WorldWideScience

Sample records for high-alloy steel forgings

  1. Methods of forging steel

    OpenAIRE

    Pečoler, Primož

    2014-01-01

    The following work presents processes of steel forming, challenges when forging steel, forming machines suitable for forging and which choice of machine is most suitable for forging. We can separate steel forming to free forging and drop forging. Free forging can be divided to hand forging and machine forging. The correct choice of furnaces is also very important. We must reach correct temperature in the furnace for raw steel to melt with less scalings. In diploma I mentioned some machine...

  2. Forging evaluaion of 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, C.L.; Edstrom, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate and characterize the effects of various forging parameters on the metallographic structure and mechanical properties of 304L stainless steel forgings. Upset and die forgings were produced by hammer and Dynapak forging with forging temperatures ranging from 760 to 1145 0 C, upset reductions ranging from 20 to 60%, and annealing times ranging from 0 to 25 minutes at 843 0 C. The carbide precipitation behavior observed was found to be a function of forging temperature and annealing time. Higher forging temperatures were beneficial in avoiding continuous carbide precipitation and annealing at 843 0 C promoted increased carbide precipitation. The yield strength of the unannealed forgings decreased with increasing forging temperature and, with the exception of the 1145 0 C upset forgings, was significantly lowered by annealing

  3. Properties of powder metallurgy steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, A.; Anderson, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of processing variables on the mechanical properties of heat-treated powder metallurgy (P/M) steel forgings were determined. Prealloyed 4600 steel powder blended with graphite to yield 4640 was compacted into preforms and hot forged in a warm, closed die. Variables studied were preform density, method of lubrication, preform sintering (time, temperature and atmosphere), forging pressure (20 and 40 tsi) and temperature (1850 0 F, 2000 0 F and 2200 0 F), and forging ratio (0.75 and 0.95). Relationships between interconnected porosity and total porosity for the various preform densities were determined. High density compacts required higher sintering temperatures due to the restricted mobility of the reducing gases in the pores. Die wall lubrication was comparable to admixed lubrication, and it simplified powder mixing and preform sintering operations. Forgings with densities from 99 to 99.8 percent of theoretical density were attained with a forging pressure of 20 to 40 tsi and preform temperatures of 2000 0 F and above. At forging conditions which resulted in forgings with acceptable mechanical properties, complete die fill was accomplished at a forging ratio of 0.95, whereas incomplete die fill resulted at a forging ratio of 0.75. The response of P/M forgings to heat treatment was comparable to that for wrought materials, and the resultant tensile and yield strengths were equivalent to the strength values described for wrought 4640 steel in AMS specification 6317B. In addition, ductility and impact properties of P/M forgings with near theoretical density (99.5+ percent) were comparable to bar stock forgings

  4. Microstructure and properties of powder metallurgy (PM) high alloy tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcieszynski, A.L.; Eisen, W.B.; Dixon, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Particle metallurgy (PM) processing is currently the primary manufacturing method used to produce advanced high alloy tool steel compositions for use in industrial tooling applications. This process involves gas atomization of the pre-alloyed melt to form spherical powders and consolidation by HIP to full density. The HIP product may be used directly in select applications, but is usually subjected to additional forging to improve properties and produce a wide range of bar and plate sizes. Compared to ingot-cast tool steels, PM tool steels have very homogeneous microstructures with very fine carbide and sulfide size distributions, free from carbide banding, which results in improved machinability, grindability, and mechanical properties. In addition, this technology enables the development of advanced tool steel compositions which could not be economically produced by conventional steelmaking. (author)

  5. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited high-alloy steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Neufuss, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2002), s. 243-254 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, high-alloy steel, polarization curves, corrosion test Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Local corrosion of high alloy steels under biodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovyakova, M.D.; Nikitin, V.M.; Speshneva, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    Impact of the bacteriozenosis different structural-functional state under biodeposits on corrosion resistance of the 12Kh18N10T and Kh18N10T high-alloy steels in the natural seawater is studied. It is shown that saturation of natural micro communities by separate aerobic and facultative-anaerobic bacterial monocultures increases corrosion resistance of these steels by their overgrow with biodeposits [ru

  7. Stainless steel forgings for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This Specification covers detailed requirements for the supply of austenitic stainless steel forgings used in radioactive and corrosive areas within the Nuclear Industry. With the exception of 316S51 the materials specified are all suitable for contact with nitric acid, 316S51 being included as suitable for use in contact with sodium and other alkali metals at elevated temperatures. (author)

  8. Nickel alloys and high-alloyed special stainless steels. Properties, manufacturing, applications. 4. compl. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, Ulrich; Kloewer, Jutta; Alves, Helena; Behrens, Rainer; Schindler, Claudius; Wahl, Volker; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the following eight topics: 1. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels - Material overview and metallurgical principles (U. Heubner); 2. Corrosion resistance of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (U. Heubner); 3. Welding of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels (T. Hoffmann, M. Wolf); 4. High-temperature materials for industrial plant construction (J. Kloewer); 5. Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels as hot roll clad composites-a cost-effective alternative (C. Schindler); 6. Selected examples of the use of nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels in chemical plants (H. Alves); 7. The use of nickel alloys and stainless steels in environmental engineering (V. Wahl); 8: Nickel alloys and high-alloy special stainless steels for the oil and gas industry (R. Behrens).

  9. Localized corrosion of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morach, R.; Schmuki, P.; Boehni, H.

    1992-01-01

    The susceptibility of several high alloyed stainless steels against localized corrosion was investigated by traditional potentiostatic and -kinetic methods and the current transient technique. Different test cells, proposed in literature, were evaluated for use in testing of plate materials. The AVESTA-cell showed to be not useful for potentiokinetic current density potential curves, but useable for pitting experiments. After pickling and prepassivation epoxy embedded materials proved to be resistant to crevice corrosion at the metal-resin interface. The electrode in form of a wire was the most reliable crevice free cell design. The grinding of the samples in the pretreatment procedure was found to have a large effect on the pitting corrosion behaviour. Using different paper types with varying grit, a drop in pitting potential for rougher surfaces and an increase in metastable pitting activity was found. Increasing surface roughness led also to changes in the electronic structure of the passive film reflected by a lower bandgap energy. High alloyed stainless steels showed no breakdown potential within the examined potential range. Compared to 18/8 type stainless steels significantly less transients were found. The number of transients decreases with increasing molybdenum and chromium content

  10. Medium carbon vanadium steels for closed die forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1993-01-01

    This work analyses the medium carbon micro alloyed vanadium potential for closed die forged production. The steels reach the mechanical resistance requests during cooling after forging, eliminating the subsequent thermal treatment. Those steels also present good fatigue resistance and machinability. The industrial scale experiments are also reported

  11. Stress corrosion of low alloy steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, D.V.; Mould, P.B.; Patrick, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The catastrophic failure of a steam turbine rotor disc at Hinkley Point 'A' Power station was shown to have been caused by the growth of a stress corrosion crack to critical dimensions. This failure has promoted great interest in the stress corrosion susceptibility of medium strength low alloy steel forgings in steam environments. Consequently, initiation and growth of stress corrosion cracks of typical disc steels have been investigated in steam and also in water at 95 0 C. Cracking has been shown to occur, predominantly in an intergranular manner, with growth rates of between 10 -9 and 10 -7 mm sec. -1 . It is observed that corrosion pitting and oxide penetration prior to the establishment of a stress corrosion crack in the plain samples. (author)

  12. Medium carbon vanadium micro alloyed steels for drop forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1992-01-01

    Growing competitiveness of alternative manufacturing routes requires cost minimization in the production of drop forged components. The authors analyse the potential of medium carbon, vanadium microalloyed steels for drop forging. Laboratory and industrial experiments have been carried out emphasizing deformation and temperature cycles, strain rates and dwell times showing a typical processing path, associated mechanical properties and corresponding microstructures. The steels the required levels of mechanical properties on cooling after forging, eliminating subsequent heat treatment. The machinability of V-microalloyed steels is also improved when compared with plain medium carbon steels. (author)

  13. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Prakash, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujwalfmt@iitr.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Dabhade, Vikram V. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility. - Highlights: •ODS steels with yttria contents beyond the conventional limit of 0.5 wt% were fabricated by powder forging in a hydrogen atmosphere. •All the alloys exhibited significant ductility. •This may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. •Strength in excess of 300 MPa was obtained at 973 K for 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% yttria ODS alloys. •Powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels and permits development of compositions with up to 1.5% yttria.

  14. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y2O3 (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility.

  15. Plane strain forging of a niobium micro-alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balancin, O.; Ferran L, G.; Rio de Janeiro Univ.

    1984-01-01

    Various termomechanical treatments were carried out on a niobium micro-alloyed steel and a low carbon steel as reference material, using an apparatus for hot phane strain forging. Control of processing variables and the presence of niobium strongly modify the austenite microstructure, which upon decomposition produces various phases such as polygonal and acicular ferrite and martensite, alone or together in variable proportions. Corresponding to this diversity of structures there is a wide variation in mechanical properties at room temperature: the initial yield point varies from 310 to 650 MPa and the reduction of area in uniaxial tension from 82 to 57% for the niobium steel. These results show that hot forging a niobium micro-alloyed steel may be a suitable manufacturing process for satisfying a wide range of specifications in a final product with low equivalent carbon. (Author) [pt

  16. Developments of New Lubricants for Cold Forging of Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Thomas; Christensen, Erik; Olesen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Two new lubricant systems for cold forging of stainless steel have been developed. The main component of these systems are FeCl3 and ZnCa2(PO4)2, respectively. Both lubricant systems have been tested using a backward extrusion test. The results show excellent lubricating properties with respect...

  17. 77 FR 14445 - Application for a License To Export Steel Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Steel Forging Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice of Receipt of an Application,'' please take notice that the Nuclear... head steel February 7, 2012 forging. forging will be XR175 machined into the 11005983 finished vessel...

  18. Liquid Phase Sintering of Highly Alloyed Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Troels

    1996-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering of stainless steel is usually applied to improve corrosion resistance by obtaining a material without an open pore system. The dense structure normally also give a higher strength when compared to conventional sintered steel. Liquid phase sintrering based on addition...... of boride to AISI 316L type steels have previously been studied, but were found to be sensitive to intergranular corrosion due to formation of intermetallic phases rich in chromium and molybdenum. In order to improve this system further, new investigations have focused on the use of higher alloyed stainless...... steel as base material. The stainless base powders were added different amounts and types of boride and sintered in hydrogen at different temperatures and times in a laboratory furnace. During sintering the outlet gas was analyzed and subsequently related to the obtained microstructure. Thermodynamic...

  19. Inverse Processing of Undefined Complex Shape Parts from Structural High Alloyed Tool Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monková, K.; Monka, P.; Hloch, Sergej

    -, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 1687-8132 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : 3D digitization * complex shape parts * high alloyed tool steel Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2014 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/aip/478748/

  20. Fatigue and fracture behavior of low alloy ferritic forged steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, V.; Sharma, A.K.; Muktibodh, U.C.; Borwankar, Neeraj; Singh, D.K.; Srinivasan, K.N.; Kulkarni, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Low alloy ferritic steels are widely used in nuclear industry for the construction of pressure vessels. Pressure vessel forged low alloy steels 20MnMoNi55 (modified) have been developed indigenously. Experiments have been carried out to study the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and fracture behavior of these forged steels. Fully reversed strain controlled LCF testing at room temperature and at 350 °C has been carried out at a constant strain rate, and for different axial strain amplitude levels. LCF material behavior has been studied from cyclic stress-strain responses and the strain-life relationships. Fracture behavior of the steel has been studied based on tests carried out for crack growth rate and fracture toughness (J-R curve). Further, responses of fatigue crack growth rate tests have been compared with the rate evaluated from fatigue precracking carried out for fracture toughness (J-R) tests. Fractography of the samples have been carried out to reveal dominant damage mechanisms in crack propagation and fracture. The fatigue and fracture properties of indigenously developed low alloy steel 20MnMoNi55 (modified) steels are comparable with similar class of steels. (author)

  1. Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation and Its Initial Microstructure Dependence in a High Alloyed Duplex Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Lin; Huang, Tian Lin; Wang, Yu Hui

    2017-01-01

    Deformation induced martensitic transformation (DIMT) usually occurs in metastable austenitic stainless steels. Recent studies have shown that DIMT may occur in the austenite phase of low alloyed duplex stainless steels. The present study demonstrates that DIMT can also take place in a high alloyed...... Fe–23Cr–8.5Ni duplex stainless steel, which exhibits an unexpectedly rapid transformation from γ-austenite into α′-martensite. However, an inhibited martensitic transformation has been observed by varying the initial microstructure from a coarse alternating austenite and ferrite band structure...

  2. Characterization of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans biofilm on high-alloyed stainless steel: XPS and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dec, Weronika [Institute of Industrial Organic Chemistry, Branch Pszczyna, Doświadczalna Street 27, 43-200 Pszczyna (Poland); Mosiałek, Michał; Socha, Robert P. [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek Street 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland); Jaworska-Kik, Marzena [Department of Biopharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Jedności Street 8, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Simka, Wojciech [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 6 Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.k.michalska@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, B. Krzywoustego 6 Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Results on D. desulfuricans biofilm formation on austenitic-ferritic duplex (2205 DSS) and superaustenitic (904L) stainless steels are presented. Surface characterization including the structure, configuration and chemical composition of biofilms were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to monitor the attachment activity of bacteria on the steels' surface and to determine the effect of bacteria on passivity. It was proved that investigated steels are rapidly colonized by bacteria. The presence of biofilm caused significant ennoblement of 904L steel surface, while retarded the attainment of high passive state of 2205 DSS. XPS analysis revealed significant sulphidation of the biofilm and its layered structure. Accumulation of sulphides and hydroxides was proved in the outermost layer, while the increasing contents of disulphides, organometallic and C-N bonds were detected in the internal part of the biofilm. Irreversible bondings between steel matrix and biofilm had also been observed. - Highlights: • High-alloyed steels are rapidly colonized by sulphate-reducing bacteria. • Higher Ni content stimulates more intensive biofilm growth. • Extracellular polymeric substances indelibly bind to the high-alloyed steels. • Sulphate-reducing bacteria caused irreversible sulphidation of passive films.

  3. Characterization of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans biofilm on high-alloyed stainless steel: XPS and electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dec, Weronika; Mosiałek, Michał; Socha, Robert P.; Jaworska-Kik, Marzena; Simka, Wojciech; Michalska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Results on D. desulfuricans biofilm formation on austenitic-ferritic duplex (2205 DSS) and superaustenitic (904L) stainless steels are presented. Surface characterization including the structure, configuration and chemical composition of biofilms were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to monitor the attachment activity of bacteria on the steels' surface and to determine the effect of bacteria on passivity. It was proved that investigated steels are rapidly colonized by bacteria. The presence of biofilm caused significant ennoblement of 904L steel surface, while retarded the attainment of high passive state of 2205 DSS. XPS analysis revealed significant sulphidation of the biofilm and its layered structure. Accumulation of sulphides and hydroxides was proved in the outermost layer, while the increasing contents of disulphides, organometallic and C-N bonds were detected in the internal part of the biofilm. Irreversible bondings between steel matrix and biofilm had also been observed. - Highlights: • High-alloyed steels are rapidly colonized by sulphate-reducing bacteria. • Higher Ni content stimulates more intensive biofilm growth. • Extracellular polymeric substances indelibly bind to the high-alloyed steels. • Sulphate-reducing bacteria caused irreversible sulphidation of passive films.

  4. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  5. Fouling and biocorrosion of a high-alloy steel in the Golden Horn bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakova, M.D.; Nikitin, V.M.; Suponina, A.P.; Kharchenko, U.V.; Zvyagintsev, A.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The studies on the effect of contamination of the Golden Horn bay waters (the Peter the Great Bay in the Japanese Sea) on formation of the community of the bacterio- and macrofouling and corrosion resistance of the Kh18N10T high-alloy steel are continued. The dissolved and chemically absorbed oxygen, pH, saprophytes, oil-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacteria and heavy metals are among the medium indicators, characterizing the level of pollution of the regions of the samples testing. It is shown, that the obtained experimental data extend our understanding of the dependent effect of three factors: the sea medium → fouling → corrosion resistance of the Kh18N10T high-alloy steel [ru

  6. Formability of high-alloy dual-phase Cr-Ni steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfmark, J.

    2004-01-01

    The formability of dual-phase high-alloy Cr-Ni steel within the temperature range from 900 to 1250 C was studied using laboratory tensile and torsion tests. The dual-phase steels on 24% Cr basis are characterized by poor hot formability due to very low stable deformation values and slow recrystallization. Mathematical description of deformation stability exhaustion was derived, as well as a model of formability control based on analysis of the gradual diffuse deformation stability from the stability limit to the moment when the deformation starts to concentrate in a small volume of the test piece. Rolling simulation of dual-phase steel strip was used as an example demonstrating the draught scheme optimization technique which avoids the danger of crack occurrence during the rolling of dual-phase steel strip. (orig.)

  7. A friction model for cold forging of aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with conversion coating and solid film lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a simulative tribology test system for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...

  8. Friction and wear in hot forging of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daouben, E.; Dubar, L.; Dubar, M.; Deltombe, R.; Dubois, A.; Truong-Dinh, N.; Lazzarotto, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the field of hot forging of steels, the mastering of wear phenomena enables to save cost production, especially concerning tools. Surfaces of tools are protected thanks to graphite. The existing lubrication processes are not very well known: amount and quality of lubricant, lubrication techniques have to be strongly optimized to delay wear phenomena occurrence. This optimization is linked with hot forging processes, the lubricant layers must be tested according to representative friction conditions. This paper presents the first part of a global study focused on wear phenomena encountered in hot forging of steels. The goal is the identification of reliable parameters, in order to bring knowledge and models of wear. A prototype testing stand developed in the authors' laboratory is involved in this experimental analysis. This test is called Warm and Hot Upsetting Sliding Test (WHUST). The stand is composed of a heating induction system and a servo-hydraulic system. Workpieces taken from production can be heated until 1200 deg. C. A nitrided contactor representing the tool is heated at 200 deg. C. The contactor is then coated with graphite and rubs against the workpiece, leaving a residual track on it. Friction coefficient and surface parameters on the contactor and the workpiece are the most representative test results. The surface parameters are mainly the sliding length before defects occurrence, and the amplitude of surface profile of the contactor. The developed methodology will be first presented followed by the different parts of the experimental prototype. The results of experiment show clearly different levels of performance according to different lubricants

  9. Close toleranoe forging of chromium steel blades for powerful steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastin, Eh.G.; Kositskij, Yu.N.; Lyubchits, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Work on simulating technological process on die-forging hammer was performed in order to reduce the preparation period bringing technology of close tolerance forging of turbine blades to a commercial level. A special attention was paid to development of accurate forming of forgings of 20Kh13Sh, 12Kh13 and 15Kh11MFSh steels on screw presses with nominal effort equal to 80 and 144 MN

  10. Ultra-large size austenitic stainless steel forgings for fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Miura, Ritsu.

    1988-01-01

    The large SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel forgings for the reactor vessel of the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe output were successfully manufactured. The reactor vessel contains the heart of the reactor and sodium coolant at 530 deg C, and its inside diameter is about 7 m, and height is about 18 m. It is composed of 12 large forgings, that is, very thick flanges and shalls made by ring forging and an end plate made by disk forging and hot forming, using a special press machine. The manufacture of these large forgings utilized the results of the basic test on the material properties in high temperature environment and the effect that the manufacturing factors exert on the material properties and the results of the development of manufacturing techniques for superlarge forgings. The problems were the manufacturing techniques for the large ingots of 250 t class of high purity, the hot working techniques for stainless steel of fine grain size, the forging techniques for superlarge rings and disks, and the machining techniques of high precision for particularly large diameter, thin wall rings. The manufacture of these large stainless steel forgings is reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Development of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Ferritic Steel Through Powder Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-04-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are candidates for cladding tubes in fast breeder nuclear reactors. In this study, an 18%Cr ODS ferritic steel was prepared through powder forging route. Elemental powders with a nominal composition of Fe-18Cr-2 W-0.2Ti (composition in wt.%) with 0 and 0.35% yttria were prepared by mechanical alloying in a Simoloyer attritor under argon atmosphere. The alloyed powders were heated in a mild steel can to 1473 K under flowing hydrogen atmosphere. The can was then hot forged. Steps of sealing, degassing and evacuation are eliminated by using powder forging. Heating ODS powder in hydrogen atmosphere ensures good bonding between alloy powders. A dense ODS alloy with an attractive combination of strength and ductility was obtained after re-forging. On testing at 973 K, a loss in ductility was observed in yttria-containing alloy. The strength and ductility increased with increase in strain rate at 973 K. Reasons for this are discussed. The ODS alloy exhibited a recrystallized microstructure which is difficult to achieve by extrusion. No prior particle boundaries were observed after forging. The forged compacts exhibited isotropic mechanical properties. It is suggested that powder forging may offer several advantages over the traditional extrusion/HIP routes for fabrication of ODS alloys.

  12. Forgings made of austenitic chromium-nickel steels for the low temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendler, O.; Schwarz, W.; Koren, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss the low temperature application of austenitic chromium-nickel steels for energy production and process techniques. Material requirements are presented, and the behaviour, mechanical and physical properties of such steels are discussed. The manufacture of forgings is considered and test results presented. (Auth.)

  13. Forgings made of austenitic chromium-nickel steels for the low temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendler, O.; Schwarz, W.; Koren, M. (Vereinigte Edelstahlwerke A.G. (VEW), Kapfenberg (Austria))

    1981-09-01

    The authors discuss the low temperature application of austenitic chromium-nickel steels for energy production and process techniques. Material requirements are presented, and the behaviour, mechanical and physical properties of such steels are discussed. The manufacture of forgings is considered and test results presented.

  14. 75 FR 67110 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... India and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews pursuant to... the antidumping duty orders on forged stainless steel flanges from India and Taiwan would be likely to...

  15. Microstructural heterogeneities and fatigue anisotropy of forged steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessard, Etienne, E-mail: etienne.pessard@angers.ensam.fr [LAMPA, Arts et Metiers ParisTech Angers, 2 Bd du Ronceray, 49035 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Morel, Franck [LAMPA, Arts et Metiers ParisTech Angers, 2 Bd du Ronceray, 49035 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Verdu, Catherine [MATEIS, INSA-Lyon, Universite de Lyon, 25 Av Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Flaceliere, Laurent; Baudry, Gilles [CREAS - ASCOMETAL, BP 70045, 57301 Hagondange (France)

    2011-11-25

    Highlights: {yields} Tomography result: fibering is composed of non-metallic inclusions bands. {yields} Elongated inclusions decreases the: ductility, fracture toughness and fatigue limit. {yields} Cracks initiate from both inclusion clusters and from the bainitic matrix. {yields} The classical self-heating method does not predict the effect of the inclusions. - Abstract: In this study, various experimental methods are employed to determine the anisotropic fatigue behavior of a 25MnCrSiVB6 forged steel (Metasco MC). This material has a bainitic microstructure and contains many elongated non-metallic inclusions in the rolled direction, which are grouped into clusters. Specimens with different orientations relative to the rolling direction have been extracted from a hot rolled bar and the ability of certain experimental techniques to capture the fatigue anisotropy has been tested. Results obtained from monotonic tensile tests and Charpy impact tests show that the material has isotropic fracture strength and anisotropic ductility. The influence of the 'inclusion clusters' is clearly demonstrated via observation of the fracture surfaces. Concerning the fatigue behavior, results from a classical staircase experimental procedure are compared to results from self-heating fatigue tests. For specimens orientated at 0{sup o} relative to the rolled direction, microcrack initiation is controlled by the material matrix and the prediction of the fatigue strength with the self-heating method has been observed to be correct. For specimens orientated at 45{sup o} and 90{sup o}, the elongated manganese sulfide inclusion clusters are the origin of crack initiation and the fatigue strength drops significantly. For this case, it appears that the self-heating method has difficulty predicting the fatigue behavior.

  16. Microstructural heterogeneities and fatigue anisotropy of forged steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessard, Etienne; Morel, Franck; Verdu, Catherine; Flaceliere, Laurent; Baudry, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Tomography result: fibering is composed of non-metallic inclusions bands. → Elongated inclusions decreases the: ductility, fracture toughness and fatigue limit. → Cracks initiate from both inclusion clusters and from the bainitic matrix. → The classical self-heating method does not predict the effect of the inclusions. - Abstract: In this study, various experimental methods are employed to determine the anisotropic fatigue behavior of a 25MnCrSiVB6 forged steel (Metasco MC). This material has a bainitic microstructure and contains many elongated non-metallic inclusions in the rolled direction, which are grouped into clusters. Specimens with different orientations relative to the rolling direction have been extracted from a hot rolled bar and the ability of certain experimental techniques to capture the fatigue anisotropy has been tested. Results obtained from monotonic tensile tests and Charpy impact tests show that the material has isotropic fracture strength and anisotropic ductility. The influence of the 'inclusion clusters' is clearly demonstrated via observation of the fracture surfaces. Concerning the fatigue behavior, results from a classical staircase experimental procedure are compared to results from self-heating fatigue tests. For specimens orientated at 0 o relative to the rolled direction, microcrack initiation is controlled by the material matrix and the prediction of the fatigue strength with the self-heating method has been observed to be correct. For specimens orientated at 45 o and 90 o , the elongated manganese sulfide inclusion clusters are the origin of crack initiation and the fatigue strength drops significantly. For this case, it appears that the self-heating method has difficulty predicting the fatigue behavior.

  17. Current steel forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoharu; Murai, Etsuo; Sato, Ikuo [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant; Suzuki, Kimiaki; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Tsukada, Hisashi [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    On the steel forging (SF) elements for steam generator (SG) of the pressurized water type light water reactor (PWR), from a viewpoint of upgrading in their improvements of design and materials, here were described on three materials such as integrated steel forgings, high strength steel forgings, and vacuum carbon deoxidisation (VCD) steel forgings. On production of SG, by using the integrated SF, not only structural soundness of SG is upgraded, but also inspections containing inspections under production and usage become easier, to bring minimization of maintenance inspection and reduction of exposure under operation. And, in order to reduce weight of SG and upgrade seismic resistance, SA508, a Cl.3a high strength SF (620 MPa class in tensile strength) is used for some nuclear plants. Here were introduced material properties of this SF and described its chemical components and heat treatment condition. And, as a method to reduce macro- and micro-segregation of materials and to upgrade homogeneity of material property, a method combined deoxidisation of steel due to carbon monoxide reaction with crystal grain minimization due to addition of aluminum was investigated. In addition, properties of a low Si-SA508 Cl.3 steel using this method was compared with that of usual SA508 Cl.3 steel. (G.K.)

  18. Determination of tungsten in high-alloy steels and heat resisting alloys by isotope dilution-spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Morimasa; Yamada, Kei; Okochi, Haruno; Hirose, Fumio

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten in high-alloy steels and heat-resisting alloys was determined by isotope dilution method combined with spark source mass spectrometry by using 183 W enriched tungsten. The spike solution was prepared by fusing tungsten trioxide in sodium carbonate. A high-alloy steel sample was dissolved in the mixture of sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid together with the spike solution; a sample of heat resisting alloy was similarly dissolved in the mixture of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid. The solution was evaporated to give dense white fumes. Tungsten was separated from the residue by a conventional cinchonine salt-precipitation method. The salt was ignited, and the residue was mixed with graphite powder and pressed into electrodes. The isotope 183 W and 184 W were measured. The method was applied to the determination of tungsten in JSS and NBS standard high-alloy steels and JAERI standard nickel- and NBS standard cobalt-base heat resisting alloys containing more than 0.05% tungsten. The results were obtained with satisfactory precision and accuracy. However, the results obtained for JSS standard high- speed steels containing molybdenum tended to be significantly lower than the certified values. (author)

  19. Medium carbon vanadium steels for closed die forging; Acos de medio carbono microligados ao vanadio para forjaria em matriz fechada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeszensky, Gabor; Plaut, Ronald Lesley

    1994-12-31

    This work analyses the medium carbon micro alloyed vanadium potential for closed die forged production. The steels reach the mechanical resistance requests during cooling after forging, eliminating the subsequent thermal treatment. Those steels also present good fatigue resistance and machinability. The industrial scale experiments are also reported 16 refs., 21 figs.

  20. Study on antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Hai; Wang Detai; Ding Yang

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator was studied and the influence of different simulated heat treatments on the antioxidant performance of tube sheet and tube hole was made. The influence of different antioxidant methods on the size of tube hole was drawn. Furthermore, the change of size and weight of 18MnD5 forged steel tube sheet on the condition of different simulated heat treatments was also studied. The analytical results have proved reference information for the use of 18MnD5 material and for key processes of processing tube hole and wearing and expanding U-style tube. (authors)

  1. Nickel-based materials and high-alloy, special stainless steels. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heubner, U.; Brill, U.; Hoffmann, T.; Jasner, M.; Kirchheiner, R.; Koecher, R.; Richter, H.; Rockel, M.; White, F.

    1993-01-01

    The book is intended as a source of information on nickel-based materials and special stainless steels and apart from the up-to-date materials data presents information on recent developments and knowledge gained, so that it may be a valuable aid to materials engineers looking for cost-effective resolutions of their materials problems in the chemical process industry, power plant operation, and high-temperature applications. The book presents eight individual contributions entitled as follows: (1) Nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels. - Materials survey and data sheets (Ulrich Heubner). (2) Corrosion of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels (Manfred Rockel). (3) Welding of nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels (Theo Hoffmann). (4) High-temperature resistant materials (Ulrich Brill). (5) Application and processing of nickel-base materials in the chemical process industry and in pollution abatement equipment (Reiner Koecher). (6) Selected examples of applications of nickel-base materials in chemical plant (Manfred Jasner, Frederick White). (7) Applications of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels in power plant. (8) The use of nickel-base alloys and stainless steels in pollution abatement processes (R. Kirchheiner). (orig./MM). 151 figs., 226 refs [de

  2. Production of a 304 stainless steel nuclear reactor forging from a very large electroslag refined ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, E.J.; Tihansky, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    A four-loop, upper barrel flange forging for a nuclear reactor was produced from what the authors believe to be the largest 304H grade stainless steel electroslag refined (ESR) ingot ever refined. The ingot was refined in a 1524-mm-diameter, ingot withdrawal-type ESR furnace using a lime-bearing slag, low-frequency a-c power, and dry air protection. Five electrodes were remelted in order to produce the desired ingot weight. The ingot was subsequently forged in a five-step operation on a 6800-metric-ton press to produce the desired barrel flange configuration. Testing of the finished machined forging revealed excellent tensile ductility, excellent ultrasonic penetrability, and good chemical uniformity with no macrosegregation. Overall quality was judged to be superior to previously produced, conventionally melted forgings

  3. The influence of main parameters of the process of forging on the initial quality of forging for steel 35HM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaszek, G.; Dyja, H.; Berski, S.

    2001-01-01

    The article discuss the effect of the main forging parameters and the selection of tools on improving the internal quality of forgings and closing up discontinuities of metallurgical origin during forging. As a result of investigations, the optimal values of the main technological parameters of forging have been determined and the application of an appropriate group of tools have been proposed for the flat die forging of forgings. (author)

  4. The development of industrial production of high alloy steel intended for the electronuclear industries and its effect on fine steelmaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillard-Baron, B.

    1977-01-01

    The aim is to show how the high alloy steel manufacturers in France attempted to meet increasing demand by the electronuclear industries by the design and development at moderate cost and within a rather short period, of high level products intended to meet specific requirements. In this prospect, the qualitative and quantitative requirements are determined, the evolutions of the working methods connected to the design and manufacture of steel products are analysed. The economic implications which resulted and a few examples of the manufacture of particularly well suited products are evoked [fr

  5. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior and Kinetics of Forged 12Cr-MoVW Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of forged 12Cr-MoVW steel was investigated in an air (N2+O2 atmosphere at 873-1073 K (Δ50 K using thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, and the surface and cross-sectional morphologies were examined using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The forged 12Cr-MoVW steel samples exhibited parabolic behavior and a low oxidation rate compared with their as-cast counterparts. A protective oxide layer was uniformly formed at relatively low temperature (≤973 K for the forged samples, which thus exhibited better oxidation resistance than the as-cast ones. These oxides are considered solid-solution compounds such as (Fe, Cr2O3.

  6. Developments of steel fabrication processes for castings and ingots for forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, S.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter deals with a series of technological developments in the manufacture of steels which have occurred during the last years, in particular reporting the results obtained in Reinosa with some of these methods in the fabrication of castings as well as forgings and rolled products. (author)

  7. 76 FR 8773 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-639 and 640 (Third Review)] Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On January 31, 2011, the...

  8. Precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings (ASME SA-564 with additional requirements)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    A standard prescribing requirements for precipitation-hardening stainless steel bars, shapes, and forgings (ASME SA-564 with additional requirements) for nuclear and associated applications is presented. This standard supersedes RDT M 7-6T, dated January 1974. (U.S.)

  9. 2016 Accomplishments. Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Forging process effects on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-precharged stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-01

    Forged austenitic stainless steels are used as the materials of construction for pressure vessels designed to contain tritium at high pressure. These steels are highly resistant to tritium-assisted fracture but their resistance can depend on the details of the forging microstructure. During FY16, the effects of forging strain rate and deformation temperature on the fracture toughness properties of tritium-exposed-and-aged Type 304L stainless steel were studied. Forgings were produced from a single heat of steel using four types of production forging equipment – hydraulic press, mechanical press, screw press, and high-energy-rate forging (HERF). Each machine imparted a different nominal strain rate during the deformation. The objective of the study was to characterize the J-Integral fracture toughness properties as a function of the industrial strain rate and temperature. The second objective was to measure the effects of tritium and decay helium on toughness. Tritium and decay helium effects were measured by thermally precharging the as-forged specimens with tritium gas at 34.5 MPa and 350°C and aging for up to five years at -80°C to build-in decay helium prior to testing. The results of this study show that the fracture toughness properties of the as-forged steels vary with forging strain rate and forging temperature. The effect is largely due to yield strength as the higher-strength forgings had the lower toughness values. For non-charged specimens, fracture toughness properties were improved by forging at 871°C versus 816°C and Screw-Press forgings tended to have lower fracture toughness values than the other forgings. Tritium exposures reduced the fracture toughness values remarkably to fracture toughness values averaging 10-20% of as-forged values. However, forging strain rate and temperature had little or no effect on the fracture toughness after tritium precharging and aging. The result was confirmed by fractography which indicated that fracture modes

  10. The effects of composition and thermal path on hot ductility of forging steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brendan M.

    This work examines the effects of composition and thermal path on the hot ductility of several forging steels with varied aluminum and nitrogen content. The primary mechanisms and controlling factors related to hot ductility are identified with a focus on the role of precipitates and segregation. The unique thermal paths and solidification structures of large cross-section forging ingots are discussed. Hot ductility testing is performed in a manner that approximates industrial conditions experienced by large cross-section forging ingots. A computer model for precipitation of aluminum nitride and vanadium nitride in austenite is presented. Industrial material is examined for comparison to experimental findings. It is found that increased aluminum and nitrogen content coarsens the as-solidified structure. The combined effects of microsegregation and uphill diffusion during deformation allow for carbide precipitation at prior austenite grain boundaries which reduces the hot ductility.

  11. The effect of σ-phase precipitation at 800°C on the corrosion resistance in sea-water of a high alloyed duplex stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, M.E.; Gadgil, V.J.; Krougman, J.M.; Ijsseling, F.P.

    1994-01-01

    Super-duplex stainless steels are recently developed high alloyed stainless steels that combine good mechanical properties with excellent corrosion resistance. Because of a high content of chromium and molybdenum, these alloys are susceptible to σ-phase precipitation during short exposure to

  12. The coarsening effect of SA508-3 steel used as heavy forgings material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingqian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SA508Gr.3 steel is popularly used to produce core unit of nuclear power reactors due to its outstanding ability of anti-neutron irradiation and good fracture toughness. The forging process takes important role in manufacturing to refine the grain size and improve the material properties. But due to their huge size, heavy forgings cannot be cooled down quickly, and the refined grains usually have long time to grow in high temperature conditions. If the forging process is not adequately scheduled or implemented, very large grains up to millimetres in size may be found in this steel and cannot be eliminated in the subsequent heat treatment. To fix the condition which may causes the coarsening of the steel, hot upsetting experiments in the industrial production environment were performed under different working conditions and the corresponding grain sizes were measured and analysed. The observation showed that the grain will abnormally grow if the deformation is less than a critical value. The strain energy takes a critical role in the grain evolution. If dynamic recrystallization consumes the strain energy as much as possible, the normal grains will be obtained. While if not, the stored strain energy will promote abnormal growth of the grains.

  13. Study on optimum length of raw material in stainless steel high-lock nuts forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meiwen; Liu, Fenglei; Zhao, Qingyun; Wang, Lidong

    2018-04-01

    Taking 302 stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9) high-lock nuts for research objects, adjusting the length of raw material, then using DEFORM software to simulate the isothermal forging process of each station and conducting the corresponding field tests to study the effects of raw material size on the stainless steel high-lock nuts forming performance. The tests show that the samples of each raw material length is basically the same as the results of the DEFORM software. When the length of the raw material is 10mm, the appearance size of the parts can meet the design requirements.

  14. Influence of sulphur and phosphorus impurities on ductility of 25Kh2NMFA steel during forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Using cylindrical samples of the 25Kh2NMFA steel with sulfur and phosphorus content in the range of 0.001-0.030%, tensile test with the rate of deformation 10 -3 s -1 at the temperatures of 800-1200 deg C has been conducted. Analysis of fracture foci and plasticity diagrams has shown, that to ensure ductility during forging and high mechanical properties, the content of sulfur and phosphorus impurities in the 25Kh2NMFA steel must not exceed 0.015%

  15. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  16. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels: Part 1, medium-sulfur forging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Poskie, T.J.; Auten, T.A.; Cullen, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a medium- sulfur ASTM A508-2 forging steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 30.3--38.3 mm, and depths of 13.1--16.8 mm. The experiments were conducted in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O 2 < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243 degrees C, under loading conditions (ΔK, R, and cyclic frequency) conductive to environmentally-assisted cracking (EAC) in higher-sulfur steels under quasi-stagnant conditions. Earlier experiments on unclad compact tension specimens of this heat of steel did not exhibit EAC, and the present experiments on semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating cladding also did not exhibit EAC

  17. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of high-alloy tool steels : theoretical and experimental approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of tool steels and high-speed steels has led to a significant increase in alloy additions, such as Co, Cr, Mo, N, V, and W. Knowledge about the phase relations in these multicomponent alloys, that is, the relative stability between different carbides or the solubility of different elements in the carbides and in the matrix phase, is essential for understanding the behaviour of these alloys in heat treatments. This information is also the basis for improving the properti...

  18. Development of production technology and investigation of quality for forged-welded turbine rotors of steel 25Kh2NVFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, I.A.; Merinov, G.N.; Slezkina, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made into mechanical properties and microstructure of turbine rotor components manufactured by forging and heat treated under various conditions. It is revealed that the optimal heat treatment of forgings must include double quenching with subsequent tempering at 630-640 deg C for 10-20 h. Forged and welded rotors should be tempered at 620-630 deg C for 50-100 h. Microscopic examination and mechanical tests showed that low alloy steel 25Kh2NMF can be successfully used for manufacturing rotors of high-, medium-and low-heat turbines

  19. Effect of nonmetallic inclusions on anisotropy of ductility in 35KhN3MFA steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtremel', M.A.; Yavojskij, V.I.; Volkov, V.A.; Chursin, G.M.; Chukhlov, V.I.; Fetisov, G.I.; Mochalin, N.K.; Smol'yaninov, L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of nonmetaltic inclusions and anizotropy of ductility and of impuct strength of forgings of the 35KhN3MFA steel are compared at different variants of melting and outer-furnace treatment. It is shown that method of melting rugulates anisotropy of ductility primarily through deformability of large inclusions during forging. Deformability of inclusions considerably changes due to introduction of silicocalcium in iron mold [ru

  20. Research on damage evolution and damage model of 316LN steel during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, X.W., E-mail: dxwmike1998@sina.com; Liu, J.S.

    2013-12-20

    The tensile tests and unloading tensile experiments of 316LN steel were conducted. The damage evolution processes were investigated by optical microscope. The fracture was studied using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and optical microscope, of which, the chemical compositions were analyzed by Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The results show that voids nucleate by decohesion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inclusions–matrix interface and mainly along the grain boundary, especially, at triangular grain boundary junctions. The tensile processes were simulated by Deform2D under different deformation conditions. The critical damage values were obtained. The model between the critical damage value, temperature and strain rate was established by regression analysis. A combination of numerical simulation and upsetting experiments was applied for verifying the accuracy and reliability of critical damage value. These damage values can be used to predict the initiation of voids during 316LN steel hot forging. So, they have important instructional effects on designing forging technology of 316LN steel.

  1. Best possible heat treatment of steel SA 336 F22 for the production of forged shells with heavy walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badeau, J.P.; Poitrault, I.S.; De Badereau, A.; Blondeau, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacturing of thick-wall components, such as shells, for petrochemical reactors normally requires the 2.25Cr-1Mo(SA 336 F22) steel. This paper deals with: 1. Experienced difficulties in producing thick-wall forgings up to a thickness of 500 mm with standard 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. 2. The solutions offered by Le Creusot Heavy Forge. The studies discussed are: (1) the effect of the structure; (2) the effect of the chemical composition on hardenability and temper embrittlement in steel making; and (3) the effect of austenitization conditions. Some examples concerning industrial forgings are presented, among them: 1. The manufacturing of shells for the petrochemical industry. 2. A thick-wall shell from a 146-metric ton hollow ingot

  2. An Assessment of the Ductile Fracture Behavior of Hot Isostatically Pressed and Forged 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Smith, R. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2017-05-01

    Type 300 austenitic stainless steel manufactured by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has recently been shown to exhibit subtly different fracture behavior from that of equivalent graded forged steel, whereby the oxygen remaining in the component after HIP manifests itself in the austenite matrix as nonmetallic oxide inclusions. These inclusions facilitate fracture by acting as nucleation sites for the initiation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids in the plastically deforming austenite matrix. Here, we perform analyses based on the Rice-Tracey (RT) void growth model, supported by instrumented Charpy and J-integral fracture toughness testing at ambient temperature, to characterize the degree of void growth ahead of both a V-notch and crack in 304L stainless steel. We show that the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) 304L steel exhibits a lower critical void growth at the onset of fracture than that observed in forged 304L steel, which ultimately results in HIP'd steel exhibiting lower fracture toughness at initiation and impact toughness. Although the reduction in toughness of HIP'd steel is not detrimental to its use, due to the steel's sufficiently high toughness, the study does indicate that HIP'd and forged 304L steel behave as subtly different materials at a microstructural level with respect to their fracture behavior.

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Oxide Scale Influence on General Carbon Steels during Hot Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd-Arno Behrens

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing product requirements have made numerical simulation into a vital tool for the time- and cost-efficient process design. In order to accurately model hot forging processes with finite, element-based numerical methods, reliable models are required, which take the material behaviour, surface phenomena of die and workpiece, and machine kinematics into account. In hot forging processes, the surface properties are strongly affected by the growth of oxide scale, which influences the material flow, friction, and product quality of the finished component. The influence of different carbon contents on material behaviour is investigated by considering three different steel grades (C15, C45, and C60. For a general description of the material behaviour, an empirical approach is used to implement mathematical functions for expressing the relationship between flow stress and dominant influence variables like alloying elements, initial microstructure, and reheating mode. The deformation behaviour of oxide scale is separately modelled for each component with parameterized flow curves. The main focus of this work lies in the consideration of different materials as well as the calculation and assignment of their material properties in dependence on current process parameters by application of subroutines. The validated model is used to carry out the influence of various oxide scale parameters, like the scale thickness and the composition, on the hot forging process. Therefore, selected parameters have been varied within a numerical sensitivity analysis. The results show a strong influence of oxide scale on the friction behaviour as well as on the material flow during hot forging.

  4. Effect of composition on corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic stainless steel weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, P.I.; Gooch, T.G.

    1993-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel weld metal in the ranges of 17 to 28% chromium (Cr), 6 to 60% nickel (Ni), 0 to 9% molybdenum (Mo), and 0.0 to 0.37% nitrogen (N) was examined. Critical pitting temperatures were determined in ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ). Passive film breakdown potentials were assessed from potentiodynamic scans in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) at 50 C. Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic tests were carried out in 30% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) ar 25 C, which was representative of chloride-free acid media of low redox potential. Metallographic examination and microanalysis were conducted on the test welds. Because of segregation of alloying elements, weld metal pitting resistance always was lower than that of matching composition base steel. The difference increased with higher Cr, Mo, and N contents. Segregation also reduced resistance to general corrosion in H 2 SO 4 , but the effect relative to the base steel was less marked than with chloride pitting. Segregation of Cr, Mo, and N in fully austenitic deposits decreased as the Ni' eq- Cr' eq ratio increased. Over the compositional range studied, weld metal pitting resistance was dependent mainly on Mo content and segregation. N had less effect than in wrought alloys. Both Mo and N enhanced weld metal corrosion resistance in H 2 SO 4

  5. Research on Oxidation Wear Behavior of a New Hot Forging Die Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanji; Wu, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Dry sliding tests for the hot forging die steel DM were performed in air under the test temperature at 400-700 °C and the time of 0.5-4 h by a UMT-3 high-temperature wear tester. The wear behavior and characteristics were studied systematically to explore the general characters in severe oxidation conditions. The results showed that a mild-to-severe oxidation wear transition occurred with an increase in the test temperature and duration. The reason was clarified as the unstable M6C carbides coarsening should be responsible for the severe delamination of tribo-oxide layer. More importantly, an intense oxidation wear with lower wear rates was found when the experimental temperature reaches 700 °C or after 4 h of test time at 600 °C, which was closely related to the degradation behavior during wear test. Furthermore, a new schematic diagram of oxidation wear of DM steel was proposed.

  6. Comparison of Solid and Hollow Torque Transducer Shaft Response in a High Alloy Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milby, Christopher L.; Hecox, Bryan G.; Wiewel, Joseph L.; Boley, Mark S.

    2007-03-01

    Recent investigations of the torque transducer response function (ambient field signal versus applied torque or shear stress) have been conducted in a 13% chromium and 8% nickel stainless steel alloy in both the hollow shaft and solid shaft configuration. An understanding of both is needed for applications with differing yield strength and hardness requirements. Axial hysteresis measurements conducted before and after heat treatment exhibited little difference in coercivity and retentivity between the two sample types. However, the field mapping and transducer sensitivity studies showed the hollow shaft configuration to have a far superior degree of polarization in the sensory region and to exhibit an enhanced sensitivity, especially after heat treatment. This is most likely due to its more efficient provision of closed circumferential geometry for the field lines and improved grain alignment during heat treatment.

  7. An Assessment of the Ductile Fracture Behaviour of Hot Isostatically Pressed and Forged 304L Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Adam; Smith, R. J.; Sherry, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Type 300 austenitic stainless steel manufactured by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has recently been shown to exhibit subtly different fracture behavior from that of equivalent graded forged steel, whereby the oxygen remaining in the component after HIP manifests itself in the austenite matrix as nonmetallic oxide inclusions. These inclusions facilitate fracture by acting as nucleation sites for the initiation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids in the plastically deforming austenite matrix....

  8. Evolution of A-Type Macrosegregation in Large Size Steel Ingot After Multistep Forging and Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Abdelhalim; Ben Fredj, Emna; Harris, Nathan; Shahriari, Davood; Jahazi, Mohammad; Lapierre-Boire, Louis-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    A-type macrosegregation refers to the channel chemical heterogeneities that can be formed during solidification in large size steel ingots. In this research, a combination of experiment and simulation was used to study the influence of open die forging parameters on the evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns during a multistep forging of a 40 metric ton (MT) cast, high-strength steel ingot. Macrosegregation patterns were determined experimentally by macroetch along the longitudinal axis of the forged and heat-treated ingot. Mass spectroscopy, on more than 900 samples, was used to determine the chemical composition map of the entire longitudinal sectioned surface. FORGE NxT 1.1 finite element modeling code was used to predict the effect of forging sequences on the morphology evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns. For this purpose, grain flow variables were defined and implemented in a large scale finite element modeling code to describe oriented grains and A-type segregation patterns. Examination of the A-type macrosegregation showed four to five parallel continuous channels located nearly symmetrical to the axis of the forged ingot. In some regions, the A-type patterns became curved or obtained a wavy form in contrast to their straight shape in the as-cast state. Mass spectrometry analysis of the main alloying elements (C, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, P, and S) revealed that carbon, manganese, and chromium were the most segregated alloying elements in A-type macrosegregation patterns. The observed differences were analyzed using thermodynamic calculations, which indicated that changes in the chemical composition of the liquid metal can affect the primary solidification mode and the segregation intensity of the alloying elements. Finite element modeling simulation results showed very good agreement with the experimental observations, thereby allowing for the quantification of the influence of temperature and deformation on the evolution of the shape of the

  9. Deducing material quality in cast and hot-forged steels by new bending test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Henry; Langøy, Morten; Nedreberg, Mette; Helvig, Torgeir

    2017-10-01

    A special bend test has been developed and applied for the purpose of characterization and comparison of the material ductility in crankpin steel discs manufactured by casting, or casting subsequently followed by hot open-die forging (ODF) or closed-die forging (CDF). The bending test specimen consists of a small rectangular plate of material with a round hole cut out in the middle. The "eye-shape" specimens were cut out from various positions either near to the surface of, or from the interior of the discs. The test method revealed differences in ductility for the investigated materials, and for different depth positions inside the discs. The roughening of the specimen surface on the top-side of the specimen bend also varied dependent on the processing method for the material. Current results show that this test method is useful for evaluation of material quality in differently processed material. Experimental bend test results are presented for differently processed variants of the same material, i.e., crankpin discs either made by solely casting or casting subsequently followed by hot working either by ODF or CDF.

  10. Ageing of forged superaustenitic stainless steel: Precipitate phases and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anburaj, J., E-mail: janburaj@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India); Nazirudeen, S.S. Mohamed; Narayanan, R.; Anandavel, B.; Chandrasekar, A. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solutionizing of 1250 Degree-Sign C and ageing of 500-1000 Degree-Sign C was done for hot forged SASS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strength and toughness increased by 25% on hot forged than the cast SASS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amounts of precipitates after ageing were evaluated by thermo-calc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma forms from chi at 900 Degree-Sign C and contains constant Cr and Mo contents, unlike chi. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma is incoherent, contains high Mo and causes low toughness at 900 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: Cast superaustenitic stainless steel (SASS), of composition 19 wt% Cr, 20 wt% Ni, 7.5 wt% Mo and 0.37 wt% N, is hot forged at 1200 Degree-Sign C. The forging was then solutionized at 1250 Degree-Sign C and aged for 1 h and 10 h at different temperatures in the range of 500-1000 Degree-Sign C. Effect of these treatments on (i) hardness and (ii) fracture toughness based on impact energy is reported. Chi is formed from low temperatures up to 800 Degree-Sign C, and sigma at temperatures above 900 Degree-Sign C. A model is proposed to illustrate the dissolution of chi and sigma in austenite at elevated temperatures. Compared with chi, sigma contains more Mo. Toughness decreased with increasing amounts of chi and sigma precipitates. However, in the temperature range of 850-950 Degree-Sign C, low toughness was observed for relatively a short ageing time, although virtually the volume of sigma phase is very low. This is attributed to the presence of incoherent sigma in austenite matrix. Fractographs of the impact-tested samples indicated an increased tendency for brittle fracture with increasing ageing temperatures (increase in sigma content). Thermodynamic calculations substantiated (i) EDS results of composition of secondary phases present in the aged SASS and (ii) the proposed model. From these studies it is concluded that sigma is enriched in Mo at 900 Degree-Sign C and can be as

  11. Properties of Ni-Mo steel prepared from premixed and prealloyed powder in sintered, forged and annealed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salak, A.; Hrubjak, M.

    Investigated were 2Ni-0.5Mo steel specimens made of premixed powder on the base of Hametag iron and of ATST-A prealloyed powder with graphite additives of 0.3% and 0.8%. In the sintered and forged state, specimens prepared from premixed powder exhibit better strength properties compared with those made of prealloyed ATST-A powder. After annealing, the carbon content has a different bearing on both systems. With premixed powder steel of 0.6% carbon content the tensile strength amounts to 1,800 MPa whilst that of prealloyed steel specimens with 0.2% carbon content is about 1,240 MPa. (author)

  12. Human biomonitoring of chromium and nickel from an experimental exposure to manual metal arc welding fumes of low and high alloyed steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Jens; Brand, Peter; Schettgen, Thomas; Lenz, Klaus; Purrio, Ellwyn; Reisgen, Uwe; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The uptake and elimination of metals from welding fumes is currently not fully understood. In the Aachen Workplace Simulation Laboratory (AWSL) it is possible to investigate the impact of welding fumes on human subjects under controlled exposure conditions. In this study, the uptake and elimination of chromium or chromium (VI) respectively as well as nickel was studied in subjects after exposure to the emissions of a manual metal arc welding process using low or high alloyed steel. In this present study 12 healthy male non-smokers, who never worked as welders before, were exposed for 6h to welding fumes of a manual metal arc welding process. In a three-fold crossover study design, subjects were exposed in randomized order to either clean air, emissions from welding low alloyed steel, and emissions from welding high alloyed steel. Particle mass concentration of the exposure aerosol was 2.5mg m(-3). The content of chromium and nickel in the air was determined by analysing air filter samples on a high emission scenario. Urine analysis for chromium and nickel was performed before and after exposure using methods of human biomonitoring. There were significantly elevated chromium levels after exposure to welding fumes from high alloyed steel compared to urinary chromium levels before exposure to high alloyed welding fumes, as well as compared to the other exposure scenarios. The mean values increased from 0.27 µg l(-1) to 18.62 µg l(-1). The results were in good agreement with already existing correlations between external and internal exposure (German exposure equivalent for carcinogenic working materials EKA). The variability of urinary chromium levels was high. For urinary nickel no significant changes could be detected at all. Six-hour exposure to 2.5mg m(-3) high alloyed manual metal arc welding fumes lead to elevated urinary chromium levels far higher (7.11-34.16 µg l(-1)) than the German biological exposure reference value (BAR) of 0.6 µg l(-1) directly after

  13. Influence of 'third' elements and structure on the results of spectral analysis of high alloyed steels and cast iron with glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buravlev, Yu.M.; Zamarajev, V.P.; Chernyavskaya, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental technique consists in estimation of mutual arrangement of the calibration curves obtained using standard reference materials of low-alloyed and high-alloyed (high-chrome, stainless, high-speed) steels as well as of the curves for carbon steels and cast iron differing in their structure. ARL-31000 and Polyvac E-1000 quantometers with U=1300 V, I=0.12 A and argon pressure ∼1 kPa are used. The influence of third elements is shown in shift and slope changes of the curves for abovementioned high-alloyed steels in comparison to ones for low-alloyed steels accepted as basic. The influence magnitude runs up to 10-30 relative percents and more in the case of analysis of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon and other elements and depends on the type of the element and on the alloy composition. It is shown that the contribution of structure factor caused by different alloy thermal treatment makes up 10 to 20 relative percents. The experiments showed that the increase of influence of these factors caused by their imposing as well as the weakening of this influence caused by their counteraction is possible. When analyzed alloys differ in their composition and manufacturing technology it is necessary to take into consideration the influence of these effects. (author)

  14. Microstructure-based assessment of creep rupture behaviour of cast-forged P91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandan, E-mail: chandanpy.1989@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttrakhand 247667 (India); Mahapatra, M.M. [School of Mechanical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013 (India); Kumar, Pradeep; Vidyrathy, R.S. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttrakhand 247667 (India); Srivastava, A. [Senior Engineer, HEEP Section, BHEL Haridwar (India)

    2017-05-17

    The work presented in this study was performed with the intent to characterize the microstructure evolution for short term creep exposure of cast-forged P91 steel. The short-term creep test was performed at temperature range of 620–650 °C and stresses ranging from 120 to 200 MPa. To characterize the sample after creep exposure, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscope and micro-hardness testing were utilized. Creep tests were performed on round creep specimens. For low temperature service condition, longer creep life was obtained. The fracture surface of creep ruptured specimen were characterized by using the FESEM. The transgranular fracture mode was noticed in all the tests condition. The creep rupture life was found to be decreased with increase in applied stress. The maximum rupture life was measured about to be 3329.28 h for the sample exposed at 620 °C for 120 MPa. A negligible microstructural change was measured in gripping area compared to the gauge area (necking area) of crept sample. The laves phase formation was also noticed along the grain boundaries for creep exposure life of 3329.28 h.

  15. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  16. Microstructure-based assessment of creep rupture behaviour of cast-forged P91 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Chandan; Mahapatra, M.M.; Kumar, Pradeep; Vidyrathy, R.S.; Srivastava, A.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this study was performed with the intent to characterize the microstructure evolution for short term creep exposure of cast-forged P91 steel. The short-term creep test was performed at temperature range of 620–650 °C and stresses ranging from 120 to 200 MPa. To characterize the sample after creep exposure, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), optical microscope and micro-hardness testing were utilized. Creep tests were performed on round creep specimens. For low temperature service condition, longer creep life was obtained. The fracture surface of creep ruptured specimen were characterized by using the FESEM. The transgranular fracture mode was noticed in all the tests condition. The creep rupture life was found to be decreased with increase in applied stress. The maximum rupture life was measured about to be 3329.28 h for the sample exposed at 620 °C for 120 MPa. A negligible microstructural change was measured in gripping area compared to the gauge area (necking area) of crept sample. The laves phase formation was also noticed along the grain boundaries for creep exposure life of 3329.28 h.

  17. The Influence of Temperature on the Frictional Behavior of Duplex-Coated Die Steel Rubbing Against Forging Brass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, I.; Ashrafizadeh, F.

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of die life under hot forging of brass alloys is considered vital from both economical and technical points of view. One of the best methods for improving die life is duplex coatings. In this research, the influence of temperature on the tribological behavior of duplex-coated die steel rubbing against forging brass was investigated. The wear tests were performed on a pin-on-disk machine from room temperature to 700 °C; the pins were made in H13 hot work tool steel treated by plasma nitriding and by PVD coatings of TiN-TiAlN-CrAlN. The disks were machined from a two-phase brass alloy too. The results revealed that the friction coefficient of this tribosystem went through a maximum at 550 °C and decreased largely at 700 °C. Furthermore, the formation of Cr2O3 caused the reduction of friction coefficient at 700 °C. PVD coatings proved their wear resistance up to 550 °C, well above the working temperature of the brass forging dies.

  18. Manufacturing of large and integral-type steel forgings for nuclear steam supply system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, S.; Tsukada, H.; Suzuki, K.; Sato, I.; Onodera, S.

    1986-01-01

    Forgings for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of the pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) 700 MWe, which is composed of seven major parts and nozzles totaling about 965 tons, were successfully developed. These forgings are: 1. Flanges: an outside diameter of 8440 mm and a weight of 238 tons max, requiring an ingot of 570 tons. 2. Shells and torus: an outside diameter of about 8000 mm with large height. 3. Cover dome: a diameter of 6800 mm and a thickness of 460 mm, requiring a blank forging before forming of 8000 mm in diameter and 550 m thick. The material designation is 20Mn-Mo-Ni 5 5 (equivalent to SA508, Class 3). In this paper, the manufacturing of and the properties of such large and integral forgings are discussed, including an overview of manufacturing processes for ultralarge-sized forgings over the last two decades

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Highly Alloyed FeCrMoVC Steel Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Jun, Joong-Hwan; Lee, Min-Ha; Shon, In-Jin; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we successfully fabricated highly alloyed FeCrMoVC specimens within 2 min by using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The densities of the sintered specimens were almost identical to their theoretical values. Fine (Mo, V)-rich carbides with lamellar structure were precipitated along the grain boundaries of the as-sintered specimen, whereas relatively large carbides were formed additionally in the transgranular region during the tempering treatment. Compared with the specimen produced by a conventional casting method, the FeCrMoVC specimens from SPS showed smaller grain size with finer carbides and higher hardness values.

  20. Quality surveillance for steel forgings of SA508 Gr.3 used on the main NI equipment of AP1000 nuclear island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lizhao

    2011-01-01

    Being a type of steel with ideal weldability, outstanding ability of anti-neutron irradiation embitterment and good property of fracture toughness and impact toughness, the steel of ASME SA508-3 was used widely for the nuclear island equipment of PWR Nuclear Power Plant. For the 3rd generation nuclear power plant AP1000, all large forgings and some critical components of the SG, RV and PRZ adopt this steel. Through analysis on the critical technical points during manufacturing of the SA508-3 forgings, this article try to identify the key points should be paid attention during the quality surveillance for this type of forgings, and to put forward the supervision method and focus during quality surveillance activities. (author)

  1. Influence of bacterial exopolymers on cell adhesion of Desulfovibrio vulgaris on high alloyed steel: Corrosion inhibition by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, R.; Wei, L.; Fuerbeth, W. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut, DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, 60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Grooters, M.; Kuklinski, A. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Geibelstrasse 41, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were studied with regard to their potential application as inhibitors of biocorrosion. EPS that have been isolated from biofilms of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were adsorbed on samples of high alloyed steel (type 1.4301) at different temperatures. The samples were exposed to SRB containing solution and afterwards analysed by fluorescence microscopy (FM). The results show that the EPS form an incomplete layer and lead to a smaller amount of cell adhesion when compared to pure surfaces. The results are discussed with regard to the application of EPS for the prevention of biofilm formation. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Manufacturing of ultra-large diameter 20 MnMoNi 5 5 steel forgings for reactor pressure vessels and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Tsukada, H.; Moritani, H.; Suzuki, K.; Sato, I.

    1985-01-01

    As the structural material for RPV typical of increased dimensions, as set of ultra-large diameter steel forgings for a PHWR RPV is presented as outlined below. (1) Material designation: 20 MnMoNi 5 5 (similar to SA508, Cl.3) (2) Size of the forgings: flanges, 8.440 mm OD, a weight of 238 tons for shell flange; shells and torus, 7,920 mm OD, with large height, cover dome, 6,800 mm OD in chord and 460 mm thick; blank before formed to dome is ca. 8,000 mm OD. (3) Chemical composition: particular effort was made for minimizing the tramp elements as P, S, As, Sn, Sb, Cu. (4) Manufacturing, key points: steel making - combined refining and degassing in ladle; ingot making - largest size ingots, including 570 ton and 500 ton ingots; forging - special ''outside-the-press'' forging and forming techniques; heat treatment - prevention of H 2 flaking in normalizing and tempering and handling of the extra-large forgings at water quenching. (5) Metallurgical properties: sufficiently uniform carbon distributions in the forgings; a lowest possible content of hydrogen, non-metallic inclusions and oxygen. Mechanical properties: uniformity in tensile and toughness properties; flaws - only limited number of spots of UT indications under 2 mm EFG (EFS). (orig.)

  3. Manufacturing of Precision Forgings by Radial Forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, S.; Harrer, O.; Buchmayr, B.; Hofer, F.

    2011-01-01

    Radial forging is a multi purpose incremental forging process using four tools on the same plane. It is widely used for the forming of tool steels, super alloys as well as titanium- and refractory metals. The range of application goes from reducing the diameters of shafts, tubes, stepped shafts and axels, as well as for creating internal profiles for tubes in Near-Net-Shape and Net-Shape quality. Based on actual development of a weight optimized transmission input shaft, the specific features of radial forging technology is demonstrated. Also a Finite Element Model for the simulation of the process is shown which leads to reduced pre-processing effort and reduced computing time compared to other published simulation methods for radial forging. The finite element model can be applied to quantify the effects of different forging strategies.

  4. The role of nitrogen in improving pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloy austenitic and duplex stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilpas, M.; Haenninen, H.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen alloyed shielding gas on weld nitrogen content and pitting corrosion resistance of super austenitic (6%Mo) and super duplex stainless steels have been studied with special emphasis on microsegregation behaviour of Cr, Mo and N. The measurements performed with the 6%Mo steel indicate that all these elements segregate interdendritically in the fully austenitic weld metal. With nitrogen addition to the shielding gas the enrichment of nitrogen to the interdendritic regions is more pronounced than to the dendrite cores due to which the pitting corrosion resistance of the dendrite cores increases only marginally. In the super duplex steel welds nitrogen enriches in austenite increasing its pitting corrosion resistance more effectively. In these welds the pitting corrosion resistance of the ferrite phase remains lower. (orig.)

  5. Corrosion investigations of high-alloyed steels carried out in different marine area organized by European Federation of Corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Skalski, I.

    1999-01-01

    Research works arranged by EFC Working Party on Marine Corrosion are described. The research was performed in sea areas of Norway, Finland, Sweden, France, Italy, Poland and Netherlands. Subjected to test were three corrosion resistant steel grades; 316, 904 and UNS S 31524. Two corrosion tests were carried out in the years 1993 and 1994 each of min. 6 month duration. The results show that chemical composition of water at salinity level of more than 0.7% has not great effect on corrosion aggressivity in relation to corrosion resistant steels. On the other hand temperature of sea water has great influence on corrosion process. (author)

  6. Influence of segregations and hydrogen flakes on the mechanical properties of forged RPV steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselt, C.C.; May, J.; Hein, H.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of relevant 1970s/80s German research programs (e.g. FKS research program on component safety and others), many investigations on large forgings manufactured from Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) materials such as 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and 22 NiMoCr 3 7 have been performed. Lately, after ultrasonic testing hydrogen flakes in connection with segregation zones have been observed in a few RPV forgings. The earlier R and D programs contained a number of special heats, which covered a defined defect state (lower bound heats) with relevance to the recent observations of numerous UT indications in RPV forgings of two PWRs. Therefore, the results of these former research programs were now reviewed. The studies included an evaluation of the effects of macro/micro segregations as well as hydrogen flakes on the mechanical properties. As part of the mechanical technological experiments Charpy impact tests in different orientations (e.g. L-T, T-L and S-T) together with fracture mechanics and large scale tensile tests were carried out in segregated and non segregated material zones. In this context the letters L,T,S indicate the longitudinal, transversal and short transverse (thickness) direction with respect to rolling direction of the forging axis. The first letter indicates the direction of the principal stress, while the second letter stands for the crack propagation direction [1]. Furthermore the irradiation behavior of segregated material regions was analyzed and compared to non segregated material regions. Key results of these analyses indicate that in most cases upper shelf levels are lowered in segregated material parts compared to non segregated areas. In addition the segregations cause a larger scattering of impact energies. A high hydrogen content in combination with segregations has overall detrimental effects on the mechanical properties. However, there seems to be no specific segregation influence on the materials' irradiation reaction.

  7. Influence of combined impact and cyclic loading on the overall fatigue life of forged steel, EA4T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, A.; Hadidi-Moud, S.; Farhangdoost, Kh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The performance of forged steel, EA4T, used in rail industry, under simulated in service conditions, i.e. combined impact - cyclic loading, was investigated through a comprehensive experimental programme. The standard Paris-Erdogan fatigue design curve parameters, m and C, were calibrated to account for the effect of the impact component of loading. A minimum threshold for impact load component, identified in the experiments, was also incorporated in the proposed empirical model. Comparison with experimental findings indicated that this “modified” Fatigue design curve could predict the fatigue life of pre impact loaded specimens with sufficient accuracy. It was therefore suggested that the modified model may be used as a novel design tool for predicting the overall fatigue life of components made of this material under the specified combined impact and fatigue loading conditions.

  8. Improvement of mechanical strength of sintered Mo alloyed steel by optimization of sintering and cold-forging processes with densification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Shohji, I.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    2017-10-01

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be spread in automotive industry. Generally, since sintered materials using P/M ones contain many pores and voids, mechanical properties of them are inferior to those of conventional wrought materials. To improve mechanical properties of the sintered materials, densification is effective. The aim of this study is to improve mechanical strength of sintered Mo-alloyed steel by optimizing conditions in sintering and cold-forging processes. Mo-alloyed steel powder was compacted. Then, pre-sintering (PS) using a vacuum sintering furnace was conducted. Subsequently, coldforging (CF) by a backward extrusion method was conducted to the pre-sintered specimen. Moreover, the cold-forged specimen was heat treated by carburizing, tempering and quenching (CQT). Afterwards, mechanical properties were investigated. As a result, it was found that the density of the PS specimen is required to be more than 7.4 Mg/m3 to strengthen the specimen by heat treatment after CF. Furthermore, density and the microstructure of the PS specimen are most important factors to make the high density and strength material by CF. At the CF load of 1200 kN, the maximum density ratio reached approximately 99% by the use of the PS specimen with proper density and microstructure. At the CF load of 900 kN, although density ratio was high like more than 97.8%, transverse rupture strength decreased sharply. Since densification caused high shear stress and stress concentration in the surface layer, microcracks occurred by the damages of inter-particle sintered connection of the surface layer. On the contrary, in case of the CF load of 1200 kN, ultra-densification of the surface layer occurred by a sufficient plastic flow. Such sufficient compressed specimens regenerated the sintered connections by high temperature heat treatment and thus the high strength densified material was obtained. These processes can be applicable to near net shape manufacturing

  9. Vibration crack corrosion behavior and failure mechanisms of highly alloyed duplex steels in steam turbine rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.

    1991-01-01

    The aim was to test the new duplex steel X3CrMnNiMoN 25 6 4 (A905) for its suitability as a steam turbine rotor blade material. Due to the increased proportion of manganese and nitrogen, compared to A903, in this duplex steel in the solution annealed state, an elastic limit of about 600 N/mm 2 acceptable for steam turbine rotor blades was reached. A micro-duplex structure (recrystallized secondary structure) consisting of 50% each of ferrite and Austenite proved to be the optimum structure composition. To measure the SwRK behaviour, Woehler curves were produced in media containing corrosive NaCl. The mean stress was 250 N/mm 2 , partly 350 N/mm 2 . The maximum duration of the test was given as 3 x 10 7 load cycles at a frequency of 50 Hz. The experimental time was partly extended to 5 x 10 7 load cycles. In order to guarantee as realistic a test as possible, the Sw RK tests took place in aqueous NaCl solution saturated with air. To correspond to envorinmental conditions in actual operation, the electrolyte temperature was varied between 80deg and 150deg C, the Na Cl concentration of the solution was varied between very dilute (0.01 M) and nearly saturated (22%) and the pH value was varied between pH 8 and pH 3. Accompanying passive oxide layer investigations should give information on the thickness and morphology of the layers formed. (orig./MM) [de

  10. Evaluation of the prediction precision capability of partial least squares regression approach for analysis of high alloy steel by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arnab; Karki, Vijay; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Maurya, Gulab S.; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K.; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2015-06-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for elemental characterization of high alloy steel using partial least squares regression (PLSR) with an objective to evaluate the analytical performance of this multivariate approach. The optimization of the number of principle components for minimizing error in PLSR algorithm was investigated. The effect of different pre-treatment procedures on the raw spectral data before PLSR analysis was evaluated based on several statistical (standard error of prediction, percentage relative error of prediction etc.) parameters. The pre-treatment with "NORM" parameter gave the optimum statistical results. The analytical performance of PLSR model improved by increasing the number of laser pulses accumulated per spectrum as well as by truncating the spectrum to appropriate wavelength region. It was found that the statistical benefit of truncating the spectrum can also be accomplished by increasing the number of laser pulses per accumulation without spectral truncation. The constituents (Co and Mo) present in hundreds of ppm were determined with relative precision of 4-9% (2σ), whereas the major constituents Cr and Ni (present at a few percent levels) were determined with a relative precision of ~ 2%(2σ).

  11. Micropurity in stainless steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, Z.

    1981-01-01

    New technologies were developed by the Vitkovice research institutes in response to high requirements for the quality of high-alloy steels for nuclear power, viz., duplex technology with double vacuum degassing at the DH unit and oxidation vacuum degassing using the VAKUVIT equipment. The steel produced shows low contents of impurities and high micropurity. A study was conducted into changes in carbon content and the formation of titanium nitrides and carbonitrides in austenitic steels during their production, and optimum technological parameters were found for eliminating their formation in forgings. (author)

  12. Simulative Testing of Friction and Lubrication in Cold Forging of Steel and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Aida, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    torque during testing combined with an analysis of the sliding velocity distribution along the punch nose. The latter is determined by FE analysis of the test. Results show friction stress for unalloyed low C-steel provided with different types of lubricants, i.e. phosphate coating plus soap, phosphate...

  13. Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of 50Cr5NiMoV steel for forged backup roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Fu, L.C.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, K.; Zhu, L., E-mail: zl508@126.com

    2016-11-20

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of forged 50Cr5NiMoV steel backup roll were evaluated in this study. The microstructure characteristics from surface to center along radial direction of the backup roll were carefully observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the chemical composition, hardness, tensile property, impact and fracture toughness in different position of the backup roll were also examined. The results indicate that the finely precipitated carbides at different matrix during heat treatment process strongly influence mechanical properties of the backup roll. Especially, the spheroidized pearlite at the inner regions which consists of large globular or rod-like M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and a little of small globular M{sub 23}C{sub 6} possesses much better toughness and fracture resistance properties than those of the lamellar pearlite with lamellar M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and a little of globular M{sub 7}C{sub 3}.

  14. Friction welding of a nickel free high nitrogen steel: influence of forge force on microstructure, mechanical properties and pitting corrosion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Hazra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, nickel free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel specimens were joined by continuous drive friction welding process by varying the amount of forge (upsetting force and keeping other friction welding parameters such as friction force, burn-off, upset time and speed of rotation as constant at appropriate levels. The joint characterization studies include microstructural examination and evaluation of mechanical (micro-hardness, impact toughness and tensile and pitting corrosion behaviour. The integrity of the joint, as determined by the optical microscopy was very high and no crack and area of incomplete bonding were observed. Welds exhibited poor Charpy impact toughness than the parent material. Toughness for friction weld specimens decreased with increase in forge force. The tensile properties of all the welds were almost the same (irrespective of the value of the applied forge force and inferior to those of the parent material. The joints failed in the weld region for all the weld specimens. Weldments exhibited lower pitting corrosion resistance than the parent material and the corrosion resistance of the weld specimens was found to decrease with increase in forge force.

  15. On the corrosion testing of weldments of high alloyed CrNiMo-stainless steels and NiCrMo-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, G.; Voigt, C.; Werner, H.

    1997-01-01

    Weldments of high-alloyed CrNiMo stainless steels and NiCrMo alloys can be more susceptible to localized corrosion than the solution annealed basic material owing to segregations and precipitations in the heat affected zone, the high temperature zone and/or in the weld. To investigate these differences the FeCl 3 -test (10% FeCl 3 . 6aq), the test ''green death'' (11.5% H 2 SO 4 , 1.2% HCl, 1% CuCl 2 , 1% FeCl 3 ) as well as chronopotentiostatic tests in artificial sea water or in 3% NaCl-solution are used. In particular for testing the highest alloyed materials a CaCl 2 -test was developed (4.5 M CaCl 2 , chronopotentiostatic test in duration of 8 to 10 hours at + 200 mV (SCE)), which can be carried out to a temperature of 115 C at atmospheric pressure. The aggressivity increases in the range FeCl 3 -test, ''green death''-test, CaCl 2 -test. Matching and graduated over-alloyed weldments (TIG, heat input of 7 and 15.5 kJ/cm) of materials 1.4529, 1.4562, 2.4856, 2.4819 (german materials No.) are comparingly examined in various tests, of materials 1.4406, 1.4539, 1.4439 and 1.4563 (german materials No.) only matching weldments in the FeCl 3 -test. In strongly oxidizing media only a highly over-alloyed performed weldment (filler material 2.4607, german material No.) produces the best corrosion behaviour, measured as the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Measurements of critical current densities of passivation can be used for investigations of corrosion behaviour of weldments, too. Critical current densities of passivation are showing a tendency to inverse proportion to the critical temperatures of localized corrosion. Suitable electrolytes are among others 0.2 M H 2 SO 4 + 1 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN, N 2 -bubbled, 25 to 60 C and xM H 2 SO 4 + 4 M NaCl + 10 -3 % KSCN (x = 0.05 to 1), 25 C, in contact with air. An influence of heat input at the welding is indicated in the test of localized corrosion, but it is only small. It is sometimes more clearly shown at

  16. Normalizing treatment influence on the forged steel SAE 8620 fracture properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Vida Gomes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In a PWR nuclear power plant, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV contains the fuel assemblies and reactor vessels internals and keeps the coolant at high temperature and high pressure during normal operation. The RPV integrity must be assured all along its useful life to protect the general public against a significant radiation liberation damage. One of the critical issues relative to the VPR structural integrity refers to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS accident evaluation. To better understand the effects of this kind of event, a PTS experiment has been planned using an RPV prototype. The RPV material fracture behavior characterization in the ductile-brittle transition region represents one of the most important aspects of the structural assessment process of RPV's under PTS. This work presents the results of fracture toughness tests carried out to characterize the RPV prototype material behavior. The test data includes Charpy energy curves, T0 reference temperatures for definition of master curves, and fracture surfaces observed in electronic microscope. The results are given for the vessel steel in the "as received" and normalized conditions. This way, the influence of the normalizing treatment on the fracture properties of the steel could be evaluated.

  17. Effect of Various Heat Treatment Processes on Fatigue Behavior of Tool Steel for Cold Forging Die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. U.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, Y. S.; Kwon, Y. N.; Lee, J. H.

    Effects of various heat treatment processes, including "Q/T (quenching and tempering)", "Q/CT/T (Quenching, cryogenic treatment and tempering)", "Q/T (quenching and tempering) + Ti-nitriding" and "Q/CT/T (Cryogenic treatment and tempering) + Ti-nitriding", on S-N fatigue behavior of AISI D2 tool steel were investigated. The optical micrographs and Vicker's hardness values at near surface and core area were examined for each specimen. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed by using an electro-magnetic resonance fatigue testing machine at a frequency of 80 Hz and an R ratio of -1. The overall resistance to fatigue tends to decrease significantly with Ti-nitriding treatment compared to those for the general Q/T and Q/CT/T specimens. The reduced resistance to fatigue with Ti-nitriding is discussed based on the microstructural and fractographic analyses.

  18. Rapid heating tensile tests of high-energy-rate-forged 316L stainless steel containing internal helium from radioactive decay of absorbed tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    316L stainless steel is a candidate material for construction of equipment that will be exposed to tritium. This austenitic stainless steel is frequently used in the high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) metallurgical condition to take advantage of increased strength produced by cold work introduced by this process. Proper design of tritium-handling equipment will require an understanding of how helium-3, the product of radioactive decay of tritium, affects mechanical properties. This report describes results of elevated-temperature tensile testing of HERF 316L stainless steel specimens containing helium concentrations of 171 (calculated) atomic parts per million (appm). Results are compared with those reported previously for specimens containing 0 and 94 (measured) appm helium

  19. Ductile fracture evaluation of ductile cast iron and forged steel by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Pt. 1. Tensile test by large scaled test pieces with surface crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Ajima, Tatsuro; Inohara, Yasuto

    1999-01-01

    The ductile fracture tests of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under a tensile stress condition were conducted using large-scaled flat test specimens with a surface crack and were evaluated by the J-integral values, in order to propose an evaluation method of initiation of ductile fracture of a cask body with crack by nonlinear-fracture-mechanics. Following results were obtained. 1) 1 -strain relations of Ductile Cast Iron and Forged Steel under the tensile stress condition were obtained, which is necessary for the development of J-integral design curves for evaluating the initiation of ductile fracture of the cask body. 2) In case of Ductile Cast Iron, the experimental J-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman at room temperature, in both elastic and plastic regions. But, at 70degC in plastic region, the experimental i-integral values showed middle values between those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory and by the non- linear-elastic- theory (based on the fully plastic solution by Yagawa et al.). 3) In case of Forged Steel at both -25degC and room temperature, the experimental i-integral values obtained from strain-gauges showed a good agreement with those predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, in the elastic region. In the plastic region, however, the experimental i-integral values fell apart from the curve predicted by the linear-elastic-theory by Raju and Newman, and also approached to those by the non-linear-elastic-theory with increasing strain.(author)

  20. A Study on Structural, Corrosion, and Sensitization Behavior of Ultrafine and Coarse Grain 316 Stainless Steel Processed by Multiaxial Forging and Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim; Mohammadi Baygi, Seyyed Javad; Khalaj, Gholamreza; Khoshakhlagh, Ali; Samadipour, Razieh

    2018-01-01

    Cubic specimens from AISI 316 stainless steel were multiaxially forged to 15 passes and annealed at 1200 °C for 1, 2, and 3 h and finally sensitized at 700 °C for 24 h. Examination of samples indicated that the hardness of the annealed samples was reduced from 153 to 110, 81, and 74 HV for as-received sample and under 1, 2, and 3 h of annealing, and increased from 245 to 288 HV for samples forged at 3 and 7 passes. However, no significant changes were observed in a large number of passes and at about 300 HV. Degree of sensitization of samples was increased to approximately 27.3% at 3-h annealing but reduced to 1.23% by 15 passes of MF. The potentiodynamic polarization test shows that the breakdown potentials decreased with annealing time from 0.6 to - 102 (mV/SCE) for as-received and 3-h annealed specimen. These potentials increased to approximately - 16.5 mV with the increase in MF passes to 15. These observations indicated that the chromium carbide deposition affects Cr-depleted zone, which can subsequently affect the degree of sensitization and pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel.

  1. Weldability Characteristics of Sintered Hot-Forged AISI 4135 Steel Produced through P/M Route by Using Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.; Pandey, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Present investigation is an attempt to study the weldability characteristics of sintered hot-forged plates of AISI 4135 steel produced through powder metallurgy (P/M) route using matching filler materials of ER80S B2. Compacts of homogeneously blended elemental powders corresponding to the above steel were prepared on a universal testing machine (UTM) by taking pre-weighed powder blend with a suitable die, punch and bottom insert assembly. Indigenously developed ceramic coating was applied on the entire surface of the compacts in order to protect them from oxidation during sintering. Sintered preforms were hot forged to flat, approximately rectangular plates, welded by pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) processes with aforementioned filler materials. Microstructural, tensile and hardness evaluations revealed that PCGTAW process with low heat input could produce weldments of good quality with almost nil defects. It was established that PCGTAW joints possess improved tensile properties compared to the base metal and it was mainly attributed to lower heat input, resulting in finer fusion zone grains and higher fusion zone hardness. Thus, the present investigation opens a new and demanding field in research.

  2. 2017 Status report-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel: Effect of hydrogen, tritium and decay helium on the fracture-toughness properties of stem, cup and block forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-28

    The materials of construction of tritium reservoirs are forged stainless steels. During service, the structural properties of the stainless steel change over time because of the diffusion of tritium into the reservoir wall and its radioactive decay to helium-3. This aging effect can cause cracks to initiate and grow which could result in a tritium leak or delayed failure of a tritium reservoir. Numerous factors affect the tendency for crack formation and propagation and are being investigated in this program. The goal of the research is to provide relevant fracture mechanics data that can be used by the design agencies in their assessments of tritium reservoir structural integrity. In this status report, new experimental results are presented on the effects of tritium and decay helium on the cracking properties of specimens taken from actual tritium reservoir forgings instead of the experimental forgings of past programs. The properties measured are more representative of actual reservoir properties because the microstructure of the specimens tested are more like that of the actual tritium reservoirs. The program was designed to measure the effects of material variables on tritium compatibility and includes two stainless steels (Type 304L and 316L stainless steel), multiple yield strengths (360-500 MPa), and multiple forging shapes (Stem, Cup, and Block).

  3. New Trends in Forging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Knigge, J.; Elgaly, I.; Hadifi, T.; Bouguecha, A.

    2011-05-01

    Limited natural resources increase the demand on highly efficient machinery and transportation means. New energy-saving mobility concepts call for design optimisation through downsizing of components and choice of corrosion resistant materials possessing high strength to density ratios. Component downsizing can be performed either by constructive structural optimisation or by substituting heavy materials with lighter high-strength ones. In this context, forging plays an important role in manufacturing load-optimised structural components. At the Institute of Metal Forming and Metal-Forming Machines (IFUM) various innovative forging technologies have been developed. With regard to structural optimisation, different strategies for localised reinforcement of components were investigated. Locally induced strain hardening by means of cold forging under a superimposed hydrostatic pressure could be realised. In addition, controlled martensitic zones could be created through forming induced phase conversion in metastable austenitic steels. Other research focused on the replacement of heavy steel parts with high-strength nonferrous alloys or hybrid material compounds. Several forging processes of magnesium, aluminium and titanium alloys for different aeronautical and automotive applications were developed. The whole process chain from material characterisation via simulation-based process design to the production of the parts has been considered. The feasibility of forging complex shaped geometries using these alloys was confirmed. In spite of the difficulties encountered due to machine noise and high temperature, acoustic emission (AE) technique has been successfully applied for online monitoring of forging defects. New AE analysis algorithm has been developed, so that different signal patterns due to various events such as product/die cracking or die wear could be detected and classified. Further, the feasibility of the mentioned forging technologies was proven by means

  4. Influence of Solution Treatment Temperature on Microstructural Properties of an Industrially Forged UNS S32750/1.4410/F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dănuț Cojocaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, the influence of solution annealing temperature on microstructural properties of a forged Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS was investigated by SEM-BSE (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Backscattered Electrons and SEM-EBSD (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Backscatter Diffraction techniques. A brief solution treatment was applied to the forged super duplex alloy, at different temperatures between 800 °C and 1100 °C, with a constant holding time of 0.6 ks (10 min. Microstructural characteristics such as nature, weight fraction, distribution and morphology of constituent phases, average grain-size and grain misorientation were analysed in relation to the solution annealing temperature. Experimental results have shown that the constituent phases in the SDSS alloy are δ-Fe, γ-Fe and σ (Cr-Fe and that their properties are influenced by the solution treatment temperature. SEM examinations revealed microstructural modifications induced by the Cr rich precipitates along the δ/γ and δ/δ grain boundaries, which may significantly affect the toughness and the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Solution annealing at 1100 °C led to complete dissolution of σ (Cr-Fe phase, the microstructure being formed of primary δ-Fe and γ-Fe. The orientation relationship between δ/δ, γ/γ and δ/γ grains was determined by electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD. Both primary constituent phase’s microhardness and global microhardness were determined.

  5. Developing of complex for hot plastic deformation modeling of steel type 20-30CrNiMoV for heavy forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dub Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy forging of bars weighing more then 235 tons for such products as rotors made of steel type 20-30CrNiMoV is a critical independent work, failure to perform which entails high costs related to repeated production (in case of defective product and untimely launch of production plants. One of the frequent causes of a defective product is the impossibility of ultrasonic testing in the barrel-gate zones on the rotor workpiece, which is due to the microstructure of the metal, namely the grain size. Determing the stages of deformation process wich causes such defects in structure is the main goal of this work.

  6. Reparation of damaged forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Lazić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The forging dies are in exploitation exposed to elevated temperatures and variable impact loads, both compressive and shear. Steels for manufacturing of these tools must endure those loads while maintaining mechanical properties and being resistant to wear and thermal fatigue. For those reasons, the alloyed steels are used for making the forging dies, though they have less weldability, because alloying increases proneness to hardening. Any reparatory hard facing (HF of the damaged dies would require the specially adjusted technology to the particular piece. In this paper reparatory hard facing of dies used for forging pieces in the automobile industry is considered. Prior to reparatory hard facing of the real tools, numerous experimental hard facings on models were performed. All the model hard facings were done on the same steels which were used for production of the real forging dies. To define the optimal hard facing technology one needs to derive the optimal combination of the adequate heat treatment(s, to select the proper filler metals and the welding procedure. The established optimal HF technology was applied to real forging dies whose service life was further monitored in conditions of exploitation

  7. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  8. An empirical model for friction in cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai

    2002-01-01

    With a system of simulative tribology tests for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...... of normal pressure and tool/work piece interface temperature. The model is verified by process testing measuring friction at varying reductions in cold forward rod extrusion. KEY WORDS: empirical friction model, cold forging, simulative friction tests....

  9. Properties of thick welded joints on superheater collectors made from new generation high alloy martensitic creep-resisting steels for supercritical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, Janusz; Zielinski, Adam [Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, Gliwice (Poland); Pasternak, Jerzy [Boiler Engineering Company RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The continuously developing power generation sector, including boilers with supercritical parameters, requires applications of new creep-resistant steel grades for construction of boilers steam superheater components. This paper presents selected information, experience within the field of research and implementation of a new group of creep-resistant as X10CrMoVNb9-1(P91), X10CrWMoVNb9-2(P92) and X12CrCoWVNb12-2-2(VM12) grades, containing 9-12%Cr. During welding and examination process the results of mechanical properties, requested level for base material and welded joints, as well as: tensile strength, impact strength and technological properties have been evaluated. Additional destructive examinations, with evaluation of structure stability, hardness distribution, for base material and welded joints after welding, heat treatment, again process have been determined. Recommendations due to the implementation influence of operating parameters of the main boiler components are part of this paper. (orig.)

  10. Influence of Solution Treatment Duration on Microstructural Features of an Industrial Forged UNS S32750/1.4410/F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (SDSS) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Vasile Dănuţ; Răducanu, Doina; Angelescu, Mariana Lucia; Vintilă, Adrian Nicolae; Şerban, Nicolae; Dan, Ioan; Cojocaru, Elisabeta Mirela; Cinca, Ion

    2017-08-01

    The microstructural changes induced by solution treatment of an industrial forged F53 Super Duplex Stainless Steel alloy were studied, in order to emphasize how component phases are influenced by heat treatment temperature and duration. The solution treatment was done at a temperature of 1100°C, with variable holding times: 0.6 ks (10 min), 3.6 ks (60 min) and 10.8 ks (180 min). Scanning electron microscopy-electron backscattered diffraction was used as main characterization technique, to obtain and analyse data referring to microstructural features, such as: nature and morphology of constituent phases, average grain-size and grain misorientation. It was shown that in all studied cases the microstructure consisted of a mixture of about 45% δ-Fe (ferrite) and 55% γ-Fe (austenite). Besides δ-Fe and γ-Fe phases, other phases were also identified, such as τ-phase (chromium-iron carbide), σ-phase (chromium-iron) and δ-(Cr-Fe) (ferrite).

  11. Development of integral type forgings for steam generator of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Murai, Etsuo

    1992-01-01

    The use of integral type steel forgings for the construction of pressure vessel enhances the structural integrity of components and makes the fabrication of components and the execution of in-service inspection (ISI) easier than those fabrication from plate and casting materials. Such steel forgings have been realized for steam generator (SG) for nuclear power plant as follows : (1) Forged shell ring : change from welding fabrication of formed plates to forging ; (2) Forged conical shell ring : ditto ; (3) Forged head integral with nozzles (s) : (i) Primary head : change from casting to forging ; (ii) Secondary head : change from welding fabrication of formed plates to forging. These steel forgings have been realized by recent development in manufacturing technologies, such as steel making, forging processes and heat treatment which are vital to the quality of steel forgings. Some examples of recent typical high quality steel forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced, and the main points of the manufacturing technique and the quality attained are also described. (author)

  12. Comparative tensile flow and work hardening behaviour of thin section and forged thick section 9Cr–1Mo ferritic steel in the framework of Voce equation and Kocks–Mecking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, B.K.; Rao Palaparti, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed analysis indicated that true stress (σ)-true plastic strain (ε) and work hardening behaviour of 9Cr–1Mo steel in two different forms, i.e. 20 mm plate and thick section tubeplate forging can be adequately described by Voce equation and Kocks–Mecking approach in the temperature range 300–873 K. The steel exhibited two-stage work hardening in the variations of instantaneous work hardening rate (θ = dσ/dε) and θσ with stress. The variations in σ–ε, work hardening parameters, θ–σ and θσ–σ with temperature exhibited three distinct temperature regimes. Good correlations between the predicted tensile properties using Voce equation and the respective experimental values along with analogy between Voce equation and Kocks–Mecking approach have been demonstrated for the steel. The differences in σ–ε, work hardening parameters, θ–σ and θσ–σ observed between plate and tubeplate forging have been ascribed to the effects associated with initial microstructures for the two product forms of the steel.

  13. High strain fatigue behaviour of a high-temperature, low-alloyed forging steel subject to a servicelike loading history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Rieth, P.

    1979-01-01

    A test plan was developed for selected cases of service-like long-time high strain load of a heated surface of massive components, which includes service-like anisothermic high strain tests with pressure-strain in the start-up phase and pull-strain in the shutdown phase, comparable isothermal tests at the highest cycle temperature, and finally tests with 'packaged' high strain and creep strain periods, which should enable long-time-tests with only short use of the large-scale high-strain-test-technique. The tests started on the melts of the high-temperature steel 28 Cr Mo NiV 4 9 have reached a longest tests time of nearly 1000 at a maximum temperature of 525 0 C. On the basis of there results, the carrying-out of 'packaged' long-time high strain tests with short creep strain periods seem to be a good way of determining the long-time high-strain behaviour of this steel under service-like strain cycles. (orig./RW) 891 RW/orig.- 892 RKD [de

  14. The State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1994-01-01

    The manufature of components in steel, aluminium and copper alloys by cold forging production has increased ever since the 1950's. Typical processes are forward rod extrusion and backward can extrusion, upsetting, ironing, tube extrusion and radial extrusion. The tribological conditions in cold...... forging are extremely severe due to large surface expansion and normal pressure in the tool/workpiece interface combined with elevated tool temperatures. Except for the more simple cold forging operations successful production therefore requires advanced lubrication systems. The present paper gives...... a detailed description of the state of art for lubricant systems for cold forging of C-steels and low alloy steels as well as aluminium alloys including all the basic operations such as cleaning of the slugs, application of eventual conversion coating and lubrication. As regards cold forging of steel...

  15. Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zones Welded with 1.25Cr-0.5 Mo Filler Metal to Forged Steel for Piston Crown Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-01-01

    A heavy oil of low quality has been mainly used in the diesel engine of the merchant ship as the oil price has been significantly jumped for several years. Thus, a combustion chamber of the engine has been often exposed to severely corrosive environment more and more because temperature of the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber has been getting higher and higher with increasing of using the heavy oil of low quality. As a result, wear and corrosion of the engine parts such as exhaust valve, piston crown and cylinder head surrounded with combustion chamber are more serious compared to the other parts of the engine. Therefore, an optimum repair welding for these engine parts is very important to prolong their lifetime in a economical point of view. In this study, 1.25Cr-0.5Mo filler metal was welded with SMAW method in the forged steel which would be generally used with piston crown material. And the corrosion properties of weld metal, heat affected and base metal zones were investigated using electrochemical methods such as measurement of corrosion potential, anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammogram and impedance etc. in 35% H 2 SO 4 solution. The weld metal and base metal zones exhibited the highest and lowest values of hardness respectively. And, the corrosion resistance of the heat affected and weld metal zones was also increased than that of the base metal zone. Furthermore, it appeared that the corrosive products with red color and local corrosion like as a pitting corrosion were more frequently observed on the surface of the base metal zone compared to the heat affected and weld metal zones. Consequently, it is suggested that the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of the piston crown can be predominantly improved by repair welding method using the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo electrode

  16. Determination of crack arrest toughness in A508 CL.3 forging steel from ASTM E1221-88 procedure. Comparison with the values obtained from thermal loading tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frund, J.M.; Difant, M.; Bethmont, M.

    1994-01-01

    A crack arrest study is under way at Electricite de France as part of the analysis of the risk of fast fracture of PWR vessels in emergency conditions. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the toughness which characterizes crack arrest through tests on reduced-size specimens. Some of the tests on a forging steel (A508 Cl.3) were conducted in conformity with two experimental methods. One method recommended by the ASTM calls for the use of an imposed-displacement mechanical loading on specimens kept under homogeneous temperature. Since the stress intensity factor K applied to the outside loading decreases along the crack growth, we can observe the arrest of the crack. In order to obtain brittle crack initiations in cleavage in the whole studied range of temperature and crack propagation of a sufficient length, the application of a weld point at the top of the notch is done. The other experimental method is based on a thermal loading. It requires the use of a disk or a cylinder with a longitudinal initial crack of the external surface. We dip this specimen in liquid nitrogen and we heat its internal surface with inducing current. There is a temperature gradient in the thickness of the specimen which produces a stress field which tends to open the crack. When the value of K is reached the crack initiation takes place. Several phenomena act to oppose the crack growth, they even go as far as stopping it. First the value of K, after increasing, gets steady then decreases, then, the rate of energy dissipated by plasticity at the top of the crack increases because the crack meets warmer and warmer areas on its way. The arrest toughness values which were obtained were then analyzed and compared to one another and with values proposed by RCC-m code. (authors). 12 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zones Welded with 1.25Cr-0.5 Mo Filler Metal to Forged Steel for Piston Crown Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man [Korea Maritime University, Dong Sam-Dong,Yong Do-ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Tae-Sil [Pohang College, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A heavy oil of low quality has been mainly used in the diesel engine of the merchant ship as the oil price has been significantly jumped for several years. Thus, a combustion chamber of the engine has been often exposed to severely corrosive environment more and more because temperature of the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber has been getting higher and higher with increasing of using the heavy oil of low quality. As a result, wear and corrosion of the engine parts such as exhaust valve, piston crown and cylinder head surrounded with combustion chamber are more serious compared to the other parts of the engine. Therefore, an optimum repair welding for these engine parts is very important to prolong their lifetime in a economical point of view. In this study, 1.25Cr-0.5Mo filler metal was welded with SMAW method in the forged steel which would be generally used with piston crown material. And the corrosion properties of weld metal, heat affected and base metal zones were investigated using electrochemical methods such as measurement of corrosion potential, anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammogram and impedance etc. in 35% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The weld metal and base metal zones exhibited the highest and lowest values of hardness respectively. And, the corrosion resistance of the heat affected and weld metal zones was also increased than that of the base metal zone. Furthermore, it appeared that the corrosive products with red color and local corrosion like as a pitting corrosion were more frequently observed on the surface of the base metal zone compared to the heat affected and weld metal zones. Consequently, it is suggested that the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of the piston crown can be predominantly improved by repair welding method using the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo electrode.

  18. Evolution of the Ultrasonic Inspection of Heavy Rotor Forgings Over the Last Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A.; Vrana, J.; Meiser, J.; Maximini, W.; Blaes, N.

    2010-02-01

    All types of heavy forgings that are used in energy machine industry, rotor shafts as well as discs, retaining rings or tie bolts are subject to extensive nondestructive inspections before they are delivered to the customer. Due to the availability of the parts in simple shapes, these forgings are very well suited for full volmetric inspections using ultrasound. In the beginning, these inspections were carried out manually, using straight beam probes and analogue equipment. Higher requirements in reliability, efficiency, safety and power output in the machines have lead to higher requirements for the ultrasonic inspection in the form of more scanning directions, higher sensitivity demands and improved documentation means. This and the increasing use of high alloy materials for ever growing parts, increase the need for more and more sophisticated methods for testing the forgings. Angle scans and sizing technologies like DGS have been implemented, and for more than 15 years now, mechanized and automated inspections have gained importance since they allow better documentation as well as easier evaluation of the recorded data using different views (B- C- or D-Scans), projections or tomography views. The latest major development has been the availability of phased array probes to increase the flexibility of the inspection systems. Many results of the ongoing research in ultrasonic's have not been implemented yet. Today's availability of fast computers, large and fast data storages allows saving RF inspection data and applying sophisticated signal processing methods. For example linear diffraction tomography methods like SAFT offer tools for 3D reconstruction of inspection data, simplifying sizing and locating of defects as well as for improving signal to noise ratios. While such methods are already applied in medical ultrasonic's, they are still to be implemented in the steel industry. This paper describes the development of the ultrasonic inspection of heavy forgings

  19. Forged steel pistons for modern high performance large engines; used in 4 stroke diesel and heavy fuel oil engines with cylinder bores of 130 - 500 mm; Geschmiedete Stahlkolben fuer moderne Hochleistungs-Grossmotoren, eingesetzt in 4 Takt Diesel- und Schweroelmotoren mit Zylinderdurchmessern von 130 - 500 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortas, J.; Geissler, C.; Schmidt, R. [Mahle GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The permanent increase of engine load caused MAHLE to develop pistons made of forged steel. On one hand, the result of the development is a Monotherm registered -piston design mainly used in truck applications. On the other hand, the result is a Ferrocomp registered - piston design with its application in large bore engines. The Ferrocomp registered - piston consists of a forged steel skirt and a forged crown which are bolted together. The main requirements of maximum load bearing capacity and highest reliability are achieved with these steel piston concepts. Many calculations and simulations together with laboratory testing and some thousands of field test experience give us the confidence for production release. A maximum peak cylinder pressure of 25 MPa and more is obtainable. For engines with less demanding load capacity and a stringent weight limitation the aluminium piston and the composite piston with an aluminum skirt are still the right solutions. (orig.)

  20. Manufacturing of ultra-large diameter 20 MnMoNi 5 5 steel forgings for reactor pressure vessels and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.; Kawaguchi, S.; Tsukada, H.; Moritani, H.; Suzuki, K.; Sato, I.

    1983-01-01

    A set of component material for PHWR RPV, including the largest forgings ever manufacture so far such as flanges (8,440 mm O.D.), shells and torus (7,960 mm O.D.) and dome (6,800 mm dia. in chord, 460 mm thick), was presented in the outline of manufacturing and properties. Even with increased dimensions and weight than the current largest forgings, the manufacture and the qualities achieved were satisfactory. These results encourage us in further developing PWRs and PHWRs with increased capacity. (orig.)

  1. Fractography analysis of tool samples used for cold forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    Three fractured tool dies used for industrial cold forging have been investigated using light optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Two of the specimens were produced using the traditional Böhler P/M steel grade s790, while the lastspecimen was a third generation P/M steel produced...... using new technology developed by Böhler. All three steels have the same nominal composition of alloying elements. The failure in both types of material occurs as a crack formation at a notch inside ofthe tool. Generally the cold forging dies constructed in third generation steels have a longer lifetime...

  2. Comparative studies on ultrasonic, friction, laser and resistance pressure welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steels. Final report; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Ultraschall-, Reib-, Laserstrahl- und Widerstandspressschweissen von NiTi-Shape-Memory-Metall mit hochlegierten Staehlen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckschwerdt, K.

    2000-04-01

    The suitability of different welding techniques for welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steel (C12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) was investigated. The quality of the welds was analyzed using mechanical-technological, fractographic, metallographic and electron microscopy analysis. [German] Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens ist es, die Eignung der einzelnen Schweissverfahren fuer das Fuegen von NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen mit hochlegiertem Stahl (X12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) darzustellen und zu beurteilen. Die Qualitaet der Fuegeverbindungen wird mit Hilfe mechanisch-technologischer, fraktographischer, metallographischer und elektronenmikroskopischer Untersuchungen bewertet.

  3. Investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on the life time of hot forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Legutko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related in the process of drop forging with special attention paid to the durability of forging tools. It presents the results of industrial investigation of the influence of hybrid layers on hot forging dies. The effectiveness of hybrid layers type nitrided layer/PVD coating applied for extending the life of forging tools whose working surfaces are exposed to such complex exploitation conditions as, among others, cyclically varying high thermal and mechanical loads, as well as intensive abrasion at raised temperature. The examination has been performed on a set of forging tools made of Unimax steel and intended for forging steel rings of gear box synchronizer in the factory FAS in Swarzedz (Poland.

  4. Microstructure, state of internal stress and corrosion resistance of the short-time laser heat-treated nitrogen high-alloyed tool steel X30CrMoN151; Mikrostruktur, Eigenspannungszustand und Korrosionsbestaendigkeit des kurzzeitlaserwaermebehandelten hochstickstofflegierten Werkzeugstahls X30CrMoN151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohne, C. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    This study compares the crystalline structure, state of internal stress and chemical properties of the high-alloyed nitrogen tool steel X30CrMoN15 1 and conventional cold work steel X39CrMo17 1. Transformation points A{sub c}1b and A{sub c}1e were calculated from residual austenite analysis and the c{sub m}/a{sub m} martensite ratios for various heating rates. This was used to generate a TTA (time-temperature-austenitisation) graph for X30CrMoN15 1 for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering show that precipitates in nitrogen high-alloyed steel X30CrMoN15 1 can be eliminated completely by short-time laser heat treatment. The corrosion tests show that in contrast to X39CrMo17 1 X30CrMoN15 1 reacts more sensitively to parameter changes during short-time heat treatment in oxidising acid at pH 5-6. [German] Im Rahmen der Arbeit werden die Gefuegeausbildung, Eigenspannungen und chemische Eigenschaften des hochstickstofflegierten Werkzeugstahls X30CrMoN15 1 und des konventionellen Kaltarbeitsstahls X39CrMo17 1 verglichen. Aus den Restaustenitanalysen und den c{sub m}/a{sub m}-Verhaeltnissen des Martensits konnten die Umwandlungspunkte A{sub c1b} und A{sub c1e} fuer verschiedene Aufheizraten bestimmt und daraus ein bisher nicht bekanntes ZTA-Schaubild fuer den X30CrMoN15 1 erstellt werden. Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie und Neutronenkleinwinkelstreuung zeigen, dass sich die Ausscheidungen im hochstickstofflegierten Stahl X30CrMoN14 1 durch die Kurzzeitlaserwaermebehandlung vollstaendig aufloesen koennen. Die Korrosionsversuche zeigen, dass im Gegensatz zum X39CrMo17 1 der X30CrMoN15 1 in oxidierender Saeure bei pH 5-6 empfindlicher auf Parameteraenderungen bei der Kurzzeitwaermebehandlung reagiert. (orig.)

  5. Controlled austempering of hammer forgings aimed at pseudo normalized microstructure directly after deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skubisz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns cost-effective realization of controlled thermomechanical processing (CTMP of medium-carbon and HSLA steel aimed at producing microstructure and properties equivalent to normalized condition directly after forging. The results of theoretical and physical modeling of hot forging with subsequent heat treating adopted for industrial realization in continuous manner were verified in semi-industrial conditions of a forge plant.

  6. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Surface Cracking Behavior of Superheavy Forgings during Hot Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, superheavy forgings that are manufactured from 600 t grade ingots have been applied in the latest generation of nuclear power plants to provide good safety. However, component production is pushing the limits of the current free-forging industry. Large initial grain sizes and a low strain rate are the main factors that contribute to the deformation of superheavy forgings during forging. In this study, 18Mn18Cr0.6N steel with a coarse grain structure was selected as a model material. Hot compression and hot tension tests were conducted at a strain rate of 10−4·s−1. The essential nucleation mechanism of the dynamic recrystallization involved low-angle grain boundary formation and subgrain rotation, which was independent of the original high-angle grain boundary bulging and the presence of twins. Twins were formed during the growth of dynamic recrystallization grains. The grain refinement was not obvious at 1150°C. A lowering of the deformation temperature to 1050°C resulted in a fine grain structure; however, the stress increased significantly. Crack-propagation paths included high-angle grain boundaries, twin boundaries, and the insides of grains, in that order. For superheavy forging, the ingot should have a larger height and a smaller diameter.

  8. Fracture Behavior of High-Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel Under Continuous Cooling: Physical Simulation of Free-Surface Cracking of Heavy Forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Xue, Hongpeng; Fu, Wantang

    2018-03-01

    18Mn18Cr0.6N steel was tension tested at 0.001 s-1 to fracture from 1473 K to 1363 K (1200 °C to 1090 °C, fracture temperature) at a cooling rate of 0.4 Ks-1. For comparison, specimens were tension tested at temperatures of 1473 K and 1363 K (1200 °C and 1090 °C). The microstructure near the fracture surface was examined using electron backscatter diffraction analysis. The lowest hot ductility was observed under continuous cooling and was attributed to the suppression of dynamic recrystallization nucleation.

  9. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters

  10. Optimization of pulsed current GTAW process parameters for sintered hot forged AISI 4135 P/M steel welds by simulated annealing and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Joby; Muthukumaran, S. [National Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Abundant improvements have occurred in materials handling, especially in metal joining. Pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (PCGTAW) is one of the consequential fusion techniques. In this work, PCGTAW of AISI 4135 steel engendered through powder metallurgy (P/M) has been executed, and the process parameters have been highlighted applying Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. The results show that the peak current (Ip), gas flow rate (GFR), welding speed (WS) and base current (Ib) are the critical constraints in strong determinant of the Tensile strength (TS) as well as percentage of elongation (% Elong) of the joint. The practical impact of applying Genetic algorithm (GA) and Simulated annealing (SA) to PCGTAW process has been authenticated by means of calculating the deviation between predicted and experimental welding process parameters.

  11. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  12. A-508 class 3 forgings for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comon, J.

    1977-01-01

    The manufacture of the forged parts of the first PWR nuclear pressure vessel installed in France started in the Creusot-Loire's Forge Plant in 1961. Since this date, more than 300 forgings of this type were delivered (flanges, rings, zones, and nozzles). The major part of these forgings were made of Mn, Ni, Mo steel (SA 508 class 3). They represent a population large and homogeneous enough to attempt a statistical analysis of chemical and mechanical test results. The aim of this analysis was double: (1) a better knowledge of the scattering of the results and a better estimate of what can be introduced or accepted in a specification, and (2) the setting up of correlations existing between these results, particularly between chemical analysis and mechanical test results. In addition to this statistical analysis concerning industrial results, several laboratory studies are presented, giving a more complete characterization of SA 508 class 3. All these results form a very complete documentation showing that SA 508 class 3 steel is suitable for the manufacture of large forged vessels requiring a high degree of reliability

  13. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  14. A study on the fracture toughness of heavy section steel plates and forgings for nuclear pressure vessels produced in Japan, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yuzuru; Ogura, Nobukazu; Takahashi, Isao; Miya, Kenzo; Ando, Yoshio.

    1985-01-01

    As another parameter for evaluating the toughness of structural materials, there is crack arrest toughness. This is a parameter showing the resistance of materials to stop the cracks rapidly propagating in brittle state within the materials, unlike static and dynamic fracture toughness related to the occurrence of breaking. As the conventional method of determining the crack arrest toughness, the relatively large testing method such as double tensile test and ESSO test have been known, but the establishment of a smaller convenient testing method is desired. In this study, the evaluation of the crack arrest toughness of the very thick steel materials produced in Japan was carried out by the testing method using small test pieces. In order to make test pieces small, tapered type DCB test and the three-point bending test using DWTT test pieces were examined as well as the testing method recommended by ASTM. The test materials were A 533B, Cl. 1 and A 508, Cl. 3. The test pieces, the various testing methods and the experimental results are reported. The temperature dependence of the crack arrest toughness was shown. (Kako, I.)

  15. A study on the fracture toughness of heavy section steel plates and forgings for nuclear pressure vessels produced in Japan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yuzuru; Ogura, Nobukazu; Takahashi, Isao; Miya, Kenzo; Ando, Yoshio.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the main results of a series of tests carried out by the Atomic Energy Research Committee, the Japan Welding Engineering Society, for six years for the purpose of evaluating the fracture toughness and strength of superthick steel materials for nuclear reactors made in Japan are reported. In this research, as the fracture toughness test, three kinds of static, dynamic and crack propagation stop tests were carried out. Not only parent metals but also welded parts were evaluated, and numerous data have been accumulated. The fracture toughness of structural materials generally depends on test temperature, and forms three regions of lower shelf, transition and upper shelf from low temperature side toward high temperature side. It is desired to establish the effective method to determine fracture toughness over wide temperature range with small test pieces, and as its promising method, J(IC) fracture toughness test based on elasto-plastic fracture mechanics is carried out. The toughness in lower shelf and transition regions was clarified by K(IC) test, and that in upper shelf region was evaluated by J(IC) test. The methods of test and analysis, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Forging Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Glasgow, T. K.; Moracz, D. J.; Austin, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding of mild steel prevents surface cracking when alloy contacts die. Continual need for improvements in properties of alloys capable of withstanding elevated temperatures. Accomplished by using oxide-dispersion-strengthed superalloys such as Inconel Alloy MA 6000. Elevated tensile properties of forged alloy equal those of hot-rolled MA 6000 bar. Stress-rupture properties somewhat lower than those of bar stock but, at 1,100 degrees C, exceed those of strongest commercial single crystal, directionally solidified and conventionally cast superalloys.

  17. Post-irradiation creep properties of four plates and two forgings DIN 1.4948 steel from the SNR-300 permanent primary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der.

    1987-01-01

    The safety authorities, involved in the licensing procedure of the SNR-300, have required the determination of the irradiation effect on the heat-to-heat variation of tensile and creep properties of Werkst. No. DIN 1.4948 austenitic stainless steel. These data are lacking in the present codes and they are necessary for the design and safety considerations of the permanent structures. Results are presented of about 200 tests on irradiated and unirradiated material of 6 heats used in the production of the SNR-300 permanent structures. After irradiation in the HFR-Petten to neutron fluences relevant for the SNR-300 service conditions post-irradiation tensile and creep tests (up to 10,000 hrs rupture time) were performed in the temperature range 723 K to 923 K. All heats are embrittled by irradiation resulting in reduction of rupture times, creep strength and ultimate tensile strength. The considerable reduction is attributed to helium enhanced intergranular creep crack growth, which reduces the ductility and strength, but does not affect the creep rate. The variation of tensile and creep properties is large and independent of irradiation. The minimum derived creep strength in irradiated condition drops below the values expected in the ASME Code and VdTuV Blatt. In design and safety analyses the irradiation effect on creep properties must be accounted for with an appropriate reduction factor. The predictions given, have to be verified with long-term creep tests and parts of the SNR surveillance programme. 172 figs.; 17 refs.; 58 tables

  18. Manufacturing and material properties of forgings for reactor pressure vessel of high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, I.; Suzuki, K.

    1994-01-01

    For the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) which has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel is used first in the world. Material confirmation test has been carried out to demonstrate good applicability of forged low Si 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to the RPV of HTTR. Recently, JSW has succeeded in the manufacturing of large size ring forgings and large size forged cover dome integrated with nozzles for stand pipe for the RPV. This paper describes the results of the material confirmation test as well as the manufacturing and material properties of the large forged cover dome integrated with nozzles for stand pipe. (orig.)

  19. Superplastic forging nitride ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, P.C.; Seydel, E.R.; Raj, R.

    1988-03-22

    A process is disclosed for preparing silicon nitride ceramic parts which are relatively flaw free and which need little or no machining, said process comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a starting powder by wet or dry mixing ingredients comprising by weight from about 70% to about 99% silicon nitride, from about 1% to about 30% of liquid phase forming additive and from 1% to about 7% free silicon; (b) cold pressing to obtain a preform of green density ranging from about 30% to about 75% of theoretical density; (c) sintering at atmospheric pressure in a nitrogen atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 1,400 C to about 2,200 C to obtain a density which ranges from about 50% to about 100% of theoretical density and which is higher than said preform green density, and (d) press forging workpiece resulting from step (c) by isothermally uniaxially pressing said workpiece in an open die without initial contact between said workpiece and die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing and so that pressed workpiece does not contact die wall perpendicular to the direction of pressing, to substantially final shape in a nitrogen atmosphere utilizing a temperature within the range of from about 1,400 C to essentially 1,750 C and strain rate within the range of about 10[sup [minus]7] to about 10[sup [minus]1] seconds[sup [minus]1], the temperature and strain rate being such that surface cracks do not occur, said pressing being carried out to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30% whereby superplastic forging is effected.

  20. Wear characterization of a tool steel surface modified by melting and gaseous alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hot forging dies are subjected to laborious service conditions and so there is a need to explore means of improving die life to increase productivity and quality of forgings. Surface modification in order to produce wear resistant surface is an attractive method as it precludes the need to use expensive and highly alloyed steels. In this study, a novel, inexpensive surface modification technique is used to improve the tri biological properties of an H13 tool steel. Surface melting was achieved using a tungsten heat source and gaseous alloying produced under a shield of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide-argon mixture and nitrogen gases. The change in wear behaviour was compared through micro-hardness indentation measurements and using a dry sliding pin-on-plate wear testing machine. This study shows superior wear behaviour of the modified surfaces when compared to the untreated surfaces. The increase in wear resistance is attributed to the formation of carbides when surfaces are melted under a carbon dioxide shield. However, in the case of nitrogen and argon gaseous alloying, an increase in wear resistance can be attributed to an increase in surface hardness which in turn effects surface deformation behaviour. (author)

  1. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  2. Large forging manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Samuel V.; Yang, Ling

    2002-01-01

    A process for forging large components of Alloy 718 material so that the components do not exhibit abnormal grain growth includes the steps of: a) providing a billet with an average grain size between ASTM 0 and ASTM 3; b) heating the billet to a temperature of between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; c) upsetting the billet to obtain a component part with a minimum strain of 0.125 in at least selected areas of the part; d) reheating the component part to a temperature between 1750.degree. F. and 1800.degree. F.; e) upsetting the component part to a final configuration such that said selected areas receive no strains between 0.01 and 0.125; f) solution treating the component part at a temperature of between 1725.degree. F. and 1750.degree. F.; and g) aging the component part over predetermined times at different temperatures. A modified process achieves abnormal grain growth in selected areas of a component where desirable.

  3. Alloy-steel bolting materials for special applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification covers regular and special-quality alloy steel bolting materials which may be used for nuclear and other special applications. Bolting materials as used in the specification cover rolled or forged bars, rotary pierced or extruded seamless tubes, bored bars, or forged hollows from forged or rolled bar segments to be machined into bolts, studs, washers, and nuts. Several grades of steel are covered and supplementary requirements of an optional nature are provided for use when special quality is desired

  4. 48 CFR 225.7102 - Forgings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forgings. 225.7102 Section 225.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Forgings. ...

  5. Heavy forgings for reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerjak, H.; Papouschek, F.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of forgings for an optimal design of nuclear components is described. Problems concerning the correlation of requirements, material behavior, fabrication and testing of forgings are discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Quality assurance for hammer forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthast, E.

    1984-01-01

    The quality assurance program introduced by Arbed Saarstahl and laid down in a quality assurance manual is described. A particular attention is attached thereby both to quality practice proper and to a reliable flow of information amongst all the persons involved. The production and test sequence schedules of the hammer forging plant are illustrated by the example of a forged valve housing for nuclear power plants. These schedules specify not only the forging process in the individual production stages but also the workpiece contour after each working operation, the heat treatment, the furnace charging, and the inspection of finished parts. The formalization of the tests is designed both to promote the customer's trust towards the supplier and to prevent the formal operations involved from hindering further technical development. (orig.) [de

  7. Manufacturing and material properties of ultralarge size forgings for advanced BWRPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Tsukada, Hisashi

    1994-01-01

    Ultralarge size forgings for the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) pressure vessel as represented by the bottom petal made from a 600ton ingot have been developed. The bottom petal is a larger wall thickness ring with 10 integrated nozzles inside and outside the ring. The outer diameter is 7.8m, the height is 1.8m and the wall thickness if 1.1m in the as-forged condition. A very high purity level of P≤qslant0.003% and S≤qslant0.003% can be obtained by the application of double-refining processes to all the molten steel. The forging shows a homogeneous chemical distribution, sound internal qualities and adequate impact properties.This paper summarizes the manufacturing technique and material properties of large size forgings such as the bottom petal, the shell with integrated skirt and the bottom dome. ((orig.))

  8. Calculation of recovery plasticity in multistage hot forging under isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhbankov, Iaroslav G; Perig, Alexander V; Aliieva, Leila I

    2016-01-01

    A widely used method for hot forming steels and alloys, especially heavy forging, is the process of multistage forging with pauses between stages. The well-known effect which accompanies multistage hot forging is metal plasticity recovery in comparison with monotonic deformation. A method which takes into consideration the recovery of plasticity in pauses between hot deformations of a billet under isothermal conditions is proposed. This method allows the prediction of billet forming limits as a function of deformation during the forging stage and the duration of the pause between the stages. This method takes into account the duration of pauses between deformations and the magnitude of subdivided deformations. A hot isothermal upsetting process with pauses was calculated by the proposed method. Results of the calculations have been confirmed with experimental data.

  9. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  10. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording the...

  12. Comparison study of multistep forging and injection forging of automobile fasteners

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Senyong; Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve production efficiency, injection forging as a feasible approach was introduced to automobile fasteners production. In the study reported in this paper, two forging approaches, traditional multistep forging and injection forging, were analysed by using a finite element method. Using ABAQUS and DEFORM, some significant factors, namely, forging force, energy consumption, component accuracy and stress distribution in the die, were compared to explore the potential and challeng...

  13. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Viéitez, I.; Martín, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved. (paper)

  14. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical deformations in a hot forging tool by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L-Cancelos, R.; Varas, F.; Martín, E.; Viéitez, I.

    2016-03-01

    Although programs have been developed for the design of tools for hot forging, its design is still largely based on the experience of the tool maker. This obliges to build some test matrices and correct their errors to minimize distortions in the forged piece. This phase prior to mass production consumes time and material resources, which makes the final product more expensive. The forging tools are usually constituted by various parts made of different grades of steel, which in turn have different mechanical properties and therefore suffer different degrees of strain. Furthermore, the tools used in the hot forging are exposed to a thermal field that also induces strain or stress based on the degree of confinement of the piece. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the assembly is determined by the contact between the different pieces. The numerical simulation allows to analyse different configurations and anticipate possible defects before tool making, thus, reducing the costs of this preliminary phase. In order to improve the dimensional quality of the manufactured parts, the work presented here focuses on the application of a numerical model to a hot forging manufacturing process in order to predict the areas of the forging die subjected to large deformations. The thermo-mechanical model developed and implemented with free software (Code-Aster) includes the strains of thermal origin, strains during forge impact and contact effects. The numerical results are validated with experimental measurements in a tooling set that produces forged crankshafts for the automotive industry. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental tests. Thereby, a very useful tool for the design of tooling sets for hot forging is achieved.

  15. Evaluation of intergranular corrosion rate and microstructure of forged 316L round bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. K.; Kim, Y. S.

    2009-01-01

    When austenitic stainless steels are heat treated in the range of 500∼850 .deg. C, the alloys are sensitized due to the formation of chromium carbide at grain boundaries and then intergranular corrosion occurs. This paper aims to evaluate the intergranular corrosion rate and microstructural change of forged 316L stainless steel. To analyze the microstructure by forging conditions, ferrite phase, sigma phase, intergranular precipitation were observed. In order to evaluate the intergranular corrosion rate. Huey test was performed by ASTM A262. On the base of microstructural observation, ferrite and sigma phases were not detected, and also intergranular precipitation was not revealed in optical microscopic observation. By ASTM A262 Practice A, step structure was shown in all forging conditions. Intergranular corrosion rate gradually increased by Huey test periods but average corrosion rate was under 0.03 mm/month

  16. Evaluation of intergranular corrosion rate and microstructure of forged 316L round bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, H. K.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    When austenitic stainless steels are heat treated in the range of 500{approx}850 .deg. C, the alloys are sensitized due to the formation of chromium carbide at grain boundaries and then intergranular corrosion occurs. This paper aims to evaluate the intergranular corrosion rate and microstructural change of forged 316L stainless steel. To analyze the microstructure by forging conditions, ferrite phase, sigma phase, intergranular precipitation were observed. In order to evaluate the intergranular corrosion rate. Huey test was performed by ASTM A262. On the base of microstructural observation, ferrite and sigma phases were not detected, and also intergranular precipitation was not revealed in optical microscopic observation. By ASTM A262 Practice A, step structure was shown in all forging conditions. Intergranular corrosion rate gradually increased by Huey test periods but average corrosion rate was under 0.03 mm/month.

  17. Current forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo

    1997-01-01

    Current steel forgings for steam generator (SG) of PWR plant are reviewed in the aspect of design and material improvement. The following three items are introduced. The use of integral type steel forgings for the fabrication of steam generator enhances the structural integrity and makes easier fabrication and inspection including in-service inspection. The following examples of current integral type forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced: (1) primary head integrated with nozzles, manways and supports; (2) steam drum head integrated with nozzle and handhole; (3) conical shell integrated with cylindrical sections and handholes. In order to decrease the weight of steam generator, the high strength materials such as SA508, Cl.3a steel have been adopted in some cases. The properties of this steel are introduced and the chemistry and heat treatment condition are discussed. As one of the methods to minimize the macro- and micro-segregations, the use of vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), i.e. deoxidization of steel by gaseous CO reaction, with addition of Al for grain refining was investigated. The properties of SA508, Cl.3 steels with Low Si content are compared with those of conventional one

  18. Current forgings and their properties for steam generator of nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Kusuhashi, Mikio; Sato, Ikuo [Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Current steel forgings for steam generator (SG) of PWR plant are reviewed in the aspect of design and material improvement. The following three items are introduced. The use of integral type steel forgings for the fabrication of steam generator enhances the structural integrity and makes easier fabrication and inspection including in-service inspection. The following examples of current integral type forgings developed by the Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) are introduced: (1) primary head integrated with nozzles, manways and supports; (2) steam drum head integrated with nozzle and handhole; (3) conical shell integrated with cylindrical sections and handholes. In order to decrease the weight of steam generator, the high strength materials such as SA508, Cl.3a steel have been adopted in some cases. The properties of this steel are introduced and the chemistry and heat treatment condition are discussed. As one of the methods to minimize the macro- and micro-segregations, the use of vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), i.e. deoxidization of steel by gaseous CO reaction, with addition of Al for grain refining was investigated. The properties of SA508, Cl.3 steels with Low Si content are compared with those of conventional one.

  19. Modelling of defects in ingot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter

    The present report presents an investigation of the ingot forging process with special emphasis on modelling the influence of die geometry on the soundness of the ingot after hot forging. An investigation on how to model damage is also performed. The influence of the lower die angle is quantified...... angle of 130o-140o giving rise to the largest centreline porosity closure regardless of material hardening behaviour applied. Friction was found only to have minor influence on the optimum. Multi stroke forging operations have also been modelled since the ingot forging process consists of many forging...... damage. It is found that when evaluating damage only by relative density; feed size and lower die angle does not influence whether the hot forging process is successful or not. This is in disagreement with the general understanding of the ingot forging process. When evaluating ductile damage...

  20. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed

  1. Development of PWR pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, S.; Edwards, B.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by vessel steels for pressurized water reactors are analyzed. Chemicat composition of low-alloyed steels, mechanical properties of sheets and forgings made of these steels and changes in the composition and properties over the wall thickness of the reactor vessel are presented. Problems of the vessel manufacturing including welding and heat treatment processes of sheets and forgings are considered. Special attention is paid to steel embrittlement during vessel fabrication and operation (radiation embrittlement, thermal embrittlement). The role of non-metal inclusions and their effect on anisotropy of fracture toughness is discussed. Possible developments of vessel steels and procedures for producing reactor vessels are reviewed.

  2. Challenges in Special Steel Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, G.

    2018-02-01

    Special bar quality [SBQ] is a long steel product where an assured quality is delivered by the steel mill to its customer. The bars have enhanced tolerance to higher stress application and it is demanded for specialised component making. The SBQ bars are sought for component making processing units such as closed die hot forging, hot extrusion, cold forging, machining, heat treatment, welding operations. The final component quality of the secondary processing units depends on the quality maintained at the steel maker end along with quality maintained at the fabricator end. Thus, quality control is ensured at every unit process stages. The various market segments catered to by SBQ steel segment is ever growing and is reviewed. Steel mills need adequate infrastructure and technological capability to make these higher quality steels. Some of the critical stages of processing SBQ and the critical quality maintenance parameters at the steel mill in the manufacture has been brought out.

  3. Final Technical Report: Intensive Quenching Technology for Heat Treating and Forging Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, Michael A.

    2005-12-21

    standard dies by at least 50%. Dies provided by an AST customer, made of plain carbon 1045 steel and used for pellet manufacturing outperformed the standard dies by more than 100%. Concrete crusher liner wear plates provided by an EHT customer and made of 1045 steel, had the same surface hardness as the plates made of more expensive, pre-hardened high alloy HARDOX-500 material supplied by a Swedish company and used currently by the EHT customer. The 1045 material intensively quenched wear plates are currently in the field. Concrete block molding machine wear plates provided by an IQT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed at the AST production IQ system using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. An effective case depth in the intensively quenched wear plates was the same as in the standard, oil quenched parts. Base keys provided by an EHT customer and made of 8620 steel were processed using a 40% reduced carburization cycle. The intensively quenched parts showed the same performance as standard parts. IQT introduced the IQ process in heat treat practices of three commercial heat-treating shops: Akron Steel Treating Co., Summit Heat Treating Co. and Euclid Heat Treating Co. CWRU conducted a material characterization study for a variety of steels to develop a database to support changing/modification of recognized standards for quenching steel parts. IQT conducted a series of IQ workshops, published seven technical papers and participated in ASM Heat Treating Society conference and exposition and in Furnace North America Show. IQT designed and built a fully automated new IQ system installed at the Center for Intensive Quenching. This system includes the following major components: a stand-alone 1,900-gallon IQ water system, a 24'' x 24'' atmosphere pit furnace, and an automated load transfer mechanism. IQT established a ''Center for Intensive Quenching'' at the AST facilities. The 4,000 square feet Center includes the following

  4. Metallurgy of steels for PWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, M.; Mocek, J.; Barackova, L.

    1980-01-01

    A survey and the chemical compositions are presented of reactor pressure vessel steels. The metallurgy is described of steel making for pressure vessels in Japan and the USSR. Both acidic and alkaline open-hearth steel is used for the manufacture of ingots. The leading world manufacturers of forging ingots for pressure vessels, however, exclusively use electric steel. Vacuum casting techniques are exclusively used. Experience is shown gained with the introduction of the manufacture of forging ingots for pressure vessels at SKODA, Plzen. The metallurgical procedure was tested utilizing alkaline open hearths, electric arc furnaces and facilities for vacuum casting of steel. Pure charge raw materials should be used for securing high steel purity. Prior to forging pressure vessel rings, not only should sufficiently big bottoms and heads be removed but also the ingot middle part should be scrapped showing higher contents of impurities and nonhomogeneous structure. (B.S.)

  5. Metallurgy of steels for PWR pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kepka, M; Mocek, J; Barackova, L [Skoda, Plzen (Czechoslovakia)

    1980-09-01

    A survey and the chemical compositions are presented of reactor pressure vessel steels. The metallurgy is described of steel making for pressure vessels in Japan and the USSR. Both acidic and alkaline open-hearth steel is used for the manufacture of ingots. The leading world manufacturers of forging ingots for pressure vessels, however, exclusively use electric steel. Vacuum casting techniques are exclusively used. Experience is shown gained with the introduction of the manufacture of forging ingots for pressure vessels at SKODA, Plzen. The metallurgical procedure was tested utilizing alkaline open hearths, electric arc furnaces and facilities for vacuum casting of steel. Pure charge raw materials should be used for securing high steel purity. Prior to forging pressure vessel rings, not only should sufficiently big bottoms and heads be removed but also the ingot middle part should be scrapped showing higher contents of impurities and nonhomogeneous structure.

  6. Recent technological developments in forging; Recentes avancos tecnologicos no forjamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, Lirio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais

    1987-12-31

    Recent advances in the area of open and closed die forging are summarized and discussed. The use of computer and alternatives such as incremental forging, sinter forging, liquid forging and precision forging are the main items reviewed 11 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Tool steel for cold worck niobium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenstein, H.

    1984-01-01

    A tool steel was designed so as to have a microstructure with the matrix similar a cold work tool steel of D series, containing a dispersion of Niobium carbides, with no intention of putting Niobium in solution on the matrix. The alloy was cast, forged and heat treated. The alloy was easily forged; the primary carbide morfology, after forging, was faceted, tending to equiaxed. The hardness obtained was equivalent to the maximum hardness of a D-3 sttel when quenched from any temperature between 950 0 C, and 1200 0 , showing a very small sensitivy to the quenching temperature. (Author) [pt

  8. Forging Industry Leadtimes: An Analysis of Causes for and Solutions to Long Leadtimes for Aerospace Forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Pamplet . Forging Industry Association, Cleveland-MT, uncatea. 20. Forging Industry Association, and American Society for Metals. Forging Handbook, edited... Pamplet . The Harris-Thomas Drop Forge Compnyayto--n R, undated. 43. Theeck, Michael F., TECH MOD Program Mana.er. Personal interview. Industrial Base... Brochure . Worcester MA, 3, . 125 "’ VITA Captain Stephen F. O’Neill was born on 19 June 1957 in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. He graduated from high school

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of microstructure evolution in large forged pipe used for AP1000 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shenglong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun; Peng, Jintao; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Establish systematically the database of 316LN stainless steel for Deform-3D. • Simulate the microstructure evolution during forging of AP1000 primary coolant pipe. • Carry out full-scale forging experiment for verification in engineering practice. • Get desirable grain size in simulation and experiment. • The variation trends of grain sizes in simulation and experiment are consistent. - Abstract: AP1000 primary coolant pipe is a large special-shaped forged pipe made of 316LN stainless steel. Due to the non-uniform temperature and deformation during its forging, coarse and fine grains usually coexist in the forged pipe, resulting in the heterogeneous microstructure and anisotropic performance. To investigate the microstructure evolution during the entire forging process, in the present research, the database of the 316LN stainless steel was established and a numerical simulation was performed. The results indicate that the middle body section of the forged pipe has an extremely uniform average grain size with the value smaller than 30 μm. The grain sizes in the ends of body sections were ranged from 30 μm to 60 μm. Boss sections have relatively homogeneous microstructure with the average grain size 30 μm to 44 μm. Furthermore, a full-scale hot forging was carried out for verification. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results showed good agreement and hence demonstrated the capabilities of the numerical simulation presented here. It is noteworthy that all grains in the workpiece were confirmed less than 180 μm, which meets the designer’s demands.

  10. Characterization of a Viking Blade Fabricated by Traditional Forging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, H.; Frazer, D.; Bailey, N.; Traylor, R.; Austin, J.; Pringle, J.; Bickel, J.; Connick, R.; Connick, W.; Hosemann, P.

    2016-12-01

    A team of students from the University of California, Berkeley, participated in a blade-smithing competition hosted by the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society at the TMS 2015 144th annual meeting and exhibition. Motivated by ancient forging methods, the UC Berkeley team chose to fabricate our blade from historical smithing techniques utilizing naturally-occurring deposits of iron ore. This approach resulted in receiving the "Best Example of a Traditional Blade Process/Ore Smelting Technique" award for our blade named "Berkelium." First, iron-enriched sand was collected from local beaches. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was then extracted from the sand and smelted into individual high- and low-carbon steel ingots. Layers of high- and low-carbon steels were forge-welded together, predominantly by hand, to form a composite material. Optical microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Vickers hardness mechanical testing were conducted at different stages throughout the blade-making process to evaluate the microstructure and hardness evolution during formation. It was found that the pre-heat-treated blade microstructure was composed of ferrite and pearlite, and contained many nonmetallic inclusions. A final heat treatment was performed, which caused the average hardness of the blade edge to increase by more than a factor of two, indicating a martensitic transformation.

  11. Numerical simulation of the dynamic recrystallization behaviour in hot precision forging helical gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In hot precision forging helical gears, the dynamic recrystallization phenomena will occur, which affect the microstructure of the formed part and in turn decide their mechanical properties. To investigate the effect of deformation temperature on the dynamic recrystallization in hot precision forging helical gears, a three dimensional (3D finite element (FE model was created by coupling the thermo-mechanical model with the microstructure evolution model developed based on the hot compressive experimental data of 20CrMnTiH steel. The hot precision forging process was simulated and the effect laws of the deformation temperature on the microstructure evolution the formed part were investigated. The results show that the dynamic recrystallization volume fraction and the average grain sizes increased with the increasing deformation temperature and the higher deformation temperature is beneficial to dynamic recrystallization and grain refinement.

  12. Forging of Advanced Disk Alloy LSHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Gayda, John; Falsey, John

    2005-01-01

    The powder metallurgy disk alloy LSHR was designed with a relatively low gamma precipitate solvus temperature and high refractory element content to allow versatile heat treatment processing combined with high tensile, creep and fatigue properties. Grain size can be chiefly controlled through proper selection of solution heat treatment temperatures relative to the gamma precipitate solvus temperature. However, forging process conditions can also significantly influence solution heat treatment-grain size response. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the relationships between forging process conditions and the eventual grain size of solution heat treated material. A series of forging experiments were performed with subsequent subsolvus and supersolvus heat treatments, in search of suitable forging conditions for producing uniform fine grain and coarse grain microstructures. Subsolvus, supersolvus, and combined subsolvus plus supersolvus heat treatments were then applied. Forging and subsequent heat treatment conditions were identified allowing uniform fine and coarse grain microstructures.

  13. Role of forgings in powder metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, A.F.; DeRidder, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Forging of powder metallurgy materials is discussed. Information and data are included on forging powder metallurgy W, Mo, In 100, Rene 95, Astroloy, Be, and Ti. It is noted that the combination of powder metallurgy and forging work provides the best product from standpoints of reproducibility, freedom from segregation, low scrap rate, and uniform mechanical properties. Experience is being used to develop contour forging from hot isostatic pressed billets or preforms. The quality of this product is under evaluation. Results show steady improvement and it is anticipated that continued effort will soon produce a reliable, less costly product. Forging can continue to be relied upon to correct subtle defects present in powder metallurgy material

  14. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Study of High-Alloy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    , most often at the bellows flange ring. It was discovered that the entire bellows assembly was not all alloy 600 but that alloy 600 bellows had been welded to a stainless steel alloy 316 (SS-316) flange ring. A previous study documents and addresses this problem.1 The fabricators of the valves immediately corrected the problem and began fabricating all wetted parts of the bellows assembly from alloy 600. At the same time, the fabricators began to make alloy C-276 valve bodies and stem tips available for sale. This material is known to be superior to the alloy 400 valve bodies and stem tips of the standard UG valves that had already been installed in the CP. A decision was made to purchase alloy C-276 bodies and stem tips and to change out those alloy 400 components that had already been installed. Due to the enormity of this task (both in terms of time and money), it was desirable to determine the longevity of alloy C-276 vs alloy 400 components in a side-by-side comparison. Also of interest was the question of how long the new (all-alloy 600) bellows would last in comparison with the original alloy 600/SS-316 bellows. A basic HF corrosion test was proposed to compare corrosion rates of several high-alloy materials. Because much of the alloy 400 in the system had been gold plated, some gold-plated alloy 400 coupons were included. Due to time and funding limitations, actual CP variables such as temperature and pressure were not duplicated. Instead, a simple partial-immersion test at ambient temperature was conducted. The purpose of this test was to gain information on the rate of corrosion of different alloys in the CP and to attempt to derive some idea of their expected lifetimes in the operating environment

  15. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Study of High-Alloy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-09-11

    proven to have a finite life due to failure, most often at the bellows flange ring. It was discovered that the entire bellows assembly was not all alloy 600 but that alloy 600 bellows had been welded to a stainless steel alloy 316 (SS-316) flange ring. A previous study documents and addresses this problem.1 The fabricators of the valves immediately corrected the problem and began fabricating all wetted parts of the bellows assembly from alloy 600. At the same time, the fabricators began to make alloy C-276 valve bodies and stem tips available for sale. This material is known to be superior to the alloy 400 valve bodies and stem tips of the standard UG valves that had already been installed in the CP. A decision was made to purchase alloy C-276 bodies and stem tips and to change out those alloy 400 components that had already been installed. Due to the enormity of this task (both in terms of time and money), it was desirable to determine the longevity of alloy C-276 vs alloy 400 components in a side-by-side comparison. Also of interest was the question of how long the new (all-alloy 600) bellows would last in comparison with the original alloy 600/SS-316 bellows. A basic HF corrosion test was proposed to compare corrosion rates of several high-alloy materials. Because much of the alloy 400 in the system had been gold plated, some gold-plated alloy 400 coupons were included. Due to time and funding limitations, actual CP variables such as temperature and pressure were not duplicated. Instead, a simple partial-immersion test at ambient temperature was conducted. The purpose of this test was to gain information on the rate of corrosion of different alloys in the CP and to attempt to derive some idea of their expected lifetimes in the operating environment.

  16. Structural changes of radial forging die surface during service under thermo-mechanical fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nematzadeh, Fardin; Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Kokabi, Amir Hosein; Sadrnezhaad, Seyed Khatiboleslam

    2009-01-01

    Radial forging is one of the modern open die forging techniques and has a wide application in producing machine parts. During operation at high temperatures, severe temperature change associated with mechanical loads and the resultant wearing of the die surface lead to intense variation in strain on the die surface. Therefore, under this operating condition, thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) occurs on the surface of the radial forging die. TMF decreases the life of the die severely. In the present research, different layers were deposited on a 1.2714 steel die by SMAW and GTAW, with a weld wire of UDIMET 520. The microstructure of the radial forging die surface was investigated during welding and service using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results revealed that, after welding, the structure of the radial forging die surface includes the γ matrix with a homogeneous distribution of fine semi-spherical carbides. The weld structure consisted mostly of columnar dendrites with low grain boundaries. Also, microstructural investigation of the die surface during operation showed that the weld structure of the die surface has remained without any considerable change. Only dendrites were deformed and broken. Moreover, grain boundaries of the dendrites were revealed during service.

  17. Influence of the Constitutive Flow Law in FEM Simulation of the Radial Forging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pantalé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial forging is a widely used forming process for manufacturing hollow products in transport industry. As the deformation of the workpiece, during the process, is a consequence of a large number of high-speed strokes, the Johnson-Cook constitutive law (taking into account the strain rate seems to be well adapted for representing the material behavior even if the process is performed under cold conditions. But numerous contributions concerning radial forging analysis, in the literature, are based on a simple elastic-plastic formulation. As far as we know, this assumption has yet not been validated for the radial forging process. Because of the importance of the flow law in the effectiveness of the model, our purpose in this paper is to analyze the influence of the use of an elastic-viscoplastic formulation instead of an elastic-plastic one for modeling the cold radial forging process. In this paper we have selected two different laws for the simulations: the Johnson-Cook and the Ludwik ones, and we have compared the results in terms of forging force, product's thickness, strains, stresses, and CPU time. For the presented study we use an AISI 4140 steel, and we denote a fairly good agreement between the results obtained using both laws.

  18. Modern steels for light automobiles (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. K.

    1994-10-01

    The article considers the directions of work at VAZ together with metallurgists of the CIS for creating highly efficient economically-alloyed and microalloyed steels; highly ductile forged steels with improved corrosion resistance coated with zinc and with good stamping, welding, and painting capacity. Steels are created for petrol tanks with aluminum-zinc coatings instead of lead, and new heat and corrosion-resistant steels are developed for automobile exhaust gas systems.

  19. Effect of raw materials and hardening process on hardness of manually forged knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhaya, Suwarno

    2017-06-01

    Knives are normally made by forging process either using a machine or traditional method by means of hammering process. This present work was conducted to study the effects of steel raw materials and hardening process on the hardness of manually forged knives. The knife samples were made by traditional hammering (forging) process done by local blacksmith. Afterward, the samples were heat treated with two different hardening procedures, the first was based on the blacksmith procedure and the second was systematically done at the laboratory. The forging was done in the temperature ranged between 900-950°C, while the final temperature ranged between 650-675°C. The results showed that knives made of spring steel and heat treated in simulated condition at the laboratory obtained higher level of hardness, i.e. 62 HRC. In general, knives heat treated by local blacksmith had lower level of hardness that those obtained from simulated condition. Therefore, we concluded that the traditional knife quality in term of hardness can be improved by optimizing the heat treatment schedule.

  20. Performance of Ti-multilayer coated tool during machining of MDN431 alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiger, Pradeep V.; Desai, Vijay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Turbine forgings and other components are required to be high resistance to corrosion and oxidation because which they are highly alloyed with Ni and Cr. Midhani manufactures one of such material MDN431. It's a hard-to-machine steel with high hardness and strength. PVD coated insert provide an answer to problem with its state of art technique on the WC tool. Machinability studies is carried out on MDN431 steel using uncoated and Ti-multilayer coated WC tool insert using Taguchi optimisation technique. During the present investigation, speed (398-625rpm), feed (0.093-0.175mm/rev), and depth of cut (0.2-0.4mm) varied according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, subsequently cutting forces and surface roughness (Ra) were measured. Optimizations of the obtained results are done using Taguchi technique for cutting forces and surface roughness. Using Taguchi technique linear fit model regression analysis carried out for the combination of each input variable. Experimented results are compared and found the developed model is adequate which supported by proof trials. Speed, feed and depth of cut are linearly dependent on the cutting force and surface roughness for uncoated insert whereas Speed and depth of cut feed is inversely dependent in coated insert for both cutting force and surface roughness. Machined surface for coated and uncoated inserts during machining of MDN431 is studied using optical profilometer.

  1. Forging process design for risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yongning

    In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have been discussed to demonstrate this approach. Discrete defects such as hard alpha anomalies are known to cause disastrous failure if they are present in those stress critical components. In this research, hard-alpha inclusion movement during forging of titanium compressor disk is studied by finite element analysis. By combining the results from Finite Element Method (FEM), regression modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that changing the forging path is able to mitigate the failure risk of the components during the service. The second example goes with a turbine disk made of superalloy IN 718. The effect of forging on microstructure is the main consideration in this study. Microstructure defines the as-forged disk properties. Considering specific forging conditions, preform has its own effect on the microstructure. Through a sensitivity study it is found that forging temperature and speed have significant influence on the microstructure. In order to choose the processing parameters to optimize the microstructure, the dependence of microstructure on die speed and temperature is thoroughly studied using design of numerical experiments. For various desired goals, optimal solutions are determined. The narrow processing window of titanium alloy makes the isothermal forging a preferred way to produce forged parts without forging defects. However, the cost of isothermal forging (dies at the same temperature as the workpiece) limits its wide application. In this research, it has been demonstrated that with proper process design, the die

  2. Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, P.; Klaassen, R.; Kurkcu, N.; Barshinger, J.; Chalek, C.; Nieters, E.; Sun, Zongqi; Fromont, F. de

    2007-01-01

    Aerospace forging inspections typically use multiple, subsurface-focused sound beams in combination with digital C-scan image acquisition and display. Traditionally, forging inspections have been implemented using multiple single element, fixed focused transducers. Recent advances in phased array technology have made it possible to perform an equivalent inspection using a single phased array transducer. General Electric has developed a system to perform titanium forging inspection based on medical phased array technology and advanced image processing techniques. The components of that system and system performance for titanium inspection will be discussed

  3. International cooperation in cold forging technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Lange, K

    1992-01-01

    International cooperation in the field of cold forging technology started in 1961 by formation of the OECD Group of Experts on Metal Forming. In 1967 this group was transformed into the International Cold Forging Group, ICFG, an independent body which has now been operative for 25 years. Members...... of the ICFG are personally elected by the Plenary as experts within the field, often representing national groups within cold forging. The main work within the ICFG is carried out in its subgroups which are established by the Plenary to collect, compile and evaluate data and eventually also produce data...... by cooperative activities or by instigating national research. These subgroups have produced 9 data sheets and 7 guidelines on subjects such as materials, tool design and construction, calculation methods for cold forging tools, manufacture of slugs, lubrication aspects and small quantity production. Plenary...

  4. Managing Tensions And Forging Creative Synergies Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing Tensions And Forging Creative Synergies Between Indigenous And Modern Settlement Planning Concepts And Practices: Lessons For The Design And Planning For Sustainable Settlements And Built-Forms In Southern Africa.

  5. Sintering and densification; new techniques: sinter forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnubst, A.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter pressure assisted sintering methods will be described. Attention will mainly be paid to sinter forging as a die-wall free uniaxial pressure sintering technique, where large creep strains are possible. Sinter forging is an effective tool to reduce sintering temperature and time and to obtain a nearly theoretically dense ceramic. In this way grain size in tetragonal zirconia ceramics can be reduced down to 100 nm. Another important phenomenon is the reduction of the number density and size of cracks and flaws resulting in higher strength and improved reliability, which is of utmost importance for engineering ceramics. The creep deformation during sinter forging causes a rearrangement of the grains resulting in a reduction of interatomic spaces between grains, while grain boundary (glassy) phases can be removed. The toughness and in some cases the wear resistance is enhanced after sinter forging as a result of the grain-boundary-morphology improvement. (orig.)

  6. Microstructural and mechanical evolutions during the forging step of the COBAPRESS, a casting/forging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Desrayaud, Christophe; Bouvier, Véronique

    Aluminum casting/forging processes are used to produce parts for the automotive industry. In this study, we examined the influence of the forging step on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of an A356 aluminum alloy modified with strontium. Firstly, a design of samples which allows us to test mechanically the alloy before and after forging was created. A finite element analysis with the ABAQUS software predicts a maximum of strain in the core of the specimens. Observations with the EBSD technique confirm a more intense sub-structuration of the dendrite cells in this zone. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation and fatigue lives were then improved for the casting/forging samples compared to the only cast specimens. The closure of the porosities and the improvement of the surface quality during the forging step enhance also the fatigue resistance of the samples.

  7. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  8. The Results Of The Investigation Of Thermomechanical Processing Of PM Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanik, Stefan; Wisniewski, Bartosz; Krawiarz, Jerzy

    2007-01-01

    Hot die forging of PM steel is used to obtain products with high densities. The combination of this process with heat treatment of forgings directly after their forming is researched in order to reduce energy consumption in the manufacture of PM steel products. This work determined the influence of the cooling ratio directly after hot forging of PM steel samples on their structure and mechanical properties. The properties of the PM preforms were examined after sintering and after sintering, quenching into water and tempering for 1 h at 250, 350 and 550 deg. C, respectively, as well as after forging at given temperatures and cooling in water and air, respectively. Forged steel after quenching was tempered at the same temperature as the sintered samples. Good mechanical properties were obtained by hot forging at 1100 deg. C. Sintered steel with 0.6 % Cgraphite is characterized by good hardenability and is susceptible to plastic forming at 1100 - 940 deg. C. During its cooling in air a bainitic-martensitic structure is obtained, whereas after cooling in water the structure is martensitic. The properties of the forged steel are strongly dependent on deformation temperature and cooling conditions. The tensile strength of the forged PM steel with 0.6 Cgraphite after forming at 1100 deg. C is much higher than that of the same heat-treated as-sintered steel. Traditional heat treatment applied to materials after deformation at 1100 deg. C slightly increases properties in comparison to the material directly quenched into water. The best strength was 1585 ± 193 MPa, bending strength 3364 ± 142 MPa and hardness 588 ± 43 HB. Application of controlled cooling of sintered PM steel directly after close-die forging diminishes the energy consumption during product manufacture

  9. Nickel-base alloy forgings for advanced high temperature power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donth, B.; Diwo, A.; Blaes, N.; Bokelmann, D. [Saarschmiede GmbH Freiformschmiede, Voelklingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The strong efforts to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions lead to the demand for improved thermal efficiency of coal fired power plants. An increased thermal efficiency can be realised by higher steam temperatures and pressures in the boiler and the turbine. The European development aims for steam temperatures of 700 C which requires the development and use of new materials and also associated process technology for large components. Temperatures of 700 C and above are too high for the application of ferritic steels and therefore only Nickel-Base Alloys can fulfill the required material properties. In particular the Nickel-Base Alloy A617 is the most candidate alloy on which was focused the investigation and development in several German and European programs during the last 10 years. The goal is to verify and improve the attainable material properties and ultrasonic detectability of large Alloy 617 forgings for turbine rotors and boiler parts. For many years Saarschmiede has been manufacturing nickel and cobalt alloys and is participating the research programs by developing the manufacturing routes for large turbine rotor forgings up to a maximum diameter of 1000 mm as well as for forged tubes and valve parts for the boiler side. The experiences in manufacturing and testing of very large forgings made from nickel base alloys for 700 C steam power plants are reported. (orig.)

  10. A material based approach to creating wear resistant surfaces for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Sailesh

    . Dissertation outlines development of a new cyclic contact test design to recreate intermittent tempering seen in hot forging. This test has been used to validate the use of tempering parameters in modeling of in-service softening of tool steel surfaces. The dissertation also outlines an industrial case study, conducted at a forging company, to validate the wear model. This dissertation also outlines efforts at Ohio State University, to deposit Nickel Aluminide on AISI H13 substrate, using Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS). Dissertation reports results from an array of experiments conducted using LENS 750 machine, at various power levels, table speeds and hatch spacing. Results pertaining to bond quality, surface finish, compositional gradients and hardness are provided. Also, a thermal-based finite element numerical model that was used to simulate the LENS process is presented, along with some demonstrated results.

  11. Development of seamless forged pipe and fitting for BWR recirculation loop piping with improved resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Keizo; Tsukada, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Iwadate, Tadao; Ono, Shinichi

    1981-01-01

    As a primary remedy for IGSCC of primary loop piping, especially Recirculation Loop Piping of BWR, extra low carbon stainless steel with high nitrogen content has become to be used. While, in order to make In-service Inspection easier and complete, new design of piping which decrease both number and total length of weld line has been considered. Japan Steel Works has developed the research on large size seamless forged pipe and fitting made from high nitrogen extra low carbon 316 stainless steel. This paper describes the key points of manufacturing technology as well as the material properties, especially strength and intergranular-corrosion and intergranular- stress-corrosion-cracking-resistivities of these forged pipe and fitting. (author)

  12. Near-Net Forging Technology Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, I. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Significant advantages in specific mechanical properties, when compared to conventional aluminum (Al) alloys, make aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys attractive candidate materials for use in cryogenic propellant tanks and dry bay structures. However, the cost of Al-Li alloys is typically five times that of 2219 aluminum. If conventional fabrication processes are employed to fabricate launch vehicle structure, the material costs will restrict their utilization. In order to fully exploit the potential cost and performance benefits of Al-Li alloys, it is necessary that near-net manufacturing methods be developed to off-set or reduce raw material costs. Near-net forging is an advanced manufacturing method that uses elevated temperature metal movement (forging) to fabricate a single piece, near-net shape, structure. This process is termed 'near-net' because only a minimal amount of post-forge machining is required. The near-net forging process was developed to reduce the material scrap rate (buy-to-fly ratio) and fabrication costs associated with conventional manufacturing methods. The goal for the near-net forging process, when mature, is to achieve an overall cost reduction of approximately 50 percent compared with conventional manufacturing options for producing structures fabricated from Al-Li alloys. This NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) sponsored program has been a part of a unique government / industry partnership, coordinated to develop and demonstrate near-net forging technology. The objective of this program was to demonstrate scale-up of the near-net forging process. This objective was successfully achieved by fabricating four integrally stiffened, 170- inch diameter by 20-inch tall, Al-Li alloy 2195, Y-ring adapters. Initially, two 2195 Al-Li ingots were converted and back extruded to produce four cylindrical blockers. Conventional ring rolling of the blockers was performed to produce ring preforms, which were then contour ring rolled to produce

  13. 27 CFR 447.22 - Forgings, castings, and machined bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forgings, castings, and... IMPLEMENTS OF WAR The U.S. Munitions Import List § 447.22 Forgings, castings, and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions Import List include articles in a partially completed state (such as forgings...

  14. 22 CFR 121.10 - Forgings, castings and machined bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forgings, castings and machined bodies. 121.10... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.10 Forgings, castings and machined bodies. Articles on the U.S. Munitions List include articles in a partially completed state (such as forgings...

  15. Die forging of the alloys Az80 and Zk60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurz, G.; Clauw, B.; Sillekens, W.H.; Letzig, D.

    2009-01-01

    Overall goal of the MagForge project is to provide tailored and cost-effective technologies for the industrial manufacturing of magnesium forged components. Scientific and technological aspects are new alloys/feedstock materials with improved performance, forging process modeling and design tools

  16. Study on Pot Forming of Induction Heater Type Rice Cookers by Forging Cast Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Ohashi, Osamu

    This paper describes a study result on pot fabrication by the forging cast process of stainless steel with aluminum. Rice cooked with the new bowl-shaped pot for the induction heater type rice cookers is better tasting than rice cooked with the conventional cylindrical one, due to the achievement of better heat conduction and convection. The conventional pot is made of the clad sheet, consisting of stainless steel and aluminum. However, it is rather difficult to form a bowl shape from the clad sheet, primarily due to the problem of a material spring back. The fabrication of a new type of a pot was made possible by means of the adoption of a forging cast process instead of the clad sheet. In this process, iron powder is inserted between stainless steel and aluminum in order to alleviate the large difference on the coefficient of expansion between each material. It was made clear that the application of two kinds of iron particle, namely 10 μm size powder on the stainless steel side and 44 μm on the aluminum side, enables the joints to become strong enough. The joint strength of the new pot by this fabrication process was confirmed by the tests of the shear strength and the fatigue tests together with the stress analysis.

  17. From aluminium pistons to steel pistons in trucks and ships; Von Aluminium- zum Stahlgrosskolben bei Nkw und Schiffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortas, J. [Mahle GmbH, Markgroeningen (Germany). Produktkonstruktion Grossmotorenkomponenten

    2005-11-01

    This article is intended to show the development from one-piece aluminum pistons to composite pistons made from forged steel. With the Mahle pistons completely produced from forged steel, process-safe peak cylinder pressures of 25 MPa can be achieved. The steel piston development was initiated in the commercial vehicle sector and then extended to large engines with cylinder diameters up to 480 mm. (orig.)

  18. Qualification of laser based additive production for manufacturing of forging Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junker Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass customization leads to very short product life cycles, so the costs of a tool have to be amortized with a low number of workpieces. Especially for highly loaded tools, like those for forging, that leads to expensive products. Therefore more economical production processes for tool manufacturing have to be investigated. As laser additive manufacturing is already used for the production of moulds for injection moulding, this technology maybe could also improve the forging tool production. Within this paper laser metal deposition, which is industrially used for tool repair, will be investigated for the use in tool manufacturing. Therefore a mechanical characterization of parts built with different laser process parameters out of the hot work tool steel 1.2709 is made by upsetting tests and hardness measurements. So the influence of the additive manufacturing process on the hardness distribution is analysed.

  19. Engine piston assembly and forged piston member therefor having a cooling recess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B.C.; Erickson, K.L.; Green, J.A.; Nyez, D.S.

    1989-09-19

    This patent describes a forged steel piston member for reciprocating movement in an engine. It comprises: an upper portion of substantially cylindrical shape and having a central axis, a top surface, a tubular wall depending from the top surface and having a peripheral groove adapted to receive a sealing ring, a lower end surface, and an inwardly facing wall surface extending upwardly from the lower end surface. The upper portion further includes an outwardly facing wall surface spaced radially inwardly from the inwardly facing wall surface and a downwardly facing transition portion blendingly associated with the inwardly and outwardly facing wall surfaces to collectively define an annular cooling recess, the transition portion being elevational spaced a relatively short distance from the top surface; and the inwardly facing wall surface being a machined surface of revolution about the central axis integral or one-piece forging.

  20. Modelling and Testing of Friction in Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge about friction is still limited in forging. The theoretical models applied presently for process analysis are not satisfactory compared to the advanced and detailed studies possible to carry out by plastic FEM analyses and more refined models have to be based on experimental testing...

  1. Forging a unique nursing partnership with China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Flavia

    2017-07-12

    When members of a London nursing faculty forged a learning partnership with a Chinese counterpart they likely did not expect to be discussing the benefits of using Florence Nightingale lamps to decorate hospital walls. But there is nothing ordinary about the collaboration between King's College London and Nanjing Health School.

  2. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  3. Effect of Forging Allowance Value on the Power Consumption of Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Mal'kova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim is to develop and study possible energy-efficiency measures for machined forgings drawing on analysis of the impact of the allowance for machining and its scatter.The most sophisticated option to take into consideration the effect of the cut depth is the work-piece machining in which the forging allowance value results from the blank production.Research of power consumption was conducted for turning the cylindrical surface of 144 mm length and  1,5 33 0,5   diameter on forgings of the work-pieces "screw of steering control" made from steel 60PP. A radial dimension allowance at said cylindrical surface at six points of the five sections was sized to assess the allowance value dispersion. The size of the sample measurements at the control points was n = 600. Statistic processing has shown normal law of distribution and sample homogeneity.To analyze the results of experiments was calculated a range of allowances for this workpiece. Calculated minimum and maximum allowance per one side for rough lathing were, respectively, 0.905 mm and 1.905mm. It was found that 77% points under control lie in calculated range of allowance values. And there are no points out of the range on lesser side that proves a lack of rejects; but there are points out of the range on the bigger side, that will require additional costs for machining the specified surface, including the cost of electricity.There were three power consumption calculations based on factory- recommended duty: for processing the entire sample of forgings with an average allowance, for machining forgings allowances of which are within the recommended design range of allowance, and for processing the entire sample of forgings with a minimum value of allowance.It was found that elimination of allowance values which are outside the recommended range enables to reduce the power consumption, at least, by 6%, and the overall power consumption for processing the measured forgings

  4. Mechanical properties of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel used in the LWBR closure head and support flange (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.M.; Hall, J.F.

    1978-07-01

    The LWBR closure head and support flange are manufactured from forgings of ASTM A508 Class 4 steel rather than the ASTM A508 Class 2 forging material more commonly used in reactor vessels and closure heads. Forgings involved were approximately 300,000 pounds and 46,000 pounds. The extensive material test program conducted on ASTM A508 Class 4 LWBR forgings is described. The results of the tests confirm that the A508 Class 4 material used for the LWBR forgings has been quite good through thickness, fracture toughness, and strength properties and fully meet all specified requirements

  5. Topic 1. Steels for light water reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Brynda, J.; Kepka, M.; Barackova, L.; Vacek, M.; Havel, S.; Cukr, B.; Protiva, K.; Petrman, I.; Tvrdy, M.; Hyspecka, L.; Mazanec, K.; Kupca, L.; Brezina, M.

    1980-01-01

    Part 1 of the Proceedings consists of papers on the criteria for the selection and comparison of the properties of steel for pressure vessels and on the metallurgy of the said steels, the selection of suitable material for internal tubing systems, the manufacture of high-alloy steels for WWER components, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of steel 22K for WWER 440 pressure components, and of steel 10MnNi2Mo for the WWER primary coolant circuit, and the metallographic assessment of steel 0Kh18N10T. (J.P.)

  6. Manufacture of Damascus steel: Metallographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criado, A.J.; Martinez, J.A.; Calabres, R.; Arias, D.

    1997-01-01

    Damascus Steel is the denomination that the Europeans gave to the material with which the musulman swords were manufactured during the Era of the Crusades. This hypereutectoid steel presents a high content in carbon more than 0.8%, and in some cases up to 2% in weight. The secret of its good mechanical characteristics is based in the hot forging process in the temperatures interval between 650 and 850 degree centigree. The final quenching in water brine or other aqueous solutions, confers to the swords manufactured with this steel a good resistance to its cutting edge and a high toughness. In the present investigation, the manufacture processes of this type of steel are studied. Electronic scanning microscopy has been applied to the study of materials manufactured by the authors following the ancient craftsmen methods of forging and quenching. (Author) 16 refs

  7. Backward can extrusion with conical,rotating punch as a cold forging tribology test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels; Tetsuo, A.

    2011-01-01

    with an analysis of the sliding velocity distribution along the punch nose. The latter is determined by FE analysis of the test. Results show friction stress for unalloyed low C-steel provided with different types of lubricants, e.g. phosphate coating plus soap, phosphate coating plus MoS2 and single bathe...... lubrication with PULS. The new test is so severe, that it is possible to break down the best lubrication systems for cold forging, such as phosphate coating plus soap and MoS2....

  8. Dry metal forming of high alloy steel using laser generated aluminum bronze tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiße Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the optimization of forming technology in economic and environmental aspects, avoiding lubricants is an approach to realize the vision of a new green technology. The resulting direct contact between the tool and the sheet in non-lubricated deep drawing causes higher stress and depends mainly on the material combination. The tribological system in dry sliding has to be assessed by means on the one hand of the resulting friction coefficient and on the other hand of the wear of the tool and sheet material. The potential to generate tailored tribological systems for dry metal forming could be shown within the investigations by using different material combinations and by applying different laser cladding process parameters. Furthermore, the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a deep drawing tool was demonstrated. The tool was successfully applied to form circular cups in a dry metal forming process.

  9. High-alloy steels and nickel alloys for construction of industrial plants. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Vol. 2 of the 8. Dresden Corrosion Protection Seminar comprises eight papers, most of which are in the form of PowerPoint presentations: High-temperature materials and their applications in chemical engineering (J. Kloever); Alloy 602 CA in metal dusting conditions; Material requirements in future power plants (H. Schneider); Status report on material qualification for the 700 C technology in coal power plants (R. Mohrmann); Materials for nuclear fusion (M. Paju); The degradation mechanism relaxation cracking as exemplified by the alloys 800 H and 617 (H.C. van Wortel); Specific requirements on the design of a pressurised manifold of Alloy 800 H in refineries, a case study (I. Rommerskirchen et al.); Materials for electro-surfacing for corrosion protection in conditions of high-temperature corrosion (M.Spiegel) [de

  10. Inverse Processing of Undefined Complex Shape Parts from Structural High Alloyed Tool Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Monkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of 3D digitization as a tool for increasing production efficiency of complex shaped parts. Utilizes the concept of reverse engineering and new the model of NC program generation STEP-NC, for the of templates production for winding the stator coil of electromotors that is for electric household appliances. The manual production of prototype was substituted by manufacturing with NC machines. A 3D scanner was used for data digitizing, CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineering was used for NC program generation, and 3D measuring equipment was used for verification of new produced parts. The company estimated that only due to the implementation of STEP NC standard into production process it was allowed to read the 3D geometry of the product without problems. It helps the workshop to shorten the time needed for part production by about 30%.

  11. Forging loads, deformation modes and fracture in axi-symmetrric closed die cold forging of sintered aluminium powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.A.; Ali, L.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation into closed-die cold forging of sintered aluminium powder rod- shaped compacts was carried out. Axi-symmetric components were forged from sintered powder preforms with different initial diameter to height ratios. Different compaction pressures, sintering and lubrication conditions were used as variables during the investigations. Detailed observations were made on green/sintered density, compaction defects, forging loads, deformation modes and on the onset of fracture during progressive forging of sintered powder compacts. Experimental results obtained during the investigations have been presented and discussed in detail. (author)

  12. Wear Analysis of Die Inserts in the Hot Forging Process of a Forked Type Forging Using Reverse Scanning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Dworzak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a wear analysis of die inserts used in the hot forging process of a forked forging (yoke, an element applied in steering systems of passenger vehicles. Studies involved the application of an original reverse scanning method intended for rapid and reliable wear analysis of forging tools (with complicated shape affording easy assessment without the need to dismount tools from the forging unit. The developed method involves analysis of progressive wear of forging tools based on measurements (scanning of forgings periodically collected from the process and constitutes a useful tool for measurement and testing. As the authors’ earlier works have demonstrated, the proposed new approach to analysis of tool wear with the application of reverse 3D scanning has proven successful in multiple instances in the case of axially symmetrical objects. The presented results of studies indicate that it is possible to utilize the expanded method to analyze the lifetime of forging tools, including tools with complex geometry. Application of the reverse scanning method allows for continuous and practical monitoring of the condition of forging tools over the course of the forging process and should have a positive impact on improving production output and reducing production costs.

  13. Adapted diffusion processes for effective forging dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, H.; Nienhaus, A.; Brunotte, K.; Petersen, T.; Siegmund, M.; Lippold, L.; Weber, M.; Mejauschek, M.; Landgraf, P.; Braeuer, G.; Behrens, B.-A.; Lampke, T.

    2018-05-01

    Hot forging is an effective production method producing safety relevant parts with excellent mechanical properties. The economic efficiency directly depends on the occurring wear of the tools, which limits service lifetime. Several approaches of the presenting research group aim at minimizing the wear caused by interacting mechanical and thermal loads by using enhanced nitriding technology. Thus, by modifying the surface zone layer it is possible to create a resistance against thermal softening provoking plastic deformation and pronounced abrasive wear. As a disadvantage, intensely nitrided surfaces may possibly include the risk of increased crack sensitivity and therefore feature the chipping of material at the treated surface. Recent projects (evaluated in several industrial applications) show the high technological potential of adapted treatments: A first approach evaluated localized treatments by preventing areas from nitrogen diffusion with applied pastes or other coverages. Now, further ideas are to use this principle to structure the surface with differently designed patterns generating smaller ductile zones beneath nitrided ones. The selection of suitable designs is subject to certain geo-metrical requirements though. The intention of this approach is to prevent the formation and propagation of cracks under thermal shock conditions. Analytical characterization methods for crack sensitivity of surface zone layers and an accurate system of testing rigs for thermal shock conditions verified the treatment concepts. Additionally, serial forging tests using adapted testing geometries and finally, tests in the industrial production field were performed. Besides stabilizing the service lifetime and decreasing specific wear mechanisms caused by thermal influences, the crack behavior was influenced positively. This leads to a higher efficiency of the industrial production process and enables higher output in forging campaigns of industrial partners.

  14. An internal friction peak caused by hydrogen in maraging steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Makoto; Asano, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    Internal friction in hydrogen-charged iron and steel has so far been studied by a large number of investigators. For pure iron, a well-defined peak of internal friction has been observed under the cold-worked and hydrogen-charged conditions. This is called the hydrogen cold-work peak, or the Snoek-Koester relaxation, which originates from the hydrogen-dislocation interaction. In the present study, a high-strength maraging steel (Fe-18Ni-9Co-5Mo) was chosen as another high-alloy steel which is known to be very susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. The purpose of this paper is to show a new internal friction peak caused by hydrogen in the maraging steel and to compare it with those found in stainless steels which have so far been studied as typical engineering high-alloy materials

  15. Development and efficiency assessment of process lubrication for hot forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, S.; Artyukh, Viktor; Ignatovich, I.; Dikareva, Varvara

    2017-10-01

    The article considers innovative technologies in testing and production of process lubricants for hot bulk forging. There were developed new compositions of eco-friendly water-graphite process lubricants for hot extrusion and forging. New approaches to efficiency assessment of process lubricants are developed and described in the following article. Laboratory and field results are presented.

  16. Forging technology for large nuclear pressure vessel parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimoto, Hideki; Ikegami, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    The increasing output of nuclear power generation calls for larger vessels for next-generation nuclear power plants. A vessel with an increased diameter requires increased load for its forging, which can make it difficult to use a conventional solid die. In order to reduce the forging load, a rotary incremental forging method has been applied to hot forging. This method includes pressing and rotating a material in an incremental manner such that a target shape is obtained. This study aimed at improving the accuracy of numerical simulation for the rotary incremental forging to reduce the load when forging large vessels. This has enabled the temperature of the material and flow stress to be precisely predicted; an example of this is reported in the paper. Specifically, the heat transfer coefficient to be used for the numerical simulation had been determined experimentally from a small-scale hot-forging. The reduction of the flow stress associated with incremental forging, had been deduced from a compression test, and the value was applied to the numerical simulation. A preform was designed on the basis of the above simulation to perform a 1/1 size scale experiment. A precision of better than 5% has been confirmed for the shape prediction. (author)

  17. Kinematics at the Main Mechanism of a Railbound Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Heavy payload forging manipulators are mainly characterized by large load output and large capacitive load input. The relationship between outputs and inputs will greatly influence the control and the reliability. Forging manipulators have become more prevalent in the industry today. They are used to manipulate objects to be forged. The most common forging manipulators are moving on a railway to have a greater precision and stability. They have been called the railbound forging manipulators. In this paper we analyze the general kinematics of the main mechanism from a such manipulator. Kinematic scheme shows a typical forging manipulator, with the basic motions in operation process: walking, motion of the tong and buffering. The lifting mechanism consists of several parts including linkages, hydraulic drives and motion pairs. The principle of type design from the viewpoints of the relationship between output characteristics and actuator inputs is discussed. An idea of establishing the incidence relationship between output characteristics and actuator inputs is proposed. These novel forging manipulators which satisfy certain functional requirements provide an effective help for the design of forging manipulators.

  18. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken ...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  19. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav [Department of Materials Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, tr. 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava - Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2004-07-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  20. Study of stress corrosion cracking initiation of high alloy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blahetova, Marie; Cihal, Vladimir; Lasek, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The stainless steels and related alloys with sufficient resistance to a general corrosion can be susceptible to a localized corrosion (pitting, cracking, intergranular corrosion) in certain environment under specific conditions. The Drop Evaporation Test (DET) was developed for study of stainless materials resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at elevated temperatures 100 - 300 deg. C under constant external load using a chloride containing water solution. In the contribution the initiation and propagation of short cracks as well as pits were observed during the test. The crack initiation and/or propagation can be influenced by the cyclic thermal stresses, when the diluted water solution drops cool down the hot sample. The coordinates measurement of microscopic pits and sharp corrosion crack tips by the travelling microscope method allowed to derive the crack growth lengths and rates of short cracks. (authors)

  1. Study of crack propagation velocity in steel tanks of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amzallac, C.; Bernard, J.L.; Slama, G.

    1983-05-01

    Description and results of a serie of tests carried out on crack propagation velocity of steels in PWR environment (pressurized high temperature water), in order to examine the effects of metallurgical parameters such as chemical composition of steel, especially sulfur and carbon content, and steel type (laminate or forged steels), effects of mechanical parameters such as loading ratio, cycle form, frequency and application mode of loads and of chemical parameters (anodal dissolution or fatigue with hydrogen) [fr

  2. The Effect of Hot Working on Structure and Strength of a Precipitation Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataya, M. C.; Carr, M. J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-02-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging in a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated by means of forward extrusion of cylindrical specimens. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800°C to 1080°C, and at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 × 103 s-1 (high energy rate forging), and structures examined by light and transmission microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited an extremely wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging pzrameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of observed microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that the γ' precipitation process is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions, from substructure and precipitation, were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms

  3. The effect of hot working on structure and strength of a precipitation strengthened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mataya, M.C.; Carr, M.J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800 0 C to 1080 0 C at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 X 10 3 S -1 (high energy rate forging). Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited a wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging parameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that γ' precipitation is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms of process design criteria

  4. Effect of cast steel production metallurgy on the emergence of casting defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Čamek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents metallurgical possibilities of high alloy cast steel production in open induction medium frequency furnaces and an electric arc furnace in a gravity die casting foundry. The observation was focused on the emergence of gas defects in steel castings. The content of gases achieved during the metallurgical processes was evaluated for every unit of the production equipment and the casting ladle before casting into disposable sand moulds. The sand mould area was considered to be constant. The aim was to evaluate the current metallurgical possibilities of affecting the content of gases in high alloy cast steel in the current technical conditions of the foundry.

  5. IMPACT STRENGTH AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF WELDED DAMASCUS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Mintách

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the experimental research of damascus steel from point of view of the structural analyze, impact strength and failure analyzes. The damascus steel was produced by method of forged welding from STN 41 4260 spring steel and STN 41 9312 tool steel. The damascus steel consisted of both 84 and 168 layers. The impact strength was experimentally determined for original steels and damascus steels after heat treatment in dependence on temperature in the range from -60 to 160 °C. It has been found that the impact strength of experimental steels decreased with decreasing temperature behind with correlated change of damage mode. In the case of experimental tests performed at high temperature ductile fracture was revealed and with decreasing temperature proportion of cleavage facets increased. Only the STN 41 9312 steel did not show considerable difference in values of the impact strength with changing temperature.

  6. Press forging of single crystal calcium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Single crystals of high-purity calcium fluoride have been deformed uniaxially in an attempt to improve strength and resistance to cleavage, without impairing infrared transmission. Order of magnitude increases in strength, such as those found in forged KCl, have not been attained, but fine-grained polycrystalling material has been produced which is resistant to crystalline cleavage. Deformation rates of 10 -2 min -1 , reductions of 10 to 73 percent in height, and deformation temperatures of 550 to 1000 0 C have been used. Flexural strengths over 13,000 psi and grain sizes down to 5 μm have been obtained. Reduction of residual stress through heat treatment has been studied, and resultant techniques applied before, during, and after deformation. No increase in infrared absorption has been noted at the CO laser wavelength of 5.3 μm

  7. Electro sinter forging of titanium disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bay, Niels Oluf

    by measuring the electrical resistance during the sintering process [5], since low electrical resistance corresponds to high density. It is, however, necessary to be aware that increased temperature, on the other hand, increases the resistance. SEM micrographs and Computed Tomography (CT) are carried out......Electro sinter forging (ESF) is a new sintering process based on the principle of electrical Joule heating. In the present work, middle frequency direct current (MFDC) was flowing through the powder compact, which was under mechanical pressure. The main parameters are the high electrical current......, up to 10 kA, and the low voltage, 1-2 V, resulting in heat generation in the powder. Figure 1 shows the experimental setup. The punches were made of a conductive material; namely a copper alloy. The die, which has to be electrically insulating, was made of alumina. The ESF process takes 3-4s...

  8. Study on the isothermal forging process of MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wenchen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The isothermal forging process is an effective method to manufacture complex-shaped components of hard-to-work materials, such as magnesium alloys. This study investigates the isothermal forging process of an MB26 magnesium alloy adaptor with three branches. The results show that two-step forging process is appropriate to form the adaptor forging, which not only improves the filling quality but also reduces the forging load compared with one-step forging process. Moreover, the flow line is distributed along the contour of the complex-shaped adaptor forging.

  9. Optical Forging of Graphene into Three-Dimensional Shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Andreas; Myllyperkiö, Pasi; Koskinen, Pekka; Aumanen, Jukka; Koivistoinen, Juha; Tsai, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chang, Lo-Yueh; Hiltunen, Vesa-Matti; Manninen, Jyrki J; Woon, Wei Yen; Pettersson, Mika

    2017-10-11

    Atomically thin materials, such as graphene, are the ultimate building blocks for nanoscale devices. But although their synthesis and handling today are routine, all efforts thus far have been restricted to flat natural geometries, since the means to control their three-dimensional (3D) morphology has remained elusive. Here we show that, just as a blacksmith uses a hammer to forge a metal sheet into 3D shapes, a pulsed laser beam can forge a graphene sheet into controlled 3D shapes in the nanoscale. The forging mechanism is based on laser-induced local expansion of graphene, as confirmed by computer simulations using thin sheet elasticity theory.

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL TEMPERING TEMPERATURE IN HARD FACING OF THE FORGING DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mutavdžić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Here is analyzed selection of the optimal technology for heat treatment during the reparation of the damaged forging dies. Those tools are manufactured from alloyed tool steels for operation at elevated temperatures. Those steels are prone to self-hardening, so in reparatory hard-facing they must be preheated, additionally heated and tempered. During the tempering, in temperature interval 500-600°C, a secondary increase of hardness and decrease of impact toughness occurs, the so-called reversible tempering brittleness. Here is shown that it can be avoided by application of metallurgical and technological measures. Metallurgical measures assume adequate selection of steels. Since the considered steels are per se prone to tempering brittleness, we conducted experimental investigations to define the technological measures to avoid it. Tests on models were conducted: tempering from different temperatures, slow heating and cooling in still air. Hardness measurements showed that at 520°C, the secondary increase of hardness occurs, with drop of the impact toughness. Additional hard-facing tests included samples tempered at various regimes. Samples were prepared for mechanical and metallographic investigations. Results presented illustrate influence of additional heat treatment on structure, hardness and mechanical properties of the hard-faced layers. This enabled establishing the possibility of avoiding the tempering brittleness through technological measures.

  11. Determination of the optimal tempering temperature in hard facing of the forging dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mutavdžić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here is analyzed selection of the optimal technology for heat treatment during the reparation of the damaged forging dies. Those tools are manufactured from alloyed tool steels for operation at elevated temperatures. Those steels are prone to self-hardening, so in reparatory hard-facing they must be preheated, additionally heated and tempered. During the tempering, in temperature interval 500-600°C, a secondary increase of hardness and decrease of impact toughness occurs, the so-called reversible tempering brittleness. Here is shown that it can be avoided by application of metallurgical and technological measures. Metallurgical measures assume adequate selection of steels. Since the considered steels are per se prone to tempering brittleness, we conducted experimental investigations to define the technological measures to avoid it. Tests on models were conducted: tempering from different temperatures, slow heating and cooling in still air. Hardness measurements showed that at 520°C, the secondary increase of hardness occurs, with drop of the impact toughness. Additional hard-facing tests included samples tempered at various regimes. Samples were prepared for mechanical and metallographic investigations. Results presented illustrate influence of additional heat treatment on structure, hardness and mechanical properties of the hard-faced layers. This enabled establishing the possibility of avoiding the tempering brittleness through technological measures. 

  12. Progress in the methods of steel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, S; Suzuki, K

    1979-07-01

    The steel making and ingot making processes have made a great progress in the past two decades, which has been one of the direct supports for developing those megalo-technologies as in iron and steel making, petrochemical, fossil and nuclear power generation, and other industries. In discussing steel quality, large or small, everything is to the ingot, and in order to reduce miscellaneous imperfections in steel ingots, for largest ones in particular, tremendous efforts have been made so far. In addition to the improvements in conventional ingot making method, a number of innovational techniques were developed such as ESR, PESC, ABR, MHKW, BEST, etc. with some results in respective fields of application. Nevertheless, for largest sizes of ingot from 250 to 500 tons, the conventional method was successful enough. The history of conventional method is summarized for the past quarter century. The improved quality of large ingots could bring some more merits in the final forged products, which are: (1) improved isotropy of mechanial properties; and (2) sufficnet effect of forging with much less forging ratio.

  13. Weldability investigation steel P 91 by weld thermal cycle simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dunđer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates results of hardness and impact energy of thermal cycle simulated specimens of high-alloy steel P 91 and their dependence on cooling time from 800 to 500 °C. Results were obtained by measuring hardness HV 1 and by experimental testing of Charpy notched specimens. Metallographic analysis of samples was performed on scanning electronic microscope.

  14. Modelling of Damage During Hot Forging of Ingots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Ductile damage modelling in the ingot forging process is discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of both coupled and uncoupled ductile damage models are presented. Some uncoupled damage models are examined in greater detail regarding their applicability to different processes, where hydrostatic...

  15. Optimising mechanical properties of hot forged nickel superalloy 625 components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singo, Nthambe; Coles, John; Rosochowska, Malgorzata; Lalvani, Himanshu; Hernandez, Jose; Ion, William

    2018-05-01

    Hot forging and subsequent heat treatment were resulting in substandard mechanical properties of nickel superalloy, Alloy 625, components. The low strength was found to be due to inadequate deformation during forging, excessive grain growth and precipitation of carbides during subsequent heat treatment. Experimentation in a drop forging company and heat treatment facility led to the establishment of optimal parameters to minimise grain size and mitigate the adverse effects of carbide precipitation, leading to successful fulfilment of mechanical property specifications. This was achieved by reducing the number of operations, maximising the extent of deformation by changing the slug dimensions and its orientation in the die, and minimising the time of exposure to elevated temperatures in both the forging and subsequent heat treatment processes to avoid grain growth.

  16. strength and ductility of forged 1200 aluminum alloy reinforced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    duced cylindrical shape samples, which were homogenized at 420 ... and properties of deformed materials depend on other factors ... after the surfaces were ground with emery paper of ... Figure 2: Maximum elongation of forged and annealed.

  17. Notch aspects of RSP steel microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For a rather long time, basic research projects have been focused on examinations of mechanical properties for Rapid Solidification Powder (RSP steels. These state-of-art steels are commonly known as “powdered steels“. In fact, they combine distinctive attributes of conventional steel alloys with unusual resistance of construction material manufactured by so called “pseudo-powdered” metallurgy.Choice of suitable materials for experimental verification was carried out based on characteristic application of so called “modern steel”. First, groups of stainless and tool steel types (steel grades ČSN 17 and 19 were selected. These provided representative specimens for the actual comparison experiment. For stainless steel type, two steel types were chosen: hardenable X47Cr14 (ČSN 17 029 stainless steel and non-hardenable X2CrNiMo18-14-3 (ČSN 17 350 steel. They are suitable e.g. for surgical tools and replacements (respectively. For tooling materials, C80U (ČSN 19 152 carbon steel and American D2 highly-alloyed steel (ČSN “equivalent” being 19 572 steel were chosen for the project. Finally, the M390 Böhler steel was chosen as representative of powdered (atomized steels. The goal of this paper is to discuss structural aspects of modern stainless and tool steel types and to compare them against the steel made by the RSP method. Based on the paper's results, impact of powdered steel structural characteristics on the resistance to crack initiation shall be evaluated.

  18. Manufacture of large monoblock LP rotor forgings and their quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira; Kinoshita, Shushi; Kohno, Masayoshi; Miyakawa, Mutsuhiro; Kikuchi, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing and the quality of large monoblock low pressure rotors forged from 360 ton and 420 ton ingots. To obtain good and homogenous mechanical properties throughout a rotor, a computer was used to determine the heat treatment conditions. It was found that the technique was very effective at predicting mechanical properties of a monoblock rotor. Mechanical properties including the fracture toughness and fatigue crack propagation characteristics of monoblock rotor forgings proved satisfactory. (author)

  19. Numerical modelling of damage evolution in ingot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2015-01-01

    The ingot forging process is numerically simulated applying both the Shima-Oyane porous plasticity model as a coupled damage model and the uncoupled normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion. Four different cases including two different lower die angles (120º and 180º) and two different sizes of feed...... (400mm and 800mm) are analysed. Comparison of the simulation results with recommendations in literature on ingot forging, indicates the normalized Cockcroft & Latham damage criterion to be the most realistic of the two....

  20. Steels for nuclear power. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohusova, O.; Brumovsky, M.; Cukr, B.; Hatle, Z.; Protiva, K.; Stefec, R.; Urban, A.; Zidek, M.

    1976-01-01

    The principles are listed of nuclear reactor operation and the reactors are classified by neutron energy, fuel and moderator designs, purpose and type of moderator. The trend and the development of light-water reactor applications are described. The fundamental operating parameters of the WWER type reactors are indicated. The effect is discussed of neutron radiation on reactor structural materials. The characteristics are described of steel corrosion due to the contact of the steel with steam or sodium in the primary coolant circuit. The reasons for stress corrosion are given and the effects of radiation on corrosion are listed. The requirements and criteria are given for the choice of low-alloy steel for the manufacture of pressure vessels, volume compensators, steam generators, cooling conduits and containment. A survey is given of most frequently used steels for pressure vessels and of the mechanical and structural properties thereof. The basic requirements for the properties of steel used in the primary coolant circuit are as follows: sufficient strength in operating temperature, toughness, good weldability, resistance to corrosion and low brittleness following neutron irradiation. The materials are listed used for the components of light-water and breeder reactors. The production of corrosion-resistant steels is discussed with a view to raw materials, technology, steel-making processes, melting processes, induction furnace steel-making, and to selected special problems of the chemical composition of steels. The effects are mainly discussed of lead, bismuth and tin as well as of some other elements on hot working of high-alloy steels and on their structure. The problems of corrosion-resistant steel welding and of pressure vessel cladding are summed up. Also discussed is the question of the concept and safeguards of the safety of nuclear installation operation and a list is presented of most commonly used nondestructive materials testing methods. The current

  1. Press forging and optical properties of lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, J. F.; Vora, H.

    1980-07-01

    Lithium fluoride is an important candidate material for windows on high power, short-pulse ultraviolet and visible lasers. Lithium fluoride crystals were press forged in one step over the temperature range 300 to 600 C to obtain fine grained polycrystalline material with improved mechanical properties. The deformation that can be given to a lithium fluoride crystal during forging is limited by the formation of internal cloudiness (veiling) with the deformation limit increasing with increasing forging temperature from about 40 percent at 400 C to 65 percent at 600 C. To suppress veiling, lithium fluoride crystals were forged in two steps over the temperature range 300 to 600 C, to total deformations of 69 to 76 percent, with intermediate annealing at 700 C. This technique yields a material which has lower scattering with more homogeneous microstructure than that obtained in one step forging. The results of characterization of various optical and mechanical properties of single crystal and forged lithium fluoride, including scattering, optical homogeneity, residual absorption, damage thresholds, environmental stability, and thresholds for microyield are described.

  2. Press forging and optical properties of lithium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ready, J.F.; Vora, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lithium fluoride is an important candidate material for windows on high-power, short-pulse ultraviolet and visible lasers. Lithium fluoride crystals have been press forged in one step over the temperature range 300 to 600 0 c to obtain fine-grained polycrystalline material with improved mechanical properties. The deformation that can be given to a lithium fluoride crystal during forging is limited by the formation of internal cloudiness (veiling) with the deformation limit increasing with increasing forging temperature from about 40% at 400 0 C to 65% at 600 0 C. To suppress veiling, lithium fluoride crystals were forged in two steps over the temperature range 300 to 600 0 C, to total deformations of 69-76%, with intermediate annealing at 700 0 C. This technique yields a material which has lower scattering with more homogeneous microstructure than that obtained in one-step forging. The results of characterization of various optical and mechanical properties of single-crystal and forged lithium fluoride, including scattering, optical homogeneity, residual absorption, damage thresholds, environmental stability, and thresholds for microyield are described

  3. Brittle Fracture Behaviors of Large Die Holders Used in Hot Die Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifang Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brittle fracture of large forging equipment usually leads to catastrophic consequences. To avoid this kind of accident, the brittle fracture behaviors of a large die holder were studied by simulating the practical application. The die holder is used on the large die forging press, and it is made of 55NiCrMoV7 hot-work tool steel. Detailed investigations including mechanical properties analysis, metallographic observation, fractography, transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis and selected area electron diffraction (SAED were conducted. The results reveal that the material generated a large quantity of large size polyhedral M23C6 (M: Fe and Cr mainly and elongated M3C (M: Fe mainly carbides along the martensitic lath boundaries when the die holder was recurrently tempered and water-cooled at 250 °C during the service. The large size carbides lead to the material embrittlement and impact toughness degradation, and further resulted in the brittle fracture of the die holder. Therefore, the operation specification must be emphasized to avoid the die holder being cooled by using water, which is aimed at accelerating the cooling.

  4. Forging And Milling Contribution On Residual Stresses For A Textured Biphasic Titanium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, C.; Fabre, A.; Barrallier, L.; Molinas, O.

    2011-01-01

    Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al is a biphasic titanium alloy (α+β) used in aeronautical applications for its mechanical properties, such as its yield strength of 1200 MPa and it weighs 40% less than steel. This alloy is particularly useful for vital parts with complex geometry, because of its high forging capability. In order to predict the capability for fatigue lifetime, the designers need to know the residual stresses. X-Ray diffraction is the main experimental technique used to determine residual stresses on the surface. In this case, stress levels are primarily influenced by the complex forging and milling process. On this alloy in particular, it may be difficult to characterize stress due to modification of the microstructure close to the surface. Results obtained by x-ray analysis depend on the correct definition of the shape of the diffraction peaks. The more precisely defined the position of the peak, the more accurately the stresses are evaluated. This paper presents a method to detect if residual stresses can be characterized by x-ray diffraction. The characterization of hardness seems to be a relevant technique to quickly analyze the capability of x-ray diffraction to determine residual stresses.

  5. Weld-forged rotors of the turbines for nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudkovskij, A.F.; German, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is a principally new technology and equipment for assembling and welding superheavy rotors with mass up to 200 tons. Construction peculiarities and advantages of the application of weld-forged rotors are noted. The technology proposed permits to provide for a horizontal assembling, subsequent welding and quality control of rotors, one bench being used instead of three ones. The application of horizontal assembling and complex welding of rotors in one position permits not only to shorten the cycle of assembling and welding, too decrease the equipment costs and release production capacities, but also to improve substantially the quality of welds and especially the accuracy of rotor production. The equipment allows one to assemble and weld rotors with the mass up to 250 tons at maximum rotor diameter up to 2500 mm and length up to 13000 mm. Presented are data characterizing chemical composition and mechanical properties of steels used for forging of welded rotors. Also given are the results of studying mechanical properties of welded joints, welding and thermal treatment of which were made in accordance with the technology proposed. Serial production of rotors for turbines with the power of 500, 1000 and 1200 Mw is shown to be mastered along with the manufacture of welded rotors for cylinders of low, medium and high pressure turbines

  6. Structure of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus-steel blades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Gerasimov, V. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.

    2008-08-01

    Chemical composition, structure, and hardness of samples of three Zlatoust bulats (Damascus steels), namely, an Anosov bulat blade (1841), Obukhov bulat blade (1859), and a Shvetsov forged bulat-steel blank (crucible steel) have been investigated. The Anosov bulat possesses all signs of the classical Damascus steel; this is a hypereutectoid carbon steel with a structure formed from chains of carbides against the background of fine pearlite (troostite). A banded pattern is revealed on the surface of the blade. The Obukhov blade cannot be referred to classical Damascus steel. The pattern on the surface of the blade is absent, despite the fact that the initial steel is hypereutectoid. The structure of the blade does not correspond to the structure of classical Damascus steel; this is bainite with numerous cementite particles. The Shvetsov sample cannot be regarded as Damascus steel since it is made from a hypereutectoid steel alloyed by managanese and tungsten. The pattern on the surface of the metal is a consequence of the dendritic structure of the ingot which is developed during forging. The structure of this pattern differs from classical damascene pattern, since the latter is formed due to a specific arrangement of a variety of carbide particles against the pearlitic or some other background obtained during heat treatment.

  7. FE-simulation of hot forging with an integrated heat treatment with the objective of residual stress prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Chugreeva, Anna; Chugreev, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Hot forming as a coupled thermo-mechanical process comprises numerous material phenomena with a corresponding impact on the material behavior during and after the forming process as well as on the final component performance. In this context, a realistic FE-simulation requires reliable mathematical models as well as detailed thermo-mechanical material data. This paper presents experimental and numerical results focused on the FE-based simulation of a hot forging process with a subsequent heat treatment step aiming at the prediction of the final mechanical properties and residual stress state in the forged component made of low alloy CrMo-steel DIN 42CrMo4. For this purpose, hot forging experiments of connecting rod geometry with a corresponding metallographic analysis and x-ray residual stress measurements have been carried out. For the coupled thermo-mechanical-metallurgical FE-simulations, a special user-defined material model based on the additive strain decomposition method and implemented in Simufact Forming via MSC.Marc solver features has been used.

  8. Effect of nickel addition on mechanical properties of powder forged Fe-Cu-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Barla, Nikki

    2018-03-01

    Fe-Cu-C system is very popular in P/M industry for its good compressibility and dimensional stability with high strength. Fe-Cu-C is a structural material and is used where high strength with high hardness is required. The composition of powder metallurgy steel plays a vital role in the microstructure and physical properties of the sintered component. Fe-2Cu-0.7C-Ni alloy with varying nickel composition (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.0%) wt. % was prepared by powder metallurgy (P/M) sinter forging process. The present work discuss the effect of varying nickel content on microstructure and mechanical properties.

  9. Development and production of nuclear valves. Forging and welding. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal Castro, J.B.; Perez, J.C.; Labonia, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the obtainment of the austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4541 (AISI 321) stabilized titanium for Atucha II nuclear valves. The second part presented herein, continued with the development process and part of the production of the bodies' forging and valves leads. This development has been also carried out in the country and a detailed set up of the process with its corresponding Inspection and Assay Program was needed. The last part of this stage has been initiated at the welding process, so it was necessary to develop specific welding procedures to qualify them and use the equipment specially applied to this requirement. The set of assays and criteria certification for the qualifications is presented. (Author)

  10. Larson-Miller Constant of Heat-Resistant Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Manabu; Abe, Fujio; Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2013-06-01

    Long-term rupture data for 79 types of heat-resistant steels including carbon steel, low-alloy steel, high-alloy steel, austenitic stainless steel, and superalloy were analyzed, and a constant for the Larson-Miller (LM) parameter was obtained in the current study for each material. The calculated LM constant, C, is approximately 20 for heat-resistant steels and alloys except for high-alloy martensitic steels with high creep resistance, for which C ≈ 30 . The apparent activation energy was also calculated, and the LM constant was found to be proportional to the apparent activation energy with a high correlation coefficient, which suggests that the LM constant is a material constant possessing intrinsic physical meaning. The contribution of the entropy change to the LM constant is not small, especially for several martensitic steels with large values of C. Deformation of such martensitic steels should accompany a large entropy change of 10 times the gas constant at least, besides the entropy change due to self-diffusion.

  11. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  12. Mannes of Forging and Perspectives of Knuckle Joint Presses Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Antsifirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article raises an issue to enhance technological forging capabilities on the known knuckle joint presses. It provides an illustrated overview of main design types of presses with crank-knuckle, toggle-knuckle, and knuckle joint mechanisms. The article also shows the advantages of the modernization way and improvement just of the active press equipment in terms of quality-to-price ratio, for example, as compared to the similar new foreign press equipment.It gives an overview of features, which provide forging processes owing to kinetic energy accumulated with the moving parts of the known designs of the knuckle joint presses depending on the drive actuating mechanism. Focused attention is drawn to forging on the knuckle joint presses for a time of contact with a work piece to be comparable with the duration of the work piece deformation process on hydraulic forging hammers. This allows us to forge thin-wall products with process automation compared to the forging hammers.Analysis of accumulating processes of kinetic energy by the moving parts of the knuckle joint presses has shown that presses driven by hydraulic cylinders or two screw hydraulic cylinder are the most optimal for technological operations as evidenced by references to domestic and foreign invention certificates and patents. The article presents disadvantages of forging on presses with hydraulic or pneumatic drive. It is a dependence of the deformation force, caused, mainly, by a force of the drive cylinder. The article gives linear movement rate quantities of press moving members depending on the drives of the actuating mechanism. Based on the above analysis of the features to manufacture work pieces on the knuckle joint presses, the article gives the rationale for the relevance of forging in a short period of time, provided that the moving parts of the press accumulate the required kinetic energy. This can be achieved only through modernization and improvement of forging

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW TOOL STEEL FOR ALUMINUM EXTRUSION DIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Britti Bacalhau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum extrusion dies are an important segment of application on industrial tools steels, which are manufactured in steels based on AISI H13 steel. The main properties of steels applied to extrusion dies are: wear resistance, impact resistance and tempering resistance. The present work discusses the characteristics of a newly developed hot work steel to be used on aluminum extrusion dies. The effects of Cr and Mo contents with respect to tempering resistance and the Al addition on the nitriding response have been evaluated. From forged steel bars, Charpy impact test and characterization via EPMA have been conducted. The proposed contents of Cr, Mo, and Al have attributed to the new VEX grade a much better tempering resistance than H13, as well as a deeper and harder nitrided layer. Due to the unique characteristics, this new steel provides an interesting alternative to the aluminum extrusion companies to increase their competitiveness.

  14. On the domestically-made heavy forging for reactor pressure vessels of PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiren; Zhang Chen.

    1988-01-01

    The present situation of the foreign heavy forgings for nuclear reactor pressure vessels and the heavy forgings condition which is used for the Qinshan 300MWe nuclear power plant are described. Some opinions of domestic products is proposed

  15. Analysis of reforming process of large distorted ring in final enlarging forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Takeshi; Murai, Etsuo

    2002-01-01

    In the construction of reactors or pressure vessels for oil chemical plants and nuclear power stations, mono block open-die forging rings are often utilized. Generally, a large forged ring is manufactured by means of enlarging forging with reductions of the wall thickness. During the enlarging process the circular ring is often distorted and becomes an ellipse in shape. However the shape control of the ring is a complicated work. This phenomenon makes the matter still worse in forging of larger rings. In order to make precision forging of large rings, we have developed the forging method using a v-shape anvil. The v-shape anvil is geometrically adjusted to fit the distorted ring in the final circle and reform automatically the shape of the ring during enlarging forging. This paper has analyzed the reforming process of distorted ring by computer program based on F.E.M. and examined the effect on the precision of ring forging. (author)

  16. Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a particulate reinforced magnesium matrix composites forged at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, K.K.; Wu, K.; Wang, X.J.; Wu, Y.W.; Hu, X.S.; Zheng, M.Y.; Gan, W.M.; Brokmeier, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    SiCp/AZ91 magnesium matrix composite was fabricated by stir casting. The as-cast ingots were cut into cylindrical billets, and then forged at different temperatures (320, 370, 420, 470 and 520 deg. C) at a constant RAM speed of 15 mm/s with 50% reduction. The microstructure evolution of the composites during forging was investigated by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The texture of the forged composites was measured by neutron diffraction. Mechanical properties of the composite at different forging temperatures were tested by tensile tests at room temperature. It was found that a strong basal plane texture formed during forging, and the intensity of basal plane texture weakened as forging temperatures increased. The particle distribution in the composite was significantly improved by hot forging. Typical microstructures were obtained after forging at different temperatures and the composite with different microstructures offered different mechanical properties during tensile test.

  17. Plasticity of low carbon stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Kareva, E.N.

    1975-01-01

    In the temperature range 800-1200 0 C and with strain rates of from 10 -3 to 3 s -1 , austenitic (000Kh18N12) and austenitic-ferrite (000Kh26N6) very low carbon stainless steels containing 0.02-0.03% C exhibit no higher resilience than corresponding ordinary steels containing 0.10-0.12% C. However, the plasticity of such steels (particularly two-phase steels) at 900-1100 0 C is appreciably inferior owing to the development of intergranular brittle fracture. Pressure treatment preceded by partial cooling of the surface to 850 0 C yields rolled and forged products with acceptable indices but is inconvenient technically. At the Zlatoustovsk and Ashin metallurgical plants successful tests have been performed involving the forging and rolling of such steels heated to 1280-1300 0 C without partial cooling; it was necessary to improve the killing conditions, correct the chemical composition (increasing the proportion of ferrite) and take measures against heat loss. (author)

  18. Effect of Temperature on the Fracture Toughness of Hot Isostatically Pressed 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Brayshaw, W. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we have performed J- Resistance multi-specimen fracture toughness testing of hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) and forged 304L austenitic stainless steel, tested at elevated (300 °C) and cryogenic (- 140 °C) temperatures. The work highlights that although both materials fail in a pure ductile fashion, stainless steel manufactured by HIP displays a marked reduction in fracture toughness, defined using J 0.2BL, when compared to equivalently graded forged 304L, which is relatively constant across the tested temperature range.

  19. Effect of Temperature on the Fracture Toughness of Hot Isostatically Pressed 304L Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Adam J.; Sherry, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Herein, we have performed J-Resistance multi-specimen fracture toughness testing of hot isostatically pressed (HIP’d) and forged 304L austenitic stainless steel, tested at elevated (300 °C) and cryogenic (− 140 °C) temperatures. The work highlights that although both materials fail in a pure ductile fashion, stainless steel manufactured by HIP displays a marked reduction in fracture toughness, defined using J0.2BL, when compared to equivalently graded forged 304L, which is relatively constant...

  20. Fatigue in cold-forging dies: Tool life analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, P.; Bay, Niels; Grønbæk, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the present investigation it is shown how the tool life of heavily loaded cold-forging dies can be predicted. Low-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth testing of the tool materials are used in combination with finite element modelling to obtain predictions of tool lives. In the models...... the number of forming cycles is calculated first to crack initiation and then during crack growth to fatal failure. An investigation of a critical die insert in an industrial cold-forging tool as regards the influence of notch radius, the amount and method of pre-stressing and the selected tool material...

  1. Development of LP turbine rotor steels resistant to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takenori; Sugie, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Takano, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, Shushi

    1988-01-01

    The effect of various alloying elements on caustic SCC of 3.5 NiCrMoV steel for turbine rotor forgings was studied. From the results, low P (≤ 0.005 %) steel and low P (≤ 0.005 %) - Nb (0.02/0.03 %) steel has been developed as a rotor material, resistant to SCC. It is confirmed that the developed steel has a higher resistance to SCC and to temper embrittlement, and has equivalent other mechanical properties to those of conventional rotor steel. In addition, the role of P and Nb in SCC was also discussed. (author)

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7025 - Restriction on acquisition of forgings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of forgings. 252.225-7025 Section 252.225-7025 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7025 Restriction on acquisition of forgings. As prescribed in 225.7102-4, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Forgings (DEC 2009) (a...

  3. 40 CFR 467.40 - Applicability; description of the forging subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forging subcategory. 467.40 Section 467.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ALUMINUM FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Forging Subcategory § 467.40 Applicability; description of the forging subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of...

  4. 76 FR 30200 - Forging Machines; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...] Forging Machines; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information... extend OMB approval of the information collection requirements contained in the Forging Machines Standard... to reduce employees' risk of death or serious injury by ensuring that forging machines used by them...

  5. 76 FR 66996 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Forging...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Forging Machines ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Forging Machines,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for....218, it is mandatory for covered employers to conduct and to document periodic inspections of forging...

  6. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  7. Integral forged pump casing for the primary coolant circuit of a nuclear reactor: Development in design, forging technology, and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austel, W.; Korbe, H.

    1986-01-01

    Developments in the forging of large casings for primary circuit coolant pumps for light water reactors in Germany are demonstrated beginning with the multiple forging fabricated version and ending with the integral forged type. This version is the result of the joint efforts of the pump manufacturer and the forgemaster after a cost-gain evaluation and represents an optimum solution in view of its functional and economical performance and also considering the high requirements for mechanical-technological properties, including homogeneity of the material. The development from 22 NiMoCr 3 7/A 508 Class 2 to 20 MnMoNi 5 5/A 508 Class 3 and their optimization will be demonstrated. This development is based mainly on minimizing the sulfur content and on vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), which results in a reduction of the A-segregations, in improving fracture toughness and isotropy, and in the desired fine-grain structure

  8. Modelling the influence of carbon content on material behavior during forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpała, G.; Ullmann, M.; Graf, M.; Wester, H.; Bouguecha, A.; Awiszus, B.; Behrens, B.-A.; Kawalla, R.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the design of single process steps and even of whole process chains is realized by the use of numerical simulation, in particular finite element (FE) based methods. A detailed numerical simulation of hot forging processes requires realistic models, which consider the relevant material-specific parameters to characterize the material behavior, the surface phenomena, the dies as well as models for the machine kinematic. This data exists partial for several materials, but general information on steel groups depending on alloying elements are not available. In order to generate the scientific input data regarding to material modelling, it is necessary to take into account the mathematical functions for deformation behavior as well as recrystallization kinetic, which depends alloying elements, initial microstructure and reheating mode. Besides the material flow characterization, a detailed description of surface changes caused by oxide scale is gaining in importance, as these phenomena affect the material flow and the component quality. Experiments to investigate the influence of only one chemical element on the oxide scale kinetic and the inner structure at high temperatures are still not available. Most data concerning these characteristics is provided for the steel grade C45, so this steel will be used as basis for the tests. In order to identify the effect of the carbon content on the material and oxidation behavior, the steel grades C15 and C60 will be investigated. This paper gives first approaches with regard to the influence of the carbon content on the oxide scale kinetic and the flow stresses combined with the initial microstructure.

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking of high alloyed austenitic materials; Wasserstoffversproedung und wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion hochlegierter austenitischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mummert, K; Uhlemann, M; Engelmann, H J [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The susceptiblity of high alloyed austenitic steels and nickel base alloys to hydrogen-induced cracking is particularly determined by 1. the distribution of hydrogen in the material, and 2. the microstructural deformation behaviour, which last process is determined by the effects of hydrogen with respect to the formation of dislocations and the stacking fault energy. The hydrogen has an influence on the process of slip localization in slip bands, which in turn affects the microstructural deformation behaviour. Slip localization increases with growing Ni contents of the alloys and clearly reduces the ductility of the Ni-base alloy. Although there is a local hydrogen source involved in stress corrosion cracking, emanating from the corrosion process at the cathode, crack growth is observed only in those cases when the hydrogen concentration in a small zone ahead of the crack tip reaches a critical value with respect to the stress conditions. Probability of onset of this process gets lower with growing Ni content of the alloy, due to increasing diffusion velocity of the hydrogen in the austenitic lattice. This is why particularly austenitic steels with low Ni contents are susceptible to transcrystalline stress corrosion cracking. In this case, the microstructural deformation process at the crack tip is also influenced by analogous processes, as could be observed in hydrogen-loaded specimens. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Empfindlichkeit von hochlegierten austentischen Staehlen und Nickelbasislegierungen gegen wasserstoffinduziertes Risswachstum wird im wesentlichen bestimmt durch 1. die Verteilung von Wasserstoff im Werkstoff und 2. das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten. Das mikrostrukturelle Deformationsverhalten ist wiederum durch den Einfluss von Wasserstoff auf die Versetzungsbildung und die Stapelfehlerenergie charakterisiert. Das mikrostrukturelle Verformungsverhalten wird durch wasserstoffbeeinflusste Gleitlokalisierung in Gleitbaendern bestimmt. Diese nimmt mit

  10. The influence of deformation, annealing and recrystallisation on oxide nanofeatures in oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl, E-mail: k.dawson@liverpool.ac.uk; Tatlock, Gordon J.

    2017-04-01

    This work demonstrates that Y-Ti oxide nanofeatures, observed in as-extruded oxide dispersion strengthened steel, are structurally modified by cold forging. A 950 °C heat treatment promoted restructuring of the deformed particles and partial recrystallisation of the cold forged alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cuboid shaped nanofeatures were deformed during forging, which resulted in high number densities of lens shaped yttrium-titanium oxide particles. Annealing the forged alloy promoted partial recrystallisation of the ferritic matrix. Particle morphology reverted from lens shaped, as witnessed in the deformed material, to cuboid shaped oxide nanofeatures, identical to those observed in as-extruded material. Precipitation distributions evaluated in both recrystallised and recovering grains were indistinguishable from those first measured in the as-extruded alloy. TEM images revealed a widespread orientation relationship between the oxide precipitates and the recrystallised grains; registration with the ferrite lattice was omnipresent in both recovering and recrystallised grains.

  11. Evaluation of Microstructural and Mechanical Property of Medium-sized HT9 Cladding Forged Material for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Chan Bock

    2012-01-01

    Microstructural and mechanical property were evaluated at the medium-sized HT9 (12Cr-1MoWV) forged steel which was considered as primary candidate for the fuel cladding in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). Material was forged at 1170 degrees C after the induction melting to make round bar as 160 mm diameter, 7000 mm length then the radial distribution of microstructure as well as microhardness was evaluated. The results showed that overall microstructure exhibited as ferrite-martensite structure, where small amount (2-3%) of delta ferrite was formed throughout the specimen and maximum 15% of transformed ferrite was formed at the center, where it gradually decreased toward the radial direction. Sensitivity analysis of the cooling curve and Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) diagram revealed that formation of transformed ferrite could be avoided when the diameter was decreased down to 120 mm.

  12. A new Friction and Lubrication Test for Cold Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Wibom, Ole; Aalborg Nielsen, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new friction and lubrication test for cold forging. The test allows controlled variation of the surface expansion in the range 0-2000%, the tool temperature in the range 20-270°C and the sliding length between 0 and infinite. Friction is decreasing with increasing temperature...

  13. Manufacturing involving forging of multiple objects in contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, W.; Martins, P.A.F.

    and dissimilar materials. While being plastically deformed against each other under increasing forging load, the parts dynamically develop their mutual contact interfaces. Comparisons of the final geometry as well as force-displacement curves are evaluated. The potential of simulated applications are discussed...

  14. Forging Consensus for Implementing Youth Socialization Policy in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Gregory P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine how the provincial education media in China play a role of forging consensus among local actors responsible for the implementation of new centrally-promulgated youth socialization policy. In doing so, it also explores the tension among three of the Chinese state's claims to legitimacy: economic development,…

  15. Near net shape forging of titanium alloy turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akiyasu; Hattori, Shigeo; Tani, Kazuhito; Takemura, Atsushi; Ashida, Yoshio

    1991-01-01

    The isothermal forging process has been developed to produce turbine blades made of near β Ti-alloy Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al. It is important to set the preform at the optimum position of the die in order to get a high precision product. The deformation analysis by using FEM is effective to determine the optimum position. And also it is necessary to avoid buckling induced by the restriction of axial elongation of the material. As a result, Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al blades could be formed precisely by using only one stage of forging, and machining was needed only at the root. The thickness of the oxide layer induced on the surface of the forged blade was only 70μm. The mechanical properties of Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al blades after forging and annealing were superior to those of Ti-6Al-4V blades and were nearly uniform across the length of the blades. (author)

  16. Environmentally Benign Lubricant Systems For Cold, Warm And Hot Forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    paper gives an overview of these efforts substituting environmentally hazardous lubricants in cold, warm and hot forging. The paper is an extract of the keynote paper [3] written by the author together with eight co-authors referring to collected papers and other information from more than 30 different...

  17. Multi-objective optimization of die geometry in ingot forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The soundness of an ingot after hot forging with different V-shaped lower dies is evaluated using finite element simulations.Two different modelling approaches that make use of uncoupled ductile damage and coupled ductile damage based on porousplasticity are employed. It is shown that the two...

  18. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...

  19. Forged Signature Distinction Using Convolutional Neural Network for Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungsoo Nam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic verification scheme for finger-drawn signatures in smartphones. As a dynamic feature, the movement of a smartphone is recorded with accelerometer sensors in the smartphone, in addition to the moving coordinates of the signature. To extract high-level longitudinal and topological features, the proposed scheme uses a convolution neural network (CNN for feature extraction, and not as a conventional classifier. We assume that a CNN trained with forged signatures can extract effective features (called S-vector, which are common in forging activities such as hesitation and delay before drawing the complicated part. The proposed scheme also exploits an autoencoder (AE as a classifier, and the S-vector is used as the input vector to the AE. An AE has high accuracy for the one-class distinction problem such as signature verification, and is also greatly dependent on the accuracy of input data. S-vector is valuable as the input of AE, and, consequently, could lead to improved verification accuracy especially for distinguishing forged signatures. Compared to the previous work, i.e., the MLP-based finger-drawn signature verification scheme, the proposed scheme decreases the equal error rate by 13.7%, specifically, from 18.1% to 4.4%, for discriminating forged signatures.

  20. Highlight: Forging the new Indonesia-Canada partnership | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 avr. 2016 ... Canada's Centre for International Governance Innovation and Indonesia's Centre for Strategic and International Studies organized the Indonesia-Canada Bilateral Forum, Innovation and Change: Forging the New Indonesia-Canada Partnership. IDRC co-sponsored the meeting, held May 26-27, 2015.

  1. Family Health and Financial Literacy--Forging the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Bonnie; Kim, Jinhee; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    Families are at-risk of or experiencing a diminished quality of living and life in current economic times and difficult decisions are required. Health and financial literacy are the basis for wise personal and public decision making. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals can forge connections between health and financial literacy to…

  2. Standard specification for titanium and titanium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Standards are given for the purchase, manufacture, product testing and certification, packaging, and marketing of annealed Ti and Ti-alloy forgings. The specifications apply to the following Ti alloys: 6Al-Ti-4V, 5Al-Ti-2.5 Sn, and Ti + Pd. Acceptable values for the chemical requirements, product analysis limits, and tensile requirements are tabulated

  3. 2015 Accomplishments-Tritium aging studies on stainless steel. Effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of hydrogen isotopes, crack orientation, and specimen geometry on the fracture toughness of stainless steels. Fracture toughness variability was investigated for Type 21-6-9 stainless steel using the 7K0004 forging. Fracture toughness specimens were cut from the forging in two different geometric configurations: arc shape and disc shape. The fracture toughness properties were measured at ambient temperature before and after exposure to hydrogen gas and compared to prior studies. There are three main conclusions that can be drawn from the results. First, the fracture toughness properties of actual reservoir forgings and contemporary heats of steel are much higher than those measured in earlier studies that used heats of steel from the 1980s and 1990s and forward extruded forgings which were designed to simulate reservoir microstructures. This is true for as-forged heats as well as forged heats exposed to hydrogen gas. Secondly, the study confirms the well-known observation that cracks oriented parallel to the forging grain flow will propagate easier than those oriented perpendicular to the grain flow. However, what was not known, but is shown here, is that this effect is more pronounced, particularly after hydrogen exposures, when the forging is given a larger upset. In brick forgings, which have a relatively low amount of upset, the fracture toughness variation with specimen orientation is less than 5%; whereas, in cup forgings, the fracture toughness is about 20% lower than that forging to show how specimen geometry affects fracture toughness values. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifies minimum specimen section sizes for valid fracture toughness values. However, sub-size specimens have long been used to study tritium effects because of the physical limitation of diffusing hydrogen isotopes into stainless steel at mild temperatures so as to not disturb the underlying forged microstructure. This study shows

  4. Influence of performance improvement of AP1000 nuclear island main equipment forging on manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    In order to comply with the 60-year design life of an AP1000 nuclear power station, higher strength and ductility requirements have been made on AP1000 nuclear island SG forgings than on CPR1000 nuclear island main equipment. In addition, bigger size of AP1000 nuclear island SG forgings increases the difficulty of manufacturing them. Insufficient recognition of these changes may cause unstable quality of forgings and possible quality problems in follow-up welding procedure. On the basis of comparison and analysis of AP1000 nuclear island SG forgings and CPR1000 nuclear island forgings, this thesis suggests clear directions for the actions we need to take. (author)

  5. Manufacturing of welded polyblock turbine rotors for pressurized water reactor nuclear plants; Optimization of the steel grade; Effect of impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisseloup, J.; Poitrault, I.S.; De Badereau, A.; Bocquet, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Le Creusot Heavy Forge has been manufacturing low-pressure (LP) disks and shaft ends for 1300-MW nuclear power plants. These forgings, in weldable 1.8Cr-1Ni-0.8Mo steel, are welded by Alsthom Atlantique. With the aim of improved quality, homogeneity of mechanical properties, hardenability, and weldability, this metallurgical research has been carried out: 1. Optimization of the steel grade (the effect of silicon, manganese, and molybdenum). 2. The influence of tempering and stress relief treatment parameters. 3. The effect of impurities. These studies have led the Steel Melting Shop of Creusot-Loire Factory to invest in a high-performance process of steelmaking: the heating ladle refining process. This new process has had spectacular results that have been confirmed by investigations on cut-up industrial forgings

  6. Fabrication of high-alloy powders consisting of spherical particles from ultradispersed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, A. V.; Fadeev, A. A.; Sinayskiy, M. A.; Alekseev, N. V.; Tsvetkov, Yu. V.; Arzhatkina, O. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that powders of a model high alloy consisting of spherical particles 25-50 μm in size can be synthesized from a starting ultradispersed powder, which is made of a mixture of the alloy components and is fabricated by the magnesiothermal reduction of metal chlorides in the potassium chloride melt. The synthesis includes the stages of microgranulation of an ultradispersed powder, heat treatment of microgranules, classification of the microgranules with the separation of microgranule fraction of 25-50 μm, spheroidization of the separated fraction in a thermal plasma flow, and classification with the separation of a fraction of micro- and submicrometer-sized particles.

  7. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Milan Mutavdžić; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Milan Djordjević

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by ...

  8. Progress in the methods of steel-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, S.

    1979-01-01

    The steel making and ingot making processes have made a great progress in the past two decades, which has been one of the direct supports for developing those megalo-technologies as in iron and steel making, petrochemical, fossil and nuclear power generation, and other industries. In discussing steel quality, large or small, everything is to the ingot, and in order to reduce miscellaneous imperfections in steel ingots, for largest ones in particular, tremendous efforts have been made so far. In addition to the improvements in conventional ingot making method, a number of innovational techniques were developed such as ESR, PESC, ABR, MHKW, BEST, etc. with some results in respective fields of application. Nevertheless, for largest sizes of ingot from 250 to 500 tons, the conventional method was successful enough. The history of conventional method is summarized for the past quarter century. The improved quality of large ingots could bring some more merits in the final forged products, which are: 1) Improved isotropy of mechanical properties, 2) sufficient effect of forging with much less forging ratio. (orig./HJ) [de

  9. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío; López Pumarega, María Isabel; Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo; Pochettino, Alberto; Ruzzante, José

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier - Highlights: • MBN and MAE studied in nuclear power pressure vessel steel. • Comparison with macro graphic study of sulfides and texture analysis of the material. • Connections with magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of material. • Plastic flow direction different from the forging direction indicated.

  10. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío, E-mail: neyra@cnea.gov.ar [IT Sabato, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, UNSAM, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional UTN, Regional Delta, Buenos Aires (Argentina); López Pumarega, María Isabel, E-mail: lopezpum@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo, E-mail: nnunez@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pochettino, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.poch@gmail.com [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental (3iA), Campus Miguelete, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, 1650 San Martín Argentina (Argentina); Ruzzante, José, E-mail: ruzzante@gmail.com [Universidad Tecnológica Nacional UTN, Regional Delta, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero UNTREF, Caseros, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Chilecito, UNdeC, La Rioja (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier - Highlights: • MBN and MAE studied in nuclear power pressure vessel steel. • Comparison with macro graphic study of sulfides and texture analysis of the material. • Connections with magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of material. • Plastic flow direction different from the forging direction indicated.

  11. The effect of solution annealing on properties of steel Nitronic 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gigović-Gekić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitronic 60 (UNS S21800 is a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel. This steel provides exceptional wear and galling resistance as well as a high temperature corrosion resistance. Increasing strength of Nitronic 60 is obtained by cold deformation. A solution annealing is necessary to achieve a complete austenitic microstructure without the presence of precipitates in the matrix. This paper describes determination of the appropriate heat treatment to obtain austenitic microstructure with a minimum consumption of time and energy.

  12. First Results of Energy Saving at Process Redesign of Die Forging Al-Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnjak, Tomaz; Kuzman, Karl; Kokol, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The contribution deals with eco-friendly solutions for shortened production chains of forging light alloys. During the die forging operations a remarkable amount of material goes into the flash and later on into chips during finish machining. These low value side products are rich with embedded energy therefore recycling or reprocessing could be very energy saving procedure.In cooperation with a die forging company a shortened reprocessing cycle has been studied starting from re-melting the forging flash and without additional heating to cast preforms for subsequent die forging. As such preforms have not as good formability characteristics as those done from extruded billets the isothermal forging process has been adopted. First results showed that without cracks and other defects the formability is sufficient for a broad spectrum of forgings.To improve the formability a homogenization process of cast preforms has been implemented. As the process started immediately after casting, amount of additional energy for heating was minimized. To reduce voids forging process was redesigned in a way to assure greater hydrostatic pressures in parts during forging. First results were promising therefore research is going towards improving processes without adding significantly more energy as it is needed for casting with homogenization and die forging.

  13. Hot forging of roll-cast high aluminum content magnesium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Tomohiro; Watari, Hisaki; Suzuki, Mayumi; Haga, Toshio

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports on hot forging of high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using horizontal twin-roll casting. AZ111 and AZ131 were applied for twin-roll casting, and a hot-forging test was performed to manufacture high-strength magnesium alloy components economically. For twin-roll casting, the casting conditions of a thick sheet for hot forging were investigated. It was found that twin-roll casting of a 10mm-thick magnesium alloy sheet was possible at a roll speed of 2.5m/min. The grain size of the cast strip was 50 to 70µm. In the hot-forging test, blank material was obtained from as-cast strip. A servo press machine with a servo die cushion was used to investigate appropriate forging conditions (e.g., temperature, forging load, and back pressure) for twin-roll casts (TRCs) AZ111 and AZ131. It was determined that high aluminum content magnesium alloy sheets manufactured using twin-roll casting could be forged with a forging load of 150t and a back pressure of 3t at 420 to 430°C. Applying back pressure during hot forging effectively forged a pin-shaped product.

  14. Operational experience of stainless steels in seawater-cooled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksson, S.

    1981-06-01

    A study has been made of chiefly Swedish and Finnish operational experience of stainless steel in seawater and brackish water. A report is given on 23 typical cases, behind which in actual fact a considerably larger number of individual practical cases are concealed. The answer to the primary question why a standard steel of type SS 2343 (AISI 316) sometimes, contrary to expectation, remains unattacked by local corrosion is that there is usually spontaneous cathodic protection by other less noble components of carbon steel, cast iron or some copper alloy in direct contact with the stainless steel. The study confirms in other respects the adverse effect of residual oxides after welding and the beneficial of low temperature, high continuous waterflow and periodic cleaning, and of rinsing with fresh water during out-of service periods. It also verifies the additional advantages of the new high-alloy special steels which have begun to be marketed in recent years for seawater applications. (author)

  15. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  16. Forged hollows (alloy 617) for PNP-hot gas collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, F.

    1984-01-01

    When the partners in the PNP-Project decided to manufacture components, such as gas collectors, from material of type alloy 617, the problem arose that required semi-fabricated products, especially forged hollows weighing several tons each, were not available. As VDM (Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke AG) had already experience in production of other semi-fabricated products of this alloy, attempts were made based on this knowledge, to develop manufacturing methods for forged hollows. The aim was to produce hollows as long as possible, and to keep the welding cost minimum. Welded seams are always critical during fabrication, as well as during later inspection under actual operating conditions. The three stage plan used to perform the above task illustrates the development aims is described

  17. Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR): A Logic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simone V; Khetani, Mary A; Yinusa-Nyahkoon, Leanne; McManus, Beth; Gardiner, Paula M; Tickle-Degnen, Linda

    2017-07-01

    In a patient-centered care era, rehabilitation can benefit from researcher-clinician collaboration to effectively and efficiently produce the interdisciplinary science that is needed to improve patient-centered outcomes. The authors propose the use of the Forging Alliances in Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation Research (FAIRR) logic model to provide guidance to rehabilitation scientists and clinicians who are committed to growing their involvement in interdisciplinary rehabilitation research. We describe the importance and key characteristics of the FAIRR model for conducting interdisciplinary rehabilitation research.

  18. Forging C-C Bonds Through Decarbonylation of Aryl Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Rosie J; Martin, Ruben

    2017-06-06

    The ability of nickel to cleave strong σ-bonds is again in the spotlight after a recent report that demonstrates the feasibility of using nickel complexes to promote decarbonylation of diaryl ketones. This transformation involves the cleavage of two strong C-C(O) bonds and avoids the use of noble metals, hence reinforcing the potential of decarbonylation as a technique for forging C-C bonds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Increasing of the lifetime of large forging dies by repairwelding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, M.; Koukolikova, M.; Kotous, J.; Majer, M.

    2018-02-01

    Repair welding is often used for rebuilding discarded or failed forging dies. It saves the cost of new tools. Increased useful life of repaired dies is another motivation for repair welding. This article focuses on the development of new filler materials for this purpose. The main goal was to prolong the life of tools of DIN 1.2714 material. Filler wires of two chemistries were made and several samples were experimentally welded. Metallographic and tribological analyses were carried out.

  20. A Probabilistic Analysis of the Nxt Forging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Popov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the forging algorithm of Nxt from a probabilistic point of view, and obtain explicit formulas and estimates for several important quantities, such as the probability that an account generates a block, the length of the longest sequence of consecutive blocks generated by one account, and the probability that one concurrent blockchain wins over an- other one. Also, we discuss some attack vectors related to splitting an account into many smaller ones.

  1. Finite element analysis for temperature distributions in a cold forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Bum; Lee, In Hwan; Cho, Hae Yong; Kim, Sung Wook; Song, In Chul; Jeon, Byung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the finite element method is utilized to predict the temperature distributions in a cold-forging process for a cambolt. The cambolt is mainly used as a part of a suspension system of a vehicle. The cambolt has an off-centered lobe that manipulates the vertical position of the knuckle and wheel to a slight degree. The cambolt requires certain mechanical properties, such as strength and endurance limits. Moreover, temperature is also an important factor to realize mass production and improve efficiency. However, direct measurement of temperature in a forging process is infeasible with existing technology; therefore, there is a critical need for a new technique. Accordingly, in this study, a thermo-coupled finite element method is developed for predicting the temperature distribution. The rate of energy conversion to heat for the workpiece material is determined, and the temperature distribution is analyzed throughout the forging process for a cambolt. The temperatures associated with different punch speeds are also studied, as well as the relationships between load, temperature, and punch speed. Experimental verification of the technique is presented.

  2. Finite element analysis for temperature distributions in a cold forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Bum; Lee, In Hwan; Cho, Hae Yong [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Wook [Yanbian National University, Yanbian (China); Song, In Chul; Jeon, Byung Cheol [Sunil dyfas, Jincheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this research, the finite element method is utilized to predict the temperature distributions in a cold-forging process for a cambolt. The cambolt is mainly used as a part of a suspension system of a vehicle. The cambolt has an off-centered lobe that manipulates the vertical position of the knuckle and wheel to a slight degree. The cambolt requires certain mechanical properties, such as strength and endurance limits. Moreover, temperature is also an important factor to realize mass production and improve efficiency. However, direct measurement of temperature in a forging process is infeasible with existing technology; therefore, there is a critical need for a new technique. Accordingly, in this study, a thermo-coupled finite element method is developed for predicting the temperature distribution. The rate of energy conversion to heat for the workpiece material is determined, and the temperature distribution is analyzed throughout the forging process for a cambolt. The temperatures associated with different punch speeds are also studied, as well as the relationships between load, temperature, and punch speed. Experimental verification of the technique is presented.

  3. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabruri, Efendi, E-mail: effe004@lipi.go.id; Anwar, Moch Syaiful, E-mail: moch.syaiful.anwar@lipi.go.id; Prifiharni, Siska, E-mail: siska.prifiharni@lipi.go.id; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang [Research Center for Metallurgy and Materials, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Kawasan Puspiptek Gd. 470 Serpong, Tangerang Selatan 15314 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  4. Tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Anwar, Moch Syaiful; Prifiharni, Siska; Romijarso, Toni B.; Adjiantoro, Bintang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of Mo and Ni on the tensile properties of the modified 13Cr martensitic stainless steels in tempered condition. Four steels with different content of Mo and Ni were prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The experimental results showed that the addition of about 1% and 3% Mo has a beneficial effect to increase both the tensile strength and the elongation of the steels. On the contrary, the addition of about 3% Ni into the martensitic stainless steel results in decreasing of both the tensile strength and the elongation. Among the alloys investigated the 13Cr3Mo type steel exhibited largest tensile strength of 1348 MPa and largest elongation of 12%. The observation on the tensile fractured surfaces by using scanning electron microscope supported these findings.

  5. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  6. Finite element simulations and experimental investigations on ductile fracture in cold forging of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Amir; Nikpour, Amin; Saraeian, Payam

    2018-05-01

    Forging is one of the manufacturing processes of aluminium parts which has two major categories: called hot and cold forging. In the cold forging, the dimensional and geometrical accuracy of final part is high. However, fracture may occur in some aluminium alloys during the process because of less workability. Fracture in cold forging can be in the form of ductile, brittle or combination of both depending on the alloy type. There are several criteria for predicting fracture in cold forging. In this study, cold forging process of 6063 aluminium alloy for three different parts is simulated in order to predict fracture. The results of numerical simulations of Freudenthal criterion is in conformity with experimental tests.

  7. Effect of Laser Preheating AISI 4140 Specimens for Micro-Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung C.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many high performance and permanent service parts require suitable material characteristics-high fatigue strength is one of the most important characteristics. For this reason, surface treatment processes are essential to increase the material performance and avoid the use of costly ineffective material. There exist various surface treatment processes for various applications. Each process has advantages and disadvantages and hybridization can solve various problems. The micro-forging process delivers a controlled and uniform surface hardness, but the depth of the forged surface is limited. On the other hand, laser heat treatment can increase the hardness drastically, but the surface may become brittle, which reduces the fatigue life. Laser-assisted micro-forging is a novel hybrid process of laser heat treatment and micro-forging that has the potential to increase the forging depth and relax the stress caused by the high temperature of the forging process.

  8. The FORGE (Fate Of Repository Gases) pan European project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The multiple barrier concept is the cornerstone of all proposed schemes for underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The concept invokes a series of barriers, both engineered and natural, between the waste and the surface. Achieving this concept is the primary objective of all disposal programmes, from site appraisal and characterisation to repository design and construction. However, the performance of the repository as a whole (waste, buffer, engineering disturbed zone, host rock), and in particular its gas transport properties, are still poorly understood. Issues still to be adequately examined that relate to understanding basic processes include: dilational versus visco-capillary flow mechanisms; long-term integrity of seals, in particular gas flow along contacts; role of the EDZ as a conduit for preferential flow; laboratory to field up-scaling. Understanding gas generation and migration is thus vital in the quantitative assessment of repositories and is the focus of the research in this proposal for an integrated, multidisciplinary project. The FORGE project is a pan-European project with links to international radioactive waste management organisations, regulators and academia, specifically designed to tackle the key research issues associated with the generation and movement of repository gasses with partners from 24 organisations in 12 European countries. It is supported by funding under the European Commission FP7 Euratom programme and runs from 2009 to 2013. Of particular importance are the long-term performance of bentonite buffers, plastic clays, indurated mud-rocks and crystalline formations. Further experimental data are required to reduce uncertainty relating to the quantitative treatment of gas in performance assessment. FORGE will address these issues through a series of laboratory and field-scale experiments, including the development of new methods for up

  9. Pitting corrosion resistance of high alloy OCTG in ferric chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masamura, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Matsushima, I.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of alloying elements and precipitated phases on the corrosion rate of high alloy OCTG in the ferric chloride solution have been evaluated. The corrosion rate of Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo alloys without precipitated phases, e.g. carbides and sigma phase, can be estimated from the composition using the following equation: log(C.R.)=-0.144xPRE-7690/(273+T)+28.6 where C.R. is the corrosion rate in g/m/sup 2//hr; PRE is Cr+3Mo+16N in percent and T is the test temperature in 0 C. The activation energies of the ferric chloride test are almost the same regardless of PRE or Ni content when no detrimental phase precipitates. When carbides or the sigma phase precipitate, the corrosion rate is higher and the activation energy is lowered. This suggests that secondary phases give preferential sites for initiation of pitting corrosion

  10. Effect of forging process on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of biodegradable Mg-1Ca alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harandi, Shervin Eslami; Hasbullah Idris, Mohd; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Forging temperature demonstrates more pronounced effect compared to forging speed. → Precipitation of Mg 2 Ca phase at grain boundaries accelerates corrosion rate. → Forging process doesn't provide the corrosion resistance required for bone healing. -- Abstract: The performance of Mg-1Ca alloy, a biodegradable metallic material, may be improved by hot working in order that it may be of use in bone implant applications. In this study, Mg-1Ca cast alloy was preheated to different temperatures before undergoing forging process with various forging speeds. Macro- and microstructure of the samples were examined by stereo and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. To determine the mechanical properties of the alloy, hardness value and plastic deformation ability of the samples were measured. To investigate the corrosion behaviour of the alloy, immersion and electrochemical tests were performed on the samples in simulated body fluid and the corrosion products were characterized by SEM/EDS. The results showed that increasing forging temperature decreased grain size led to improved hardness value and plastic deformation ability of the alloy, whereas no significant effect was observed by changing forging speed. Moreover, forging at higher temperatures led to an increase in the amount of Mg 2 Ca phase at grain boundaries resulted in higher corrosion rates. It can be concluded that although forging process improved the mechanical properties of the alloy, it does not satisfy the corrosion resistance criteria required for bone healing.

  11. Physical modeling and numerical simulation of V-die forging ingot with central void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation and physical modeling performed on small-scale ingots made from pure lead, having a hole drilled through their centerline to mimic porosity, are utilized to characterize the deformation mechanics of a single open die forging compression stage and to identify the influence...... of the lower V-die angle on porosity closure and forging load requirements of large cast ingots. Results show that a lower V-die angle of 120 provides the best closure of centerline porosity without demanding the highest forging loads or developing unreasonably asymmetric shapes that may create difficulties...... in multi-stage open die forging procedures....

  12. Importance and role of grain size in free surface cracking prediction of heavy forgings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenhua [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Shuhua; Wang, Bo [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shi, Zhongping [Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science, Yanshan University, Ministry of Education of China, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Fu, Wantang, E-mail: wtfu@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-02-11

    The importance and role of grain size in predicting surface cracking of heavy forgings were investigated. 18Mn18Cr0.5N steel specimens with four different grain sizes were tensioned between 900 and 1100 °C at a strain rate of 0.1 s{sup −1}. The nucleation sites and crack morphology were analyzed through electron backscatter diffraction analysis, and the fracture morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The nucleation sites were independent of the grain size, and cracks primarily formed at grain boundaries and triple junctions between grains with high Taylor factors. Grains with lower Taylor factors inhibited crack propagation. Strain was found to mainly concentrate near the grain boundaries; thus, a material with a larger grain size cracks more easily because there are fewer grain boundaries. Fine grains can be easily rotated to a lower Taylor factor to further inhibit cracking. The fracture morphology transformed from a brittle to ductile type with a lowering of grain size. At lower temperature, small dimples on the fracture surfaces of specimens with smaller grain sizes were left by single parent grains and the dimple edge was the grain edge. At higher temperature, dimples formed through void coalescence and the dimple edge was the tearing edge. Finally, the relationship between the reduction in area, grain size, and deformation temperature was obtained.

  13. A study on die wear model of warm and hot forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Park, I. W.; Jae, J. S.; Kang, S. S.

    1998-05-01

    Factors influencing service lives of tools in warm and hot forging processes are wear, mechanical fatigue, plastic deformation and thermal fatigue, etc. Wear is the predominant factor for tool failure among these. To predict tool life by wear, Archard's model where hardness is considered as constant or function of temperature is generally applied. Usually hardness of die is a function of not only temperature but operating time of die. To consider softening of die by repeated operation it is necessary to express hardness of die by a function of temperature and time. In this study wear coefficients were measured for various temperatures and heat treatment for H13 tool steel. Also by experiment of reheating of die, die softening curves were obtained. From experimental results, relationships between tempering parameters and hardness were established to investigate effects of hardness decrease by the effect of temperatures and time. Finally modified Archard's wear model in which hardness is considered to be a function of main tempering curve was proposed. And finite element analyses were conducted by adopting suggested wear model. By comparisons of simulations and real profiles of worn die, proposed wear model was verified.

  14. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  15. Modeling Cavitation in ICE Pistons Made with Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Astanin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Possible causes for cavitations in parts made with an Al-Si eutectic alloy AK12D (AlSi12 were explored with mathematical and physical modeling with involved acoustic emission. Pores were formed from micro-cracks, which appear during the early stages of a deformation process, with the help of micro-stresses appearing at phase boundaries (Al/Si interface due to thermal expansion. At the design stage of isothermal forgings of such products it is recommended to provide a scheme of the deformed shape, which is under uniform compression, to compensate for the inter-phase stresses.

  16. Experimental and numerical research on forging with torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Mikhail A.; Subich, Vadim N.; Petrov, Pavel A.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the efficiency of the technological operations of blank production is closely related to the computer-aided technologies (CAx). On the one hand, the practical result represents reality exactly. On the other hand, the development procedure of new process development demands unrestricted resources, which are limited on the SMEs. The tools of CAx were successfully applied for development of new process of forging with torsion and result analysis as well. It was shown, that the theoretical calculations find the confirmation both in praxis and during numerical simulation. The mostly used constructional materials were under study. The torque angles were stated. The simulated results were evaluated by experimental procedure.

  17. Tool design and materials for electro sinter forging (ESF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, Emanuele; Nielsen, Chris Valentin

    ) process, the main requirement is the electrical current passing through the electrical conducting powder. To obtain this, a closed-die setup with electrical insulating properties was used. Furthermore, the alignment between the compacting punch and die needed to be ensured by pre-aligning or alternatively...... by using an alignment system. The present work is focused on the designing phase of a tool for the electro sinter forging of a disc, made from titanium powder. By applying a pre-alignment system, the setup resulted suitable for this application. A tool design for sintering rings is also showed....

  18. Automated ultrasonic shop inspection of reactor pressure vessel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Dikstra, B.J.; Hanstock, D.J.; Pople, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Automated ultrasonic shop inspection utilizing a computer-controlled system is being applied to each of the forgings for the reactor pressure vessel of the proposed Sizewell B PWR power station. Procedures which utilize a combination of high sensitivity shear wave pulse echo, 0 degrees and 70 degrees angled longitudinal waves, tandem and through-thickness arrays have been developed to provide comprehensive coverage and an overall reliability of inspection comparable to the best achieved in UKAEA defect detection trials and in PISC II. This paper describes the ultrasonic techniques, the automated system (its design, commissioning and testing), validation and the progress of the inspections

  19. Optimum back-pressure forging using servo die cushion

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Kiichiro; Yoneyama, Takeshi; Okada, Masato; Kitayama, Satoshi; Chikahisa, Junpei

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on utilizing a servo die cushion (in conjunction with a servo press) as a "back-pressure load generator," to determine its effect on shape accuracy of the formed part and total forming load in forward extrusion during cold forging. The effect of back-pressure load application was confirmed in experiments, and the optimum setting pattern of back-pressure load was considered to minimize both shape accuracy of the formed part and back-pressure energy, which was representative ...

  20. Improvement of mechanical properties of zirconia-toughened alumina by sinter forging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    ZTA powder with a composition of 85 wt% alumina/15 wt% zirconia was prepared by a gel precipitation method. Sinter forging was performed with this powder to enhance the mechanical properties of ZTA materials. The influence of processing flaws on mechanical properties of sinter forged materials and

  1. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-01-01

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  2. Study on the microstructure of the different parts for new aluminum alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wei; Zheng Xiaojing; Wu Fu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of former aluminium alloy forgings cannot achieve technique demand. Because the component, dimension and preparation technology of new aluminum alloy have changed, the microstructure and mechanical properties of forgings are researched. It is concluded that the flowline of forgings has good continuity and uniformity, it does not have a prominent difference on microhardness of different parts. The results prove that the microstructure of forgings has good consistency. The matrix structure of forgings consists of fiber texture and equiaxed structure. The residual second phases, which are harmful to mechanical properties, are observed in the equiaxed structure. The center of equiaxed structure core zone, the edge of equiaxed structure transition zone and equiaxed structure edge zone should be focus on observing test, they are the sampling location of tensile property. (authors)

  3. Sensitivity analysis and optimization algorithms for 3D forging process design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, T.T.; Fourment, L.; Laroussi, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents several approaches for preform shape optimization in 3D forging. The process simulation is carried out using the FORGE3 registered finite element software, and the optimization problem regards the shape of initial axisymmetrical preforms. Several objective functions are considered, like the forging energy, the forging force or a surface defect criterion. Both deterministic and stochastic optimization algorithms are tested for 3D applications. The deterministic approach uses the sensitivity analysis that provides the gradient of the objective function. It is obtained by the adjoint-state method and semi-analytical differentiation. The study of stochastic approaches aims at comparing genetic algorithms and evolution strategies. Numerical results show the feasibility of such approaches, i.e. the achieving of satisfactory solutions within a limited number of 3D simulations, less than fifty. For a more industrial problem, the forging of a gear, encouraging optimization results are obtained

  4. Simulation and analysis of hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarefdoust, M.; Kadkhodayan, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper hot forging process for industrial locking gear elevators is simulated and analyzed. An increase in demand of industrial locking gear elevators with better quality and lower price caused the machining process to be replaced by hot forging process. Production of industrial locking gear elevators by means of hot forging process is affected by many parameters such as billet temperature, geometry of die and geometry of pre-formatted billet. In this study the influences of billet temperature on effective plastic strain, radius of die corners on internal stress of billet and thickness of flash on required force of press are investigated by means of computer simulation. Three-dimensional modeling of initial material and die are performed by Solid Edge, while simulation and analysis of forging are performed by Super Forge. Based on the computer simulation the required dies are designed and the workpieces are formed. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data demonstrates great compatibility.

  5. Manufacturing and properties of closure head forging integrated with flange for PWR reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoharu Sasaki; Iku Kurihara; Etsuo Murai; Yasuhiko Tanaka; Koumei Suzuki

    2003-01-01

    Closure head forging (SA508, Gr.3 Cl.1) integrated with flange for PWR reactor pressure vessel has been developed. This is intended to enhance structural integrity of closure head resulted in elimination of ISI, by eliminating weld joint between closure head and flange in the conventional design. Manufacturing procedures have been established so that homogeneity and isotropy of the material properties can be assured in the closure head forging integrated with flange. Acceptance tensile and impact test specimens are taken and tested regarding the closure head forging integrated with flange as very thick and complex forgings. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies and material properties of the closure head forging integrated with flange. (orig.)

  6. Ultrasonic phased arrays for nondestructive inspection of forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.; Rotter, B.; Klanke, H.P.; Harbecke, D.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonic examinations on large forgings like rotor shafts for turbines or components for nuclear reactors are carried out at various manufacturing stages and during in-service inspections. During the manufacture, most of the inspections are carried out manually. Special in-service conditions, such as those at nuclear pressure vessels, have resulted in the development of mechanized scanning equipment. Ultrasonic probes have improved, and well-adapted sound fields and pulse shapes and based on special imaging procedures for the representation of the reportable reflectors have been applied. Since the geometry of many forgings requires the use of a multitude of angles for the inspections in-service and during manufacture, phased-array probes can be used successfully. The main advantages of the phased-array concept, e.g. the generation of a multitude of angles with the typical increase of redundancy in detection and quantitative evaluation and the possibility to produce pictures of defect situations, will be described in this contribution

  7. Army Combat Medic Resilience: The Process of Forging Loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Preetha A; Russell, Dale W; Huffman, Sarah; Deuster, Patricia; Gibbons, Susanne W

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a grounded theory analysis of in-depth interviews of United States Army Combat Medics (CMs) who had served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. The study explores how 17 CMs nominated by their peers as resilient cope with military stressors in order to identify the factors that enable them to thrive amidst harsh conditions. Four distinct categories of characteristics unique to this group emerged: (1) social bonding, (2) readiness, (3) dual loyalty as performance, and (4) leader by example. Forging loyalty underpins these characteristics and represents the main process used by resilient CMs and comprised three behavior patterns: (1) commitment to the family, (2) commitment to the military mission, and (3) commitment to their guiding religious and spiritual beliefs. Prominent behavioral tendencies of forging loyalty likely developed during childhood and re-enforced by families, friends, and other role models. Based on the findings, new training and education efforts should focus on developing positive emotional, environmental, and social resources to enhance the health and well-being of service members and their families.

  8. Development of forging technology for PWR primary piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, F.; Badeau, J.P.; Lambs, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to give information on the changes in the design and manufacture of Primary Piping for electronuclear boilers of the Pressurized Water Reactor type (PWR) which has resulted in the making of one-piece forged lines including stub pipes and arcs. The optimization of these items is aimed at improving the life of the new power stations as well as guaranteeing their safety, while reducing inspection and maintenance requirements in service. The demonstration of the manufacturing feasibility has just been completed. It has taken material form in the installation, on the CIVAUX 1 section, of the first one-piece cold leg in the world. It will shortly be followed by the installation on the CIVAUX 2 section of a complete loop of bent forged pipes. Therefore, this new know-how is going to be incorporated in the French Rules (RCC-M) and can be directly taken into consideration both in the next work to be done and in the design and definition of a future nuclear reactor

  9. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Arsić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by high hardness and wear resistance. In experiments, the sliding speed and the normal loading were varied and the wear scar was monitored, based on which the volume of the worn material was calculated analytically. The contact duration time was monitored over the sliding path of 300 mm. The most intensive wear was established for the loading force of 100 N and the sliding speed of 1 m.s-1, though the significant wear was also noticed in conditions of the small loading and speed of 0.25 m.s-1, which was even greater that at larger speeds.

  10. Development of high yield strength non-magnetic steels for the equipments of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hidenori; Mukai, Tetsuya; Ohtani, Hiroo; Tsuruki, Takanori; Okada, Yasutaka

    1979-01-01

    Recently, activity of nuclear fusion research and so forth increase the demand of non-magnetic materials for various equipments and structures. For these usage, very low magnetic permeability as well as high strength are required under high magnetic field. Based on fundamental research, middle C-17% Cr-7% Ni-N non-magnetic steel has been developed. The developed steel shows more stable austenite phase and possesses higher yield strength and endurance limit of more than 10 kg/mm 2 , compared with 18% Cr-8% Ni austenitic steel. Also the developed steel has good ductility and toughness in spite of the high yield strength and shows better machinability than usual high Mn non- magnetic steels. The large forgings of this newly developed steel are manufactured in the works for the equipments of nuclear fusion research and confirmed good mechanical properties, high fatigue strength and low permeability. (author)

  11. Temperature and environmentally assisted cracking in low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auten, T.A.; Monter, J.V.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental assisted cracking (EAC) can be defined as the propagation of fatigue cracks in water at rates from 3 to over 40 times the growth rates in air. For low alloy steels with sulfur contents > 0.0125% by weight, EAC is normal behavior in the 240 to 290C range. However, literature yields mixed results for low alloy steels with compositions just below this sulfur level; some reports indicate EAC while others do not. Also, several authors have reported an increased tendency toward EAC when the water temperatures were lowered. In the present work, five ASTM A 508 Class 2 forgings with ladle and check analyses that ranged from 0.010 to 0.019 wt% S were tested in high purity deaerated water in the temperature range of 93 to 260C. At 260C these forgings did not exhibit EAC, reinforcing earlier results for two similar forgings. This broad sampling indicates strong resistance to EAC for this class of forging at 260C. On the other hand, EAC occurred consistently in the three of these forgings that were tested below 204C, provided the test conditions (loading frequency, ΔK, and R) were high enough to produce a high baseline fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), where the baseline FCGR is that expected in air. At 149C, EAC occurred at test conditions that combined to yield a baseline FCGR greater than ∼2E-6 mm/s. At 204, 121, and 93C, this critical crack growth rate appeared to shift to lower baseline values. The EAC that occurred at lower temperatures was a factor of 3 to 12 times higher than baseline air rates, which was not as strong as the effect for higher sulfur steels at 240 to 290C. Also, no plateau in the growth rates occurred as it does with the higher sulfur steels. In another approach, EAC was induced at 93 and at 260C by raising the dissolved oxygen content of the water from 15 ppb

  12. Computer Οptimization of Geometric Form of Tool and Preform for Closed-die Forging of Compressor Blade Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Botkin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the software package DEFORM 3D when developing technology of isothermal forging workpiece blades it is possible to reduce the pre-production time, to improve the quality of forgings and increase lifetime of forging dies. Computer modeling allows to predict the formation of such defects during forging as notches and wrinkles, underfilling of die impression, to estimate tool loads. Preform shape and angular position of the blade simulator were optimized in order to minimize the lateral forces generated during the forging operation.

  13. The interbelic Germans from the Banat Highland. Coal, steel, mines and forges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, C.; Micliuc, D. M.; Nedeloni, M. D.; Birtarescu, E.; Varga, A.

    2018-01-01

    The difficulties of the reconstruction era, following World War I had been increased by the cessation of some activities in the industrial centres of the Banat Highland. For instance, the copper mines were closed in 1921, the Romanian state forbidding the extraction of this ore. Only in Ocna de Fier a special dispensation had been given. The copper mines from Moldova Nouă, Sasca Montană, Ciclova, Dognecea had also been shut down. This fact caused the acid reaction of some writers. We recall that one of the main ways for improving the material condition, embraced by the ethnic Germans, was working abroad. Many German workers of the Banat Highland had emigrated, taking up an offer of well-paid work during the crisis years: 1929-1933. The miners of the Banat Highland, especially those of German origin, travelled to the areas rich in iron ore and coal of France, namely Alsace and Loraine. Considering that German was spoken there by a significant percentage of the population, the integration into the new working environment did not represent a problem.

  14. Pengaruh Variasi Bentuk Permukaan Forging Sambungan Las Gesek Rotary terhadap Kekuatan Tarik Baja Mild Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Partomuan, Putra; ', Yohanes '

    2016-01-01

    Along with the times, welding technology has undergone many developments. The new methods in the process of connecting material are an evidence of developments in welding technology, one of which is friction welding. The friction welding is a welding without using electrode, that the connection between the two materials of welding is obtained a homogeneous connection. The friction welding can also be used to connect cylindrical material or non-cylindrical material. This study aims to analyze ...

  15. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Chul; Kang, Jong Hun; Kim, Sang Sik

    2016-01-01

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts

  16. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Chul [Gyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Hun [Jungwon Univ., Goisan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sik [Gyeongsang Natiional Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts.

  17. Optimum design of forging process parameters and preform shape under uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repalle, Jalaja; Grandhi, Ramana V.

    2004-01-01

    Forging is a highly complex non-linear process that is vulnerable to various uncertainties, such as variations in billet geometry, die temperature, material properties, workpiece and forging equipment positional errors and process parameters. A combination of these uncertainties could induce heavy manufacturing losses through premature die failure, final part geometric distortion and production risk. Identifying the sources of uncertainties, quantifying and controlling them will reduce risk in the manufacturing environment, which will minimize the overall cost of production. In this paper, various uncertainties that affect forging tool life and preform design are identified, and their cumulative effect on the forging process is evaluated. Since the forging process simulation is computationally intensive, the response surface approach is used to reduce time by establishing a relationship between the system performance and the critical process design parameters. Variability in system performance due to randomness in the parameters is computed by applying Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) on generated Response Surface Models (RSM). Finally, a Robust Methodology is developed to optimize forging process parameters and preform shape. The developed method is demonstrated by applying it to an axisymmetric H-cross section disk forging to improve the product quality and robustness

  18. Effect of Cold Forging on Microstructure and MechanicalProperties of Al/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamantraygouda, M. B.; Shivakumar, B. P., Dr; Siddappa, P. N.; Sampathkumar, L.; Prashanth, L.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of cold forging on mechanical properties and microstructural study of Al MMCs, at different wt% of SiC and forging cycle. The Al-SiC composite material was fabricated by stir casting method at different weight percentage of SiC such as 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. Further, the deformation characteristics during open-die forging of Al-SiC composite at cold conditions was investigated. Cast and forged composite material was subjected to hardness test, tensile test and impact test. The grain size, microstructure behaviour was investigated using optical microscope. The results show that hardness and strength of Al-SiC composite increases and ductility decreases as compared to Al alloy in both as-cast and forged conditions. Optical microscope images showed that the distribution of SiC in Al matrix was more homogeneous in a forged composite as compared to cast one and reduction of porosity was found. Further, it showed that due to forging cycle the grain size was reduced by 30% to 35% from initial size.

  19. Research on Energy-Saving Production Scheduling Based on a Clustering Algorithm for a Forging Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Tong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a buzzword of the 21st century. With the ever growing need for energy efficient and low-carbon production, it is a big challenge for high energy-consumption enterprises to reduce their energy consumption. To this aim, a forging enterprise, DVR (the abbreviation of a forging enterprise, is researched. Firstly, an investigation into the production processes of DVR is given as well as an analysis of forging production. Then, the energy-saving forging scheduling is decomposed into two sub-problems. One is for cutting and machining scheduling, which is similar to traditional machining scheduling. The other one is for forging and heat treatment scheduling. Thirdly, former forging production scheduling is presented and solved based on an improved genetic algorithm. Fourthly, the latter is discussed in detail, followed by proposed dynamic clustering and stacking combination optimization. The proposed stacking optimization requires making the gross weight of forgings as close to the maximum batch capacity as possible. The above research can help reduce the heating times, and increase furnace utilization with high energy efficiency and low carbon emissions.

  20. Analysis of Filling and Stresses in the Hot Forging Process Depending on Flange Die Shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kim, Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Hot closed-forging process and the die used for forming an automotive flange were analyzed from the viewpoints of heat transfer, grain-flow lines, and stresses to obtain a forged product without defects such as surface cracks, laps, cold shots, and partial filling. The forging process including up-set, pre-forging, final forging and pressing forces was investigated using finite element analysis. The influence of the preform die and the ratio of the heights of the upper die to lower die on the forging process and die were investigated and a die shape (10 .deg. for the preform die, and 1.5:1 ratio for the final die) suitable to achieve successful forging was determined on the basis of a parametric study. All parametric design requirements such as strength, full filling, and a load limit of 13,000 KN were satisfied for this newly developed flange die. New dies and flanges were fabricated and investigated. Defects such as partial filling and surface cracks were not observed

  1. Gear hot forging process robust design based on finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuewen, Chen; Won, Jung Dong

    2008-01-01

    During the hot forging process, the shaping property and forging quality will fluctuate because of die wear, manufacturing tolerance, dimensional variation caused by temperature and the different friction conditions, etc. In order to control this variation in performance and to optimize the process parameters, a robust design method is proposed in this paper, based on the finite element method for the hot forging process. During the robust design process, the Taguchi method is the basic robust theory. The finite element analysis is incorporated in order to simulate the hot forging process. In addition, in order to calculate the objective function value, an orthogonal design method is selected to arrange experiments and collect sample points. The ANOVA method is employed to analyze the relationships of the design parameters and design objectives and to find the best parameters. Finally, a case study for the gear hot forging process is conducted. With the objective to reduce the forging force and its variation, the robust design mathematical model is established. The optimal design parameters obtained from this study indicate that the forging force has been reduced and its variation has been controlled

  2. Using of material-technological modelling for designing production of closed die forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, K.; Vorel, I.; Jeníček, Š.; Káňa, J.; Aišman, D.; Kotěšovec, V.

    2017-02-01

    Production of forgings is a complex and demanding process which consists of a number of forging operations and, in many cases, includes post-forge heat treatment. An optimized manufacturing line is a prerequisite for obtaining prime-quality products which in turn are essential to profitable operation of a forging company. Problems may, however, arise from modifications to the manufacturing route due to changing customer needs. As a result, the production may have to be suspended temporarily to enable changeover and optimization. Using material-technological modelling, the required modifications can be tested and optimized under laboratory conditions outside the plant without disrupting the production. Thanks to material-technological modelling, the process parameters can be varied rapidly in response to changes in market requirements. Outcomes of the modelling runs include optimum parameters for the forging part’s manufacturing route, values of mechanical properties, and results of microstructure analysis. This article describes the use of material-technological modelling for exploring the impact of the amount of deformation and the rate of cooling of a particular forged part from the finish-forging temperature on its microstructure and related mechanical properties.

  3. Design and Analysis of a Forging Die for Manufacturing of Multiple Connecting Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megharaj, C. E.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Jeelan Pasha, K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates to utilize the hammer capacity by modifying the die design such that forging hammer can manufacture more than one connecting rod in a given forging cycle time. To modify the die design study is carried out to understand the parameters that are required for forging die design. By considering these parameters, forging die is designed using design modelling tool solid edge. This new design now can produce two connecting rods in same capacity hammer. The new design is required to validate by verifying complete filing of metal in die cavities without any defects in it. To verify this, analysis tool DEFORM 3D is used in this project. Before start of validation process it is require to convert 3D generated models in to. STL file format to import the models into the analysis tool DEFORM 3D. After importing these designs they are analysed for material flow into the cavities and energy required to produce two connecting rods in new forging die design. It is found that the forging die design is proper without any defects and also energy graph shows that the forging energy required to produce two connecting rods is within the limit of that hammer capacity. Implementation of this project increases the production of connecting rods by 200% in less than previous cycle time.

  4. Optimizing noise control strategy in a forging workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hamideh; Ramazanifar, Ehsan; Bagherzadeh, Jalal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program based on a genetic algorithm is developed to find an economic solution for noise control in a forging workshop. Initially, input data, including characteristics of sound sources, human exposure, abatement techniques, and production plans are inserted into the model. Using sound pressure levels at working locations, the operators who are at higher risk are identified and picked out for the next step. The program is devised in MATLAB such that the parameters can be easily defined and changed for comparison. The final results are structured into 4 sections that specify an appropriate abatement method for each operator and machine, minimum allowance time for high-risk operators, required damping material for enclosures, and minimum total cost of these treatments. The validity of input data in addition to proper settings in the optimization model ensures the final solution is practical and economically reasonable.

  5. Assessment of long-term creep strength of grade 91 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Kota; Kushima, Hideaki [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    In 2004 and 2005 long-term creep rupture strength of ASME Grade 91 type steels of plate, pipe, forging and tube materials was evaluated in Japan by means of region splitting analysis method in consideration of 50% of 0.2% offset yield stress. According to the evaluated 100,000h creep rupture strength of 94MPa for plate, pipe and forging steels and 92MPa for tube steel at 600 C, allowable tensile stress of the steels regulated in the Interpretation for the Technical Standard for Thermal Power Plant was slightly reduced. New creep rupture data of the steels obtained in the long-term indicate further reduction of long-term creep rupture strength. Not only creep rupture strength, but also creep deformation property of the ASME Grade 91 steel was investigated and need of reevaluation of long-term creep strength of Grade 91 steel was indicated. A refinement of region splitting analysis method for creep rupture like prediction was discussed. (orig.)

  6. Follow-up of hearing thresholds among forge hammering workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, A.A.; Mikael, R.A.; Faris, R. (Ain Shams Univ., Abbasia, Cairo (Egypt))

    1989-01-01

    Hearing threshold was reexamined in a group of forge hammering workers investigated 8 years ago with consideration of the age effect and of auditory symptoms. Workers were exposed to impact noise that ranged from 112 to 139 dB(A)--at an irregular rate of 20 to 50 drop/minute--and a continuous background noise that ranged from 90 to 94 dB(A). Similar to what was observed 8 years ago, the present permanent threshold shift (PTS) showed a maximum notch at the frequency of 6 kHz and considerable elevations at the frequencies of 0.25-1 kHz. The age-corrected PTS and the postexposure hearing threshold were significantly higher than the corresponding previous values at the frequencies 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 8 kHz only. The rise was more evident at the low than at the high frequencies. Temporary threshold shift (TTS) values were significantly less than those 8 years ago. Contrary to the previous TTS, the present TTS were higher at low than at high frequencies. Although progression of PTS at the frequencies 0.25 and 0.5 kHz was continuous throughout the observed durations of exposure, progression at higher frequencies occurred essentially in the first 10 to 15 years of exposure. Thereafter, it followed a much slower rate. Tinnitus was significantly associated with difficulty in hearing the human voice and with elevation of PTS at all the tested frequencies, while acoustic after-image was significantly associated with increment of PTS at the frequencies 0.25-2 kHz. No relation between PTS and smoking was found. PTS at low frequencies may provide an indication of progression of hearing damage when the sensitivity at 6 and 4 kHz diminishes after prolonged years of exposure. Tinnitus and acoustic after-image are related to the auditory effect of forge hammering noise.

  7. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  8. Forge, Arquillian, Swarm and Spring Boot: All play and no effort makes Simon a productive boy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    During this live coding session, Simon will shine some light on a range productivity tools that make software development a pleasure rather than a chore. Simon will live code 2 applications; a Java EE application, with JBoss Forge which uses JPA, Bean Validation, REST and Angular. We’ll test this application using Arquillian from within JBoss Forge. We’ll also show how a Java EE microservice can be developed in Forge and run using JBoss Swarm. The second application will be developed on Spring Boot and using JRebel we’ll rapidly develop and run a Spring application. Attendees will learn how to write code productively using tools designed for developers.

  9. Experience manufacturing and properties of the high-strength corrosion-resistant magnetic 03Kh12K12D2 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dgandler, Eh.G.; Moshkevich, E.I.; Bakuma, S.F.; Bulat, S.I.; Tikhonenko, V.D.

    1976-01-01

    In industrial conditions, steel 03Kh12K12D2 (DI48-VD) was melted in a 7-tinduction furnace with subsequent vacuum arc remelting. Ingots of dia 500 and 630 mm were forged into slabs and forgings. The slabs were rolled into sheets, 40 mm thick, and the forgings were rolled into sectional shapes. To obtain the optimum mechanical, corrosion, and magnetic properties, the metal was annealed at 600 deg C (10 hr) and 650 deg C (5 and 10 hr). The developed melting and remelting process enabled to obtain steel meeting all the requirements as for the chemical composition, workability, and mechanical magnetic properties. On testing in water with high parameters (200 deg C, 16 kgf/cm 2 ) and in synthetic sea water (70-90 deg C) the corrosion rate did not exceed 1 μm per year

  10. Boron effect on stainless steel plasticity under hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, S.I.; Kardonov, B.A.; Sorokina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of boron on plasticity of stainless steels at temperatures of hot deformation has been studied at three levels of alloying, i.e. 0-0.01% (micro-alloying or modifying), 0.01-0.02% (low alloying) and 0.02-2.0% (high alloying). Introduction of 0.001-0.005% of boron increases hot plasticity of both low and high carbon stainless steels due to decrease in grain size and strengthening of grain boundaries. Microalloying by boron has a positive effect at temperatures below 1200-1220 deg C. At higher temperatures, particularly when its content exceeds 0.008%, boron deteriorates plasticity by increasing the size of grains and weakening their boundaries. 0.1-2% boron strengthen the stainless steel and dectease its plasticity

  11. submitter Physical Properties of a High-Strength Austenitic Stainless Steel for the Precompression Structure of the ITER Central Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Arauzo, Ana; Roussel, Pascal; Libeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ITER central solenoid (CS) consists of six independent coils kept together by a precompression support structure that must react vertical tensile loads and provide sufficient preload to maintain coil-to-coil contact when the solenoid is energized. The CS precompression system includes tie plates, lower and upper key blocks, load distribution and isolation plates and other attachment, support and insulating hardware. The tie plates operating at 4 K are manufactured starting from forgings in a high-strength austenitic stainless steel (FXM-19) with a stringent specification. Moreover, forged components for the lower and upper key blocks have to be provided in the same FXM-19 grade with comparably strict requirements. FXM-19 is a high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel, featuring high strength and toughness, ready weldability, and forgeability. It features as well higher integral thermal contraction down to 4 K compared with the very high Mn steel grade selected for the CS coil jackets, hence providing an ad...

  12. Traditional Technology of Chromium-Tungsten Steels Facing, its Disadvantages and Suggestions for their Eliminations

    OpenAIRE

    Valuev, Denis Viktorovich; Malushin, N. N.; Valueva, Anna Vladimirovna; Dariev, R. S.; Mamadaliev, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the disadvantages of the traditional technology of facing with chromium-tungsten steels analysis of the given technology was completed. The analysis showed that the main disadvantages of the technology are high-temperature heating and underutilization of high-alloyed metal properties. To eliminate the disadvantages we developed the methods of facing allowing obtaining faced metal which state is close to that of the hardened one without cracks.

  13. The structural and phase state formed in construction titanium alloy by radial forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, Galina V.; Danilov, Vladimir I.; Orlova, Dina V.; Zuev, Lev B. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Zavodchikov, Aleksandr S. [Perm State Technical University, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of rod manufacture from construction titanium alloy using radial forging on a high duty machine SXK16 was investigated. The investigations were carried on for titanium rod samples using the methods of metallography, electron transmission microscophy and X-ray analysis. The results obtained are described herein. It is found that radial forging results in the formation of homogeneous fine-grained structure.Using radial forging process, high-quality items are produced. As-worked material has submicrocrystalline globular structure and an optimal α:β phase ratio. Besides, the technology is more cost-effective relative to conventional flow charts. Key words: forging, titanium alloy, fine-grain structure, substructure, pore size.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy of Ti-12Mo-13Nb Alloy aged after heat forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Nathalia Rodrigues; Baldan, Renato; Gabriel, Sinara Borborema

    2014-01-01

    Metastable β-Ti alloys possess mechanical properties, in particular a elastic modulus that depends not only on its composition but also the applied thermomechanical treatments. These alloys require high mechanical strength and a low Young’s modulus to avoid stress shielding. Preliminary studies on the development of Ti- 13Nb-12Mo alloy showed than the better properties were obtained at aged at 500 ° C / 24 h after cold forging , whose microstructure consisted of bimodal α phase in the β matrix. In this work, Ti-12Mo-13Nb alloy was heat forged and aged at 500 deg C for 24h and the microstructure was analyzed by employing X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. According to the results, while the cold forging resulted in bimodal α phase in the β matrix, hot forging resulted in a fine and homogeneous α phase in the β matrix. (author)

  15. Application of CAD/CAE/CAM in forging process: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Baharuddin Abdullah; Hamouda, A.M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Forging can be described as the process in which metal is plastically deformed with application of huge pressure. The process not only changes the shape but also improves the properties of the forged parts due to grain size refinement. Conventionally, the empirical trial and error method has been applied, but recently there are various tools are employed to improved product quality and economic of the process. For example, Computer Aided Design (CAD) is widely used in modeling of the process, while Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools have been utilized in analyzing the process. To physically demonstrate the process, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) such as CNC machine has been exploited. In order to improve forging process efficiency, an integrated system that combines all advantages of CAD, CAM and CAE need to be developed. This paper presents an overview of computer aided simulation such as CAD, CAE and CAM application in forging process. (Author)

  16. INFLUENCE OF COOLING CONDITIONS AND THE SIZE OF STOCK MATERIAL DURING CASTING OF TOOL STEEL ON CAPABILITY TO THE SUBSEQUENT THERMAL HARD-FACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of cooling conditions and the size of stock material of instrumental steel 4H5MF1S on сability to surface hardening after high-temperature tempering at 500–650 °C is investigated. Comparison with hardening of forgings is given.

  17. Kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in 18CrNiMo7-6 steel applied for toothed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toothed wheels constitute essential part of the steel structural elements market. The most often hypereutectoid structural steels forcarburizing are used for toothed wheels. The final producers of toothed wheels are not demanding regarding a microstructure, providedthat the determined requirements will be fulfilled (e.g. metallurgical purity determined by ultrasounds. Therefore delivered forgings can be in an annealed or quenched state. This results from the situation that the final heat treatment or heat-chemical one is being done at one of the last stages of the toothed wheel production. An essential factor allowing to develop the proper heat treatment is the knowledge of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite and its relating to technological conditions, being at the producer disposal, as well as to forging dimensions. Such investigations should be carried out on real melts used for forgings for toothed wheels production together with an analysis of microstructure changes on the forging cross-section. They should be based on calculation methods determining the distribution of cooling rates on its cross-section in dependence of an applied cooling medium.The mentioned above problems in relation to 18CrNiMo7-6 steel - are elucidated in this paper. The aim of the investigations wasthe description of the kinetics of phase transformations of undercooled austenite in this steel. The CCT diagram was constructed for the austenitizing temperature determined on the basis of phase transformations temperatures (the so-called critical points.

  18. Development of strategies for saving energy by temperature reduction in warm forging processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sonia; Santos, Maite; Vadillo, Leire; Idoyaga, Zuriñe; Valbuena, Óscar

    2016-10-01

    This paper is associated to the European policy of increasing efficiency in raw material and energy usage. This policy becomes even more important in sectors consuming high amount of resources, like hot forging industry, where material costs sums up to 50% of component price and energy ones are continuously raising. The warm forging shows a clear potential of raw material reduction (near-net-shape components) and also of energy saving (forging temperature under 1000°C). However and due to the increment of the energy costs, new solutions are required by the forging sector in order to reduce the temperature below 900°C. The reported research is based on several approaches to reduce the forging temperature applied to a flanged shaft of the automotive sector as demonstration case. The developed investigations have included several aspects: raw material, process parameters, tools and dies behavior during forging process and also metallographic evaluation of the forged parts. This paper summarizes analysis of the ductility and the admissible forces of the flanged shaft material Ck45 in as-supplied state (as-rolled) and also in two additional heat treated states. Hot compression and tensile tests using a GLEEBLE 3800C Thermo mechanical simulator have been performed pursuing this target. In the same way, a coupled numerical model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to predict the material flow, the forging loads and the stresses on the tools at lower temperature with the new heat treatments of the raw material. In order to validate the previous development, experimental trials at 850 °C and 750 °C were carried out in a mechanical press and the results were very promising.

  19. Crevice corrosion resistance of high alloyed materials in 3.5 % NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alar, Vesna; Stojanovic, Ivan; Simunovic, Vinko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of applied torque on the corrosion behaviour of W.-Nr. 1.4404 and 1.4462 stainless steels and W.-Nr. 2.4605 and 2.4858 nickel alloys with crevices were investigated using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method. Crevice corrosion (material-to-polytetrafluoroethylene) was tested in 3.5 % NaCl solution at 22 C. The corroded surface was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate similar trends in susceptibility to crevice corrosion with increasing torque. Among the four specimens, the W.-Nr. 1.4404 is the most susceptible to crevice corrosion. (orig.)

  20. Optimization of Thixoforging Parameters for C70S6 Steel Connecting Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkara, İsa Metin; Baydoğan, Murat

    2016-11-01

    A microalloyed steel, C70S6, with a solidification interval of 1390-1479 °C, was thixoforged in the semisolid state in a closed die at temperatures in the range 1400-1475 °C to form a 1/7 scaled-down model of a passenger vehicle connecting rod. Die design and an optimized thixoforging temperature eliminated the excessive flash and other problems during forging. Tension test samples from connecting rods thixoforged at the optimum temperature of 1440 °C exhibited nearly the same hardness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength as conventional hot forged samples but ductility decreased by about 45% due to grain boundary ferrite network formed during cooling from the thixoforging temperature. Thus, C70S6-grade steel can be thixoforged at 1440 °C to form flash-free connecting rods. This conclusion was also validated using FEA analysis.

  1. Reheat cracking in 1/2 CrMoV steel. Heat affected zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, A.D.; Miller, R.C.; Murphy, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Low alloy creep resisting steels are inherently susceptible to cracking during stress relief heat treatment (reheat cracking) though few welds give rise to problems in manufacture or service. Mechanical tests on simulated affected zone structures in CrMoV forgings have shown that cracking occurs when the high temperature ductility is inadequate to accommodate the residual welding strain. Differences in susceptibility result from differences in heat affected zone grain size if the purity level is sufficiently high; reheat cracking may then be avoided by ensuring complete grain refinement during welding. The susceptibility of a lower purity forging was insensitive to grain size; heat affected zone refinement is unlikely to eliminate cracking in such steel. (orig.) [de

  2. Study on isothermal precision forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Debin; Xu, Wenchen; Han, Xiuzhu; Huang, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional rigid-plastic finite element model is established to simulate the isothermal precision forging process of the magnesium alloy bracket based on DEFORM 3D in order to analyze the material flow rule and determine the forging process scheme. Some problems such as underfilling and too large forging pressure are predicted and resolved through optimizing the shapes of the billet successfully. Compared to the initial microstructure, the isothermal-forged microstructure of the alloy refines obviously and amounts of secondary phases precipitate on the matrix during isothermal forging process. In subsequent ageing process, large quantities of secondary phases precipitate from α-Mg matrix with increasing ageing time. The optimal comprehensive mechanical properties of the alloy have been obtained after aged at 473 K, 63 h with the ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength and elongation 380 MPa, 243 MPa and 4.07% respectively, which shows good potential for application of isothermal forging process of rare earth intensifying magnesium alloy.

  3. The relationship between UT reported size and actual size of the defects in rotor forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Un Hak; Kim, Jeong Tae; Park, Yun Sik

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of rotor forgings, it is very important to know the actual size of the defects in the rotor forgings. The determination of the defect size requires the accurate non-destructive measurement. However, there may be some differences between the reported size with the ultrasonic non-destructive testing method and the actual size of defects. These differences may be a severe cause of errors in evaluation of rotor forgings. So, the calculated size with 'Master Curve' considering safety factor, which is usually larger than the reported size, has been used in evaluation of rotor forgings. The relation between the EFBH (Equivalent Flat Bottom Hole) size measured by non-destructive method and the actual size by destructive method in many rotors manufactured at Doosan was investigated. In this investigation 'Master Curve' compensating the differences between UT reported size and actual size of defects in our rotor forgings was obtainable. The applicability of this 'Master Curve' as a way of calculating the actual defect size was also investigated. For the evaluation of rotor forgings, it is expected that this 'Master Curve' may be used to determine the accurate actual size of defects.

  4. The relationship between UT reported size and actual size of the defects in rotor forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Un Hak; Kim, Jeong Tae; Park, Yun Sik

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of rotor forgings, it is very important to know the actual size of the defects in the rotor forgings. The determination of the defect size requires the accurate non-destructive measurement. However, there may be some difference between the reported size with ultrasonic non-destructive testing method and the actual size of defects. These differences may be a severe cause of errors in evaluation of rotor forgings. So, the calculated size with 'Master Curve' considering safety factor, which is usually larger than the reported size, has been used in evaluation of rotor forgings. The relation between the EFBH (Equivalent Flat Bottom Hole) size measured by non-destructive method and the actual size by destructive method in many rotors manufactured at Doosan was investigated. In this investigation, 'Master Curve' compensating the differences between UT reported size and actual size of defects in our rotor forgings was obtainable. The applicability of this 'Master Curve' as a way of calculating the actual defect size was also investigated. For the evaluation of rotor forgings, it is expected that this 'Master Curve' may be used to determine the accurate actual size of defects.

  5. Distribution of Microstructure and Vickers Hardness in Spur Bevel Gear Formed by Cold Rotary Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuhao Zhuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cold rotary forging is a novel metal forming technology which is widely used to produce the high performance gears. Investigating the microstructure and mechanical property of cold rotary forged gears has a great significance in improving their service performance. In this study, the grain morphology in different regions of the spur bevel gear which is processed by cold rotary forging is presented. And the distribution regulars of the grain deformation and Vickers hardness in the transverse and axial sections of the gear tooth are studied experimentally. A three-dimensional rigid-plastic FE model is developed to simulate the cold rotary forging process of a spur bevel gear under the DEFORM-3D software environment. The variation of effective strain in the spur bevel gear has been investigated so as to explain the distribution regulars of the microstructure and Vickers hardness. The results of this research thoroughly reveal the inhomogeneous deformation mechanisms in cold rotary forging of spur bevel gears and provide valuable guidelines for improving the performance of cold rotary forged spur bevel gears.

  6. Structural steels for power generating equipment and heat and chemical heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astaf'ev, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of structural steels for power generating equipment and for reactor engineering, in particular, is elucidated. Noted is utilization of the 15Kh2NMFA steels for the WWER-1000 reactor vessels, the 10GN2MFA steels for steam generators, pressurizers, vessels of the automatic emergency shut down and safety system; the 00Kh12N3DL steel for cast pump vessels and main locking bars. The recommendations on heat treatment of big forgings, for instance, ensuring the necessary complex of mechanical properties are given. Diffusion chromizing with subsequent nitriding of austenitic steels which increase durability of the components in BN reactors more than 4 times, is practised on a large scale

  7. Dome style heavy wall steel casting manufactured by metallic core mould system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shiro; Saeki, Keiji; Hirose, Yutaka; Takebayashi, Kazunari; Kawasaki, Masatoshi

    1986-01-01

    Semi-spherical thick walled steel castings are one of the main products of Nippon Chutanko K.K., but there have been the problems of internal defects peculiar to large thick walled steel castings, and the various improvements have been carried out so far for the manufacturing method, but still some of those remains. Based on the anxiety about the reliability of large steel castings, the conversion to forging has been studied. For the purpose of thoroughly improving the internal quality of thick walled steel castings to compete with forgings, on the basis of the operating experience of chills, the development of the casting techniques changing cores completely to metallic cores has been advanced. After the preliminary experiment using models, a semi-spherical thick walled steel casting mentioned before was manufactured by this metallic core casting method for trial, and the detailed investigation was carried out. As the result, the excellent internal quality was confirmed, accordingly at present, the production is made by this method. The form, dimensions and specification of the semi-spherical thick walled steel castings, the conventional casting plan, the metallic core casting plan, the design of metallic cores, molding and casting, and the examination of the castings made for trial are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  9. Multi-field coupling finite element analysis for determining the influence of temperature field on die service life during precision-forming process of steel synchronizer ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun; Luo, Shan-Ming; Li, Feng-Qiang; Xu, Chen-Bing [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China)

    2017-07-15

    Failure analysis shows that increased die temperature caused by severe plastic deformation of material and heat conduction between hot billet and cavity significantly affects the distortion of gear cavity in steel synchronizer ring forging process. The forging process of steel synchronizer ring and die temperature distribution under different forging conditions are analyzed through finite element method. Simulation results show that severe plastic deformation occurs in the gear cavity. The improvement of lubrication condition results in decreased die temperature. When the initial billet temperature is high, the die temperature is also high. Increasing forging speed in a certain range facilitates the die temperature decrease. The distribution of die temperature in synthetic forming technology is more reasonable than that of one step forging. The synthetic forming technology is adopted in production to reduce the effects of severe plastic deformation caused by die temperature. The ejection mechanism and control system of the double disc friction press are improved to reduce the contact time between the hot billet and cavity. Experimental results show that synthetic forming technology is reasonable, and that the die service life is prolonged.

  10. Multi-field coupling finite element analysis for determining the influence of temperature field on die service life during precision-forming process of steel synchronizer ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jun; Luo, Shan-Ming; Li, Feng-Qiang; Xu, Chen-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Failure analysis shows that increased die temperature caused by severe plastic deformation of material and heat conduction between hot billet and cavity significantly affects the distortion of gear cavity in steel synchronizer ring forging process. The forging process of steel synchronizer ring and die temperature distribution under different forging conditions are analyzed through finite element method. Simulation results show that severe plastic deformation occurs in the gear cavity. The improvement of lubrication condition results in decreased die temperature. When the initial billet temperature is high, the die temperature is also high. Increasing forging speed in a certain range facilitates the die temperature decrease. The distribution of die temperature in synthetic forming technology is more reasonable than that of one step forging. The synthetic forming technology is adopted in production to reduce the effects of severe plastic deformation caused by die temperature. The ejection mechanism and control system of the double disc friction press are improved to reduce the contact time between the hot billet and cavity. Experimental results show that synthetic forming technology is reasonable, and that the die service life is prolonged.

  11. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  12. Establishment of quality system program for the manufacture of nuclear grade steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Toru

    1978-01-01

    Recently, the pressure vessels employed in the fields of nuclear power generation, petroleum refining, and chemical industry tend to be large size and high performance, therefore thick steel plates and forgings of high quality are demanded, and the establishment and maintenance of strict quality assurance system for material production are required. In Mizushima Works, Kawasaki Steel Corp., the installations for large forgings and thick plates were constructed from 1969 to 1976, and the researches on the development of production techniques were forwarded in parallel. A Quality System Certificate (Material) has been granted to Mizushima Works on March 11, 1977, by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for the manufacture of steel plates and forgings of nuclear grade. The quality system manual as the basis of quality assurance activities, the organization for quality assurance, its responsibility and authority, the discrimination of materials, the control of manufacturing processes, the qualification of workers in charge of nondestructive test, welding, heat treatment and others, the management of tests and inspections, the management of products with faults and repairing measures, and internal supervisory system are explained. The wide use of computers is novel in the field of quality system program. (Kako, I.)

  13. Strength and Ductility of Forged 1200 Aluminum Alloy Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With 50% reduction and fine-sized steel particles (512μm) in aluminum alloy, tensile strength dropped to 160MPa without significant decrease in ductility (1.7). Microstructure of cast samples show the presence of fine Fe particles at grain boundaries after annealing with most of the particles in solid solution. Al3Fe and AlFeSi ...

  14. Design and verification of thermomechanical parameters of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, Marek; Śleboda, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermomechanical parameters of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy processing were determined. • The use of the mixture of elemental powders allows reducing manufacturing costs. • Numerical modelling allowed to elaborate favourable parameters of forging. • The industrial trials of hot forging of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy were successful. - Abstract: This work is focused on the design of technology of forging high-quality Ti6Al4V alloy by means of powder metallurgy methods. A mixture of elemental powders, with the chemical composition of that of Ti6Al4V alloy, was used as a starting material for the investigation. Powder mixtures were fully densified by hot compaction under precisely controlled conditions. The mechanical properties of the obtained compacts were examined. The mechanical behaviour of the investigated alloy powder compacts was evaluated by compression test under various thermomechanical conditions using Gleeble simulator. The microstructure of powder compacts as well as P/M alloy samples deformed in compression tests was examined. All data obtained from the experimental tests were applied as boundary conditions for numerical simulation of forging of selected forgings. Basing on the results of both plastometric tests and simulations, thermomechanical parameters of the investigated alloy forging were determined. Designed parameters of forging technology were verified by forging trials performed in industrial conditions. The quality of the obtained forgings was examined by means of computed tomography

  15. Design and verification of thermomechanical parameters of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtaszek, Marek, E-mail: mwojtasz@metal.agh.edu.pl; Śleboda, Tomasz

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Thermomechanical parameters of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy processing were determined. • The use of the mixture of elemental powders allows reducing manufacturing costs. • Numerical modelling allowed to elaborate favourable parameters of forging. • The industrial trials of hot forging of P/M Ti6Al4V alloy were successful. - Abstract: This work is focused on the design of technology of forging high-quality Ti6Al4V alloy by means of powder metallurgy methods. A mixture of elemental powders, with the chemical composition of that of Ti6Al4V alloy, was used as a starting material for the investigation. Powder mixtures were fully densified by hot compaction under precisely controlled conditions. The mechanical properties of the obtained compacts were examined. The mechanical behaviour of the investigated alloy powder compacts was evaluated by compression test under various thermomechanical conditions using Gleeble simulator. The microstructure of powder compacts as well as P/M alloy samples deformed in compression tests was examined. All data obtained from the experimental tests were applied as boundary conditions for numerical simulation of forging of selected forgings. Basing on the results of both plastometric tests and simulations, thermomechanical parameters of the investigated alloy forging were determined. Designed parameters of forging technology were verified by forging trials performed in industrial conditions. The quality of the obtained forgings was examined by means of computed tomography.

  16. Strain-induced grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline Al in trimodal composites during forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B.; Simkin, B.; Majumdar, B.; Smith, C.; Bergh, M. van den; Cho, K.; Sohn, Y.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Grain growth of cryomilled nanocrystalline aluminum during hot forging. ► Use of hollow cone dark field imaging technique in TEM for grain size measurement. ► Grain growth model of strain, strain rate and temperature for forging optimization. - Abstract: Grain growth of nanocrystalline aluminum ( nc Al) in trimodal Al metal-matrix-composites (MMCs) during hot forging was investigated. The nc Al phase formed through cryomilling of inert gas-atomized powders in liquid nitrogen has an average grain size down to 21 nm, exhibits excellent thermal stability. However, substantial grain growth of nc Al up to 63 nm was observed when the Al MMCs were thermo-mechanically processed even at relatively low temperatures. Grain growth of the cryomilled nc Al phase in trimodal Al MMCs after hot forging was documented with respect to temperature ranging from 175 °C to 287 °C, true strain ranging from 0.4 to 1.35 and strain rate ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 s −1 . Hollow cone dark field imaging technique was employed to provide statistically confident measurements of nc Al grain size that ranged from 21 to 63 nm. An increase in forging temperature and an increase in true strain were correlated with an increase in grain size of nc Al. Results were correlated to devise a phenomenological grain growth model for forging that takes strain, strain rate and temperature into consideration. Activation energy for the grain growth during thermo-mechanical hot-forging was determined to be 35 kJ/mol, approximately a quarter of activation energy for bulk diffusion of Al and a half of activation energy for static recrystallization.

  17. The Cracking Mechanism of Ferritic-Austenitic Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stradomski G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the high-alloy, ferritic - austenitic (duplex stainless steels high tendency to cracking, mainly hot-is induced by micro segregation processes and change of crystallization mechanism in its final stage. The article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier papers [1 - 4]. In the range of high temperature cracking appear one mechanism a decohesion - intergranular however, depending on the chemical composition of the steel, various structural factors decide of the occurrence of hot cracking. The low-carbon and low-alloy cast steel casting hot cracking cause are type II sulphide, in high carbon tool cast steel secondary cementite mesh and / or ledeburite segregated at the grain solidified grains boundaries, in the case of Hadfield steel phosphorus - carbide eutectic, which carrier is iron-manganese and low solubility of phosphorus in high manganese matrix. In duplex cast steel the additional factor increasing the risk of cracking it is very “rich” chemical composition and related with it processes of precipitation of many secondary phases.

  18. The effects of microstructure on the temper embrittlement susceptibility of a 2 1/4Cr1Mo forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gage, G.; Edwards, B.C.; Hudson, J.A.

    This paper describes the results of a detailed metallurgical assessment of the microstructural stability and temper embrittlement susceptibility of a 255mm thick 2 1/4Cr1Mo steel forging which was manufactured by a process typical of that used for the tube plates of steam generator units. Ageing effects were studied over the temperature range 450-575 deg. C for times up to 20,000h. Grain boundary compositional changes were monitored using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and microstructural changes determined by both transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Brittle intergranular failure was produced in the lower shelf energy regime and AES analysis showed that this was associated with the grain boundary segregation of phosphorus. This segregation was shown to exhibit equilibrium characteristics and was consistent with that of phosphorus segregation in α-iron. Implying no significant alloy-impurity interaction. The shift in the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature was not uniquely a function of the grain boundary segregation but was shown to be dependent upon both the level of grain boundary solute segregation and the type of precipitate particles present. Heat treatment conditions which promoted the formation of M 6 C precipitates were particularly deleterious to toughness. (author)

  19. Applications of nitrogen-alloyed stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundvall, J.; Olsson, J. [Avesta Sheffield AB (Sweden); Holmberg, B. [Avesta Welding AB (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    A selected number of applications for different types of nitrogen-alloyed stainless steels are described. The applications and grades are based on how nitrogen improves different properties. Conventional austenitic grades of type 304 and 316 can be alloyed with nitrogen to increase the strength and to maintain the austenite stability after cold deformation when exposed to cryogenic temperatures. Such examples are presented. The addition of nitrogen to duplex grades of stainless steel such as 2205 improves the pitting resistance, among other things, and also enables faster reformation of the austenite in the heat affected zone. This means that heavy plate can be welded without pre-heating or post-weld heating. Such applications are covered. Modern highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels almost always contain nitrogen and all reasons for this are covered, i.e. to stabilise the austenite, to increase the strength, and to improve the pitting resistance. The increased strength is the characteristic exemplified the least, since the higher strength of duplex grades is well known, but examples on austenite stability and improved pitting resistance are presented. (orig.)

  20. Heterogeneous multi-layered IF steel with simultaneous high strength and good ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yuhui; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Yonghong; Huang, Tianlin; Wu, Guilin

    2017-07-01

    Multi-layered IF steel samples were designed and fabricated by hot compression followed by cold forging of an alternating stack of cold-rolled and annealed IF steel sheets, with an aim to improve the strength of the material without losing much ductility. A very good combination of strength and ductility was achieved by proper annealing after deformation. Microstructural analysis by electron back-scatter diffraction revealed that the good combination of strength and ductility is related to a characteristic hierarchical structure that is characterized by layered and lamella structures with different length scales.

  1. Temperature and environmentally assisted cracking in low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auten, T.A.; Monter, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) can be defined as the propagation of fatigue cracks in water at rates that are anywhere from 3 to over 40 times the growth rates expected in air. In the present work, five ASTM A 508 Class 2 forgings with ladle and check analyses that ranged from 0.010 to 0.019 wt% S were tested in high purity deaerated water in the temperature range of 93 to 260 C. At 260 C these forgings did not undergo EAC, reinforcing earlier results for two similar forgings. This broad sampling indicates a strong resistance to EAC for this class of forging at 260 C. On the other hand, EAC occurred consistently in the three of these forgings that were tested below 204 C, provided the test conditions were high enough to produce a high baseline fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR), where the baseline FCGR is that expected in air. At 149 C, EAC occurred at test conditions that combined to yield a baseline FCGR greater than ∼2E-6 mm/s. At 204, 121, and 93 C, this ''critical crack growth rate'' appeared to shift to lower baseline values. The EAC that occurred at lower temperatures was a factor of 3 to 12 times higher than baseline air rates, which was not as strong as the effect for higher sulfur steels at 240 to 290 C. Also, no plateau in the growth rates occurred as it does with the higher sulfur steels. In another approach, EAC was induced at 93 and at 260 C by raising the dissolved oxygen content of the water from 15 ppb. In this case, the EAC growth rates decreased to non-EAC levels when the oxygen supply was shut off. The oxygen-related EAC occurred over a broader range of baseline growth rates than found for the EAC driven by the baseline crack tip speed. Again, this can be rationalized by the buildup of sulfur in the crack tip water, which can be associated with the higher corrosion potential of the bulk water

  2. [A method of temperature measurement for hot forging with surface oxide based on infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-cun; Qi, Yan-de; Fu, Xian-bin

    2012-05-01

    High temperature large forging is covered with a thick oxide during forging. It leads to a big measurement data error. In this paper, a method of measuring temperature based on infrared spectroscopy is presented. It can effectively eliminate the influence of surface oxide on the measurement of temperature. The method can measure the surface temperature and emissivity of the oxide directly using the infrared spectrum. The infrared spectrum is radiated from surface oxide of forging. Then it can derive the real temperature of hot forging covered with the oxide using the heat exchange equation. In order to greatly restrain interference spectroscopy through included in the received infrared radiation spectrum, three interference filter system was proposed, and a group of optimal gap parameter values using spectral simulation were obtained. The precision of temperature measurement was improved. The experimental results show that the method can accurately measure the surface temperature of high temperature forging covered with oxide. It meets the requirements of measurement accuracy, and the temperature measurement method is feasible according to the experiment result.

  3. Tailorable Burning Behavior of Ti14 Alloy by Controlling Semi-Solid Forging Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongnan; Yang, Wenqing; Zhan, Haifei; Zhang, Fengying; Huo, Yazhou; Zhao, Yongqing; Song, Xuding; Gu, Yuantong

    2016-08-16

    Semi-solid processing (SSP) is a popular near-net-shape forming technology for metals, while its application is still limited in titanium alloy mainly due to its low formability. Recent works showed that SSP could effectively enhance the formability and mechanical properties of titanium alloys. The processing parameters such as temperature and forging rate/ratio, are directly correlated with the microstructure, which endow the alloy with different chemical and physical properties. Specifically, as a key structural material for the advanced aero-engine, the burn resistant performance is a crucial requirement for the burn resistant titanium alloy. Thus, this work aims to assess the burning behavior of Ti14, a kind of burn resistant alloy, as forged at different semi-solid forging temperatures. The burning characteristics of the alloy are analyzed by a series of burning tests with different burning durations, velocities, and microstructures of burned sample. The results showed that the burning process is highly dependent on the forging temperature, due to the fact that higher temperatures would result in more Ti₂Cu precipitate within grain and along grain boundaries. Such a microstructure hinders the transport of oxygen in the stable burning stage through the formation of a kind of oxygen isolation Cu-enriched layer under the burn product zone. This work suggests that the burning resistance of the alloy can be effectively tuned by controlling the temperature during the semi-solid forging process.

  4. New design of process for cold forging to improve multi-stage gas fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a process that solves the problem of the formation of cracks inside forged gas fittings in the cold forging process that arises from poor forging process design. DEFORM-3D forming software was utilized, and macroscopic experiments with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to investigate the processed structures and the distribution therein of metal flow lines, and to find the internal micro-cracks to determine whether the cold forging process is reasonable. Analytical results herein demonstrate that the stress and strain inside the gas fitting can be elucidated using metal forming software. Together with experimental results, they demonstrate that a concentration of stress damages the workpiece in the forming process. Moreover, as metal flow lines become narrower, the workpiece becomes more easily damaged. Consequently, the improved cold forging process that is described in this work should be utilized to reduce the occurrence of fine cracks and defects. Planning for proper die design and production, increasing the quality of products, and reducing the number of defective products promote industrial competitiveness.

  5. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  6. Identification of Forged Bank of England 20 Gbp Banknotes Using IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnex, Emily

    2014-06-01

    Bank of England notes of 20 GBP denomination have been studied using infrared spectroscopy in order to generate a method to identify forged notes. A principal aim of this work was to develop a method so that a small, compact ATR FTIR instrument could be used by bank workers, police departments or others such as shop assistants to identify forged notes in a non-lab setting. The ease of use of the instrument is the key to this method, as well as the relatively low cost. The presence of a peak at 1400 wn from the blank paper section of a forged note proved to be a successful indicator of the note's illegality for the notes that we studied. Moreover, differences between the spectra of forged and genuine 20 GBP notes were observed in the ν(OH) (ca. 3500 wn), ν(C-H) (ca. 2900 wn) and ν(C=O) (ca. 1750 wn) regions of the IR spectrum recorded for the polymer film covering the holographic strip. In cases where these simple tests fail, we have shown how an infrared microscope can be used to further differentiate genuine and forged banknotes by producing infrared maps of selected areas of the note contrasting inks with background paper. Further to this, with an announcement by the Bank of England to produce polymer banknotes in the future, the work has been extended using Australian polymer banknotes to show that the method would be transferable.

  7. Identification of forged Bank of England £20 banknotes using IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnex, Emily; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

    2014-01-24

    Bank of England notes of £20 denomination have been studied using infrared spectroscopy in order to generate a method to identify forged notes. An aim of this work was to develop a non-destructive method so that a small, compact Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) instrument could be used by bank workers, police departments or others such as shop assistants to identify forged notes in a non-lab setting. The ease of use of the instrument is the key to this method, as well as the relatively low cost. The presence of a peak at 1400 cm(-1) arising from νasym (CO3(2-)) from the blank paper section of a forged note proved to be a successful indicator of the note's illegality for the notes that we studied. Moreover, differences between the spectra of forged and genuine £20 notes were observed in the ν(OH) (ca. 3500 cm(-1)), ν(C-H) (ca. 2900 cm(-1)) and ν(C=O) (ca. 1750 cm(-1)) regions of the IR spectrum recorded for the polymer film covering the holographic strip. In cases where these simple tests fail, we have shown how an infrared microscope can be used to further differentiate genuine and forged banknotes by producing infrared maps of selected areas of the note contrasting inks with background paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of forged Bank of England £20 banknotes using IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnex, Emily; Almond, Matthew J.; Baum, John V.; Bond, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Bank of England notes of £20 denomination have been studied using infrared spectroscopy in order to generate a method to identify forged notes. An aim of this work was to develop a non-destructive method so that a small, compact Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) instrument could be used by bank workers, police departments or others such as shop assistants to identify forged notes in a non-lab setting. The ease of use of the instrument is the key to this method, as well as the relatively low cost. The presence of a peak at 1400 cm-1 arising from νasym (CO32-) from the blank paper section of a forged note proved to be a successful indicator of the note's illegality for the notes that we studied. Moreover, differences between the spectra of forged and genuine £20 notes were observed in the ν(OH) (ca. 3500 cm-1), ν(Csbnd H) (ca. 2900 cm-1) and ν(Cdbnd O) (ca. 1750 cm-1) regions of the IR spectrum recorded for the polymer film covering the holographic strip. In cases where these simple tests fail, we have shown how an infrared microscope can be used to further differentiate genuine and forged banknotes by producing infrared maps of selected areas of the note contrasting inks with background paper.

  9. Influence of alloying elements and density on aqueous corrosion behaviour of some sintered low alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandavel, T.K.; Chandramouli, R.; Karthikeyan, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of low alloy P/M steels under HCl acid pickling environment has been studied. ► Influence of density, strain and alloying elements on the rate of corrosion of the steels has been investigated. ► Residual porosity has significant effect on acid corrosion. ► Addition of the alloying elements Cu, Mo and Ti reduces the corrosion rate significantly. ► Carbide forming elements Mo and Ti improve further the resistance of the steels to aqueous corrosion. -- Abstract: Low alloy steels produced through powder metallurgy route of sintering followed by forging are promising candidate materials for high strength small components. Porosity in such steels poses a real challenge during acid pickling treatment, which is one of the processing steps during manufacturing. The present research work attempts to investigate the mechanism underlying the acid corrosion behaviour of some sintered low alloy steels under induced acid pickling conditions. Sintered-forged low alloy steel samples containing molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu) and titanium (Ti) were subjected to aqueous corrosion attack by immersing the samples in 18% HCl (Hydrochloric acid) solution for 25 h. Sample weight loss and Fe (Iron) loss were estimated for the corroded samples. The morphology of the corroded surfaces was studied through metallography and scanning electron microscopy. Higher porosity alloys underwent enhanced corrosion rates. Both corrosion rate and iron loss are found to decrease linearly with reduction in porosity in all cases of the alloys. The alloying elements Mo, Ti and Cu, when added in combination, have played a complementary role in the reduction of corrosion rate by almost one order of magnitude compared to unalloyed steel. Presence of carbides of the carbide forming elements Mo and Ti played a positive role on the corrosion behaviour of the low alloy steels.

  10. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  11. Improved corrosion resistance of cast carbon steel in sulphur oxides by Alonizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzer, M.; Dzioba, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies on the Alonizing of cast steel and of testing the corrosion resistance of this cast steel in an atmosphere containing 5 to 6% SO 2 + 50% SO 3 at 853 K are described and compared with the results obtained with unalonized cast carbon steel and high-alloy 23Cr-8Ni-2Mo cast steel. The duration of the corrosion tests was 336 hours. The aluminium diffusion layer on cast carbon steel was obtained by holding the specimens in a mixture containing 99% of powered Fe-Al and 1% of NH 4 Cl at 1323 ± 20 K. The holding time was 10 and 20 hours, respectively. The aluminium layer formed on the cast carbon steel was examined by optical microscopy and an X-ray microanalysis. After Alonizing for 10 h the layer had reached a thickness of 950 μm, and contained up to 35% Al. In a mixture of sulphur oxides corrosion rate of the alonized cast carbon steel was by about 600 times lower than of the unalonized cast carbon steel, and by about 50 times lower than that of the 23Cr-8Ni-2Mo cast steel. (orig.) [de

  12. A two-step superplastic forging forming of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-step technology combined forging with superplastic forming has been developed to enhance the forgeability of semi-continuously cast AZ70 magnesium alloy and realize the application of the as-cast magnesium alloy in large deformation bullet shell. In the first step, fine-grained microstructure preforms that are suitable for superplastic forming were obtained by reasonably designing the size of the initial blanks with the specific height-to-diameter ratio, upsetting the blanks and subsequent annealing. In the second step, the heat treated preforms were forged into the end products at the superplastic conditions. The end products exhibit high quality surface and satisfied microstructure. Consequently, this forming technology that not only avoids complicating the material preparation but also utilizes higher strain rate superplastic provides a near net-shaped novel method on magnesium forging forming technology using as-cast billet.

  13. The effects of thermomechanical history on the microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy during forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S., E-mail: 485354@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Li, W. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Coleman, M. [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Johnston, R., E-mail: r.johnston@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Bay Campus, Swansea University, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-21

    The effect of thermo-mechanical history on hot compression behaviour and resulting microstructures of a nickel base superalloy is presented. Hot compression tests were carried out on HAYNES® 282® specimens to varying strains from 0.1 to 0.8. Both single pass and multi-pass tests were completed. 60 min inter-pass times were utilized to accurately replicate industrial forging practices. The effect of dynamic, metadynamic and static recrystallization during inter-pass times on flow stress was investigated. The resulting microstructures were analysed using scanning electron, optical microscopy and EBSD to relate grain size and homogeneity with flow stress data. The study showed a negligible difference between multi-pass and single pass tests for strain increments above 0.2. Therefore, when modelling similar low strain and strain rate forging processes in HAYNES® 282®, previous forging steps can be ignored.

  14. Open die forging of large shafts with porosity defects – physical and numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The aim and scope of this paper is centered to analyze the influence of the geometry of V-shaped dies on the closure of internal centerline porosity defects in ingots during multistep open-die forging. The investigation is performed with small scale physical models made from lead using V-shaped d......The aim and scope of this paper is centered to analyze the influence of the geometry of V-shaped dies on the closure of internal centerline porosity defects in ingots during multistep open-die forging. The investigation is performed with small scale physical models made from lead using V......-shaped dies with 90o and 120o and a reference pair of flat parallel platens. Holes drilled through the center of these preforms are produced to mimic centerline porosity in full scale cast ingots and intermediate rotation of the preforms replicate a multi-stage forging sequence under laboratory testing...

  15. Effect of Friction on Barreling during cold Upset Forging of Aluminium 6082 Alloy Solid cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Amrita; Kiran, C. P.; Suresh, K.

    2018-03-01

    Friction is one of the significant factors in forging operations since it affects metal flow in the die, forming load, strain distribution, tool and die life, surface quality of the product etc. In upset forging, the frictional forces at the die-workpiece interface oppose the outward flow of the material due to which the specimen develops a barrel shape. As a result, the deformation becomes non-uniform or inhomogeneous which is undesirable. Barreling can be reduced by applying effective lubricant on the surface of the platens. The objective of the present work is to study experimentally the effect of various frictional conditions (dry, grease, mineral oil) on barreling during upset forging of aluminum 6082 solid cylinders of different aspect ratio (length/diameter: 0.5, 0.75, 1). The friction coefficients are determined using the ring compression test. Curvature of barrel is determined based on the assumption that the curvature of the barrel follows the geometry of circular arc.

  16. What history reveals about Forge River pollution on Long Island, New York's south shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R Lawrence; Brownawell, B; Wilson, Robert E; O'Connell, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Fifty years ago, the Forge River and Moriches Bay, of Long Island's south shore lagoonal system, achieved notoriety when their polluted conditions were alluded to in a report of the US President's Science Advisory Committee (1965). The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution investigated the bay throughout the 1950s, identifying duck farming as the cause of "objectionable", "highly contaminated" conditions of these waters. Much has changed: duck farming declined; the river was dredged to remove polluted sediments, improve navigation; and barrier island inlets stabilized. Yet, the river remains seasonally eutrophic. Why? This paper reviews what occurred in the Forge River watershed. While governments aggressively curtailed the impacts of duck pollution, they failed to manage development and sewage pollution. The Forge experience indicates that watershed management is a continuing governmental responsibility as development accelerates. Otherwise, we will always be looking for that instantaneous remediation that is usually not affordable and is socially contentious.

  17. The Simulation and Analysis of the Closed Die Hot Forging Process by A Computer Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipakkumar Gohil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work is to study the variation of various parameters such as stress, strain, temperature, force, etc. during the closed die hot forging process. A computer simulation modeling approach has been adopted to transform the theoretical aspects in to a computer algorithm which would be used to simulate and analyze the closed die hot forging process. For the purpose of process study, the entire deformation process has been divided in to finite number of steps appropriately and then the output values have been computed at each deformation step. The results of simulation have been graphically represented and suitable corrective measures are also recommended, if the simulation results do not agree with the theoretical values. This computer simulation approach would significantly improve the productivity and reduce the energy consumption of the overall process for the components which are manufactured by the closed die forging process and contribute towards the efforts in reducing the global warming.

  18. Hegelian Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    Even in our globalized world the notion of national economies remain incredibly strong, just as a considerable part of the literature on transnational governance and globalization continue to rely on a zero-sum perspective concerning the relationship between the national and the transnational. De...... of the European steel industry....

  19. The development of reactor vessel internal heavy forging for 1000 MW pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhifeng; Chen Yongbo; Ding Xiuping; Zhang Lingfang

    2012-01-01

    This Paper introduced the development of Reactor Vessel Internal (RVI) heavy forgings for 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant, analyzed the manufacture difficulties and technical countermeasures. The testing result of the product indicated that the performance of RVI heavy forgings manufactured by Shanghai Heavy Machinery Plant Ld. (SHMP) is outstanding and entirely satisfy the technical requirements for RVI product. (authors)

  20. 31 CFR 370.40 - Can I be held accountable if my negligence contributes to a forged signature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can I be held accountable if my negligence contributes to a forged signature? 370.40 Section 370.40 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... if my negligence contributes to a forged signature? (a) General. If your failure to exercise ordinary...

  1. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-803] Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: As a result of the determinations by the Department of Commerce... on heavy forged hand tools (i.e., [[Page 52314

  2. 77 FR 39997 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools, Finished or Unfinished, With or Without Handles From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-803] Heavy Forged Hand Tools...) (Diamond Sawblades), the Department is notifying the public that the final judgment in this case is not in... review on heavy forged hand tools, finished or unfinished, with or without handles from the People's...

  3. 2017 Accomplishments – Tritium Aging Studies on Stainless Steel Weldments and Heat-Affected Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Michael J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hitchcock, Dale [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McNamara, Joy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Duncan, Andrew [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-31

    In this study, the combined effects tritium and decay helium in forged and welded Types 304L and 21-6-9 stainless steels were studied. To measure these effects, fracture mechanic specimens were thermally precharged with tritium and aged for approximately 17 years to build in decay helium from tritium decay prior to testing. The results are compared to earlier measurements on the same alloys and weldments (4-5, 8-9). In support of Enhanced Surveillance, “Tritium Effects on Materials”, the fracture toughness properties of long-aged tritium-charged stainless-steel base metals and weldments were measured and compared to earlier measurements. The fracture-toughness data were measured by thermally precharging as-forged and as-welded specimens with tritium gas at 34.5 MPa and 350°C and aging for approximately 17 years to build-in decay helium prior to testing. These data result from the longest aged specimens ever tested in the history of the tritium effects programs at Savannah River and the fracture toughness values measured were the lowest ever recorded for tritium-exposed stainless steel. For Type 21-6-9 stainless steel, fracture toughness values were reduced to less than 2-4% of the as-forged values to 41 lbs / in specimens that contained more than 1300 appm helium from tritium decay. The fracture toughness properties of long-aged weldments were also measured. The fracture toughness reductions were not as severe because the specimens did not retain as much tritium from the charging and aging as did the base metals. For Type 304L weldments, the specimens in this study contained approximately 600 appm helium and their fracture toughness values averaged 750 lbs / in. The results for other steels and weldments are reported and additional tests will be conducted during FY18.

  4. Effect of friction time on the microstructure and mechanic properties of friction welded AISI 1040/Duplex stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Kırık

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect on the characteristic microstructure and mechanic properties of friction time on the couple steels AISI 1040/AISI 2205 stainless steel joining with friction welding method was experimentally investigated. Friction welding experiment were carried out in privately prepared PLC controlled continuous friction welding machine by us. Joints were carried out under 1700 rpm rotation speed, with 30MPa process friction pressure, 60MPa forging pressure, 4 second forging pressure and under 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 second friction time, respectively. After friction welding, the bonding interface microstructures of the specimens were examined by SEM microscopy and EDS analysis. After weld microhardness and tensile strength of specimens were carried out. The result of applied tests and observations pointed out that the properties of microstructure were changed with friction time increased. The excellent tensile strength of joint observed on 1700 rpm rotation speed and 3 second friction time sample.

  5. Application of directional solidification ingot (LSD) in forging of PWR reactor vessel heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhamou, C.; Poitrault, I.

    1985-09-01

    Creusot-Loire Industrie uses this type of ingot for manufacture of Framatome 1300 and 1450 MW 4-loop PWR reactor vessel heads. This type of ingot offers a number advantages: improved internal soundness; greater chemical, structural and mechanical homogeneity of the finished part; simplified forging process. After a brief description of the pouring and solidification processes, this paper presents an analysis of the results of examinations performed on the prototype forging, as well as review of results obtained during industrial fabrication of dished heads from LSD ingots. The advantages of the LSD ingot over conventional ingots are discussed in conclusion

  6. The Investigations of Friction under Die Surface Vibration in Cold Forging Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinming, Sha

    investigation, and the second stage is to design and manufacture a more practical tool system which can be used to forging some industrial components with larger capacity. The high performance and power piezoelectric actuator stack as the vibration source will be used for designing the vibration system in order...... to 50% with vibration being applied in forming process. Furthermore, by using finite element method, a series of the simulations of the cold forging process under die surface excitation have been implemented in order to further understand the influence of vibration on friction, especially the influence...

  7. THE FORMING OF MAGNESIUM ALLOY FORGINGS FOR AIRCRAFT AND AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dziubińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and technological aspects of forming magnesium alloy parts for aircraft and automotive applications. The main applications of magnesium alloys in the aircraft and automotive industries are discussed. In addition, the forging technology for magnesium alloys is generally described, with a particular emphasis on wrought alloys. A brief outline of the state of the art in the forging of magnesium alloys is given based on a survey of the specialist literature and the results of previous research by the authors.

  8. Fabrication and properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconductor by upset-forging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho Jung; Kang, Kae Myung; Song, Jin Tae

    1990-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x oxide superconductors was fabricated by sintering process and upset-forging method, respectively, and microstructures and conduction properties were compared. There was no difference in crystal structure the (001) x-ray reflection presumably due to preferred crystal orientation of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor. Furthermore, the grain size of the 123-phase increased as the reduction ratio became larger during the upset-forging. The critical temperature for zero resistivity of both samples was almost the same, i.e., about 90K. These results have demonstrated the potential of producing YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconducting wire or tape effectively using a upset-forging method. The critical current density of the upset-forged sample, however, was lower than that of the sintered one, which fact might be ascribed to microcrack formation during fast upset-forging. (Author)

  9. Shape optimization of metal forming and forging products using the stress equivalent static loads calculated from a virtual model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hwan Hak; Jeong, Seong Beom; Park, Gyung Jin

    2012-01-01

    A shape optimization is proposed to obtain the desired final shape of forming and forging products in the manufacturing process. The final shape of a forming product depends on the shape parameters of the initial blank shape. The final shape of a forging product depends on the shape parameters of the billet shape. Shape optimization can be used to determine the shape of the blank and billet to obtain the appropriate final forming and forging products. The equivalent static loads method for non linear static response structural optimization (ESLSO) is used to perform metal forming and forging optimization since nonlinear dynamic analysis is required. Stress equivalent static loads (stress ESLs) are newly defined using a virtual model by redefining the value of the material properties. The examples in this paper show that optimization using the stress ESLs is quite useful and the final shapes of a forming and forging products are identical to the desired shapes

  10. A Casting Yield Optimization Case Study: Forging Ram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotas, Petr; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2010-01-01

    This work summarizes the findings of multi-objective optimization of a gravity sand-cast steel part for which an increase of the casting yield via riser optimization was considered. This was accomplished by coupling a casting simulation software package with an optimization module. The benefits...... of this approach, recently adopted in foundry industry world wide and based on fully automated computer optimization, were demonstrated. First, analyses of filling and solidification of the original casting design were conducted in the standard simulation environment to determine potential flaws and inadequacies...

  11. Controlling the ductile to brittle transition in Fe–9%Cr ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Martino, S.F., E-mail: s.f.di-martino@lboro.ac.uk; Riddle, N.B.; Faulkner, R.G.

    2013-11-15

    Probably the most important range of materials for consideration as the blanket material for the tokamak design for fusion reactors ITER and DEMO is the high alloy Fe–9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels. Ferritic steels possess exceptional thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion and are resistant to void swelling. Their main drawback is high ductile to brittle transition temperatures, particularly in the oxide dispersion strengthened versions. This paper describes attempts to reduce the DBTT in an un-irradiated ferritic steel by a novel heat treatment procedure. New batches of high alloy Fe–9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (Eurofer) ferritic steel have been produced by a powder metallurgy route, and relatively homogeneous material has been produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Mini-Charpy test specimens were made from materials which had been subjected to a matrix of heat treatments with varying solution treatment temperature (ST), cooling rate from the ST temperature, and tempering treatment. The initial DBTT was in the range of 150–200 °C (423–473 K). Downward shifts of up to approximately 200 °C (473 K) have been observed after solution treatment at 1300 °C (1573 K) followed by slow cooling. This paper describes the microstructure of this material, and discussion is made of the likely microstructural factors needed to produce these DBTT downward shifts.

  12. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are

  13. Characterization of four prestressed concrete reactor vessel liner steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.

    1980-12-01

    A program of fracture toughness testing and analysis is being performed with PCRV steels for HTGRs. This report focuses on background information for the base materials and results of characterization testing, such as tensile and impact properties, chemical composition, and microstructural examination. The steels tested were an SA-508 class 1 forging, two plates of SA-537 class 1, and one plate of SA-537 class 2. Tensile requirements in effect at the time of procurement are met by all four steels. However, the SA-537 class 2 plate would not meet the minimum requirement for yield strength. Drop-weight and Charpy impact tests verified that the RT/sub NDT/ is equal to the NDT for each steel. Charpy impact energies at the NDT range from 40 J (30 ft-lb) for one heat of SA-537 class 1 to 100 J (74 ft-lb) for the SA-537 class 2 plate; upper-shelf energies range from 170 to 310 J (125 to 228 ft-lb) for the same two steels, respectively. The onset of upper-shelf energy occurred at temperatures ranging from 0 to 50 0 C

  14. Effects of Controlled Cooling-Induced Ferrite-Pearlite Microstructure on the Cold Forgeability of XC45 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengliang; Chen, Lunqiang; Zhao, Zhen; Gong, Aijun; Shi, Weibing

    2018-05-01

    The combination of hot/warm and cold forging with an intermediate controlled cooling process is a promising approach to saving costs in the manufacture of automobile parts. In this work, the effects of the ferrite-pearlite microstructure, which formed after controlled cooling, on the cold forgeability of a medium-carbon steel were investigated. Different specimens for both normal and notched tensile tests were directly heated to high temperature and then cooled down at different cooling rates, producing different ferrite volume fractions, ranging from 6.69 to 40.53%, in the ferrite-pearlite microstructure. The yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation rate, percentage reduction of area, and fracture strain were measured by tensile testing. The yield strength, indicating deformation resistance, and fracture strain, indicating formability, were used to evaluate the cold forgeability. As the ferrite volume fraction increased, the cold forgeability of the dual-phase ferritic-pearlitic steel improved. A quantitatively relationship between the ferrite volume fraction and the evaluation indexes of cold forgeability for XC45 steel was obtained from the test data. To validate the mathematical relationship, different tensile specimens machined from real hot-forged workpieces were tested. There was good agreement between the predicted and measured values. Our predictions from the relationship for cold forgeability had an absolute error less than 5%, which is acceptable for industrial applications and will help to guide the design of combined forging processes.

  15. Design of a forging processing route for a gas turbine compressor disc in IMI 834

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    The microstructure in all parts of a modern gas turbine compressor disc must be carefully controlled to give the optimum balance for resistance to creep and fatigue. This is particularly true for advanced titanium alloys such as IMI834. Dynamic recrystallisation during high temperature deformation and static recrystallisation and grain growth during heat treatment, all have a profound effect on the grain structure of the disc. These processes are affected by temperature, rate of deformation and various microstructural features. These may include the size and volume fraction of primary alpha particles and current beta grain size. The construction of a computer model to simulate the forging process must therefore take all these factors into account to fully simulate the mechanical and microstructural behaviour of the material during processing. This requires a complete characterisation of the material to formulate mechanical and microstructural constitutive equations for use in a visco-plastic finite element forging model. Similarly the forging equipment must be fully characterised so that forging processes can be accurately simulated. (orig.)

  16. Near-liquidus forging, partial remelting and thixoforging of an AZ91D + Y magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zude; Chen Qiang; Hu Chuankai; Huang Shuhai; Wang Yuanqing

    2009-01-01

    A new route, near-liquidus forging plus partial remelting, has been developed for obtaining globular microstructures. Firstly, a material is formed by near-liquidus forging for obtaining a fine dendritic microstructure. Globular microstructure can be produced by reheating the material into the semi-solid temperature range for a period of time. In this paper, an AZ91D alloy with the addition of yttrium was prepared by near-liquidus forging. Microstructure evolution during partial remelting was studied at temperatures and for times. Tensile mechanical properties of thixoforged components were also determined. It is shown that the fine dendritic structure firstly evolves into a blocky structure during partial remelting. With prolonged holding time, the blocky structure disintegrates into polygonal solid particles. Prolonging time and increasing temperature promote a faster spheroidization. Good mechanical properties are obtained for the thixoforged AZ91D alloy with the addition of yttrium prepared by near-liquidus forging, with a yield strength of 160.9 MPa and a ultimate tensile strength of 301.7 MPa and a elongation to fracture of 9.734%.

  17. A multi-scale approach for high cycle anisotropic fatigue resistance: Application to forged components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milesi, M.; Chastel, Y.; Hachem, E.; Bernacki, M.; Loge, R.E.; Bouchard, P.O.

    2010-01-01

    Forged components exhibit good mechanical strength, particularly in terms of high cycle fatigue properties. This is due to the specific microstructure resulting from large plastic deformation as in a forging process. The goal of this study is to account for critical phenomena such as the anisotropy of the fatigue resistance in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on industrial forged components. Standard high cycle fatigue criteria usually give good results for isotropic behaviors but are not suitable for components with anisotropic features. The aim is to represent explicitly this anisotropy at a lower scale compared to the process scale and determined local coefficients needed to simulate a real case. We developed a multi-scale approach by considering the statistical morphology and mechanical characteristics of the microstructure to represent explicitly each element. From stochastic experimental data, realistic microstructures were reconstructed in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on it with different orientations. The meshing was improved by a local refinement of each interface and simulations were performed on each representative elementary volume. The local mechanical anisotropy is taken into account through the distribution of particles. Fatigue parameters identified at the microscale can then be used at the macroscale on the forged component. The linkage of these data and the process scale is the fiber vector and the deformation state, used to calculate global mechanical anisotropy. Numerical results reveal an expected behavior compared to experimental tendencies. We proved numerically the dependence of the anisotropy direction and the deformation state on the endurance limit evolution.

  18. Use of Gleeble MAXStrain unit for study of damage development in hot forging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Wang, Chao; Miroux, A.; Recina, V.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Saanouni, K.

    2016-01-01

    The standard Gleeble MAXStrain unit has been modified to allow axial elongation. Analyses indicate that in this way both positive and negative hydrostatic stresses can be achieved during forging simulations, depending on the amount of strain per hit. This opens the way to the study of the effect of

  19. Comparative Thermal Aging Effects on PM-HIP and Forged Inconel 690

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Alexander L.; Bautista, Esteban; Jaye, Elizabeth H.; Vas, Nathaniel L.; Cain, Nathan B.; Mao, Keyou; Gandy, David W.; Wharry, Janelle P.

    2018-03-01

    This study compares thermal aging effects in Inconel 690 (IN690) produced by forging and powder metallurgy with hot isostatic pressing (PM-HIP). Isothermal aging is carried out over 400-800°C for up to 1000 h and then metallography and nanoindentation are utilized to relate grain microstructure with hardness and yield strength. The PM-HIP IN690 maintains a constant grain size through all aging conditions, while the forged IN690 exhibits limited grain growth at the highest aging temperature and longest aging time. The PM-HIP IN690 exhibits comparable mechanical integrity as the forged material throughout aging: hardness and yield strength are unchanged with 100 h aging, but increase after 1000 h aging at all temperatures. In both the PM-HIP and forged IN690, the Hall-Petch relationship for Ni-based superalloys predicts yield strength for 0-100 h aged specimens, but underestimates yield strength in the 1000 h aged specimens because of thermally induced precipitation.

  20. eFORGE : A Tool for Identifying Cell Type-Specific Signal in Epigenomic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeze, Charles E.; Paul, Dirk S.; van Dongen, Jenny; Butcher, Lee M.; Ambrose, John C.; Barrett, James E.; Lowe, Robert; Rakyan, Vardhman K.; Iotchkova, Valentina; Frontini, Mattia; Downes, Kate; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Laperle, Jonathan; Jacques, Pierre-ETienne; Bourque, Guillaume; Bergmann, Anke K.; Siebert, Reiner; Vellenga, Edo; Saeed, Sadia; Matarese, Filomena; Martens, Joost H. A.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Herrero, Javier; Birney, Ewan; Dunham, Ian; Beck, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) provide an alternative approach for studying human disease through consideration of non-genetic variants such as altered DNA methylation. To advance the complex interpretation of EWAS, we developed eFORGE (http://eforge.cs.ucl.ac.uk/), a new stand-alone and

  1. The Ties That Bind: How Social Capital Is Forged and Forfeited in Teacher Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridwell-Mitchell, E. N.; Cooc, North

    2016-01-01

    The effects of social capital on school improvement make it important to understand how teachers forge, maintain, or forfeit collegial relationships. Two common explanations focused on formal organizational features and individual characteristics do not address how social capital accrues from informal dynamics of teachers' interactions in…

  2. Fatigue properties of high-strength materials used in cold-forging tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, P.; Skov-Hansen, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work classical analytical models are used to describe the static stress–strain curves, low-cycle fatigue properties and fatigue crack growth behaviour of high-strength materials for use in tools for metal-forming processes such as cold forging and extrusion. The paper describes the...

  3. Social Work and Engineering Collaboration: Forging Innovative Global Community Development Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorie J.

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary programs in schools of social work are growing in scope and number. This article reports on collaboration between a school of social work and a school of engineering, which is forging a new area of interdisciplinary education. The program engages social work students working alongside engineering students in a team approach to…

  4. Fabrication Improvement of Cold Forging Hexagonal Nuts by Computational Analysis and Experiment Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products so that cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine parts, such as hexagonal nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyze the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the differences between the experimental results and the equation that is built into the computer simulation software. At the same time, the metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging characteristics of hexagonal nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses to realize the forging load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hexagonal nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.

  5. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...

  6. Numerical modeling of axi-symmetrical cold forging process by ``Pseudo Inverse Approach''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halouani, A.; Li, Y. M.; Abbes, B.; Guo, Y. Q.

    2011-05-01

    The incremental approach is widely used for the forging process modeling, it gives good strain and stress estimation, but it is time consuming. A fast Inverse Approach (IA) has been developed for the axi-symmetric cold forging modeling [1-2]. This approach exploits maximum the knowledge of the final part's shape and the assumptions of proportional loading and simplified tool actions make the IA simulation very fast. The IA is proved very useful for the tool design and optimization because of its rapidity and good strain estimation. However, the assumptions mentioned above cannot provide good stress estimation because of neglecting the loading history. A new approach called "Pseudo Inverse Approach" (PIA) was proposed by Batoz, Guo et al.. [3] for the sheet forming modeling, which keeps the IA's advantages but gives good stress estimation by taking into consideration the loading history. Our aim is to adapt the PIA for the cold forging modeling in this paper. The main developments in PIA are resumed as follows: A few intermediate configurations are generated for the given tools' positions to consider the deformation history; the strain increment is calculated by the inverse method between the previous and actual configurations. An incremental algorithm of the plastic integration is used in PIA instead of the total constitutive law used in the IA. An example is used to show the effectiveness and limitations of the PIA for the cold forging process modeling.

  7. Comparison between the X-ray fluorescence technique and inductive coupling plasma for the analysis of high alloys in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi Neto, A.; Casteletti, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The benefits of the Solid Sampling ICP (55 ICP) technique for the analysis of high alloys are presented and some facts of this new technique are discussed. The global calibration of nickel base alloys is used to illustrate the powerful capability of this method in fast chemical analyses. (author) [pt

  8. Prediction of Ductile Fracture Behaviors for 42CrMo Steel at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Liu, Yan-Xing; Liu, Ge; Chen, Ming-Song; Huang, Yuan-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The ductile fracture behaviors of 42CrMo steel are studied by hot tensile tests with the deformation temperature range of 1123-1373 K and strain rate range of 0.0001-0.1 s-1. Effects of deformation temperature and strain rate on the flow stress and fracture strain of the studied steel are discussed in detail. Based on the experimental results, a ductile damage model is established to describe the combined effects of deformation temperature and strain rate on the ductile fracture behaviors of 42CrMo steel. It is found that the flow stress first increases to a peak value and then decreases, showing an obvious dynamic softening. This is mainly attributed to the dynamic recrystallization and material intrinsic damage during the hot tensile deformation. The established damage model is verified by hot forging experiments and finite element simulations. Comparisons between the predicted and experimental results indicate that the established ductile damage model is capable of predicting the fracture behaviors of 42CrMo steel during hot forging.

  9. Analysis of hot rolling and hot forging effects on mechanical properties and microstructure of ZrNbMoGe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AH Ismoyo; Parikin; Bandriyana

    2014-01-01

    Research on formation technique by a combined method of rolling and forging has been carried out in order to improve the mechanical properties of ZrNbMoGe alloy to be used as fuel cladding in NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) application. The effects of rolling and forging were analyzed several tests. The tests were conducted for zirconium alloy specimen with a composition of (in % wt.) 97% Zr, 0,5% Mo, 2% Nb and 0,5% Ge, where the specimen was melted with an arc-furnace. The hot rolling and forging were conducted at 900 °C and 950 °C respectively. Hardness test was carried out by using a microhardness testing machine, while microstructure examination and crystal structure analysis were conducted with an optical microscope and an X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the hardness of the alloy increase from 141.21 HV (starting material) to 210.47 HV (hot rolled material) and 365.75 HV (hot forged material). Texturing phenomenon is clearly figured on the microstructure due to hot rolling and forging process. Analysis by diffractogram also indicates that the hot rolling and forging process has influence on the crystal orientation of dominant preferred direction in the reflection plane of (10ī1), recorded from the rise of intensity counting from about 2500 to 3000. In summary, hot forging and rolling process can change the mechanical properties (hardness and texture) and microstructure of materials. (author)

  10. Fatigue Life Estimation of Medium-Carbon Steel with Different Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyou Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Medium-carbon steel is commonly used for the rail, wire ropes, tire cord, cold heading, forging steels, cold finished steel bars, machinable steel and so on. Its fatigue behavior analysis and fatigue life estimation play an important role in the machinery industry. In this paper, the estimation of fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness using established S-N and P-S-N curves is presented. To estimate the fatigue life, the effect of the average surface roughness on the fatigue life of medium-carbon steel has been investigated using 75 fatigue tests in three groups with average surface roughness (Ra: 0.4 μm, 0.8 μm, and 1.6 μm, respectively. S-N curves and P-S-N curves have been established based on the fatigue tests. The fatigue life of medium-carbon steel is then estimated based on Tanaka-Mura crack initiation life model, the crack propagation life model using Paris law, and material constants of the S-N curves. Six more fatigue tests have been conducted to validate the presented fatigue life estimation formulation. The experimental results have shown that the presented model could estimate well the mean fatigue life of medium-carbon steel with different surface roughness.

  11. Application of Different Extraction Methods for Investigation of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Clusters in Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Janis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of nonmetallic inclusions is of importance for the production of clean steel in order to improve the mechanical properties. In this respect, a three-dimensional (3D investigation is considered to be useful for an accurate evaluation of size, number, morphology of inclusions, and elementary distribution in each inclusion particle. In this study, the application of various extraction methods (chemical extraction/etching by acid or halogen-alcohol solutions, electrolysis, sputtering with glow discharge, and so on for 3D estimation of nonmetallic Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in high-alloyed steels was examined and discussed using an Fe-10 mass% Ni alloy and an 18/8 stainless steel deoxidized with Al. Advantages and limitations of different extraction methods for 3D investigations of inclusions and clusters were discussed in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D observations on a polished cross section of metal samples.

  12. Geologic setting of the proposed Fallon FORGE Site, Nevada: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulds, James E.; Blankenship, Douglas; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Sabin, Andrew; Nordquist, Josh; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kennedy, Mack; Siler, Drew; Robinson-Tait, Ann; Williams, Colin F.; Drakos, Peter; Calvin, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    The proposed Fallon FORGE site lies within and adjacent to the Naval Air Station Fallon (NASF) directly southeast of the town of Fallon, Nevada, within the large basin of the Carson Sink in west-central Nevada. The site is located on two parcels that include land owned by the NASF and leased and owned by Ormat Nevada, Inc. The Carson Sink in the vicinity of the Fallon site is covered by Quaternary deposits, including alluvial fan, eolian, and lacustrine sediments. Four wells penetrate the entire Neogene section and bottom in Mesozoic basement. Late Miocene to Quaternary basin-fill sediments are 0.5 to >1 km thick and overlie Oligocene-Miocene volcanic and lesser sedimentary rocks. The volcanic section is 0.5 to 1.0 km thick and dominated by Miocene mafic lavas. The Neogene section rests nonconformably on heterogeneous Mesozoic basement, which consists of Triassic-Jurassic metamorphic rocks intruded by Cretaceous granitic plutons. The structural framework is dominated by a gently west-tilted half graben cut by moderately to steeply dipping N- to NNEstriking normal faults that dip both east and west. Quaternary faults have not been observed within the proposed FORGE site. Fallon was selected for a potential FORGE site due to its extensional tectonic setting, abundance of available data, existing infrastructure, and documented temperatures, permeability, and lithologic composition of potential reservoirs that fall within the ranges specified by DOE for FORGE. Since the early 1970s, more than 45 wells have been drilled for geothermal exploration within the area. Four exploration wells within the FORGE site are available for use in the project. Several additional wells are available for monitoring outside the central FORGE site within the NASF and Ormat lease area, including numerous temperature gradient holes. There is an existing, ten-station micro-seismic earthquake (MEQ) array that has been collecting data since 2001; the MEQ array can be expanded to encompass the

  13. The microstructure of steels and cast irons. History and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand-Charre, M.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructure of steels and cast irons is a monograph on the history and interpretation of the microstructure of steels and iron alloys. Its 400 pages are illustrated by a lot of micrographies of commercial alloys or model alloys at each the available scales with the modern investigations means of electronic microscopy and the optical macro/microscopy. The first part of this book is an historical introduction on the development of the metallurgical structures manually forged for the iron knowledge, in particular the famous structures called damask. The second part of this book deals with the fundamental notions in order to give all the reasoning bases required on the phases equilibria and the transformations kinetics. Concerning the phases equilibria, a lot of diagrams are included. The reading of ternary systems is analyzed for six systems representative of the reactions encountered in steels, Fe-Cr-C, Fe-Ni-Cr, Fe-Mn-S, Fe-Co-Cu, Fe-Mo-Cr and Fe-C-V. The solidification structures are studied through all the classical cases but in others too as the markings of peritectic or metatectic reactions or transformations in series. Solid phases transformations are illustrated and commented with recent interpretations, in particular in the case of bainitic structures. A lot of references allow to deepen the non developed aspects. The third part is a guide to understand and discuss on scientific bases the role of alloy elements and those of different specific treatments resulting to the optimisation of steels and iron casts, to define the micrographic characteristics in relation with the use properties. Steels are classified in series for the very low alloy steels to steels with high amounts in alloy elements resulting of a very fine composition adjustment. Cast irons are presented naturally according to their microstructure, classified in white irons, lamellar grey and nodular irons. (O.M.)

  14. Investigation of effects of boron additives and heat treatment on carbides and phase transition of highly alloyed duplex cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasgin, Yahya; Kaplan, Mehmet; Yaz, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The effect of boron additives and heat treatment on the microstructural morphology of the transition zone in a duplex cast iron, which has an outer shell of white cast iron (with a high Cr-content and containing boron additives) and an inner side composed of normal gray cast iron, has been investigated. For this purpose, two experimental materials possessing different compositions of white-gray duplex cast iron were produced. Subsequently, metallographic investigations were carried out to study the effect of heat treatment applied to the experimental materials by using the scanning electron microscopy technique, along with optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, the formation of various phases and carbide composites in the samples and their effects on the hardness were also investigated using X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of investigations, and hardness showed that addition of the elements Cr and B to high-alloyed white cast iron affected carbide formation significantly, while simultaneously hardening the microstructure, and consequently the carbide present in the transition area of white-gray cast iron was spread out and became thinner. However, B additives and heat treatment did not cause any damage to the transition region of high Cr-content duplex cast iron.

  15. Electrocatalytic properties of carbon-supported Pt-Ru catalysts with the high alloying degree for formic acid electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu.; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China)

    2010-07-01

    A series of carbon-supported bimetallic Pt-Ru catalysts with high alloying degree and different Pt/Ru atomic ratio have been prepared by a chemical reduction method in the H{sub 2}O/ethanol/tetrahydrofuran (THF) mixture solvent. The structural and electronic properties of catalysts are characterized using X-ray reflection (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on these Pt-Ru nanoparticles are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The results of electrochemical measurements illustrate that the alloying degree and Pt/Ru atomic ratio of Pt-Ru catalyst play an important role in the electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Ru/C catalyst for formic acid electrooxidation due to the bifunctional mechanism and the electronic effect. Since formic acid is an intermediate in the methanol electrooxidation on Pt electrode in acidic electrolyte, the observation provides an additional fundamental understanding of the structure-activity relationship of Pt-Ru catalyst for methanol electrooxidation. (author)

  16. Rolling contact fatigue of low hardness steel for slewing ring application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Jason A.

    This thesis discusses the rolling contact fatigue of steel utilized in anti-friction bearings, also referred to as slewing bearings. These slewing bearings are utilized in cranes, excavators, wind turbines and other similar applications. Five materials composed of two different material types were tested. The two material types were high carbon steel and medium carbon alloy steel. The test specimens were processed from forged rolled rings. Two machines were evaluated a ZF-RCF and 3-Ball test machine. The evaluation was to determine which machine can best simulate the application in which the slewing bearing is utilized. Initially, each specimen will be pretested to determine the appropriate testing direction from within the forged rolled rings. Pretesting is needed in order to establish consistent failure modes between samples. The primary goal of the test is to understand the life differences and failure modes between high carbon steel and medium carbon alloy steel. The high carbon steel ring was cut into two sections, one of which was stress relieved and the other was quenched and tempered. The medium carbon alloy steel was cut into three sections, all of which were quenched and tempered to different hardness levels. The test program was dynamically adjusted based upon the previous sample's life and load. An S-N curve was then established from the 5 materials tested at two target loads. The samples were run until the first sign of a crack was detected by an eddy current. At the completion of the rolling contact test, select sample's microstructure was evaluated for crack initiation location. The selected samples were divided into four groups which represent different maximum shear stress levels. These samples displayed indications of material deformation in which the high carbon steel experienced an increased amount of cold work when compared to medium carbon alloy steel. The life of the high carbon steel was nearly equivalent to the expected life of the medium

  17. Effects of Material Combinations on Friction and Wear of PEEK/Steel Pairs under Oil-Lubricated Sliding Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Hashimoto, Y.; Kawabata, M.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of material combinations on the friction and wear of PEEK/steel pairs are studied using blocks on a ring wear tester under oil-lubricated conditions. The rings are made of forged steel (SF540A) and a PEEK composite filled with 30 wt% carbon fibre. The surface roughness is 0.15 and 0.32 μm Ra, respectively. The blocks are also made of the same materials as the rings: the forged steel and the PEEK composite. Finished with an emery paper of #600, the surface roughness is 0.06 and 0.23 μm Ra, respectively. Sliding tests for 4 combinations of two materials are conducted. The load is increased up to 1177 N at 1 N s-1. The sliding velocity is varied in the range of 10 to 19 m s-1. In some cases, the ring temperature is measured with a thermocouple with a diameter of 0.5 mm, located 1 mm below the frictional surface. Results indicate that the forged steel’s ring and the PEEK composite’s block is the best combination among 4 combinations, because seizure does not occur under the increasing load up to 1177 N at the sliding velocity of 10-19 m s-1. In contrast, seizure occurs at 15 and 19 m s-1 in the other three combinations. However, the PEEK composite’s ring shows a lower friction coefficient as compared to the forged steel’s ring, when seizure does not occur. Wear scars are observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The seizure mechanisms are then discussed.

  18. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  19. Segregation Behaviour of Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Mn-Al Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grajcar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the macro- and microsegregation of alloying elements in the new-developed Mn-Al TRIP steels, which belong to the third generation of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS used in the automotive industry. The segregation behaviour both in the as-cast state and after hot forging was assessed in the macro scale by OES and by EDS measurements in different structural constituents. The structural investigations were carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. A special attention was paid to the effect of Nb microaddition on the structure and the segregation of alloying elements. The tendency of Mn and Al to macrosegregation was found. It is difficult to remove in Nb-free steels. Microsegregation of Mn and Al between austenite and ferritic structural constituents can be removed.

  20. Strain-rate dependent fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high-temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jibo [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wu, Xinqiang, E-mail: xqwu@imr.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei; Wang, Xiang [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Materials and Safety Assessment, Liaoning Key Laboratory for Safety and Assessment Technique of Nuclear Materials, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Sun, Haitao [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, SEPA, Beijing 100082 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of forged 316LN stainless steel was investigated in high-temperature water. It was found that the fatigue life of 316LN stainless steel decreased with decreasing strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004 %s{sup −1} in 300 °C water. The stress amplitude increased with decreasing strain rate during fatigue tests, which was a typical characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and slip bands. The interactive effect between dynamic strain aging and electrochemical factors on fatigue crack initiation is discussed. - Highlights: •The fatigue lives of 316LN stainless steel decrease with decreasing strain rate. •Fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and persistent slip bands. •Dynamic strain aging promoted fatigue cracks initiation in high-temperature water.

  1. Design of aging-resitant martensitic stainless steels for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozar, R.; Meyzaud, Y.

    1983-06-01

    With the exception of AISI 403 or 410 grades, the use of high strength martensitic stainless steels in PWR is poorly developped because these materials, like ferritic stainless steels, become embrittled by the precitation of a b.c.c. chromium-rich phase during aging at the operating temperature (290 to 350 0 C). The influence of alloying elements and microstructure on the aging behavior of forged low-carbon martensitic stainless steels containing 12 to 16% Cr, 0 to 2% Mo and 0 to 8% Ni was determined during accelerated aging at 450 0 C. Quantitative relationships were derived between the maximum increase in hardness, the maximum shift in CVN transition temperature and the chemical composition (Cr, Mo, C) and microstructure

  2. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y. [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets.

  3. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets

  4. Effect of high temperature tempering on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the modified 410 martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabruri, Efendi; Pasaribu, Rahmat Ramadhan; Sugandi, Moh. Tri; Sunardi

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the influence of high tempering temperature and holding time on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the recently modified 410 martensitic stainless steel. The modified steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging, quenching and tempering. The hardness and tensile strength of the steels decreased with increasing tempering temperature from 600 to 700 °C and with increasing holding time from 1 to 6 h. Based on microstructural images, it was observed the coarsening of lath martensite and of the metal carbides as well. However, a relatively high hardness and strength were still exibited by this steel after tempering at a such high temperature of 600-700 °C. The partition of Mo into the carbides identified by EDS analysis may correlate with this situation.

  5. Corrosion resistant steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubchenko, A.S.; Borisov, V.P.; Latyshev, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Corrosion resistant steel for production of sheets and tubes containing C, Mn, Cr, Si, Fe is suggested. It is alloyed with vanadium and cerium for improving tensile properties and ductility. The steel can be melted by a conventional method in electric-arc or induction furnaces. The mentioned steel is intended to be used as a substitute for nickel-bearing austenitic steels

  6. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  7. Characterization of steel 70XL used in the manufacture of balls for the clinker's milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eider Gresesqui-Lobaina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with the wear of the balls used for the grinding of the clinker in the processes of obtaining cement. Three specimens of different steel were made: one of steel AISI 4140, with which balls are forged for the milling process; another 70XL steel (70 XL with normalized, tempered and tempered thermal treatments; and the third, of equal material that the second but without treatment. For the metallographic observation the samples were made with dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 8 mm in thickness, revealing for AISI 4140 steel a structure of martensitic type with some presence of acicular ferrite. For the 70XL steel without heat treatment the presence of ferrite and cementite was observed, while the steel 70XL with heat treatment showed in the limits of free cementite grain in a pearly matrix, which resulted in a higher hardness (up to HRC 59 , 8 and lower gravimetric wear compared to other materials. Therefore it is recommended as the most suitable for the manufacture of balls for grinding minerals 70XL steel with heat treatment.

  8. Standard test method for electrochemical critical pitting temperature testing of stainless steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for the evaluation of the resistance of stainless steel and related alloys to pitting corrosion based on the concept of the determination of a potential independent critical pitting temperature (CPT). 1.2 This test methods applies to wrought and cast products including but not restricted to plate, sheet, tubing, bar, forgings, and welds, (see Note 1). Note 1—Examples of CPT measurements on sheet, plate, tubing, and welded specimens for various stainless steels can be found in Ref (1). See the research reports (Section 14). 1.3 The standard parameters recommended in this test method are suitable for characterizing the CPT of austenitic stainless steels and other related alloys with a corrosion resistance ranging from that corresponding to solution annealed UNS S31600 (Type 316 stainless steel) to solution annealed UNS S31254 (6 % Mo stainless steel). 1.4 This test method may be extended to stainless steels and other alloys related to stainless steel that have a CPT...

  9. Microstructural Evolution of AerMet100 Steel Coating on 300M Steel Fabricated by Laser Cladding Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Jia; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Huaming

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the process of coating AerMet100 steel on forged 300M steel with laser cladding was investigated, with a thorough analysis of the chemical composition, microstructure, and hardness of the substrate and the cladding layer as well as the transition zone. Results show that the composition and microhardness of the cladding layer are macroscopically homogenous with the uniformly distributed bainite and a small amount of retained austenite in martensite matrix. The transition zone, which spans approximately 100 μm, yields a gradual change of composition from the cladding layer to 300M steel matrix. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) can be divided into three zones: the sufficiently quenched zone (SQZ), the insufficiently quenched zone (IQZ), and the high tempered zone (HTZ). The SQZ consists of martensitic matrix and bainite, as for the IQZ and the HTZ the microstructures are martensite + tempered martensite and tempered martensite + ferrite, respectively. These complicated microstructures in the HAZ are caused by different peak heating temperatures and heterogeneous microstructures of the as-received 300M steel.

  10. A coupled thermo-mechanical pseudo inverse approach for preform design in forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anoop Ebey; Abbes, Boussad; Li, Yu Ming; Abbes, Fazilay; Guo, Ying-Qiao; Duval, Jean-Louis

    2017-10-01

    Hot forging is a process used to form difficult to form materials as well as to achieve complex geometries. This is possible due to the reduction of yield stress at high temperatures and a subsequent increase in formability. Numerical methods have been used to predict the material yield and the stress/strain states of the final product. Pseudo Inverse Approach (PIA) developed in the context of cold forming provides a quick estimate of the stress and strain fields in the final product for a given initial shape. In this paper, PIA is extended to include the thermal effects on the forging process. A Johnson-Cook thermo-viscoplastic material law is considered and a staggered scheme is employed for the coupling between the mechanical and thermal problems. The results are compared with available commercial codes to show the efficiency and the limitations of PIA.

  11. Tensile properties of a dual-axial forged Ti–Fe–Cu alloy containing boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadorozhnyy, V.Yu., E-mail: zadorozhnyyvlad@gmail.com [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shchetinin, I.V.; Chirikov, N.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky prospect, 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V. [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    In the present work we introduce a micro/nano-structured α+β Ti-based low-alloy produced by the tilt-casting method and subjected to subsequent thermo-mechanical treatment. After hot dual-axial forging at 900 °C, subsequent heating at 700 °C and water quenching a Ti{sub 94}Fe{sub 3}Cu{sub 3}+1000 ppm of boron alloy, containing inexpensive alloying elements, showed an ultimate tensile strength value of about 950 MPa and percentage elongation of about 5.2%. It is shown that the intensive forging treatment and subsequent heat treatment are leading to significantly improved mechanical properties of such an alloy compared to the as-cast state.

  12. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Yang, Yinfei, E-mail: yyfgoat@nuaa.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Li, Liang [College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui [Xi’an Aircraft Industrial (Group) Co. Ltd., Xi’an 710000 (China)

    2015-09-17

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%.

  13. The Forging of a White Gay Aesthetic at the Saint, 1980–84

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on original interviews with key protagonists and documentary research, the article examines the way in which the DJs who worked at the Saint forged a white gay aesthetic across the first half of the 1980s. A private party located in the East Village, New York, the Saint attracted a privileged white male crowd, and this group's position within the emerging culture of neoliberalism, along with the deepening impact of the AIDS epidemic, encouraged its spinners to sever their ties with sounds that were associated with blackness. However, if Saint DJs rejected a high proportion of records that were being released by New York's independents, and also snubbed Chicago house when it broke in 1985, their forging of an aesthetic that emphasised seamless transitions, often between records that contained similar sonic qualities, preempted the style of mixing that would be popularised in house music culture.

  14. Design of the Driving and Clamp Rotation Hydraulic Control System for the Heavy Load Forging Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Geqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The manipulator was equipped with full hydraulic drive. We designed the hydraulic systems for the driving and clamping rotation. We used a fuzzy PID control strategy to design the electro-hydraulic proportional control system. We built a united simulation model based on the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and AMEsim. A mathematical model of the system was also established. We did separate simulations of the system’s dynamic characteristics for fast forging and normal forging working conditions. The parameters were optimized. The field test shows that the steady-state error of the hydraulic system is small and the system response is fast. The system’s rapid response speed, high precision, and stability under heavy load were realized.

  15. Assessment of residual stress of 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging using the contour method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yinfei; Li, Liang; Chen, Bo; Tian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The cold-compression stress relief process has been used to reduce the quench-induced stresses in high-strength aerospace aluminum alloy forgings. However, this method does not completely relieve the stress. Longitudinal residual stresses in 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy forging were measured with contour method. The measuring procedure of the contour method including specimen cutting under clamps with a wire electrical discharge machine, contour measurement of the cut surface with a laser scanner, careful data processing and elastic finite element analysis was introduced in detail. In addition, multiple cuts were used to map cross sectional stress at different cut surfaces. Finally, the longitudinal residual stress throughout the cut plane was mapped, and through thickness longitudinal stress profiles were also analyzed. Investigated results suggest that spatial variation of stress distribution can be attributed to the non-uniform plastic deformation of the cold-compression stress relief process. The overall reduction of peak stress magnitudes is approximately 43–79%

  16. Modelling the void deformation and closure by hot forging of ingot castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Kotas, Petr

    2012-01-01

    by mechanical deformation. The aim of this paper is to analyze numerically if and to what degree the voids areclosed by the forging. Using the commercial simulation software ABAQUS, both simplified model ingots and physically manufactured ingots containing prescribed void distributions are deformed and analyzed....... The analysis concernsboth the void density change and the location of the voids in the part after deformation. The latter can be important for the subsequent reliability of the parts, for instance regarding fatigue properties. The analysis incorporates the Gurson yield criterion for metals containing voids...... and focuses on how the voids deform depending on their size and distribution in the ingot as well ashow the forging forces are applied....

  17. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  18. FLANDES, Flange Design for He Circuits by Taylor-Forge Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Flange design for helium circuits. 2 - Method of solution: This is a flange design programme based on the Taylor forge method with an additional calculation of flange rotation and bolt load change during the application of internal pressure. The method relates only to the integral hub type of flange, with or without a secondary O-ring seal but will deal also with the flange and cover plate case

  19. The investigation of crimes refering to forgery of documents and possession of forged documents

    OpenAIRE

    Kotovienė, Danutė

    2011-01-01

    THE INVESTIGATION OF CRIMES REFERING TO FORGERY OF DOCUMENTS AND POSSESSION OF FORGED DOCUMENTS Constantly improving informational technologies more and more get into our daily routine: nowadays it is widely spread internet payments, purchases, signing on-line agreements using electronic signatures. However, paper documents or other made of appropriate materials, which have material evidence, still have a very significant impact on our life. Its convey different aspects of states’ public work...

  20. Fracture-tough, corrosion-resistant bearing steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental principles allowing design of stainless bearing steels with enhanced toughness and stress corrosion resistance has involved both investigation of basic phenomena in model alloys and evaluation of a prototype bearing steel based on a conceptual design exercise. Progress in model studies has included a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) study of the kinetics of interfacial segregation of embrittling impurities which compete with the kinetics of alloy carbide precipitation in secondary hardening steels. These results can define minimum allowable carbide precipitation rates and/or maximum allowable free impurity contents in these ultrahigh strength steels. Characterization of the prototype bearing steel designed to combine precipitated austenite transformation toughening with secondary hardening shows good agreement between predicted and observed solution treatment response including the nature of the high temperature carbides. An approximate equilibrium constraint applied in the preliminary design calculations to maintain a high martensitic temperature proved inadequate, and the solution treated alloy remained fully austenitic down to liquid nitrogen temperature rather than transforming above 200 C. The alloy can be martensitically transformed by cryogenic deformation, and material so processed will be studied further to test predicted carbide and austenite precipitation behavior. A mechanistically-based martensitic kinetic model was developed and parameters are being evaluated from available kinetic data to allow precise control of martensitic temperatures of high alloy steels in future designs. Preliminary calculations incorporating the prototype stability results suggest that the transformation-toughened secondary-hardening martensitic-stainless design concept is still viable, but may require lowering Cr content to 9 wt. pct. and adding 0.5 to 1.0 wt. pct. Al. An alternative design approach based on strain-induced martensitic transformation during

  1. Wear Improvement of Tools in the Cold Forging Process for Long Hex Flange Nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shao-Yi; Shih, Po-Yueh

    2015-09-25

    Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been widely used in automotive production, manufacturing, aviation and 3C (Computer, Communication, and Consumer electronics). Despite its extensive use in fastener forming and die design, operator experience and trial and error make it subjective and unreliable owing to the difficulty of controlling the development schedule. This study used finite element analysis to establish and simulate wear in automotive repair fastener manufacturing dies based on actual process conditions. The places on a die that wore most quickly were forecast, with the stress levels obtained being substituted into the Archard equation to calculate die wear. A 19.87% improvement in wear optimization occurred by applying the Taguchi quality method to the new design. Additionally, a comparison of actual manufacturing data to simulations revealed a nut forging size error within 2%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of this theoretical analysis. Finally, SEM micrographs of the worn surfaces on the upper punch indicate that the primary wear mechanism on the cold forging die for long hex flange nuts was adhesive wear. The results can simplify the development schedule, reduce the number of trials and further enhance production quality and die life.

  2. Weldability and mechanical property characterization of weld clad alloy 800H tubesheet forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.F.; McCoy, H.E.

    1984-09-01

    The weldability of an alloy 800H forging that simulates a steam generator tubesheet is studied. Weldability was of concern because a wide range of microstructures was present in this forging. The top and portions of the bottom were weld clad with ERNiC-3 weld metal to a thickness of 19 mm similar to that anticipated for HTGR steam generators. Examinations of the clad fusion line in various regions revealed no weldability problems except possibly on the bottom portion, which contained large grains and some as-cast structure. A few microfissures were evident in this region, but no excessive hot cracking tendency was observed. The tensile properties in all areas of the clad forging were reasonable and not influenced greatly by the microstructure. The elevated-temperature tests showed strong tendency for fracture in the heat-affected zone of the alloy 800H. Creep failure at 649 0 C consistently occurred in the heat-affected zone of the alloy 800H, but the creep strength exceeded the expected values for alloy 800H

  3. Repetitive forging (RF) using inclined punches as a new bulk severe plastic deformation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faraji, G., E-mail: ghfaraji@ut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mashhadi, M.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamdi, M. [Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    A new bulk severe plastic deformation method based on repetitive forging (RF) using inclined punches is proposed. This process consists of two half cycles. In the first half cycle, a square cross section deforms to parallelogram by forging with two inclined punches, and the parallelogram cross section is forged back to square using two flat punches in the second half cycle. This method was applied to commercially pure copper and significant grain refinement was achieved after four passes of RF. The results showed that significant improvement in the mechanical properties was obtained. Notable increase of yield and ultimate strengths corresponding to 358 MPa and 381 MPa after four passes of RF from the initial values of 121 MPa and 230.5 MPa is detectable. Microhardness increases to about 100 Hv after four passes of RF from the initial value of 53 Hv. Finite element (FE) results illustrate that RF is able to impose extremely high plastic strains to the materials. In the RF process, the processed samples have the same dimensions and geometry as those of the initial sample without any waste material and there is no need for back pressure.

  4. Anisotropy effects during dwell-fatigue caused by δ-phase orientation in forged Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimäki, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.saarimaki@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Colliander, Magnus Hörnqvist [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, R& T Centre, SE-46181 Trollhättan (Sweden); Moverare, Johan J. [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-04-24

    Inconel 718 is a commonly used superalloy for turbine discs in the gas turbine industry. Turbine discs are often subjected to dwell-fatigue as a result of long constant load cycles. The effect of anisotropy on dwell-fatigue cracking in forged turbine discs have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Crack propagation behaviour was characterised using compact tension (CT) samples cut in different orientations from a real turbine disc forging. Samples were also cut in two different thicknesses in order to investigate the influence of plane strain and plane stress condition on the crack propagation rates. The samples were subjected to dwell-fatigue tests at 550 °C with 90 s or 2160 s dwell-times at maximum load. Microstructure characterisation was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques such as electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and light optical microscopy (LOM). The forged alloy exhibits strong anisotropic behaviour caused by the non-random δ-phase orientation. When δ-phases were oriented perpendicular compared to parallel to the loading direction, the crack growth rates were approximately ten times faster. Crack growth occurred preferably in the interface between the γ-matrix and the δ-phase.

  5. Material Behavior Based Hybrid Process for Sheet Draw-Forging Thin Walled Magnesium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Z.Q.; Shivpuri, R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are conventionally formed at the elevated temperatures. The thermally improved formability is sensitive to the temperature and strain rate. Due to limitations in forming speeds, tooling strength and narrow processing windows, complex thin walled parts cannot be made by traditional warm drawing or hot forging processes. A hybrid process, which is based on the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys at the elevated temperature, is proposed that combines warm drawing and hot forging modes to produce an aggressive geometry at acceptable forming speed. The process parameters, such as temperatures, forming speeds etc. are determined by the FEM modeling and simulation. Sensitivity analysis under the constraint of forming limits of Mg alloy sheet material and strength of tooling material is carried out. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a conical geometry with thin walls and with bottom features. Results show that designed geometry can be formed in about 8 seconds, this cannot be formed by conventional forging while around 1000s is required for warm drawing. This process is being further investigated through controlled experiments

  6. Multipass forging of Inconel 718 in the delta-Supersolvus domain: assessing and modeling microstructure evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the evolution of the microstructure of Inconel 718 during multi-pass forging processes. During the forming process, the material is subjected to several physical phenomena such as work-hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. In this work, transformation kinetics are modeled in the δ-Supersolvus domain (T>Tsolvus where the alloy is single-phase, all the alloying elements being dissolved into the FCC matrix. Torsion tests were used to simulate the forging process and recrystallization kinetics was modeled using a discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX two-site mean field model. The microstructure evolution under hot forging conditions is predicted in both dynamic and post-dynamic regimes based on the initial distribution of grain size and the evolution of dislocation density distribution during each step of the process. The model predicts recrystallization kinetics, recrystallized grain size distribution and stress–strain curve for different thermo-mechanical conditions and makes the connection between dynamic and post-dynamic regimes.

  7. Intersubjective decision-making for computer-aided forging technology design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyukov, S. I.; Konovalov, A. V.; Muizemnek, O. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a concept of intersubjective decision-making for problems of open-die forging technology design. The intersubjective decisions are chosen from a set of feasible decisions using the fundamentals of the decision-making theory in fuzzy environment according to the Bellman-Zadeh scheme. We consider the formalization of subjective goals and the choice of membership functions for the decisions depending on subjective goals. We study the arrangement of these functions into an intersubjective membership function. The function is constructed for a resulting decision, which is chosen from a set of feasible decisions. The choice of the final intersubjective decision is discussed. All the issues are exemplified by a specific technological problem. The considered concept of solving technological problems under conditions of fuzzy goals allows one to choose the most efficient decisions from a set of feasible ones. These decisions correspond to the stated goals. The concept allows one to reduce human participation in automated design. This concept can be used to develop algorithms and design programs for forging numerous types of forged parts.

  8. Effect of technological parameters on formability of semi-solid rheological casting-forging 6061 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo TAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 6061 alloy cooling curve is determined by analysis software, and the 6061 semi-solid alloy is prepared by manual paddling process. The primary solid fraction is tested through prepared water quenched samples under different temperature. With H1F100 type servo press and cup type test mold, the forming of the 6061 semi-solid alloy rheological casting-forging is made. The influence of alloy temperature, forming pressure, upper mould temperature and holding time on the formability of 6061 alloy is researched. The results show that within the same set of mold completing casting and forging of the alloy is feasible. Along with the increase of the alloy temperature and the upper mould temperature, the formability of finished products becomes better. Under this experimentation, when the temperature of the semi-solid alloy is amongst 642 ℃ to 645 ℃ and the upper mould preheating temperature is amongst 200 ℃ to 300 ℃, casting defects such as cold insulation will form in the casting-forging sample of semi-solid 6061 alloy with the prolongation of holding time.

  9. The analysis of forming and strain state of the hollow step forgings during the enlarging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Євгенійович Марков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety, accelerating construction and extending the life of nuclear power plants is one of the main directions of the development of the energy industry. From this point of view, much attention is being paid to the production of forgings, which combine a few details today. This requires the use of new technologies with the use of non-standard tools. The purpose of the work is analyze of the shape and the deformation state of the conical stepped forging when rolling the stepped workpiece with the simultaneous deformation of the protuberance and the ledge. The simulation was performed using finite element method, which is consistent with experimental data. Experimental studies were carried out on lead models. Rolling of stepped workpiece with simultaneous deformation of the protrusion and ledge leads to the appearance of conical forging. Taper on the side of the ledge occurs at the initial stage of rolling and during the whole process increases. The emergence of a conical shape is explained by the fact that during slipping, with the same absolute deformation (stroke, the ledge gets more accumulated deformation through a more precise wall.

  10. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Mingyue, E-mail: mysun@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luhan, Hao; Shijian, Li; Dianzhong, Li; Yiyi, Li [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were successfully established. > The experimental results under different conditions have validated the constitutive equations. > An industrial application of the model was present to simulate a large conical shell forging process. - Abstract: Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.

  11. Modeling flow stress constitutive behavior of SA508-3 steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Mingyue; Hao Luhan; Li Shijian; Li Dianzhong; Li Yiyi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were successfully established. → The experimental results under different conditions have validated the constitutive equations. → An industrial application of the model was present to simulate a large conical shell forging process. - Abstract: Based on the measured stress-strain curves under different temperatures and strain rates, a series of flow stress constitutive equations for SA508-3 steel were firstly established through the classical theories on work hardening and softening. The comparison between the experimental and modeling results has confirmed that the established constitutive equations can correctly describe the mechanical responses and microstructural evolutions of the steel under various hot deformation conditions. We further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate a forging process for a large conical shell used in a nuclear steam generator, which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the hot plasticity processing for heavy nuclear components of fission reactors.

  12. The study of high-boron steel and high-boron cast iron used for shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xuerong; Lu Jixin; Wen Yaozeng; Wang Zhaishu; Cheng Jiantin; Cheng Wen; Shun Danqi; Yu Jinmu

    1996-12-01

    The smelting, forging, heat-treatment technology and the mechanical properties of three kinds of high-boron steels (type 1: 0.5% boron; type 2: 0.5% boron and 4% or 2% nickel; type 3: 0.5% boron, 0.5% nickel and 0.5% molybdenum) were studied. The test results show that the technology for smelting, forging and heat-treatment (1050 degree C/0.5 h water cooled + 810 degree C/1 h oil cooled) in laboratory is feasible. Being sensitive to notch, the impact toughness of high-boron steel type 1 is not steady and can not meet the technology requirements on mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of both high-boron steel type 2 and type 3 can meet the technological requirements. The smelting technology of high-boron casting iron containing 0.5% boron was researched. The tests show that this casting iron can be smelted in laboratory and its properties can basically satisfy the technology requirements. (10 refs., 6 figs., 11 tab.)

  13. Processing and properties of solid state nitrided stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennhard, C.A.P.

    1993-02-01

    The properties of austenitic steels and duplex-steels are significantly improved by nitrogen (N) addition. In the present investigation, new alloys were produced and characterized using the high solid N-solubility and diffusion alloying from the gas phase. Most suitable base materials are powder, wire or sheet because of the short diffusion distance. PM-materials were in-can nitrided or treated in a fluidized bed and compacted by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion. The impact toughness level of PM alloys at room temperature is about 120 to 200 J, compared to 250 to 300 J for steels with equal strength that are produced by ingot metallurgy (IM). The toughness can be improved by high temperature deformation such as forging, hot rolling or hot extrusion or by removing the oxide layer on the particle surface by hydrogen gas reduction. A duplex steel with 22 Cr, 5.6 Ni and 2.7 Mo was transformed to a fully austenitic steel with over 500 MPa yield strength by increasing the N content from 0.2 to 0.65 weight-percent. The expensive Ni can successfully be replaced by N. Nitrided wire material is the base material for cold deformed high-strength wire. The improved strain hardening rate of nitrogen alloyed steels helps to achieve ductile and corrosion resistant materials with strength up to 2200 MPa. Sheet materials were diffusion bonded in the HIP or compacted in a 5000 kN press immediately after in-can nitriding to form solid blocks. Nitrided powder, wire and sheet materials lead to near net shape products that cannot be produced by conventional ingot metallurgy or would require the expensive high-pressure metallurgy. (author) 67 figs., tabs., 70 refs

  14. Irradiation and annealing behavior of 15Kh2MFA reactor pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, K.; Bergmann, U.; Bergner, F.; Hampe, E.; Leonhardt, W.D.; Schuetzler, H.P.; Viehrig, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    This work deals with the mechanical properties of RPV steels used WWER-440. The materials under investigation were a forging (base metal 15Kh2MFA) and the corresponding weld. Charpy V-notch specimens and tensile test specimens were irradiated in the WWER-2 Rheinsberg at about 270 C up to the two neutron fluence levels of 4 x 10 18 and 5 x 10 19 n/cm 2 (E>1MeV). Post-irradiation annealing heat treatments were performed, among others a 475 C/152 h treatment of technical interest. (orig.)

  15. One-stage or multi-stage creep fatigue behaviour of heat-resistant steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, K.H.; Granacher, J.; Scholz, A.

    1994-01-01

    For one stage realistic long term alternating strain tests on two forged steels with the duration of tests up to an order of magnitude of 45,000 hours, the generalised damage accumulation rule, using an optimised evaluation process dealing with pre-stress effects leads to a relative creep fatigue service life of one. A replacement description by the modified service life share rule is indicated for the long term area. First results from realistic three step tests are classified in the scatter band of single stage stress, where there are only slight differences from different cycle counting processes. (orig.) [de

  16. Hot Deformation Behavior and a Two-Stage Constitutive Model of 20Mn5 Solid Steel Ingot during Hot Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 20Mn5 steel is widely used in the manufacture of heavy hydro-generator shaft forging due to its strength, toughness, and wear resistance. However, the hot deformation and recrystallization behaviors of 20Mn5 steel compressed under a high temperature were not studied. For this article, hot compression experiments under temperatures of 850–1200 °C and strain rates of 0.01 s−1–1 s−1 were conducted using a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Flow stress-strain curves and microstructure after hot compression were obtained. Effects of temperature and strain rate on microstructure are analyzed. Based on the classical stress-dislocation relationship and the kinetics of dynamic recrystallization, a two-stage constitutive model is developed to predict the flow stress of 20Mn5 steel. Comparisons between experimental flow stress and predicted flow stress show that the predicted flow stress values are in good agreement with the experimental flow stress values, which indicates that the proposed constitutive model is reliable and can be used for numerical simulation of hot forging of 20Mn5 solid steel ingot.

  17. Resistance of heat resisting steels and alloys to thermal and mechanical low-cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulyakov, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Carried out is a comparative evalUation of resistance of different materials to thermocyclic deformation and fracture on the base of the experimental data on thermal and mechanical low-cycle fatigUe. Considered are peculiarities of thermal fatigue resistance depending on strength and ductility of the material. It is shown, that in the range of the cycle small numbers before the fracture preference is given to the high-ductility cyclically strengthening austenitic steels of 18Cr-10Ni type with slight relation of yield strength to the σsub(0.2)/σsub(B) tensile strength Highly alloyed strength chromium-nickel steels, as well as cyclically destrengthening perlitic and ferritic steels with stronger σsub(0.2)/σsub(B) relation as compared with simple austenitic steels turn to be more long-lived in the range of the cycle great numbers berore fracture. Perlitic steels are stated to have the lowest parameter values of the K crack growth intensity under the similar limiting conditions of the experiment, while steels and alloys with austenite structure-higher values of the K parameter

  18. Conversion of MX Nitrides to Modified Z-Phase in 9-12%Cr Ferritic Steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cipolla, Leonardo

    for Z-phase formation was highlighted during the studies. Several 9-12%Cr commercial steels with prolonged high-temperature exposures have been investigated, too. The same mechanism of Z-phase formation observed in 12%Cr model alloys was identified in industrial 9-12%Cr steels after thousands of hours......The 9-12%Cr ferritic steels are extensively used in modern steam power plants at service temperature up to 620°C. Currently the best perform ing ferritic creep resistance steel is the ASTM Grade 92, whose high temperature strength has recently been assessed by European Creep Collaborative Committee...... in 2005 as 600°C/113MPa/10 5h. All previous attempts made in the last twenty years to develop ferritic steels for 650°C applications have failed due to the incapacity to combine the superior oxidation resistance, given by 12%Cr content, with excellent creep resistance of high-alloyed ferritic steels...

  19. Nitrogen-containing superlow-carbon austenitic steel 02Kh25N22AM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe'ldgandler, É. G.; Svistunova, T. V.; Savkina, L. Ya.; Lapshina, O. B.

    1996-02-01

    At present the equipment for manufacturing carbamide mineral fertilizers is produced from domestic steel 03Kh17N14M3 having "carbamide quality." Imported equipment also used in the industry is produced from steel of the 25-22-2 (Cr -Ni-Mo) type shipped by various firms, namely, 2RE69 (Sandvik, Sweden), 254SFER (Avesta, Sweden), 2522LCN (VDM, Germany), DM 1.4466 (Germany), and X2CrNiMo 25-22-2 (Dalmine, Italy). The imported steels are used because in some units steel 03Khl7Nl4M3 does not provide the requisite corrosion resistance in an intensified process of carbamide manufacturing. We currently possess domestic high-alloyed steel for producing new and repairing imported equipment operating under the severe conditions of carbamide synthesis. The present paper concerns the structure, mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance of industrially produced steel 02Kh25N22AM2 (ChS-108) and the recommended range of its application.

  20. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Indian steel industry workers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Deepak, Kishore Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The present study focused on exploring the current level of hearing protection and subsequently determined the prevalence of occupational noise-induced hearing loss among casting and forging industry workers. The casting and forging industry provides employment to a significant portion of the population. The level of hearing protection was assessed through questionnaire survey of 572 workers. Out of these workers, 165 and another control group of 57 participants were assessed by formal audiometry. Audiometric tests were conducted at frequencies of 1.0 KHz to 8.0 KHz.The occurrence of hearing loss was determined on the basis of a hearing threshold level with a low fence of 25 dB. Student's test and ANOVA were used to compare the various groups; a p value steel industry are highly exposed to occupational noise. The majority of workers are not protected from noise-induced hearing loss. There is a need to provide special ear protectors for workers engaged in forging. A complete hearing protection program, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection devices, needs to be introduced.

  1. Prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among workers of Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lakhwinder Pal; Bhardwaj, Arvind; Kumar, Deepak Kishore

    2012-01-01

    Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) have been recognized as a problem among workers in Indian industries. The major industries in India are based on manufacturing. There are appreciable numbers of casting and forging units spread across the country. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of permanent hearing threshold shift among the workers engaged in Indian iron and steel small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and compared with control group subjects. As a part of hearing protection intervention, audiometric tests were conducted at low (250-1000 Hz), medium (1500-3000 Hz), and high (4000-8000 Hz) frequencies. The occurrence of hearing loss was determined based on hearing threshold levels with a low fence of 25 dB. Comparisons were made for hearing threshold at different frequencies between the exposed and control groups using Student's t test. ANOVA was used for the comparison of hearing threshold dB at different frequencies among occupation and year of experience. A P value workers engaged in various processes of casting and forging industry showed hearing loss in the noise-sensitive medium and higher frequencies. Occupation was significantly associated with NIHL, and hearing loss was particularly high among the workers of forging section. The analyses revealed a higher prevalence of significant hearing loss among the forging workers compared to the workers associated with other activities. The study shows alarming signals of NIHL, especially in forging workers. The occupational exposure to noise could be minimized by efficient control measures through engineering controls, administrative controls, and the use of personal protective devices. Applications of engineering and/or administrative controls are frequently not feasible in the developing countries for technical and financial reasons. A complete hearing conservation programme, including training, audiometry, job rotation, and the use of hearing protection

  2. J-R Fracture Resistance of SA533 Gr.B-Cl.1 Steel for Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A rolled plate might show different mechanical behaviors from a forging, even though they contain same chemical compositions. Furthermore, it is known that the fracture behavior of a rolled plate is very sensitive to material orientation comparing to a forging. In this study, the J-R fracture resistances of SA533 Gr.B-Cl.1 plate were measured at reactor operating temperature and the material orientation sensitivity was discussed. The decrease of fracture resistance of this kind of low alloy steel at an elevated temperature is known as the effect of dynamic strain aging (DSA). It was attributed to that the carbides and grains elongated to primary rolling direction, so that the aspect ratio of carbides and grains in the specimen with T-L orientation is larger. Generally, the hard second phase could take a roll of trigger point of unstable fracture. It is needed that the fracture surfaces of the tested specimens to be examined profoundly.

  3. Tensile Fracture Behavior of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Manufactured by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Brayshaw, W. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Herein we investigate how the oxygen content in hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) 316L stainless steel affects the mechanical properties and tensile fracture behavior. This work follows on from previous studies, which aimed to understand the effect of oxygen content on the Charpy impact toughness of HIP'd steel. We expand on the work by performing room-temperature tensile testing on different heats of 316L stainless steel, which contain different levels of interstitial elements (carbon and nitrogen) as well as oxygen in the bulk material. Throughout the work we repeat the experiments on conventionally forged 316L steel as a reference material. The analysis of the work indicates that oxygen does not contribute to a measureable solution strengthening mechanism, as is the case with carbon and nitrogen in austenitic stainless steels (Werner in Mater Sci Eng A 101:93-98, 1988). Neither does oxygen, in the form of oxide inclusions, contribute to precipitation hardening due to the size and spacing of particles. However, the oxide particles do influence fracture behavior; fractography of the failed tension test specimens indicates that the average ductile dimple size is related to the oxygen content in the bulk material, the results of which support an on-going hypothesis relating oxygen content in HIP'd steels to their fracture mechanisms by providing additional sites for the initiation of ductile damage in the form of voids.

  4. Prospects of structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannykh, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of world steel production is considered as well as the development strategy of metallurgy industry in the Russian Federation through to 2020. The main factors determining the conservation of steel as perspective material for industry are given: energy expenses on production, the well-proven recirculation technology, the capability of changing steel properties in wide range, temperature range of operation. The conclusion is made that in the immediate future steel will not lose its importance [ru

  5. Production of A356 aluminum alloy wheels by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuncheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The A356 aluminum alloy wheels were produced by thixo-forging combined with a low superheat casting process. The as-cast microstructure, microstructure evolution during reheating and the mechanical properties of thixo-forged wheels made from the A356 aluminum alloy were studied. The results show that the A356 aluminum alloy round billet with fine, uniform and non-dendritic grains can be obtained when the melt is cast at 635 篊. When the round billet is reheated at 600 篊 for 60 min, the non-dendritic grains are changed into spherical ones and the round billet can be easily thixo-forged into wheels. The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of the thixo-forged wheels with T6 heat treatment are 327.6 MPa, 228.3 MPa and 7.8%, respectively, which are higher than those of a cast wheel. It is suggested that the thixo-forging combined with the low superheat casting process is an effective technique to produce aluminum alloy wheels with high mechanical properties.

  6. The effect of strain distribution on microstructural developments during forging in a newly developed nickel base superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, R.C. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom); Argyrakis, C.; Hardy, M.C. [Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby DE24 8BJ (United Kingdom); Birosca, S., E-mail: 522042@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Bay Campus, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-27

    In the current study, the effect of strain distribution in a simple forging geometry on the propensity for recrystallization, and its impact on mechanical properties has been investigated in a newly developed experimental nickel-based superalloy. The new alloy was produced via a Powder Metallurgy (PM) route and was subsequently Hot Isostatic Processed (HIP), isothermally forged, and heat treated to produce a coarse grain microstructure with average grain size of 23–32 μm. The alloy was examined by means of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) to characterise the microstructural features such as grain orientation and morphology, grain boundary characteristics and the identification of potential Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs) throughout each stage of the processing route. Results at the central region of the cross-section plane parallel to the loading direction showed significant microstructural differences across the forging depth. This microstructural variation was found to be highly dependent on the value of local strain imparted during forging such that areas of low effective strain showed partial recrystallisation and a necklace grain structure was observed following heat treatment. Meanwhile, a fully recrystallised microstructure with no PPBs was observed in the areas of high strain values, in the central region of the forging.

  7. Effect of Forging Parameters on Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of Al/Basalt Short Fiber Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  8. Effect of forging parameters on low cycle fatigue behaviour of Al/basalt short fiber metal matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthigeyan, R; Ranganath, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with metal matrix composites (MMCs) of Al 7075 alloy containing different weight percentage (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10) basalt short fiber reinforcement and unreinforced matrix alloy. The samples were produced by the permanent stir casting technique. The casting ingots were cut into blanks to be forged in single stage and double stage, using MN press and graphite-based lubricant. The microstructures and fatigue properties of the matrix alloy and MMC samples were investigated in the as cast state and in the single and double stage forging operations. The microstructure results showed that the forged sample had a uniform distribution of the basalt short fiber throughout the specimens. Evaluation of the fatigue properties showed that the forged samples had higher values than those of the as cast counterparts. After forging, the enhancement of the fatigue strength of the matrix alloy was so significant and high in the case of 2.5 and 5.0 wt. percentage basalt short fiber reinforced MMC, and there was no enhancement in 7.5 and 10 weight percentages short fiber reinforced MMCs. The fracture damage was mainly due to decohesion at the matrix-fiber interface.

  9. Heavy-section steel technology program: Fracture issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Large-scale fracture mechanics tests have resulted in the identification of a number of fracture technology issues. Identification of additional issues has come from the reactor vessel materials irradiation test program and from reactor operating experience. This paper provides a review of fracture issues with an emphasis on their potential impact on a reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) analysis. Mixed mode crack propagation emerges as a major issue, due in large measure to the poor performance of existing models for the prediction of ductile tearing. Rectification of ductile tearing technology deficiencies may require extending the technology to include a more complete treatment of stress state and loading history effects. The effect of cladding on vessel fracture remains uncertain to the point that it is not possible to determine at this time if the net effect will be positive or negative. Enhanced fracture toughness for shallow flaws has been demonstrated for low-strength structural steels. Demonstration of a similar effect in reactor pressure vessel steels could have a significant beneficial effect on the probabilistic analysis of reactor vessel fracture. Further development of existing fracture mechanics models and concepts is required to meet the special requirements for fracture evaluation of circumferential flaws in the welds of ring-forged vessels. Fracture technology advances required to address the issues discussed in this paper are the major objective for the ongoing Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at ORNL

  10. Heavy-Section Steel Technology program fracture issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    Large scale fracture mechanics tests have resulted in the identification of a number of fracture technology issues. Identification of additional issues has come from the reactor vessel materials irradiation test program and from reactor operating experience. This paper provides a review of fracture issues with an emphasis on their potential impact on a reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) analysis. Mixed mode crack propagation emerges as a major issue, due in large measure to the poor performance of existing models for the prediction of ductile tearing. Rectification of ductile tearing technology deficiencies may require extending the technology to include a more complete treatment of stress state and loading history effects. The effect of cladding on vessel fracture remains uncertain to the point that it is not possible to determine at this time if the net effect will be positive or negative. Enhanced fracture toughness for shallow flaws has been demonstrated for low strength structural steels. Demonstration of a similar effect in reactor pressure vessel steels could have a significant beneficial effect on the probabilistic analysis of reactor vessel fracture. Further development of existing fracture mechanics models and concepts is required to meet the special requirements for fracture evaluation of circumferential flaws in the welds of ring forged vessels. Fracture technology advances required to address the issues discussed in this paper are the major objective for the ongoing Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at ORNL. 24 refs., 18 figs

  11. Hot Ductility Behavior of an 8 Pct Cr Roller Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Sun, Shuhua; Shi, Zhongping; Wang, Bo; Fu, Wantang

    2015-04-01

    The hot ductility of an 8 pct Cr roller steel was determined between 1173 K and 1473 K (900 °C and 1200 °C) at strain rates of 0.01 to 10 s-1 through tensile testing. The fracture morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy, and the microstructure was examined through optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The dependence of the hot ductility behavior on the deformation conditions, grain size, and precipitation was analyzed. The relationship between the reduction in area and the natural logarithm of the Zener-Hollomon parameter (ln Z) was found to be a second-order polynomial. When ln Z was greater than 40 s-1, the hot ductility was poor and fracture was mainly caused by incompatible deformation between the grains. When ln Z was between 32 and 40 s-1, the hot ductility was excellent and the main fracture mechanism was void linking. When ln Z was below 32 s-1, the hot ductility was poor and fracture was mainly caused by grain boundary sliding. A fine grain structure is beneficial for homogenous deformation and dynamic recrystallization, which induces better hot ductility. The effect of M7C3 carbide particles dispersed in the matrix on the hot ductility was small. The grain growth kinetics in the 8 pct Cr steel were obtained between 1373 K and 1473 K (1100 °C and 1200 °C). Finally, optimized preheating and forging procedures for 8 pct Cr steel rollers are provided.

  12. Trends in steel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants

  13. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi, E-mail: yamaura@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakajima, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi [Tohoku Steel, Co., Ltd., 23 Nishigaoka, Murata, Murata-machi, Shibata 989-1393 (Japan); Furuya, Yasubumi [North Japan Research Institute for Sustainable Energy, Hirosaki University, 2-1-3 Matsubara, Aomori 030-0813 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x} (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe{sub 25}Co{sub 75} and Fe{sub 20}Co{sub 80} alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction.

  14. THE LEGAL PROTECTION FOR REAL LAND RIGHT HOLDER IN CASE OF FORGED RINCIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirwana Nirwana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The legal Protection For Real Land Right Holder in Case of Forged Rincik. The research aimed to investigate (1 the legal protection for the land owner whose possession was based on rincik evidence, and (2 the legal protection on the good-will buyer based on the forged rincik document used in the land sale transaction. This was the normative legal research, also called the library research or documentary study because the research was only conducted on the written regulations or other legal materials or secondary data consisting of the primary and secondary legal materials. The interview was performed to strengthen the theories and opinions in the research. The research also used the Secondary data. the data were analysed and presented using the qualitative descriptive method. The research result indicate that: (1 the real land owner with rincik possession issued after the year 1960 based on the decision of Indonesian Supreme Court No. 560K / PID / 2008 has not been fully protected due to the fact that the seller is funished for forging the rincik., returning the right to the land owner can not be carried out due to the decision of Indonesian Supreme Court Number. 482 / PK / Pdt / 2014 which make the buyer win, while the real land owner is the directed to sue the land seller to give the compensation: and (2 the legal protection on the good faith buyer based on forget rincik in the land sale transaction has been fully protected and has the ringt to possess the land based on the decision of Indonesian Supreme Court Number. 482/PK/Pdt/2014 because the buyer has bought the land in the presence of Temporary Land Title Registar.

  15. Magnetostriction of heavily deformed Fe–Co binary alloys prepared by forging and cold rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, Shin-ichi; Nakajima, Takashi; Satoh, Takenobu; Ebata, Takashi; Furuya, Yasubumi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The as-forged Fe 25 Co 75 alloy shows the magnetostriction of 108 ppm. • The as-cold rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy shows the magnetostriction of 140 ppm. • Magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy reached the maximum in a single bcc state. • Fcc phase is harmful to the increase in magnetostriction of Fe–Co alloy. • Fcc phase precipitation in Fe–Co alloy can be suppressed by cold rolling. - Abstract: Magnetostriction of Fe 1−x Co x (x = 50–90 at%) alloys prepared by forging and subsequent cold-rolling was studied as functions of alloy compositions and thermomechanical treatments. Magnetostriction of the as-forged Fe 25 Co 75 alloy was 108 ppm and that of the as-cold rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy measured parallel to the rolling direction (RD) was 128 ppm. The cold-rolled Fe 25 Co 75 alloy possessed a nearly {1 0 0}<0 1 1> texture, leading to the maximum magnetostriction of 140 ppm when measured at an angle of 45° to RD. Moreover, the fully annealed Fe 25 Co 75 and Fe 20 Co 80 alloys were gradually cold rolled and magnetostriction were measured. Results showed that the magnetostriction of those cold-rolled alloys drastically increased with increasing reduction rate. According to the XRD and TEM observations, intensity of the fcc peak gradually decreased with increasing reduction rate and that the alloys became to be in a bcc single state at a reduction rate higher than 90%, leading to a drastic increase in magnetostriction

  16. Forging of eccentric co-extruded Al-Mg compounds and analysis of the interface strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förster, W; Binotsch, C; Awiszus, B; Lehmann, T; Müller, J; Kirbach, C; Stockmann, M; Ihlemann, J

    2016-01-01

    Within the subproject B3 of the Collaborative Research Center 692 it has been shown that Al-Mg compounds with a good bonding quality can be produced by hydrostatic coextrusion. During processing by forging, the aluminum sleeve is thinned in areas of high strains depending on the component geometry. To solve this problem an eccentric core arrangement during co-extrusion was investigated. Based on the results of FE-simulations, the experimental validation is presented in this work. Rods with an offset of 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mm were produced by eccentric hydrostatic co-extrusion. Ultrasonic testing was used to evaluate the bonding quality across the entire rods. For the forging investigations the basic process Rising was chosen. The still good bonding quality after forging was examined by dye penetrant testing and optical microscopy. For an optimal stress transfer between the materials across the entire component, a sufficient bonding between the materials is essential. To evaluate the interface strength, a special bending test was developed. For the conception of the bending specimens it was required to analyze the Rising specimens geometry. These analyses were performed using a reconstruction of the geometrical data based on computer tomography (CT) investigations. The comparison with the numerically deter-mined Rising specimen geometry shows good correlation. Parametric Finite Element Analyses of the bending test were used to develop the load case and the specimen geometry. By means of iterative adaption of load application, bearing and specimen geometry parameters, an advantageous stress state and experimentally applicable configuration were found. Based on this conception, the experimental setup was configured and bending tests were performed. The interface strength was deter-mined by the calculation of the maximum interlaminar interfacial tension stress using the experimental interface failure force and the bending FE model. (paper)

  17. Self-adaptive multimethod optimization applied to a tailored heating forging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldan, M.; Steinberg, T.; Baake, E.

    2018-05-01

    The presented paper describes an innovative self-adaptive multi-objective optimization code. Investigation goals concern proving the superiority of this code compared to NGSA-II and applying it to an inductor’s design case study addressed to a “tailored” heating forging application. The choice of the frequency and the heating time are followed by the determination of the turns number and their positions. Finally, a straightforward optimization is performed in order to minimize energy consumption using “optimal control”.

  18. Forging Fluorine-Containing Quaternary Stereocenters by a Light-Driven Organocatalytic Aldol Desymmetrization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Sara; Dell'Amico, Luca; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2017-09-18

    Reported herein is a light-triggered organocatalytic strategy for the desymmetrization of achiral 2-fluoro-substituted cyclopentane-1,3-diketones. The chemistry is based on an intermolecular aldol reaction of photochemically generated hydroxy-o-quinodimethanes and simultaneously forges two adjacent fully substituted carbon stereocenters, with one bearing a stereogenic carbon-fluorine unit. The method uses readily available substrates, a simple chiral organocatalyst, and mild reaction conditions to afford an array of highly functionalized chiral 2-fluoro-3-hydroxycyclopentanones. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Forging Fluorine‐Containing Quaternary Stereocenters by a Light‐Driven Organocatalytic Aldol Desymmetrization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, Sara; Dell'Amico, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Reported herein is a light‐triggered organocatalytic strategy for the desymmetrization of achiral 2‐fluoro‐substituted cyclopentane‐1,3‐diketones. The chemistry is based on an intermolecular aldol reaction of photochemically generated hydroxy‐o‐quinodimethanes and simultaneously forges two adjacent fully substituted carbon stereocenters, with one bearing a stereogenic carbon–fluorine unit. The method uses readily available substrates, a simple chiral organocatalyst, and mild reaction conditions to afford an array of highly functionalized chiral 2‐fluoro‐3‐hydroxycyclopentanones. PMID:28746742

  20. Forging partnerships between rural women with chronic conditions and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudney, Shirley; Weinert, Clarann; Kinion, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Successful adaptation to chronic illness is enhanced by active client-health care provider partnerships. The purposes of this article are to (a) examine the health care partnership needs of western rural women with chronic illness who participated in a computer-based support and education project, (b) describe how the role of the women in the partnership can be maximized by the use of a personal health record and improving health literacy, and (c) discuss ways health care providers can enhance their role in the partnership by careful listening and creating environments conducive to forging productive client-provider partnerships.