compared to the groups fed with cafeteria diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences enzymatic levels in renal tissues. The oil and the extract of E. edulishad an important role promoting an increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in cardiac muscle, which prevent the oxidative damage resulting from the cafeteria diet in Wistar rats. There were no evidenced signs of lipid peroxidation in renal or in cardiac tissue of the animals studied, indicating that the E. edulisuse did not promote any increase in malondialdehyde cytotoxic products formation. This show that both E. edulis oil and extracts evaluated in this study were well tolerated in the studied doses.

  9. Dairy diet phosphorus and rainfall timing effects on runoff phosphorus from land-applied manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Laura P; Jokela, William E; Knapp, Joanne R

    2009-01-01

    Surface-applied dairy manure can increase P concentrations in runoff, which may contribute to eutrophication of lakes and streams. The amount of dietary P fed to dairy cows (Bos taurus) and the timing of a rain event after manure application may further affect runoff P losses. The objective of this study was to examine dietary P supplementation effects on manure and runoff P concentrations from rain events occurring at different time intervals after manure application. Manure from dairy cows fed an unsupplemented low P diet (LP; 3.6 g P kg(-1)) or a diet supplemented with either an inorganic (HIP; 4.4 g P kg(-1)) or an organic (HOP; 4.6 g P kg(-1)) source was hand-applied onto soil-packed pans at 56 wet Mg ha(-1). Thirty min of runoff was collected from simulated rain events (30 mm h(-1)) 2, 5, or 9 d after manure application. Total P (TP) concentrations in runoff from HIP and HOP diet manure from the 2-d rain were 46 and 31% greater than that of the LP diet. Runoff P concentrations from high P diets were numerically higher than that of the LP diet at 5 and 9 d after application, but differences were significant only for dissolved reactive P (DRP) at 5 d. Large decreases in runoff TP (89%) and DRP (65%) concentrations occurred with delay of rainfall from 2 d until 5 d. The proportion of TP as DRP increased as the time between manure application and runoff increased. Results showed that reducing dietary P and extending the time between manure application and a rain event can significantly reduce concentrations of TP and DRP in runoff.

  10. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  11. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  12. High-protein-low-carbohydrate diet: deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular effects depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vessieres, Emilie; Vibert, Francoise; Ayer, Audrey; Marchiol-Fournigault, Carmen; Henrion, Daniel; Paul, Jean-Louis; Noble, Florence; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2014-09-01

    High-protein-low-carbohydrate (HP-LC) diets have become widespread. Yet their deleterious consequences, especially on glucose metabolism and arteries, have already been underlined. Our previous study (2) has already shown glucose intolerance with major arterial dysfunction in very old mice subjected to an HP-LC diet. The hypothesis of this work was that this diet had an age-dependent deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular outcome. Two groups of mice, young and adult (3 and 6 mo old), were subjected for 12 wk to a standard or to an HP-LC diet. Glucose and lipid metabolism was studied. The cardiovascular system was explored from the functional stage with Doppler-echography to the molecular stage (arterial reactivity, mRNA, immunohistochemistry). Young mice did not exhibit any significant metabolic modification, whereas adult mice presented marked glucose intolerance associated with an increase in resistin and triglyceride levels. These metabolic disturbances were responsible for cardiovascular damages only in adult mice, with decreased aortic distensibility and left ventricle dysfunction. These seemed to be the consequence of arterial dysfunctions. Mesenteric arteries were the worst affected with a major oxidative stress, whereas aorta function seemed to be maintained with an appreciable role of cyclooxygenase-2 to preserve endothelial function. This study highlights for the first time the age-dependent deleterious effects of an HP-LC diet on metabolism, with glucose intolerance and lipid disorders and vascular (especially microvessels) and cardiac functions. This work shows that HP-LC lead to equivalent cardiovascular alterations, as observed in very old age, and underlines the danger of such diet.

  13. Effect of stocking pressure on selected diet quality, intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKER

    Peer-reviewed paper: Proc. 42nd Congress of the ... Effect of different grazing pressures by lambs grazing Lolium perenne and. Dactylis ... determine the influence of pasture availability or grazing pressure on intake and growth performance of.

  14. The effect of diet and host genotype on ceca microbiota of Japanese quail fed a cholesterol enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two Japanese quail strains, respectively atherosclerosis-susceptible (SUS and –resistant (RES, have been shown to be good models to study cholesterol metabolism and transportation associated with atherosclerosis. Our objective was to examine possible difference in cecal microbiota between these strains when fed a control diet and a cholesterol enriched diet, to determine how host genotype and diet could affect the cecal microbiome that may play a part in cholesterol metabolism. A factorial study with both strains and two diets (control, cholesterol was carried out. Cecal content was collected from 12 week old quail that have been on their respective diets for 6 weeks. DNA was extracted from the samples and the variable region 3 to 5 of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified. The amplicon libraries were subjected to pyrosequencing. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of β-diversity showed four distinct microbiota communities that can be assigned to the 4 treatment groups (RES/control, RES/cholesterol, SUS/control, SUS/cholesterol. At the Phylum level, the 4 treatment groups has distinct Firmicutes community characteristics but no significant difference in Bacteroidetes. Eubacterium dolichum was rare in RES/control but became overabundant in RES/cholesterol. An unclassified species of Lactobacillaceae was found in abundance in SUS/control but the same species was rare in RES/cholesterol. On the other hand, two Lactobacillus species were only found in RES/control and an unclassified Lachnospiraceae species was abundant in RES/cholesterol but rare in SUS/control. The abundance of 4 species of Lachnospiraceae, 3 species of Ruminococcaceae and one species of Coprobacillaceae was positively correlated with plasma Total Cholesterol, plasma LDL, and LDL/HDL ratio. Our study of cecal microbiota in these quail has demonstrated that selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet induced atherosclerosis has also affected the quail’s cecal environment

  15. Effects of glucomannan/spirulina-surimi on liver oxidation and inflammation in Zucker rats fed atherogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velasco, Miguel; González-Torres, Laura; López-Gasco, Patricia; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; González-Muñoz, María José; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2015-12-01

    Cholesterolemia is associated with pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects. Glucomannan- or glucomannan plus spirulina-enriched surimis were included in cholesterol-enriched high-saturated diets to test the effects on lipemia; antioxidant status (glutathione status, and antioxidant enzymatic levels, expressions and activities); and inflammation biomarkers (endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in Zucker fa/fa rats. Groups of eight rats each received diet containing squid-surimi (C), squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HC), glucomannan-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HG), or glucomannan-spirulina-squid-surimi cholesterol-enriched diet (HGS) over a period of 7 weeks. HC diet induced severe hyperlipemia, hepatomegalia, increased inflammation markers, and impaired antioxidant status significantly (at least p < 0.05) vs. C diet. HG diet decreased lipemia and liver size and normalized antioxidant status to C group levels, but increased TNF-α with respect to HC diet (p < 0.05). In general terms, 3 g/kg of spirulina in diet maintained the positive results observed in the HG diet but, in addition, increased inflammation index [eNOS/(eNOS + iNOS)] and decreased plasma TNF-α (both p < 0.05). In conclusion, glucomannan plus a small amount of spirulina blocks negative effects promoted by hypercholesterolemic diets. Although more studies are needed, present results suggest the utility of including glucomannan and/or spirulina as functional ingredients into fish derivates to be consumed by people on metabolic syndrome risk.

  16. Influence of high carbohydrate versus high fat diet in ozone induced pulmonary injury and systemic metabolic impairment in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model of healthy aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution has been recently linked to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. It has been postulated that dietary risk factors might exacerbate air pollution-induced metabolic impairment. We have recently reported that ozone exposure induces acute systemic ...

  17. Metabolic and physiologic effects from consuming a hunter-gatherer (Paleolithic)-type diet in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharani, U; Sherchan, P; Schloetter, M; Stratford, S; Xiao, A; Sebastian, A; Nolte Kennedy, M; Frassetto, L

    2015-08-01

    The contemporary American diet figures centrally in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases--'diseases of civilization'--such as obesity and diabetes. We investigated in type 2 diabetes whether a diet similar to that consumed by our pre-agricultural hunter-gatherer ancestors ('Paleolithic' type diet) confers health benefits. We performed an outpatient, metabolically controlled diet study in type 2 diabetes patients. We compared the findings in 14 participants consuming a Paleo diet comprising lean meat, fruits, vegetables and nuts, and excluding added salt, and non-Paleolithic-type foods comprising cereal grains, dairy or legumes, with 10 participants on a diet based on recommendations by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) containing moderate salt intake, low-fat dairy, whole grains and legumes. There were three ramp-up diets for 7 days, then 14 days of the test diet. Outcomes included the following: mean arterial blood pressure; 24-h urine electrolytes; hemoglobin A1c and fructosamine levels; insulin resistance by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and lipid levels. Both groups had improvements in metabolic measures, but the Paleo diet group had greater benefits on glucose control and lipid profiles. Also, on the Paleo diet, the most insulin-resistant subjects had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity (r = 0.40, P = 0.02), but no such effect was seen in the most insulin-resistant subjects on the ADA diet (r = 0.39, P = 0.3). Even short-term consumption of a Paleolithic-type diet improved glucose control and lipid profiles in people with type 2 diabetes compared with a conventional diet containing moderate salt intake, low-fat dairy, whole grains and legumes.

  18. Effect of low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Franczyk-Żarów, Magdalena; Maślak, Edyta; Topolska, Kinga

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of Western diet (WD) with low carbohydrate high protein (LCHP) diet on lipid metabolism, liver and kidney function in rats. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 2 months. The experimental diets were: Control (7% of soybean oil, 20% protein), WD (21% of butter, 20% protein), and LCHP (21% of butter and 52.4% protein) diet. The LCHP diet significantly decreased the body weight of the rats. Diet consumption was differentiated among groups, however significant changes were observed since third week of the experiment duration. Rats fed LCHP diet ate significantly less (25.2g/animal/day) than those from Control (30.2g/animal/day) and WD (27.8 g/animal/day) groups. Additionally, food efficiency ratio (FER) tended to decrease in LCHP fed rats. Serum homocysteine concentration significantly decreased in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. Liver weights were significantly higher in rats fed WD and LCHP diets. At the end of the experiment (2 months) the triacylglycerol (TAG) was significantly decreased in animals fed LCHP compared to WD. qRT-PCR showed that SCD-1 and FAS were decreased in LCHP fed rats, but WD diet increased expression of lipid metabolism genes. Rats receiving LCHP diet had two fold higher kidney weight and 54.5% higher creatinin level compared to Control and WD diets. In conclusion, LCHP diet decreased animal's body weight and decreased TAG in rat's serum. However, kidney damage in LCHP rats was observed.

  19. Effect of Shilajit enriched diet on immunity, antioxidants, and disease resistance in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthafa, Mohamed Saiyad; Jawahar Ali, Abdul Rahman; Hyder Ali, Abdul Rahuman; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; War, Mehrajuddin; Naveed, Mohamed Saquib; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Rani, Kuppusamy Umaa; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Balasundaram, Chellam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Shilajit, a multi-component natural mineral substance on the antioxidant activity, immune response, and disease resistance in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) against Aeromonas hydrophila is reported. The total hemocyte count (THC) and phagocytic activity significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on first week and with other enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The respiratory burst (RB) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were significantly increased with 2 g kg(-1) supplemented diet on weeks 1 and 2 whereas 2 and 4 g kg(-1) diets on week 4. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity increased significantly with 2 g kg(-1) diet only on second week and with other enriched diets only on fourth week. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased significantly with any enriched diet during the experimental period except with 6 g kg(-1) diets on first week. However, the glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced significantly only with 2 g kg(-1) enriched diets on weeks 2 and 4. The cumulative mortality of the prawn fed with 2 and 4 g kg(-1) enriched diets was 10% and 15% whereas with 6 g kg(-1) diet the mortality was 20%. The results suggest that diet enriched with Shilajit at 2 g kg(-1) or 4 g kg(-1) positively enhances the antioxidant activity, immunity, and disease resistance in M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila.

  20. Effectiveness of Taiwanese traditional herbal diet for pain management in terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chen, Lih-Chi; Yang, Ling-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In addition to modern medicinal therapy, many cancer patients in Taiwan are treated regularly with herbal medicines or prescribed a traditional herbal diet. In this paper, the effect of a Taiwanese traditional herbal diet (TTHD) on pain in terminal cancer patients was investigated. A total of 2,466 patients diagnosed with a variety of cancers were included. The most common patient-reported symptoms included troublesome pain (79.2%), weakness (69.0%), anorexia (46.4%), fever (36.5%), dyspnea (31.1%), and leg edema (30.9%). The 2,466 terminal cancer patients included in the study were randomly divided into three groups. The TTHD group (n=1044; 42.3%) were given the TTHD consisting of analgesic herbs (paeony root: licorice root=1:1) and a Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup (Lilii bulbus, Nelumbo seed, and Jujube fruit). The remaining patients were divided into a reference group, given the regular hospital diet, (n=909, 36.9%) and a control group, given the Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup without analgesic herbs, (n=513, 20.8%). All patients maintained their assigned diets for one week. A verbal numerical scale was used to assess pain. Results revealed that the patients given TTHD reported enhanced pain relief (ppain among terminal cancer patients thereby supporting the supposition that Eastern and Western medicines can be effectively co-administered to enhance terminal patient's quality of life. Further research is warranted.

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